Study "Literature / Poetry" Essays 661-715

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Robert Hayden Term Paper

… His poetry combined great historical integrity, accuracy and realism with a powerful imagination, and even though many of his subjects were black history and culture, he did not wish to be thought of only as a 'black' poet.

Hayden described the Middle Passage as "a voyage through death to life upon these shores" where the sick and the disabled who were of no economic value were thrown overboard to the sharks.

Joseph Cinque (or Cinquez), the leader of the revolt on the slave ship Amistad, became the epic hero in Hayden's Middle Passage, although he was not a great warrior of chief but merely a rice farmer. He delivers no heroic or epic speeches in the poem, but in arguing his case before the U.S. Supreme Court, John Quincy Adams obtained freedom for the slaves and permission for them to be returned to Africa. He also argued that if it required a civil war to end slavery, then 'let it come'.

A slave ship being loaded off the coast of West Africa.

A replica of the ironically-named Amistad (Friendship), and Hayden also noted in Middle Passage that these ships truly did have names that belied and concealed their true purpose.

Hayden praised John Brown, who attempted to arm the slaves at Harper's Ferry, Virginia in 1859 and was executed for it, as a prophet and martyr who committed "angelic evil" and "demonic good." He also admired other leaders of slave revolts like Nat Turner and Gabriel Prosser.

Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave who became a leading abolitionist and support of black voting and citizenship rights during the Civil War and Reconstruction, was also a subject of one of Hayden's most powerful and memorable poems.


Bloom, Harold. Robert Hayden. Chelsea House Publishers, 2005.

Fetrow, Fred M. "Middle Passage: Robert Hayden's Anti-Epoch" in Bloom: 35-48.

Gates, Henry Louis and Evelyn Brooks Higgenbotham. Harlem Renaissance Lives: From the African-American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2009.

Kutzinski, Vera M.…… [read more]

Garter Motto in the Merry Essay

… But cuckold? Wittol? Cuckold! The devil himself hath not such a name!" (Hunt, 2010).

In other words, the audience would not understand the reference to the devil with the words that Shakespeare used, which would caused the audience not to connect to the play. The most important element to plays is making a connection with the audience. For example, in the story, "The Story of an Hour " by Kate Chopin, the audience can understand the theme, which finding independence from a bad marriage is in great detail by the symbolism of the open window as the character goes upstairs after hearing about her husband's death. The open window shows great opportunity for a new beginning and new life for her, which the author wanted to convey to the audience. The fact that she wants to be alone and has sorrow in her eyes that also symbolizes she is not ready to embrace that new life, which is something that the audience does not have to interpret like in Shakespeare's play as seen from the following example..

"She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms. When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room alone. She would have no one follow her" (Chopin, 1894).

From the above quote, the audience can feeI this is true for Mrs. Mallard because some women suffer from sorrow and depressed when they are separated or divorced, which is not a connection Shakespeare's audience have because there is too much interpretation that needs to be done by them.

With that, I agree with the author that the Garter motto has a more extensive application in The Merry Wives of Windsor than those in the past. Therefore, a survey of different Elizabethan ways of translating-or reading it needs to be discussed. "Shakespeare creates a glass, for Garter knights possibly but also for anyone who wants to know more fully what the motto might mean for the practice of knightly behavior. Given its subtlety, this mirror would most likely not be apparent in performance. Instead, it could be perceived through a reading experience and then almost certainly only retrospectively, after a reader has grasped the presence of the motto at the end of the play and then apprehended its several applications during a rereading. The Folio text of The Merry Wives of Windsor was not published until 1623, seven years after Shakespeare's death. Nevertheless, Lukas Erne, among others, has argued that strong evidence exists that Shakespeare as a rule wrote his plays as a literary craftsman with an eye toward eventual publication.52 This assumption could account for the thoroughness with which he interrogated, so to say, the famous motto of the chivalric Order of the Garter" (Hunt, 2010). I agree that he may have left his plays to be open so that there would be many discussions… [read more]

Postmodernism and Suffering in "Sonny's Blues Essay

… Postmodernism and Suffering in "Sonny's Blues"

The American experience is a complex one, and one with great variations depending on who is experiencing it. Still, there are common themes found among the various sub-groups of American society tat continuously tie us together as a nation. Postmodernist themes are often found in contemporary literature, especially in the context of minority literature, which is expressing a very complex racial hierarchy and how it affects the people forced to live within it. This is the basic structure of James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues," as the story presents a postmodernist theme of how suffering has shaped the contemporary American experience.

The story itself is much deeper and abstract that the tenants of realism, as seen in Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." Here, the story, written in the late nineteenth century, deals only with the surface level actions and behaviors of the characters, typical of a realist style. Twain presents Smiley as a realistic portrayal of gamblers, both past and present. He writes in a style to show how the characters would really look and act in an objective reality, without the bias or tampering of the author's hand. Thus, he portrays both the positive and negative elements of Smiley's character, as a way to illustrate a nonbiased image of him and what he represents. Here, Twain focuses on the lower classes of society, unlike Romanticism, which was obsessed with the more elite classes in American society and the fantasy life they lead. Additionally, Twain adds a great sense of humor to his realistic story to create a sort of parody for how gamblers actually lived out West during the time period.

The theme of suffering began to poke its head out in the modernist tradition, as seen in F. Scott Fitzgerald's "Winter Dreams." The utopian ideals found in early modernism were soon struck down with the painful realities of the horrors of war. World War II really changed the notion of modernism, especially here in the United States. The utopian optimism turned into a critical pessimistic view of contemporary American society at the time. Fitzgerald illustrates a high degree of self-consciousness found within the writing that is critical of the very stories presented in such a modernist context

Dexter Green reaches the riches he had worked so hard for, making his story technically a successful rags to riches one. Yet, even the plushness of the elite upper classes cannot shelter the…… [read more]

Beowulf, Grendel, and Grendel's Mother Term Paper

… However, Breeden's translation states that Grendel's mother is a monster. He overtly describes her as a "monster woman" who lives in "the terrible water" (Breeden). Grendel's monstrous ancestry appears to come through his mother, who is also a descendant of Cain. In addition, like her son, Grendel's mother appears to eat her victims (Breeden). She is also apparently more formidable than her son; Beowulf is able to kill Grendel with his bare hands, but is almost defeated by Grendel's mother and needs to use an enchanted sword to kill her. Therefore, while she may have a maternal instinct one might not think would be present in a monster; this translation leaves little doubt as to her monstrosity.

One would assume that, compared to the actual monsters in the poem, the hero, Beowulf, would be undeniably human. There is certainly no suggestion that he is a monster in the sense of him being a descendant from Cain. However, there is also substantial evidence that, like Grendel, Beowulf is somehow superhuman. He has strength comparable to Grendel's, and he chooses to fight Grendel without armor or weapons, which is something that one would presume a mere human would be unable to do, particularly given that Grendel had previously defeated up to 30 men at a time in unarmed combat (Breeden). However, this strength appears intermittent; he needs not only a weapon, but a magical weapon to defeat Grendel's mother. Nothing in his behavior seems to reveal him as a monstrous or evil person. He is said to get his strength from God, and he does not engage in any casual evil or violence. In fact, Beowulf does not even have the traditional weaknesses that would develop in later tragic heroes. Therefore, while Beowulf may be a somewhat allegorical poem describing the monstrosity of humanity, the titular character is not evidence of this monstrosity.


Breeden, D. (Trans.). The Adventures of Beowulf: An adaptation from the Old English.

Retrieved April 23,…… [read more]

Printing Press and the Internet Essay

… Printing Press and the Internet

The internet has completely revolutionized the way that people access knowledge, just as the printing press revolutionized the Renaissance era by exposing people to concepts that they had not heard of until the discovery. Despite… [read more]

Tim Obrien Essay

… There are hardly any references to lavender in the text that do not state that he is the soldier who gets murdered. These constant references to Lavender's death indicate to the reader that this death will be a central factor in the plot of this tale. Lavender is essentially a pawn in this story who is sacrificed to demonstrate that Cross's inattentiveness would cause another burden for him to shoulder for the remainder of the war. This type of psychological burden is intermingled with the physical burdens that the soldiers took along with them in their duties, which the following quotation indicates. "Dave Jensen carried night-sight vitamins…Lee Strunk carried his slingshot…Rat Kiley carried brandy and M&M's. Until he was shot, Ted Lavender carried the starlight scope" (O'Brien 1990). This quotation demonstrates the author's proclivity for repeating what each member of the company "carried." It also indicates that virtually all references to Lavender repeat the fact that he gets killed. This repetition allows the O'Brien to emphasize the burden the soldiers endured, and that one of the most heaviest burden was the psychological trauma associated with seeing their comrades killed.

The final passage in which Cross resolves to pay more attention to his job -- and less to Martha -- also relies upon repetition to underscore the young man's newfound resolve for his duty, which the subsequent passage demonstrates.

…he would impose strict field discipline…He would be careful to send out flank security…He would insist on clean weapons. He would confiscate the remainder of Lavender's dope…he would call the men together and speak to them plainly. He would accept the blame for what happened to Ted Lavender (O'Brien 1990).

The anaphora in the preceding quotation ("he would") is one of the final instances in which O'Brien employs a copious amount of repetition to emphasize aspects of "The Things They Carried." By repeating the phrasing for what Cross is resolving to do in the wake of Lavender's murder, the author is underscoring how great a burden his death was, and how much Cross is willing to do to change his behavior so as to try to avoid further negligence of duty. Finally, this repetition also reinforces the notion that Cross must also carry the responsibility of Lavender's death with him.

The author of "The Things They Carried" uses a substantial amount of repetition in both the plot of the story as well as in its phrasing to demonstrate what a burden it was to labor in the Vietnam War. The psychological burden of the death of Ted Lavender is highly illustrative of this fact, particularly when one examines the plentiful instances of repetition related to that death and the role of Lieutenant Cross in it.

