"Literature / Poetry" Essays

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Apollonian and Dionysian Myth Term Paper

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¶ … Dionysian Analysis of Three Poems

The Apollonian and Dionysian dichotomy has frequently been employed as a departure point for the critical evaluation of poetic works. In the following essay, I propose using those qualities typically associated with Dionysus - that is, the integration of the self into the whole, the life and death cycle (the myth of descent… [read more]


Esperanza Rising Term Paper

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Children's Literature

The young adult novel Esperanza Rising by Pam Munoz Ryan takes place during the American Great Depression and focuses on the struggle of Mexicans trying to make a living in the United States. The book is unique in that it takes a historical look at a current event, focusing on the cultural issues of the characters as they continue to look for what can only be a more promising future.

At the center of the book is the character of Esperanza Ortega, of who can best be described as a young and spoiled American girl. The book is a coming-of-age story of a girl who has everything but suddenly has nothing and is thus forced to start over again. In the book, Esperanza grows up as part of a wealthy Mexican family. But when her father is murdered and the family home is burned to the ground, the family chooses to flee to California where they begin the very different life of a migrant worker on a labor camp.

It is in California that Esperanza begins to experience difficulty with the reality that she is no longer wealthy and now must work towards the American Dream during a time when the Dream looks to have all but disappeared. As can be surmised by the book's title, the story shows Esperanza's rising from these ashes as she meets new friends and learns to let go of her past in order to concentrate on her future. However, in doing so, she better understands the true meaning…… [read more]


Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 Term Paper

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This, of course, can be said of anyone regardless of emotional attachment, and nowhere in the poem is it said that the author loves his subject, or even knows his subject beyond this moment. Thus, the temporal relationship between author and subject cannot be determined - the poem exists, perhaps, in a wave of immediate infatuation where romantic feelings can explode upon you and the sense of the other is so blinding and all-encompassing and are also completely unrealistic, blinding, and prone to overstatement and exaggeration. This, clearly, is the case with this poem.

The tone of the poem is quite respectful and reverential. It takes an absolutely non-lascivious approach to the subject (and infatuations and attractions naturally bring up those kinds of feelings). Instead, the comparative terms used focus upon comparing the subject to the beauty of nature, the essence of summer (bright, sunny, hot, exciting, and happy), and within the context of time. What results is an even, mature, and well managed tone to the poem - no word jars, no thought is incongruent with the previous or the next. It also indicates a clear and honest awareness that the subject is not young "Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,/And often is his gold complexion dimm'd."

The speaker is clearly mature, understanding of the nature of time, and is reflective. It is almost as though he is imagining himself and the subject together on some sun-drenched hill where the subject is exposed to full view (no shadows to obscure here) and can find no faults. This can seem like an appraisal - a flattery designed to woo, but wooing rarely involves an acknowledgement of the passing of time (unless the subject herself is aware of her aging and is equally accepting of the natural process. "But thy eternal summer shall not fade / Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest:."

While Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 is often confused as a lovue poem, it is a well structured metaphorical exercise comparing the subject of the poem to a "summer's day." The point of the poem is to not only show off the writer's ability to craft both obvious and challenging metaphors, but also to exceptionally accurately indicate the subject and writer's ages and relative maturity within the context of the poem. The tone of the poem is reverential. The voice of the author is a deeply felt observation and assessment of the very nature of the subject. While this is not a true love poem, a feeling of deep attraction can be felt and, as such, the poem's strength is found in conveying all of these elements to show just how much the author appreciates the subject.

References

Shakespeare, William. "Sonnet 18." Online. Internet. Avail:

http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/18.html. Info Acc: 4…… [read more]


Dichotomy of the Apollonian and Dionysian Term Paper

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Dichotomy of the Apollonian and Dionysian

Rather than conceiving of the Apollonian and Dionysian tendencies in poetic works as based on a dichotomy, it is vital to recognize that both Apollonian and Dionysian elements come together in the process of forging poetic works. They are thus interdependent and inseparable. While this process is more evident in some poems than others, we will narrow our discussion of the Apollonian and Dionysian dichotomy to two 20th century poems - Frank O'Hara's "Homosexuality" and Stephen Dobyns's "Counterparts" - to show how a dichotomous conception of Apollo and Dionysus is rather limiting from the standpoint of literary analysis. Instead, one must take both Apollonian and Dionysian aspects into consideration when attempting to understand any self-contained work of art. In fact, only by considering the intertwining of Apollonian and Dionysian tendencies may we adequately grasp a poet's mythical conception of the universe.

At first glance, O'Hara's poem seems to have nothing whatsoever to do with the subject of homosexuality. As one penetrates below the surface of the poem, however, it becomes readily obvious that, without making any explicit references to homosexual practices, "Homosexuality" is in fact an homage to the Dionysian celebration of life that has traditionally been an integral part of the gay lifestyle. Dionysus has traditionally been aligned with the idea of joyful excess, drunken revelry, and, in art and literature, formlessness. The speaker in the poem feels unable to contain his own soul, and so he lets it drift off and intends to follow it on its unpredictable journey:

The song of an old cow is not more full of judgment than the vapors which escape one's soul when one is sick;

so I pull the shadows around me like a puff and crinkle my eyes as if at the most exquisite moment of a very long opera, and then we are off!