Works Cited

O'Brien, Tim. (1990). "The Things They Carried." Rajuabju. 1990. Web.… [read more]

What Is Tragedy? Essay

… Tragedy

As a form of literature, the tragedy has been in existence since the time of the Ancient Greeks. It has evolved over the centuries from the ancient world to the modern world while still retaining its basic themes and concepts as a branch of literature that explores in a serious manner how a character is effected by misfortune and anguish. Two tragic stories, separated by 2400 years, are Oedipus the King and Death of a Salesman; and while each tells the story of a suffering character, each is also a reflection of the society in which it was written.

Tragedy can trace it roots back to ancient Greece where Aristotle defined it as "serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude…in the form of action, not narrative, through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions." (Aristotle, 11) in other words, it is a form of drama where the audience engages in the emotions of fear and pity for a character in the story. The main character of a tragedy is one who suffers catastrophic events and the story often ends in tremendous sorrow with the devastation of the tragic character. This tradition, which began with such tales as Sophocles' Oedipus the King, continued through the Medieval period and into the Elizabethan period, and finally, into the modern world with such tragic characters as Willy Loman from Arthur Millers' Death of a Salesman.

If one needs to have a fall from grace as a component of a tragedy, then Oedipus the King began with a tragic hero, Oedipus, the King of Thebes. He was faced with a catastrophic plague which can only be ended when the killer of the previous king was brought to justice. It turned out that Oedipus was the killer, but this was only the beginning of his suffering as he soon discovered that the previous king was his father, and his current wife, and mother of his children, was really his birth mother. Devastated by this revelation, Oedipus's mother/wife hanged herself, while Oedipus blinded himself; and as a final tragic turn of events, even though he begged for death, he was banished instead.

Willy Loman, the main character in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman was a not-so-successful salesman who never attained any high rank or station, but still suffered a catastrophic fall from grace when he was fired from his job. He went from a person who had value to someone who was nothing, and while this may not have been as dramatic as the fall of a king, in 20th century America, it was a tragic fall that the audience could relate to. He was a dreamer at a time in his life when the dreams were all gone and the only thing left was the stark reality of a failed life. The character of Willy Loman was pitied by his family for not being able to succeed; and his shame at not being able to provide for them was too much… [read more]

Nature of Justice -- Secular Essay

… The language is elegant and lyrical: Now the long blade of the sun, lying level east to west touches with glory Thebes of the Seven Gates. Open unlidded eye of the golden day! And in several instances, alliteration seems to have survived translation: Is brazen boasting of barefaced anarchy? Symbolism comes to life in Antigone in the characters themselves. The conflict between Antigone and Creon is deep-seated as it includes tension between male and female overlain by family loyalty and ties vs. The duty of citizens. Bird imagery is predominant in Antigone, from the carrion-eating birds attending the dead body of Polyneices to Antigone as a protective bird hovering over the body of her dead brother. Further references are made to birds that seem to represent the mess that Creon has made of everything -- in fact, the birds are themselves very messy and Teiresias provides the details through his magic art of augury, which is basically the telling of the future from the behavior of birds.

Dante's Inferno. Dante Alighieri wrote an epic poem in the 14th century entitled the Divine Comedy. Dante brought Tuscan Italian into the sphere of erudite literature, which had been predominantly written in Greek and Latin. The Inferno, which is Italian for "Hell," is the first of the three parts of the poem -- Purgatorio and Paradiso complete the trio. The story is an allegory that describes Dante's journey through Hell as he is guided by Virgil, a Roman poet. Dante uses nine circles to depict the degrees of suffering as those damned to the Inferno travel ever deeper into the Earth's interior. The story is narrated by Dante as the character who is on a journey. The first-person narration documents and explores Dante's feelings on the journey. The genre is epic poetry, and few poems are as epic as Dante's Inferno, unless the piece is one of Virgil's, who is the single example of what a Roman epic poet should be. Dante's journey explicitly examines the consequences of the good and (mostly) evil choices mankind makes. The tone of the piece is emotional and generally condemnatory, but sometimes sympathetic (largely dependent upon just where in those nine circles the sinners are located). The story ends happily since Beatrice leads Dante through Pergatory to Redemption.


A thorough exploration of Dante's Inferno and Antigone leads to an understanding that Dante examines the issue of divine justice, but Antigone is concerned with religious ritual tied to familial and civil responsibility. Antigone's struggle is a civil and religious one, but she is compelled to action less by fear of some yet-to-come divine justice than by outrage that her brother has been so deeply degraded by an unfeeling king. Dante's struggle is an iterative journey that repeatedly encounters divined justice -- as he has conceived it.


Antigone. Retrieved

Dante's Inferno. Archive of Classic Poems. Retrieved… [read more]

Waste Land French Lieutenant Essay

… Waste Land French Lieutenant

The Waste Land and the French Lieutenant as Exemplary Modernist Texts

Modernism and Post-Modernism are considered the dominant literary movements of the twentieth century, with Post-Modernism continuing into our own century. Each was an artistic movement… [read more]

Henry David Thoreau's Life Without Principle Essay

… Henry David Thoreau's Life Without Principle

Life Eschews Art

In many ways, there are a number of contradictions that appear to have been present and existent with the literature and the actual life of Henry David Thoreau, the celebrated American… [read more]

Frankenstein Offers a Great Analysis Essay

… ¶ … Frankenstein" offers a great analysis of two characters who one would think have absolutely nothing in common, while providing a glimpse into how similar they really are to each other. However, it is Victor who turns out to be the greater monster in this story. Victor created the Monster who ends up murdering Victor's loved ones, and Victor shaped the Monster's personality. Even though it can be argued that the Monster who killed was the bigger villain, it was indeed Victor who started everything in the first place.

Victor and the Monster were both victims of this entire situation. Victor's high intellect and extreme curiosity lead him to create the Monster, whom he saw as being the ultimate creation. However, because of the Monster's appearance, one that Victor had full control over, the Monster was shunned, "Oh! No mortal could support the horror of that countenance. A mummy again endued with animation could not be so hideous as that wretch." Victor on the other hand, did not have to deal with the act of being discriminated against because of his physical appearance. He could not relate, nor understand the neglect that the Monster felt over being seen as just that, a monster. In having no empathy for his creation, Victor is the bigger monster.

The Monster was in the wrong when he committed the crimes against Victor's loved ones, however, the Monster did not hide away from his actions the way that Victor did. Victor was unable to confront the fact that he had created the Monster. He was ashamed of being the one who came up with such a thing, and instead of accepting responsibility for his actions, he instead hides away, making himself disappear from society and the outside world. Victor also refuses to accept that it was him who had caused the Monster so much pain. It was Victor who had created an incomplete project when masterminding the Monster because he did not thoroughly think through what the next step would be after the Monster came to life. Once again, proving Victor's characteristic monstrosity.

The way that both these respective characters treated others and one another, provides a more in depth view into how each Victor and the Monster truly were. From the beginning Victor was an ambitious, well educated, and well-informed individual. His ideas were big at the time, and he wanted to do anything possible to get ahead in his scientific career. Without thinking about his creation's feelings, Victor made the Monster with the intent of creating life. He had no intention of ever caring what would happen to the Monster, nor was he concerned about how others felt about his creation. The Monster on the other hand, had a desperate need to be loved and wanted. He would do anything in order to be accepted by his society, but that did not happen. Even when the Monster saved the young girl from drowning, he was not celebrated as being a hero. His… [read more]

Consumerism in Women Mrs. Dalloway Research Paper

… Consumerism in Mrs. Dalloway

Social Inequality Reflected through the Shopping Excursions of Clarissa Dalloway and Doris Kilman in Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway

Although published almost ninety years ago, Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway continues to fascinate literary critics with the subtleties… [read more]

Education - Reading Censored Books Book Review

… " I'm a bit surprised at the sexually explicit content charge since nothing even remotely sexual happens besides a kiss, which was even detailed. I'm guessing this claim was raised when Martha's 13-year-old brother makes an offhand comment that his parents are exhibiting "morning sex behavior" (Aasi, 2011).

Banned Book Permission Slip

Dear Parent/Guardian,

Our class will soon be studying ____. This book is currently on the banned book list. I feel that this book will be a great addition to the unit that we are currently working on. The book will be available at school for you to preview. If you have any questions, you may call ____ at ____. Once you are familiar with the book, if you prefer that your child not read this book, please sign the appropriation section below.

I ____ give my child ____ permission to read

After reviewing ____, I do not want ____, to read

I understand that he/she will not be allowed to remain in the classroom while the curriculum is being taught, and that he/she will receive alternative lessons deemed appropriate.

Parent/Guardian Name (please print):

Signature: ____ Date:

Reason(s) for not participating:


Aasi, R. (2011). Banned Books Week 2011: Olive's Ocean. Retrieved from

Banned Books. (2012). Retrieved from

Banned Book Week. (2005). Retrieved from

Banned/Challenged Books Goal: "Junie B. Jones. (2011). Retrieved from

Beerman, S. (2006). Is Captain Underpants A Threat? Retrieved from

Belew, B. (2007). American Library Association Celebrates Banned Books Week - Ten Most

Challenged. Retrieved from

Doyle, R.P. (2010). Books Challenged or Banned in 2009 -- 2010. Retrieved from

Doyle, R.P. (2011). Books Challenged or Banned in 2010 -- 2011. Retrieved from sweek/ideasandresources/free_downloads/2011banned.pdfTop 100

Kennedy, E. (2012). The Harry Potter Controversy. Retreived from

Sager, J. (n.d.). Banned Books Week: R.L. Stine's Goosebumps. Retrieved from

Tulsa Tuesday Gay-Friendly Book Not Banned at Union. (2011). Retrieved from… [read more]

Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope Essay

… It is as if Pope uses Dr. Arbuthnot's impending death to write a poem that had been already brewing inside of him. He loves his friends; of that there is no doubt. Yet the epistle is not necessarily written on the fly for the specific occasion of Dr. Arbuthnot's passing. Rather, Pope understands that he needs to dig deep, channeling the grief and mourning into something eternal and timeless.

Swift, too, understands that he needs to seize the opportunity to invest possibly one last time into his writing. Faced with his own death, Swift channels his fears and anxiety into what he does best, which is writing. The motivation for penning his own eulogy is to empower the poet. Writing his obituary gives him a sense of control over his destiny. His death is not the end of his life but the beginning of a timeless legacy. He controls how he is remembered; and Swift also uses the opportunity to reflect on his life and career. The self-reflection is remarkably personal, but it is also paradoxically detached.

The "Epistle to Arbuthnot" and "Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift" embody English Enlightenment poetry. Death is no longer within the religious domain; it has become a subject that can be discussed with humor and honesty. Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope dedicated their writing talents to promoting ideas of social justice and political liberty. Their literary legacies would have been preserved well had they not written their respective treatises to death. However, they did write about death and their own mortality. Doing so makes Swift and Pope seem more tangible as historical figures and certainly more human than they would have otherwise. Motivated by a desire to transcend death with literature and good humor, Pope and Swift achieved their political and artistic goals with aplomb.


Lancashire, I. (2009). Alexander Pope (1688-1744). Epistles to Several Persons: Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot. Retrieved online:

Swift, J.…… [read more]

Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation Term Paper

… While Brown does not present the conversational nature of her approach to hermeneutics as glorifying God, she does argue that it enables relevance and contextualization to play important parts in the efforts of Scriptural readers to evoke meaning. Certainly Brown… [read more]

Growing Up a Quest Essay

… Whichever it will be, the boy certainly self-examines in a very good way, and, the reader believes, though harsh, may be able to learn from himself quite a lot, despite the absence of his mother.

The second story to be examined here also focuses on the experience of a child, but this story is quite different. First, it is narrated from a third-person omniscient point-of-view. Thus, the story is a bit less personal than the poem. Though the girl in the story still has thoughts of insecurity and fright, she seems to be a much happier child, and also seems to be much more independent than the character in the poem. It is evident, however, from the presentation of this story and the inclusion of other characters present, that the girl is not alone in her ordeals in life. In fact, her mother, despite being a bit harsh herself and exposing her own insecurities, tries to comfort her own daughter in many ways and keep her from being harmed by the harsh realities of the world in which she lives.

The daughter, however, seems a bit younger than the boy in the first story, and seems also to be quite innocent. Though she can make her own judgments, she still obeys everything that the adults say, and is often easily swayed by their advice and opinions. However, she does prove to be strong, as she stands up to another girl her age. The age of the girl is easily seen in the fact that she can still find joy in the excitement of a birthday party, or a day spent with friends. This, then, make the tone of the story quite optimistic, which is another characteristic different from the poem analyzed above. The lessons learned here are strength and the value of helping another, which is an important facet that the girl learns, as the readers see towards the end of the story, yet she learns these lessons through certain events, in contrast with the feelings-based experiences that the boy in the first poem undergoes and from which he learns.

The two characters in these two separate stories are both alike and different. They are alike in that they are both children, both willing and ready to learn, and both innocent. However, the boy in the first piece, because he seems older, has a more pessimistic tone, whereas the characters in the second story, a younger girl, is a bit more optimistic with the experiences she undergoes. However, both individuals seem to learn important lessons about growing up.… [read more]

Curious Case of Filming Film Review

… I thought that this was an important aspect of the movie because there was more focus upon the role of Mr. Hyde and his role in the movie (and as we know the transformations take place in the laboratory). Another difference in the two that I noticed was the complete difference in characters. The lawyer Mr. Utterson, is significantly more prominent in the 2008 version. I thought that Mary Reilly was one of the more interesting portrayals of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. I think that I appreciated the movie a lot more considering the notion that everything is better when you have background in the subject matter.

It is always is interesting to see how different directors will develop and make their own adaptations based on a novel. To say the very least, there has not been a carbon copy of the novel that has been put onto the big screen either in 1920 or 2008. This is what makes the possibility that only more movies will charm us with the enjoyment that Stevenson intended to provide us with over a century ago.


Auback, T. 2002. Jekyll & Hyde in Pop Culture. Grin Verlag: Munich, Germany.

Germana, M. 2011. Becoming Hyde: Excess, Pleasure and Cloning. Gothic Studies. 13(2): 98-115(18).

Rose, B.A.…… [read more]

Gryphon by Charles Morley Baxter Essay

… The projection Baxter uses for Miss Ferenczi is rather interesting. Sometimes, when she talks to the children, she uses words that most fourth grade children wouldn't understand. Our understanding of why Baxter chose her difficult and confusing speech is to expand the minds of the students. Miss Ferenczi changed Mr. Hibler's fourth grade students. Our first impression of her is that she is unusual when she walks in the classroom with her purple purse.

Charles Baxter initially caught critic's attention with his poetry and criticism, but it is the graceful prose and human understanding of his short stories and novels that have gained him entry into the pantheon of leading American writers of the twentieth century. In the words of Chuck Wachtel in Nation, "Baxter is a remarkable storyteller" who, in each new book, "has offered his readers an increasingly significant, humane and populous reflection, one in which we keep finding things we have sensed the presence of, but have not before seen."

A self-described insomniac, Baxter also admitted in Ploughshares that he likes a routine and will sometimes fixate on even the slightest intrusions or variations from his schedule. Noting that he is "conscious of pattern-making" in his day-to-day life, the author added: "I think if you are somewhat compulsive or habitual in your ordinary life, it gives you some latitude to be wild in your creative work." (Baxter)

Hopefully by reading this essay student's will be able to understand some of Charles Baxter's short stories and might even explore his other books, poetry, novels and of course his short-stories.

Works Cited

American Short Story. Charles Baxter: Biography. 11 March 2008. 22 September 2010 .

Baxter, Charles. Charles Baxter: Gryphon; often asked questions. 7 May 2008. 22 September 2010 .

Hoffman, Erin. WiseGeek. 2 January 2010. 23 September 2010 .

Mandell, Kirszner and. Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010.

Wikipedia. Charles Baxter (author). 2 April 2010.…… [read more]

Death in "Do Not Go Essay

… As innocence and purity are often symbolically associated with lambs, they are often used as religious sacrifices. The lamb is described as having "Softest clothing wooly bright" and having "such a tender voice, / Making all the vales rejoice" (lines 6-8). Not only does Blake insinuate that the lamb is an innocent creature because of its physical descriptors, but also because of what it represents symbolically. This is illustrated through the rhetorical question, "Do you know who made thee?" And corresponding answer, "Little Lamb I'll tell thee:/He is called by thy name/For he calls himself a Lamb" (lines 12-14). Blake proceeds to describe characteristics that are found in the lamb and in God's son saying, "He is meek & he is mild/He became a little child:/I a child & thou a lamb,/We are called by his name" (lines 15-18). By stating "He became a little child," Blake associates being a child with being innocent because they have not been exposed to experiences that will make them aware of the difference between good and evil (line 16).

Through his description of the lamb in the poem, Blake is able to establish a connection between the lamb as an animal and the lamb as a religious symbol. Moreover, Blake is able to associate the lamb with being innocent and ignorant of the world around it, taking pleasure in what its creator has designated as being pleasurable.

Are You Experienced? The lack of innocence in "The Tyger"

Blake's "The Tyger" in Songs of Experience is intended to complement "The Lamb" in Songs of Innocence. Much like "The Lamb," "The Tyger" is used to explore Blake's views on religion, creation, and highlights the relation between innocence and experience.

While Blake does not go into great detail in "The Lamb" about the animal's creation, how the tiger came to be is scrutinized more in-depth. While the lamb has been described as being meek or mild, the tiger has a "fearful symmetry" (line 4). Additionally, Blake questions the tiger's creator's mindset and asks, "What immortal hand or eye/Could frame thy fearful symmetry…What the hand, dare seize the fire?/And what should, & what art,/Could twist the sinews of thy heart?" (lines 3-4; 8-10). This line of questioning raises doubts within Blake and he tries to reconcile with the possibility that "he who made the Lamb" also made the tiger (line 20). The dichotomy between the lamb as an innocent and good creature and the tiger as being representative of experience and possibly evil is highlighted through Blake's reference to the War in Heaven. Blake asks, "When the stars threw down their spears/And water'd heaven with their tears: / Did he smile his work to see?" As if to imply that regardless of innocence and experience that a being may have, it is by some greater design that creatures where made the way they were (line 17-19).

While the lamb does not know how it came into being, nor is there much description given, "The Tyger" makes it… [read more]

Maya Angelou Attained International Fame Research Paper

… Clearly, Maya learned important lessons from her grandmother about dealing with racism in a dignified, confident manner, and this brief tribute illustrates her grandmother's wise example.

Still I Rise is a poem within the poetry book, And Still I Rise, which is Maya's 3rd book of poetry, published in 1978. The poem celebrates the indomitable spirit of the oppressed, particularly the racially oppressed, who incessantly rise despite every effort to oppress and suppress them. Mocking the oppressor, Maya's poem says, "You may write me down in history With your bitter, twisted lies, You may trod me in the very dirt But still, like dust, I'll rise" ( Though published as merely one of many poems contained in And Still I Rise, I Rise deeply resonated with people who have suffered varieties of oppressive treatment, and it is still widely quoted as a powerful refrain from a triumphant spirit.

These are merely three examples of an extensive body of work spanning more than four decades. Writing is apparently at least one of Maya's proudest achievements, for when she was asked in a 2003 interview about her writing, Maya stated:

"I'm happy to be a writer, of prose, poetry, every kind of writing. Every person in the world who isn't a recluse, hermit or mute uses words. I know of no other art form that we always use. So the writer has to take the most used, most familiar objects -- nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs -- ball them together and make them bounce, turn them a certain way and make people get into a romantic mood; and another way, into a bellicose mood. I'm most happy to be a writer" (Moore).