A without reproach and without hope that our delicate feet will touch the earth again, let alone "very soon."

The "soul" of the poem is in fact given agency via the speaker's voice. It is this imposition of form on to the apparently chaotic realm that the poem inhabits that refers to the Apollonian temperament of the poem. for, as the next line in the poem asserts in mock scientific terms: "It is the law of my own voice I shall investigate." The Dionysian is ultimately dependent on the Apollonian for making sense of emotions that would otherwise remain indecipherable were it not for the imposition or evocation of form from amongst the chaos. As the speaker of the poem concludes,…… [read more]


Civilization and Barbarism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,804 words)
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Civilization and Barbarism

The path that modern people walk, across the balanced precipice between civilized and barbarous is frequently fictionalized. For many authors and readers alike the need to remind one's self of the precarious nature of the human condition comes as a reminder of older wisdom, that of the barbarian and newer realities, those of the modern world. Modern… [read more]


Apollonian Is a Literary Concept That Utilizes Term Paper

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Apollonian is a literary concept that utilizes certain features of ancient Greek mythology within its writing or telling of a story. According to Greek mythology, Apollo was the god of the Sun, lightness, music and poetry. Apollo was also a son of Zeus. Apollo's brother was Dionysus, the god of wine, ecstasy and intoxication. In terms of these gods use in modern literature (referred to as Apollonian and Dionysian) has the intent of creating a yin-yang effect within the story or character.

Typically, the contrast of Apollo and Dionysus is used to symbolize a metaphysical principle of individuality vs. wholeness. However, such a concept of Apollonian and Dionysian as being rivaling principles is a unique literature concept and is not itself derived from Greek mythology as the ancient Greeks did not consider Apollo and Dionysus to be rivals.

According to modern philosophy and literature, Apollonian is defined as being the ideal, or dream state and is often shown through the use of such symbols and imagery as visual arts, beauty, clarity, individuality, celebration of the appearance, illusion, humans as artists, self-control, perfection, creation, and pushing the boundaries.

Many poets have adopted this ancient dichotomy into there works, allowing their poems to take on a greater meaning than can be accomplished in the page's words alone. Two examples of poets using this dichotomy include Stephen Dobyns and Frank O'Hara.

Stephen Dobyns is an American poet and novelist. His background includes a MFA from the University of Iowa and working as a writing instructor at numerous institutes of higher learning. It was at one of these schools, Syracuse University, in which Dobyns was involved in a high-profile sexual discrimination scandal. This incident has had an influence on his writing, especially as to his Dionysian characteristics.

Dobyn's poetry is best characterized by its use of extended tropes and use of the ridiculous and the absurd as methods for introducing profound mediations on such topics as love, life and the arts. At once his poetry is lowbrow and at the same time full of straightforward reason. This method of writing makes Dobyn's poetry hard to place as either Apollonian or Dionysian as it takes elements of both. As the Dionysian is more likely to use the low-brow presentation of fun and intoxication, Dobyns' overall point of his poetry is about art, love and life, all very Apollonian concepts. Thus, Dobyns' poetry can best be summarized as being Apollonian in point but Dionysian in delivery.

Dobyns' Apollonian point is further seen in the fact that his poetry is deeply personal. Typically the foundational theme is one of wonder between the contrast of the beauty and the cruelty of the world one lives in.

For example, in his poem entitled "Counterparts," Stephen Dobyns discusses the role of friends and companions as a method of extending oneself. This concept of living through counterparts, both human and natural, is a very Apollonian theme in that it goes back…… [read more]


Biography on Henry Longfellow Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (623 words)
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Longfellow Biography

Irmscher, Christoph. Longfellow Redux. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press,

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was an American literary icon when he was alive. Schoolchildren were asked to memorize his immortal poetic classic "The Song of Hiawatha" as part of their education and there was even a drink called the "Hiawatha" in memory of the Indian warrior of Longfellow's poem. While Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass struggled to sell even a few copies, Longfellow's first printing of his Indian epic was an immediate success. "Longfellow was, for a time America's, if not the world's, most widely recognized poet" writes Christoph Irmscher in his biography Longfellow Redux (11).

This book attempts to examine the cultural implications of Longfellow's legacies as a poet and American icon, showing all of Longfellow's personal and poetic imperfections while still paying tribute to what made Longfellow popular, and a popular influence on later writers. Irmscher paints a compelling picture of the 19th century popular cultural environment that produced Longfellow. While Walt Whitman wrote about the people, Longfellow's pulsating, conventional rhyme scheme combined with its strikingly unfamiliar and exotic imagery was beloved by the people (23).