4. Conclusion.

Maya Angelou's life and work span the racism and sexual abuse of an early childhood in Arkansas, the assertiveness of Malcolm X, the passive-resistance of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the worldliness of an international multi-talented artist. Learning valuable lessons in dignity and skill throughout her life, she shares those lessons with her public through a body of work that includes her 30+ written works, dance, acting in TV and films, and personal appearances. Still productive at the age of 83, Maya apparently has no intention of slowing down, as she is still writing and making personal appearances to this day.

Works Cited

A&E Television Networks. Maya Angelou Biography. 2012. Web. 28 January 2012.

American Academy of Achievement. Maya Angelou Biography. 31 May 2011. Web. 28 January 2012.

Angelou, Maya. "Chapter 1: Narration | Grandmother's Victory by Maya Angelou." 1970. Web site. Web. 28 January 2012.

-- . I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York, NY: Random House, Inc., 1969. Book.

Cecil, Kelly Holland. "Maya Angelou | 1928 - ." 1998. University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Web. 29 January 2012. Maya Angelou - Biography. 2012. Web. 28 January 2012.

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Robert Graves Lived From 1895 Essay

… Moreover, the entire struggle to do with searching out evidence and witnesses for the Short-haired girl's adulterous ways seem to go in vain, when their testimony is not even needed, and the case of the girl gets decided based on… [read more]

Fall to Spring's Sprouting: The Motif Term Paper

… ¶ … Fall to Spring's Sprouting: The Motif of Man as Leaves in Literature and the Emergence of Autonomy as Divine

Literature, like the minds that produce it, does not exist in a vacuum. There is an ongoing and never-ending… [read more]

Waste Land the Contrast Between T.S. Eliot Book Report

… Waste Land

The contrast between T.S. Eliot's "The Waste Land" and Martin Rowson's comic version of "The Waste Land" is like the contrasting sources of light and power from the sun and the moon. The sun, Eliot's brilliant, iconic version, gives off a powerful beam, and illuminates the literary world with sunshine so bright and intense that it can actually burn images into the reader's consciousness. The moon, Rowson's version of "The Waste Land" has no original light of its own -- it is not the original source of light for "The Waste Land" -- but rather it reflects and refracts the illumination from Eliot's original. It does present unique power, adapting the concept of Eliot's work and turning it into something satirical and entirely different that orbits around the concept of noir thriller with a detective / private eye theme a parody of Raymond Chandler.

Eliot's The Waste Land vs. Rowson's The Waste Land

It is not too much of an exaggeration to suggest that Eliot's poem is among the most important poems in the 20th Century. In the poem Eliot -- who had enough prestige and talent to quote from other legendary writers -- uses quotes from William Shakespeare, Homer, Ovid, Chaucer, Joseph Conrad, John Milton, Hermann Hesse, Walt Whitman, Aldous Huxley, and Baudelaire, among others. He also incorporates several languages (perhaps to promote the universality of poetry and literature?), including German, French, ancient Sanskrit, Greek, Italian and Latin.

In addition to the sheer brilliance of the themes, ironies, conflicts and historical juxtapositions in Eliot's poem, what makes Eliot's work so unique and so far apart from other poems is the shifting that Eliot does between prophecy and satire, and suddenly the time frame shifts, the location switches, and the reader is easily caught off guard. You could say Eliot's poem is a kind of grab bag of different fragments, each of which has meaning within meaning, a story within a story. He doesn't really tell a story; he explores themes, with five different themes thoroughly hashed out in the five sections. Eliot wrote his poem at the end of World War I, and some of the pessimism…… [read more]

Sir Gawain and the Green Term Paper

… According to some historians of the period and also literary critics the period marked a time when the role of women was changing in a manner that the society was unaccustomed to. Women were taking control of households, fiefdoms, and… [read more]

Feminism 19th and Early 20th Essay

… However, when she goes downstairs, she looks away from the window and sees her husband walk in the door. Looking away from the window that symbolizes her happy future, Louise falls down dead from a heart attack. Even though the doctors say she died of joy, the readers know that she died of shock and disappointment. The implication is that her heart trouble was actually brought on by marriage.

Like the short hour of freedom that Louise enjoyed, The Story of an Hour is short. Each paragraph is small, and made up of small sentences, as we carve up hours, minutes, and seconds. Unlike most writing of the time, Chopin had to be concise with her writing in this story, so she tried to make every word do as much work as possible, not unlike a poem. One way to do that is to repeat a word in different places, to give it emphasis, like Louise and the word "free." Another thing that she repeated was sentence parts, which gave a kind of alliteration, or internal rhyme.

An author who wasn't always famous for being feminist was Mary Shelley. Mary Shelley's liberal political philosopher father, William Godwin, raised her after her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft, died. Unlike Chopin's sedate marriage, Mary Shelley had an affair with Percy Bysshe Shelley before his then-wife committed suicide. Before they married, Mary Shelley lost a premature term infant, and after marrying, lost two more. Only her last child, born shortly before his father's death, survived. From then on, she focused on her writing career and her son, writing The Mortal Immortal in 1833, for hire.

The Mortal Immortal is known as being one of the earliest pieces of science fiction, even though it begins in the 1500s. The Mortal Immortal uses a genuine historical figure, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim, as the chemist who accidentally prepares the elixir of life. His assistant drinks the elixir, believing it will cure him of love, though it only makes it immortal, though he did not know it at the time. Only when his wife ages and dies does he realize that he is immortal. The tragedy is that he outlives everyone he knows and loves, and still seeking death.

In contrast to Heinrich's assistant's life, The Mortal Immortal is short. At the time, the magazine that it was published in was meant to be read by the modern-day equivalent of tweens or teenage girls, like the Twilight series. It has been suggested that Mary Shelley pined for Percy Bysshe Shelley, and that like the narrator, she missed her significant other. Maybe she was imagining what would happen if he stayed young while she became old without him. Another thought is that perhaps she was simply writing for hire and so since she was familiar with St. Leon, a novel her father wrote about an immortal who was unable to use his powers -- which almost certainly was the basis for her novel Frankenstein -- it was an easy… [read more]

Slave, Not Born Research Paper

… However, Hughes complicity in attempting to assist his master tie up Douglass (so he could cruelly beat a man who was bound) is merely part of a lengthy tradition of preferentialism within chattel slavery that inherently affected the psychology of… [read more]

Poe's the Fall Essay

… When Poe describes the decaying castle, he does so with artfully designed phrases which reference "the sombre tapestries of the walls, the ebon blackness of the floors, and the phantasmagoric armorial trophies which rattled" as the narrator walks the halls in trepidation. The author's descriptions of his characters make further use of this technique, with Roderick Usher depicted as possessing "a cadaverousness of complexion; an eye large, liquid, and luminous beyond comparison; lips somewhat thin and very pallid & #8230; (and) the now ghastly pallor of the skin." Poe is able to precisely control the reader's mental imagery and create a sense of the Gothic with this deliberate choice of emotional and evocative language.

There are many additional instances of Gothic themes throughout The Fall of the House of Usher, and Poe's decision to position the decrepit, castle-like house as its own character is the most recognized. Traditional Gothic literature typically features a large, mysterious castle as the primary setting and Poe succeeds in maximizing the horrifying effects that this device can exert on readers. Another classic element of the Gothic is the slow and measured building of suspense, and this is usually brought to the forefront when an author presents the reader with a tantalizing mystery. Poe does this by suggesting the possibility that the house of Usher itself may be a sentient creature, and this tactic creates a uniquely terrifying dramatic atmosphere. The mystery is compounded by the increasingly enigmatic relationship between Roderick Usher and his beloved sister Madeline. By eventually concluding with a scene including disease, resurrection and death, Poe completes his Gothic masterpiece in fitting…… [read more]

Mac Flecknoe Term Paper

… Mac Flecknoe

The poem Mac Flecknoe was written by John Dryden in 1678 but was not published until 1682 (Broich, 1990). Dryden's poem is considered in the genre satire or mock-heroic poetry (Broich, 1990). Dryden's varied approach to satire demonstrates… [read more]

Courtier Baldassarre Castiglione's Classic Book Book Review

… His description of the prefect courtier is also that of the ideal male, skilled in the arts of warfare and diplomacy, and he never even considered that women might play such roles in society. He argued that this perfect courtier should be a gentleman born of the aristocracy, since aristocrats were always the most excellent in soldiering and all other worthy professions. Gasparino Pallavicino doubted that noble birth was a necessity since others could be born with talents as well, but the Count asserted that the nobles were more likely to be born with greater virtues. A gentleman should not simply be a soldier, however, but also well-versed in all the arts and social graces rather than boorish like the gentleman who refused to dance because such activities were "silly trifles" (Castiglione 26). In addition, the perfect gentleman should be handsome "of a manly cast and at the same time full of grace," but never of a "soft and effeminate appearance" (Castiglione 28). Although the Count admitted that such men were becoming far more common, and even looked and acted like ladies, they "should be treated not as good women but as public harlots" (Castiglione 30). Real men, on the other hand, were physically tough, experienced with wrestling and weaponry, and prepared to fight in wars or duels when necessary.

Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, praised Castiglione after his death in 1529 as the greatest knight on earth, and as a soldier, writer and diplomat. He fashioned himself into the prefect courtier, who also resembled the Duke of Urbino and other gentlemen he knew well. His dialogues were unusual in that the women characters were directing the conversation and choosing the topics and speakers, which never happened in the classical dialogues of Plato and Socrates. No women were present at all in those, much less powerful ones like the Duchess and the (fictional) Lady Emilia. In the end, of course, they direct the participants toward a new type of courtier that has not only the 'male' virtues of chivalry, aristocratic honor and use of weapons, but also a 'feminine' side with concern for manners, civility and a depth of emotional and intellectual life not found in their medieval counterparts. In fact, for creating this new, modern man, Castiglione evidently found that the advice and direction of women was essential, which is why he put them in charge of the dialogue immediately.


Burke, Peter. The Fortunes of the Courtier: The European Reception of Castiglione's Cortegianno.…… [read more]

Eric Purcell's "Cyber Crime -- Literature Review Peer-Reviewed Journal

… Eric Purcell's "Cyber Crime -- Literature Review" makes many excellent points and helps to convey the threat of cyber crime in a light that the average person can understand. However, from a constructive criticism angle, the review is rather weak in the discussion portion. The discussion of the actual meanings and correlations of the facts are not well developed. While the paper is strong in the number of facts and the way they are presented, it does not dive deeper into the correlations nor does it truly explore the consequences of cyber crime in a manner that is thought provoking. For example, the paper talks about the "CCF" as a means of categorizing cyber crimes, but does not connect this to how the CCF is adequate or inadequate in helping to categorize and potentially reduce cyber crime through investigations. Also, the paper uses cliches like "in this electronic world" and "the darker side." These certainly help paint a picture in the paper, but represent a quaint, hollow sentence structuring and do not contribute to the strengths of the paper or the facts contained within.

From a strengths point-of-view, the paper did explore some of the good and bad sides of internet communication and technology. However it was quite subjective in the way it deals with "good" and "evil" activities, s the author labeled them so based upon his own moral or legal understandings. The peer review could have taken a much more objective angle and accomplished more relative to the understanding of the activity instead of exploring the legal and moral outcomes. A literature review is no place for moral judgments; it is merely a discussion of the literature and facts surrounding a specific topic or idea. The author could benefit from being more objective and identifying the connections between the facts…… [read more]

Local Color in Garland's Up the Coulee and Frederic's the Damnation of Theron Ware Essay

… Naturalism in Call of the Wild and a New England Nun

Literary categorization is both an important and oftentimes maddening venture in studying literature. It allows one to examine a text within a specific context, namely historical or stylistic, and… [read more]

Frost Home Frost's Sense Essay

… One of Frost's more famous poems is "Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening," and here the poet manages to create a sense of home when the speaker is specifically not at home. There is a tranquility to the snowy woods that the speaker observes, and these woods are clearly familiar to the speaker as he notes, "Whose woods these are I think I know" right at the outset, but at the same time he notes, "My little horse must think it queer / To stop without a farmhouse near" (1; 5-6). The woods feel like home for the speaker, but the rest of the poem makes it clear that there can be no rest in this home, as the true home has yet to be reached and must still be sought. In an even more well-known poem, "The Road Not Taken," Frost explores the theme of unfamiliarity in a very direct and highly meaningful way. The calm and quiet description of the "yellow wood" that the speaker occupies at the moment of the poem seems quite comfortable, yet the poem itself is about taking the path that is more strange and less familiar, and, "knowing how way leads on to way, / I doubted if I should ever come back" (14-15). Once one leaves the familiarity of home, according to Frost, it is impossible to gain that same home, bu this poem also suggests that new familiarities and worthwhile scenes can be found amongst the initially strange.

Home is not as much a physical destination for Frost a it is a sense of belonging. When it comes to man's place in nature, there are many instances of both familiarity and strangeness. By using imagery from nature to express these sentiments, Frost makes his…… [read more]

Multiculturalism Am Lit Multiculturalism in American Literature Questionnaire

… Multiculturalism Am Lit

Multiculturalism in American Literature

America has long considered itself a cultural "melting pot," drawing immigrants from all over the world to the freedoms and opportunities of the first modern democracy. The canon of American literature, however, was for many decades (centuries, in truth) exclusively the realm of authors (primarily men) that were of European ancestry and descent and that wrote from perspectives that seemed to be an accepted part of American society, even in works critical of that society. Increasingly, however, the concept of American literature has expanded to include the true multiculturalism of the United States. This has to do in part with the increased prominence and acceptance of immigrant and minority cultures by publishers and the public, and also with the increased attention of academia.

Both Sandra Cisneros' "Woman Hollering Creek" and Jumpha Lahiri's "The Third and Final Continent" detail the experience of being an immigrant in the United States, and both also contain decidedly feminine perspectives in their involvement of young brides. In Cisneros' short story, the bride is the central figure of the story and must ultimately escape her abusive husband and her life in Texas, ironically gaining a stringer sense of independence and the strength more typical of American women only as she is on a bus back to her native Mexico. It is the groom-to-be that is the focus for Lahiri, however, and his well-meaning American landlady as well as his many years away from his native India make his preparations for his traditional bride more tense and uncertain. While highlighting the differences between the characters' native cultures and America's, these works are both at least partially about finding oneself and determining one's own identity,…… [read more]

Maya Angelou and Jay Essay

… This ability to be a role model to the other women under the same situation is the reason why the writer seeks to perpetuate the life of Maya through her giving birth at the end of the novel and beginning to give meaning to another life that is to be lived in a positive aspect. This is the direct contrast to the character Gatsby who lives a lavish lifestyle and reckless relationships hence he is terminated at the end of the novel by being shot to death without any kin remaining to take over the lifestyle. This is an indication of the abhorrence that the writer had about the lifestyle that Gatsby led and the surrealism that clouded his approach to life challenges and racism. In short, Maya finds her identity while Gatsby loses his identity at the end of the novels.

There is also a variation in the way the two characters face issues. Gatsby is a person who is so materialistic, loves fame and depends on the charm or pomp and riches to help solve his challenges. This is why he seen to be wooing back Daisy using material such as a mansion he bought and parties to which he invites her even though he knows that Daisy is already engaged with someone else for the last five years he has been away on army service. He still has hopes that the Rolls-Royce and the lavish life supported by the dubiously acquired money will win her back from Tom. It then becomes a tag of classes since Tom was originally from the wealthier class. At last, his wealth, and the Rolls-Royce that made him distinguishable made him become a mistaken identity and killed for a mistake that was not his. On the other hand, Maya has a different way of seeking solutions to her challenges and quest to self-actualization. She focuses on reading a lot of literature and loves poetry in particular. Whenever she is faced with a challenge, she immerses herself into books (not wealth) for instance when she gets raped, she drifts to her imaginary fantasy world of books and sees herself being rescued by "Bailey or the Green Hornet."

Generally, the two characters, though from societies that are riddled with racism, both struggling to get out of that underdog position in the society, they adopt different approaches to finding a way out and display very different character traits throughout the…… [read more]

Mitten by Jan Brett Book Report

… Mitten by Jan Brett

Jan Brett is the illustrator of well-known folktales, fairy tales, and poems, These include the Owl and the Pussycat, by Edward Lear and Goldilocks and the Three Bears. She continues in this vein in 1989 in… [read more]

Child by Tiger by Thomas Wolfe Essay

… ¶ … Child by Tiger" by Thomas Wolfe and "The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell

A comparison


Statement of points

"the Child by Tiger"

"The Most Dangerous Game"

The two short stories that will be analyzed in the following essay are one of the most significant works for the two authors in which they focus on human behavior, its evolution and roots of good and evil.


Although set in totally different settings, the two books share this common denominator and are excellent readings for better understanding of why some men rely more on their instinct and less on their reason. A number of similarities can be found between the main character of Wolfe's story and General Zaroff from Connell's story and in what regards some parts of the plot, yet differences are significant in what regards the structure and construction of the plays, the narrative typology and also the role they aim to play for the reader.

B. Summary

The essay will start with a short summary of each story in which the most important sections will be discussed, followed by an analysis of similarities and differences between the two.

II. Body

A. "The Child by Tiger"

"The Child by Tiger" by Thomas Wolfe is a short story that looks at the life of a black person, Dick Prosser in a world of mixed racial feelings and behaviors. Dick's behavior in society is remarkable, as he has developed a large number of skills that help him find a better role in a racially driven world. The story is told by a person named Spangler who recounts the events that happened twenty-five years before in the South of the U.S. The storyteller, who interacted with Dick Prosser and admired him, tells a story without giving too much explanation for the facts. One day, Dick starts killing people without a clear reason or focus, from police officer to fellow blacks. He is later on killed with more than three hundred shots by a raging mob of white, despite the pleas of the mayor and other people. Arguably, the reasons that were behind his violent actions lie in the constant discrimination he faced and the lack of hope that this would go away and that he would be accepted as a normal citizen, and not a sub-human ghetto one. One could say that the racist pressures that society inflicted on him transformed Dick Prosser from the honest person he was into the exact image and stereotype that society saw him. The story is in itself a memory of Spangler that tries to better understand what and why happened twenty five years before and, therefore, the narrative style is sometimes discontinued and less chronological that Connell's story.

B. "The Most Dangerous Game"

In a more adventure like story, Connell offers the image of evil as well, but from another standpoint. A more calculated and rigorous evil, based not of reason but on emotions, is General Zaroff's view on the pleasures of… [read more]

Animal Abuse and Violent Criminal Thesis

… When looking at this analysis of illicit activity and how these people have been known to abuse and/or kill living creatures, there is less organization in this text which means that a lot of the text documented in the paper is repetitive with less structure than some of the reviews that have been notated in the past. The paragraphs could use a little more levelness with smooth transactions to talk about this subject in more of a chronological order rather than it having distinct and descriptive paragraphs with a lot of gathered data on one particular or a few related scenarios with a variety of added professional comments and information on what other researchers have retrieved from their own analysis on the titled work. The organizational structure of the document could have been more in order in wording, citations, referencing, and the consistency of additional information that came to a bigger climax with some kind of interesting outcome. The only precise information of these hypotheses was toward the end which should have been expressed with deeper concern and feedback to readers for them to have a better understanding. The only feedback that was notated was in a brief and repetitive paragraph with the author stating that the research and outcome was more of a hassle than expected because of how one exam looked at serial killers and violent tendencies toward maltreatment of animals stated proof found did not accomplish a convincing rational correlation instituting the precise reasons in the investigation of Tallichet, Hensliet, and Felthous. Furthermore the author's literary outcomes stated that Patterson and Piper recommend that this theory openly showed a relationship to animal brutality or it could point to hazards for vicious actions as challenging, and the hypothesis necessitates additional investigations to create the actual worthiness of the study associated with the link examined. Lastly, the references were included yet unprofessionally, and needed, as well as the entire review to be revised and fixed accordingly so the paper looks for professionally done and the reference page is on its own page with the errors not indicated because of the fragments it shows in references are still not fixed or easy to read.

Last, if you look at the language usage in the review of the articles language, and the understanding the wording was actually quite easy to follow, however the vocabulary could have been a more interesting and catching theory and examination that got readers attention on these types of topics in criminology and animal cruelty. However, this article could have been more advanced in the grammar and choice of words because it was obvious that throughout the literary analysis there was many mistakes that were obvious within just the way it was wrote because of the vocabulary was misspelled, with mechanical errors, and infrequent…… [read more]

Armstrong, Tim. ) Hardy, Thaxter, and History Annotated Bibliography

… Armstrong, Tim. (1992) Hardy, Thaxter, and history as coincidence in "The Convergence of the Twain." Victorian Poetry, 30 (1): 29.

One way of viewing the tragedy of the Titanic is to see it as a tragedy of fate. However, Tim Armstrong sees Thomas Hardy's famous occasional poem "The Convergence of the Twain"

on the sinking of the Titanic as a depiction of the coincidental and impartial nature of the forces of history. Although the sinking of the Titanic is ironic, it is not necessarily inevitable. It is an example of the arbitrary nature of the forces at play in the world. To view the sinking as punishment by God is to deny the predominant view of nature in most of Hardy's poetry -- nature is not judgmental, but it is cool and impartial, despite humanity's attempts to rise above its strictures.

Dean, Sarah. (2001) Human fallibility in Thomas Hardy's "Convergence of the Twain"

The Victorian Web. Retrieved August 1, 2011 at

Sarah Dean's essay on Thomas Hardy's "Convergence of the Twain" analyzes how Hardy uses the structure of the poem and a series of comparisons and contrasts to convey his feelings about the construction of the Titanic as an act of human folly, The first five stanzas contrast the images of the sunken ship under the water with images of the ship during its intact glory. Dean analyzes how seemingly arbitrary or overly ornate words such as 'salamandrine fires' are quite deliberately chosen by Hardy. In folklore, salamanders could survive fires. But, Hardy says in the final stanzas, as the ship grew in clout, immensity and power, the iceberg it would run against was also growing. Hardy's poem uses the Titanic as a symbol of Britain's inflated self-importance in the world, and to condemn its…… [read more]

English Lit an Analysis of Elizabethan Essay

… English Lit

An Analysis of Elizabethan and Jacobean Literature

Elizabeth I's "Golden Speech" unwittingly defines the age in which she ruled -- and it defines it just as the Pharisees defined the Jewish opposition to Christ: by hypocrisy. Elizabeth's speech delivered in 1601 before the Commons is full of self-love and flattery, of flowery prose -- as was ordinary -- and exaggerated sentiment. Her definition of the age is, of course, hierarchical and patristic: she speaks of the "glory" of the crown and her own "sexly weakness" (700) -- but she also defines the age and her reign in terms of religion: "I have ever used to set the last Judgment-Day before my Eyes, as so to Rule, as I shall be Judged to Answer before a higher Judge…" (700). Yet, of humility, she shows none. Her "Golden Speech" is, rather, an example of the pride with which she ruled over a country as it tore itself apart at the seams and uprooted its Catholic heritage and presided over the execution of martyrs like Edmund Campion. Elizabeth's "Golden Speech" typifies the kind of self-praise that one of Shakespeare's villains might have heaped upon himself: Elizabeth gives numerous examples of how greatly she admires and extols her own virtues: "There will never Queen sit in my Seat, with more Zeal to my country, Care for my Subjects…than My Self" or "Of My Self, I must say this, I was never any greedy scraping Grasper, nor a straight, fast-holding Prince, nor yet a Waster. My Heart was never set on Worldly Goods, but only for my Subjects Good" or "Before these Gentlemen depart into their Countries, you bring them All to Kiss My Hand" (700). If Elizabethan England could be summed up in one word, it was this: self-love masquerading as selflessness.

2. Thus, it should be no surprise to find that British Literature shifts as we move into the Jacobean era. As John Webster shows in The Duchess of Malfi, England was returning to the bloody business of the Roman theatre and the likes of Seneca. Here was a perfect reflection of the oppression and persecution that was happening in Europe and in England -- as T.S. Eliot observed in "Whispers of Immortality": "Webster was much possessed by death / And saw the skull beneath the skin." Webster, in The Duchess, gives evidence of the Jacobean emphasis on the physical world and physical relationships, as they were overwhelming society: the innocent love of the Duchess and Antonio is destroyed by the Duchess' corrupt brothers and the corrupt cardinal -- all of whom are obsessed with inheritance. The physical world, Webster shows, is full of corruption -- and it is a noble duty to point it out, as Antonio…… [read more]

Flea by John Donne Essay

… First, he introduces the metaphor that the flea now possess the life of all three of them, the flea, the girl, and the young man. And this flea represents something more than marriage between the two of them, it "is you and I" as the poet puts it. Since it was thought that sex was only appropriate in the institution of marriage, then the poet is trying to make a connection between their mingling of the blood inside the flea, and some sort of marriage connection between the two of them. If he can make the girl believe that in a way they are more than married, then she may give in to his advances. He also mentions their parents as a way to represent society and it's prohibition on premarital sex, but then mentions "we are met," indicating that inside the flea, the two of them have already mixed their blood and are together. He finishes the second stanza by stating that to kill the flea would not only be killing the flea, but also him, and the girl herself, "three sins in killing three."

In the final stanza, the girl kills the flea "purpled thy nail," but the author refers to the blood of the flea as "blood of innocence." The poet is trying to convince the girl that by killing the flea, she has shed her own blood, as well as her own innocence. If she has shed her innocence, then there is no reason why she should not engage in sexual activity with the poet. The young man then turns her actions against her as he asks what was the flea guilty of, simply acting in accordance with nature? And now that she has killed the flea, and killed part of them, are they any weaker, or lesser human beings? If she were to shed a bit more blood, then she would not be any less of a person. Donne concludes the poem with a reference to the young woman's "false fears," this alliteration is an attempt to place her unwillingness to engage in sex as her failure, her fears overcoming her. And tells her that when she finally does consent to his advances, she will find that nothing has really changed.

Donne uses a number of literary devices in his poem; first of all it is a metaphor which uses a flea to explain why a young woman should engage in sexual activity. When the flea is given human characteristics by the author, he is engaging in personification of the flea. By the use of a flea to express his love, the poet also engages in satire because fleas have nothing to do with love and are a nuisance. The poem is also full of alliteration and end rhymes which follow a distinct pattern. Overall it is a poem about how a young man attempts to seduce a young woman and his constantly changing rationale. Whatever the young woman, or the flea, does, the young… [read more]

Patterns in Literary Forms Allows Essay

… There is no right or wrong in assuming that each person has a unique interpretation of all experience. No one angle of interpretation is better than the other, but when put together in a large macrocosmic scale, it is important to highlight and contrast the differences in order to validate truths.

Walt Whitman, the transcendentalist poet of the 19th century, in his "Song of Myself" celebrates life in a relative way as opposed to the two previous examples where death and war are examined to highlight the human experience. Whitman is clearly happy with his life experiences and this poem appears as a celebration of this blessing. Whitman is very personal in this work and his unflinching adoration for the human side of life is clearly expressed in this work. True bliss exudes from this poem. The rapturous state Whitman appears to have fallen in while writing this poem is clearly laid out in his love for questioning the exterior beauty of all things. He challenges the reader to use her imagination to touch, feel, smell and visualize his experience through his words. This poem transcends time as there is no historical context that challenges many of his observations. Perhaps transcending the idea of history and literal translation is the goal of true artistic expression.

As a ballad, " The Three Ravens" injects more rhythm and musicality to this idea of imagination visualization. The rhyming scheme of this poem insists that this idea should be sung and not merely recited. As far as content, once again a metaphorical personification of ravens looking down upon the death of a human soldier. The historical context of this poem occurs 400 years ago, but the content is relative to the previous war poems of more recent times. Once again the reader is challenged to take a nonhuman position in observing its own destruction. This attempt to stimulate the imagination has the potential for great effect as the relative understanding of the reader connects with the essence of the artistic work.

In all four cases, the human experience manifests itself through the imaginative process of the written word artistically expressed. Regardless of the aesthetic, the feeling and inspiration poetry can produce necessitates its study. Comparisons of different forms is useful, not in determining an overall winner, but to reveal the true worth and virtue of each piece in its relative point in history and in its relative proximity to the reader. This transaction of ideas is the essence and culmination of empathetic human understanding of the arts as demonstrated from…… [read more]

Bread and Jam for Frances Research Paper

… ¶ … Bread and Jam for Frances


Bread and Jam for Frances is about a little badger named Frances who decides she only wants to eat bread and jam. Her parents let her have her way, using a bit of 'reverse psychology' on their daughter. Eventually Frances begins to feel sad because of the nice things other people get to eat, and she decides on her own not to eat bread and jam every day. The issues the book deals with, combined with the engaging tone of the writing, make it ideal for a literature assignment for preschool children, even if they are not capable of reading the book independently. Nonverbal, outside media, including hands-on cooking and art can be incorporated into the lesson plan.


Improving aural communication skills: asking questions of the children, such as "do you like to eat the same thing every day" can be reinforced by reading the book aloud. It is set in an 'ordinary' relatable environment children can discuss with references to their own life experiences.


The book uses visual images to introduce new words, particularly new foods.


In the book, Frances learns on her own why it is good to eat lots of different things, reinforcing the child's sense of personal mastery

Social and moral

The book deals with 'picky eating' and also shows children way the dangers of being too picky an eater in a funny way.

Aesthetic and creative development of preschool age children

Identifying with animals and using the rich language of the book to discuss issues makes the text a perfect springboard for children to draw their own pictures, either of Frances or about similar struggles at the dinner table with parents in their own lives.


Children can discuss times they have been like Frances in…… [read more]

Gilgamesh and Noah Human Beings Have Passed Article Critique

… Gilgamesh and Noah

Human beings have passed down stories throughout the ages, altering and evolving them to reflect the cultural and historical context of their reception and recitation. Perhaps the most famous of these stories is the myth of a Great Flood, most widely known to the Western world in the story of Noah and his ark, as recorded in Genesis. However, the earliest extant version of a Great Flood story is found in the ancient Mesopotamian collection of poems called the Epic of Gilgamesh, when the titular hero seeks out the lone, immortal survivor of a Great Flood so that he might attain immortality for himself. By comparing the two versions of largely the same story, one is able to see how either story reinforces the cultural hegemony of its time, with Gilgamesh's version focusing on human feats of courage and the vindictive, fluctuating nature of the gods while the Genesis version focuses on the greatness of a single god and the wickedness of humans. In short, one may read the Genesis version on the Great Flood as a kind of ideological inversion of Gilgamesh, which, in order to bolster its overall claims regarding monotheism, must present the lone god as wholly righteous and not at all vindictive in murdering the inhabitants of Earth, in turn requiring that these inhabitants be wicked and thus justifiably murdered. Thus, while Gilgamesh's futile quest for immortality which surrounds the flood story ultimately reaffirms human vitality and adventure in the face of inscrutable and uncontrollable forces, the Genesis story only serves to condemn humanity in an attempt to instill constant fear of the next great cataclysm.

Before analyzing the two stories in greater detail, it will be useful to briefly mention the portions which remain largely the same, because these are the elements which suggest the analysis in the first place. Firstly, both stories feature a male protagonist and his family (and possibly friends) building a boat and filling it with animals in order to escape a massive flood, having been told to do so by a god with foreknowledge of the flood to come. The flood comes, killing everyone on Earth save those inside the boat, and following the receding of floodwaters, a god or gods bless the inhabitants of the boat. Aside from these general details, the manner in which both Utanapishtim and Noah determine the flood has receded is strikingly similar, because both release a series of birds into the open and only decide to exit their boat once the bird does not return, having a found a place for itself on dry land. These elements constitute the common, general framework of both stories, are the details filling this framework are where either story diverges. There are numerous small differences, such as the rain falling for seven days in Gilgamesh but for forty in Genesis, but these differences do not alter the story substantially. To see the true differences between the flood story in Gilgamesh and that of Genesis, one… [read more]

Poetry Explication of Robert Lowell's Skunk Hour Essay

… ¶ … tortured loneliness of Robert Lowell's "Skunk Hour"

Robert Lowell's poem "Skunk Hour" is set during the early morning, when skunks are often seen scavenging for food. The poem evokes a mood of desolation. The poet, awake at this lonely hour because of his depression, reflects upon his place in the universe as he gazes at the skunks. The unattractive, ostracized creatures become a symbol of the poet's tortured consciousness.

The poem begins with the poet 'setting the scene' of where he lives. He apparently dwells in Maine, in a place where many aristocratic people reside for vacation. Hyperbolically, he refers to a "hermit/heiress" who buys up all of the eyesore houses to merely let them fall into disrepair, and a "summer millionaire, who seemed to leap from an L.L. Bean catalogue" who has auctioned off his boat (Lowell 1-2; 13-15). The scene then shifts to the poet as he rides in a car at night, alone and feeling disconsolate, in contrast to the initial images of wasteful, decaying privilege conjured up in the first stanzas. As he plays music on his radio, he says he can "hear/my ill-spirit sob in each blood cell,/as if my hand were at its throat," metaphorically imagining that his spirit resides in every cell of his body, and using a simile to describe himself strangling that spirit with his hands (26-28). This figurative language suggests a kind of complete yet hidden despair that is driving the poet into the night.

The most potent symbol of the poem is the skunks, which glory in the garbage, with fiery eyes. In the poet's state of alienation, they symbolize humanity -- cold, uncaring, and uncivilized as the mother skunk "jabs her wedge-head in a cup /…… [read more]

Room of One's Own -- Magical Realism Research Paper

… ¶ … Room of One's Own -- Magical Realism and the Power of Gender

A Room of One's Own is an extended essay based on a series of lectures Virginia Woolf gave at Cambridge University in 1928. It was published… [read more]

Aristophanes Acharnians, Knights, and Clouds Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:13] The reason why Aristophanes chose this sort of metamorphosis presents some clear political and social nuances. As it relates to politics this morphing reflects the common man (the farmer) coming to the realization that he does have political power… [read more]

Tim Randall Social Media Including: "Blogs, Chat Dissertation

… Tim Randall

Social media including: "blogs, chat, discussion boards, microblogs, podcasts, ratings, and social networks" (Grainger, J. 2010) are pervasive in the current global culture and economy. The advent of this ubiquitous communication medium has fundamentally changed the dynamics of interpersonal contact, but has also spread to the interaction between business and the consumer. Social Media and the Fortune 500: How the Fortune 500 uses, perceives, and measures social media as marketing tool analyzes this growing usage of social media by business in the context of both utilization and efficacy. These questions are particularly crucial when considering that "86% of marketing professionals were using social media in their marketing and communication efforts; however, 84% of respondents said they don't currently measure the ROI (return on investment) of their social media programs" (Grainger, J. 2010). In order to explicate this phenomenon, a review of the existing literature on the topic is a useful starting point.

Research Problem

The Grainger dissertation attempts to discern what "social media assets each company on the Fortune 500 employs, how Fortune 500 communication professionals perceive social media as a marketing tool, and how companies measure the effectiveness of social media marketing efforts" (Grainger, J. 2010). From the onset the author indicates that the available academic literature on social media is "scarce at best" (Grainger, J. 2010), yet the findings which are presented provide a fundamental basis of content knowledge. The literature aligns itself sufficiently with the underlying questions of social media usage, its effects, and its results. There is method to the author's selection of material, namely their use of quantitative data in defining social media. A prime example is the "Forrester Research on the digital landscape" (Grainger, J. 2010) which outlines how consumers specifically use…… [read more]

Betool Khedairi, Born in 1965 Term Paper

… This novel reflected the Dalal's journey from an innocent young girl, who was conscious of her face paralysis and used to miss her mother because she left her, who fell in love and faced hardships and realities of life at a very young age. She trusted wrong people and her whole life changed because of that mistake. Then she became independent and more responsible person as she had to support her aunt and earn money not only for herself but for her aunt and uncle as well. In the end of the novel, she is shown as an adult who had lost her innocence, and was no more afraid of her insecurities. She became the person who believed in doing what was right and helping others. The end also showed that she learned from her experiences, she did not want other children to face what she had faced. She had to discontinue her studies when her uncle was arrested, but if she was given a chance, then she would have continued her studies. She did not want anyone else to go through such difficult phases of life. Her uncle believed in doing right and she believed in these principles therefore she took that legacy forward. She did not lose her self-esteem or her belief in life and moved ahead.… [read more]

Milton and Shakespeare When Comparing Research Paper

… When comparing these works and characters in general then, one might draw various parallels between the four main characters. God and Caesar function as the dictatorial rulers who are not open to any sort of negotiation. Their rulership is of such a nature as to dictate specific rules or changes in an absolutely inflexible way. Brutus and Satan both choose to give up their positions of privilege and admiration to take what they believe to be the more desirable course of action, even while it gains them no public popularity.


In conclusion, it is clear that Milton had significant admiration for Shakespeare. In terms of his epitaph to the playwright and poet, he follows the conventions of epitaph literature at the time to indicate Shakespeare's longevity in terms of his work and his audiences. If the continued popularity of Shakespeare's work in modern creations such as film is taken into account, it appears that Milton's words have indeed proved prophetic.

When taking into account the similarities between Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" and Milton's "Paradise Lost," there are clearly several parallels between the main characters, with Caesar generally taking the role of God and Brutus that of Satan, although these roles sometimes merge in the same character in Shakespeare's case. One might therefore argue that both Milton was, either consciously or unconsciously, influenced by Shakespeare, at least when writing "Paradise Lost." Although written on religious subject matter, the politics behind the religious relationships are clear. Satan decides to betray God for many of the same reasons that Brutus does the same toe Caesar.

In general, therefore, Milton seems to have used his admiration for Shakespeare to create works that are uniquely his own, and for which he will be remembered and be immortalized in the same way as the great playwright. Milton's words live on to entertain audiences centuries after his death.


Hunter, W.B. (1986). Milton's English Poetry. Bucknell University Press

Luxon, T.H. (2008, March). The Milton Reading Room. Retrieved from:

Poetry Foundation (2011). Biography: John Milton. Retrieved from:

Textual Tapestry. (2009, Nov. 10). Comparables between Shakespeare's Julius Caesar and John Milton's Paradise Lost. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Melville and Whitman Essay

… Walt Whitman and Herman Melville are both iconic, legendary American authors with great reputations and writing portfolios, but their works are vastly different in tone, style, theme and characterization. In this paper, Whitman's story ("Crossing Brooklyn Ferry") and Herman Melville's "Bartleby, The Scrivener" -- both describing New York City and its citizens -- are reviewed and critiqued, and the interesting contrasts are noted in this investigation.

The Two Pieces of Literature in Comparison

First of all, Melville uses an unnamed narrator in his story, a man that seems very reasonable and uncomplicated (although easily frustrated when confronted with someone he doesn't understand), and Whitman's writing is first person. Readers are very sure who Whitman is and recognize his lines that are even and straightforward and interesting. For Melville's story, readers can assume that Melville has made this story entirely from whole cloth. But the narrator is very interesting and obviously well spoken. Whitman is offering readers narrative that reads more like poetry, with line after line having its own theme, and yet connected to the line preceding and the line following each line.

In Whitman's tale, readers are immediately located on the ferry with the author and readers are given characterizations of the people, descriptions of the water, the sun, the sea birds and the feel of being on the boat crossing the wide river. The Melville tale, also about New York City, takes pains to try and learn about Bartleby, but the young writer refuses to give much of anything of substance to the "elderly man" and it frustrates the narrator. What "reasonable objection" could Bartleby possibly have for not sharing something about his life? The refusal of Bartleby to give forth personal information is "unprecedented" in the narrator's mind. On the other hand, the narrator hasn't done a very good job getting into Bartleby's head; the narrator has spend a lifetime pushing things out of his consciousness that are not pleasant or comfortable, and hence the narrator is set in his ways and now that he comes face-to-face with a challenge he cannot solve, he is very frustrated and finds himself out of sorts. While all this is going on, Walt Whitman is totally (or almost totally) in sync with the people on the ferry. "Just as you feel when you look on the river and sky, so I felt," he writes. "Just as you are refres'd by the gladness of the river and the bright flow, I was refresh'd."

Basically the Melville story is lengthy and a bit tedious for a young reader, while Whitman's story has interest packed into just about every line. Melville's narrator is begging Bartleby to come forward with some information; obviously the narrator doesn't like mysteries and his whole career on Wall Street he has never asked something simple of another person and been turned down. He hates the constant refrain of Bartleby, "I would prefer not to." He begs and cajoles and all of this is out of character for him,… [read more]

Plato's Phaedo and Stc's "Christabel Essay

… But Coleridge would write a second part of the poem, in anticipation of the revised edition of Lyrical Ballads, whereupon Wordsworth suddenly rejected the poem for its Gothic and supernatural elements. As Gamer puts it "Wordsworth objected primarily to the 'extraordinary Incidents' of 'Christabel' -- a phrase that occurs both in the Preface's attack on gothic fiction and drama and in Coleridge's reviews of gothic fiction." (Gamer 125). In other words, something about the supernatural and occult element of "Christabel" seemed to Wordsworth out of harmony with his own rather placid pastoral depiction of the persistence of rural English life in the face of the industrial revolution. Yet it is also possible that Wordsworth was simply disinclined to face up to the queasy issues of sex and wickedness within the poem. Bennett's analysis of the poem focuses on the way in which Geraldine's witchcraft is a form of mind (and speech) control:

The dangers of and the desire to control speech also determine the plot of 'Christabel': Geraldine puts a spell on Christabel so that she cannot tell anyone what she has experienced: 'In the touch of this bosom there worketh a spell, / Which is lord of thy utterance' (lines ? -- ?)….Geraldine's control of voice, of other voices, is only matched by the loss of her own. Finally, Geraldine is the daughter of Lord Roland de Vaux of Triermaine, a name which allows for an aural disturbance of naming in the potential for mishearing, or mis-saying, 'Vaux' -- as 'vox ' or 'voice'. A witch, Geraldine is also embodied voice, voice personified. (Bennett 124-5)

What Bennett does not adduce in this discussion is the matter of Christabel's name. Coleridge himself was a somewhat Platonized Christian -- denominationally, he was counted as a Unitarian Universalist, one of the many "dissenting" sects to emerge in post-Restoration England, and one which denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. In that sense, Coleridge's religion sidesteps the question of whether Jesus rose from the dead -- instead, the sense of innocent victimization connects a non-divine Christ being crucified at the behest of a mob with the non-divine Abel being slain by his brother Cain. In other words, "Christabel" must automatically, visually, suggest "Christ-Abel." This puts Geraldine in the position of the evil tempter, and to a certain degree we may imagine her misshapen side to be a mark of the devil (as with witches) or of actual non-humanity. Yet the ambiguity of the word "dream" -- rather than, say, "nightmare" -- suggests that the problem here is that Geraldine offers a sort of sexual pleasure to Christabel. Dorothea Frede notes that Plato's Phaedo takes a dim view of pleasure, including sexual pleasure: she claims that in the Phaedo, "pleasure here seems to be entirely confined to the body. It is depicted as one of the encumbrances and disturbances that the body imposes on the soul as long as the soul is confined to that prison." (Frede, 435). It is ultimately the nudity and the… [read more]

Antigones Antigone Depicts the Human Essay

… Determination throughout the play is shown to be linked to hubris and proves sometimes less of a gift and more of a flaw that all characters posses. In such times the need of a hero is obviously felt and Antigine… [read more]

Canterbury Tales Is a Masterpiece of Literature Term Paper

… Canterbury Tales is a masterpiece of literature that is a reflection of English society during the 14th century. What happened was the author (Geoffrey Chaucer) wrote the work from the viewpoint of the 27 different individuals. They were on pilgrimage… [read more]

Renaissance the Word Essay

… Those that did not socialize based upon these normative perceptions of proper behavior were ostracized. This theme is continued into "403" which famously begins "Much madness is divinest Sense" (line 1). It is the societal normative that is what is wrong, not the individual who defies that norm. A few lines further down, she writes, "The starkest Madness - / 'Tis the Majority" (lines 3-4). The moral majority has the ability to discriminate and marginalize against anyone they consider Other and Dickinson is commenting about how ridiculous such a system is.

One of the more recent historical renaissances was the Harlem Renaissance which took place in Harlem, NY during the 1910s and 20s. This period was racially motivated; a group of predominantly African-American writers and artists sought to change the perception of the general population about how African-Americans thought. They also wanted to represent how difficult life is for someone who comes from their ethnic group. One of the most prolific authors of the Harlem Renaissance was Zora Neale Hurston. In her short story, "Sweat," Hurston uses several interesting techniques to tell a relatively simple story. Most obvious is the fact that Hurston uses what most white people consider the speaking patterns of African-Americans. For example, "What you throw dat whip on me like dat? You know it would skeer me -- looks just like a snake an' you knows how skeered Ah is of snakes" (1). Obviously, this vernacular is an exaggeration of the speech patterns found in the population of the area affected by slavery and so this is what they expect to see when they read about African-Americans. The purpose of the Renaissance in Harlem was to change how people thought of African-Americans and, following that, how people's thought processes could be changed.

The purpose of a Renaissance is to express a point-of-view in a way that is acceptable according to the current aesthetic rules. It is the result of dissatisfaction with outmoded forms and patterns. The three Renaissances listed here: British, American, and Harlem were all the direct result of a similar dissatisfaction and the need of the artists to find a milleiu wherein their thoughts are acceptable and agreeable.

Works Cited:

Dickeison, Emily. "303." 1862. Web. May 8, 2011.

Dickinson, Emily. "403." Web. May 8, 2011.

Hurston, Zora Neale. "Sweat." Web. May 8, 2011.

Shakespeare, William. "Sonnet 73." Web. May 8, 2011. http://www.shakespeare-

Shakespeare, William. "Sonnet 116." Web. May 8, 2011. http://www.shakespeare-… [read more]

Feminist Reading of Austen's Persuasion Research Paper

… Yet the way in which Persuasion intends to teach its female readership how to "read" situations is complicated by the fact that its own heroine has, in the past, been a mis-reader, and herself been mis-read. This seems the chief reason why Captain Harville invokes specifically literary examples as a way of explaining the nature of women. But here one of those specific aspects of Austen's literary construction which has been singled out for numerous feminist analyses becomes paramount, namely Austen's refusal to depict male conversation without a woman present. Although Austen's novels were published without the author's name on the title page, so as to disguise the gender of the author and therefore place the question of "authority" in suspension to a certain degree, a female reader might assume a female author, and likewise assume that author's veracity, if all-male society is left wholly out of the depiction. Yet the Navy, in which the various Captains of Persuasion, is undoubtedly an all-male society. Austen in Mansfield Park would notoriously make a nervous joke about anal sex between men in the navy, when Miss Crawford notes that "Certainly, my home at my uncle's brought me acquainted with a circle of admiral. Of Rears and Vices, I saw enough. Now do not be suspecting me of a pun, I entreat." (Mansfield Park 390). This indicates the degree to which Austen uses the Navy in Persuasion as a sort of metonym for homosocial bonding understood by analogy with the female variety, in which shared reading corresponds to a shared body of "knowledge" which is falsely taken as a guide to conduct. So to a certain degree, we are asked to assume that Harville and Wentworth may in fact known nothing more about women than what they might find in male writers, that they are victims of fiction as surely as women might be. In this manner, Austen manages to extend the capacity of fiction to instruct by having her protagonist recognize the limitations of such instruction, and indeed the cost of mis-reading. But the novel's conclusion suggests that happy endings are indeed possible through an act of un-reading. To this extent, the way in which the relations between Anne Elliot and Captain Wentworth resemble a modern Hollywood "comedy of remarriage," in which the mistakes of their prior relationship are allowed to be revised, is also intended to show the way in which early mis-education can be corrected. In an era when novels provided the only credible substitute for actual education for women, Austen highlights the way in which a female readership needed to be taught how to make, and correct, mistakes. Anne Elliot serves as a sort of proto-feminist critic herself, and is able to rewrite the text of her own life. This makes her, in Austen's view, both a substitute and a model for the novel's female readers.


Austen, Henry. "A Memoir of Jane Austen." A Memoir of Jane Austen and Other Family Recollections. Ed. Kathryn Sutherland. New York and… [read more]

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