A substantial portion of the book Longfellow Redux is devoted to the inspiration and creation of Longfellow's famous poem "Hiawatha." The poem was a sentimental, and to modern eyes, exotic view of Native Americans as pure people, untouched by civilization. It exemplified the Romantic nature worship of the New England Transcendentalist movement. "Unconcerned about ethnographic fact," Longfellow's poem "combined several stories shared by various tribes" (106). At best one could call the poem "cheerfully eclectic," at worst critics have noted that it copies narrative structures from Western stories of heroes, rather than native sources (107). It a celebrated native life while rendering America's original people exotic and foreign, yet familiar in a way that denied their unique traditions.

His analysis shows that although…… [read more]


Alcoholism Plea to Remember the Children Term Paper

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Alcoholism

Plea to Remember the Children -- a rhetorical analysis of an essay on alcoholism

The essay entitled "Who are the real victims of alcoholism?" uses the pathos of the family dynamic as a persuasive strategy to encourage readers to view alcoholism, and drinking to excess, not simply as a minor vice, but as a serious social issue. It argues that children of alcoholics must be treated with compassion, just as much as the alcoholics themselves. It also stresses that when alcoholics drink and destroy their lives, they destroy their children's lives in the present -- and the future. Alcoholism does not just rob the alcoholic of a good family life, it does the same to the alcoholic's children, and even robs the children of their future happiness, if the children do not receive appropriate counseling, support, and care afterwards.

The essay begins using the rhetorical strategy of the anecdote, or arguing from example. It is set in the family home of a single individual. The author is intent upon personalizing the sickness of alcoholism to encourage the reader to feel deeply about the issue. The essay is set in what should be the comfortable atmosphere of the home, but begins in an atmosphere of fear. The author's father-in-law, mercifully driven in a car by his wife so he does not at least drink and drive, demands of his son that the man give him ten dollars at two o'clock in the morning. Instead of a young boy asking his father for money, the traditional roles of fathers and son are entirely reversed. This sets the reader on edge, in preparation of what is to come.

This anecdote is used to illustrate how alcoholism is a family disease, not an individual disease, and it has lasting effects not just upon the lives and psychology of the sufferers, but of the sufferer's children. Only by understanding the family situation her family came from, writes the author, does she understand her husband's various habits and psychological "quirks" (52). But although it begins in the realm of the personal, the essay is not purely personal in its intent to persuade the reader of the suffering that alcoholism caused. Even in detailing this eviscerating anecdote from their lives, the author draws a literary connection between the experience and Molly Peacock's poem on a similar subject entitled "Say you love me" (52).

The author's identity as a writer and a consumer of literature is also subtly conveyed in his note, given that someone without such a background might draw a connection between the 2am visit with a soap opera or move of the week. It unites the personal, literary, and sociological in the connections it establishes through the use of anecdote, poem, and statistics. The author shifts to logos, or the logical element of effective persuasion, when she that it is staggering to think that, not only are there millions of alcoholics in this nation, but there are also millions of children of alcoholics --… [read more]


Othello Iago's Soliloquies in Othello (Act I.3.375-396) Term Paper

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Othello

Iago's Soliloquies in Othello (Act I.3.375-396)

Throughout the play, the only character to speak to the audience directly and intimately is the character of Iago. He speaks to the audience and discloses his true motivations for his treacherous actions in the world of the play. Shakespeare uses this literary device specifically to show the audience the true colors of Iago. In the last passage of Act 1, Act 1.3.375-396, Iago's soliloquy is a glance at his manipulative psyche, where he believes himself to be the master of the other characters. His excessive pride and deception later result in the tragic end of the play. The audience develops a strange, but special, relationship with Iago through his manic ridden soliloquies. In the end, however, Shakespeare chooses to end Iago's term as master of the play and reclaims his position as playwright from the arrogant Iago.

This passage begins with a mockery of Roderigo. "Thus do I ever make my fool my purse," (I.3.375). This line reflects back t what Iago had earlier told Roderigo, "Put money in thy purse," (I.3.339). Here Iago begins to unravel how he is manipulating Roderigo to better serve Iago's selfish and destructive purpose. Iago turns the person of Roderigo into a tool using a simile comparison to show the likeness between the role of Roderigo's money in the plot to win Desdemona, and the likeness between Roderigo's own role in Iago's larger plot to take down Othello. Iago uses repetition to further mock Roderigo. Roderigo truly becomes Iago's tool, "For I mine own gained knowledge should protane / if I would time expend with such a snipe / but for my sport and profit," (I.3.376-378). Here, one can see how Iago embodies the internal playwright of the text. He uses his role as confidant to the other characters to manipulate them into believing he has their best interest in mind, when really he plays them pawns against each other for his own goals. Iago shows the audience his dislike for Roderigo, which therefore allows the audience special access into the real world of Cypress where Iago pulls the strings, and not Othello. This passage also shows the depth of Iago's deception. As seen when he discusses Othello later in his soliloquy, Iago takes great pains to make himself the innocent confidant, when his true purpose is to destroy those who trust in him.

The middle section of this passage presents Iago's true motivations for his actions to the audience. His words towards his fellow characters of the play turn out to be much different than his real thoughts; which only the audience is clued into by Shakespeare's careful use of the soliloquy. Iago comes clean to the audience about his true motivations here. "[...] I hate the Moor, / and it is thought abroad that 'twixt my sheets / H'as done my office," (I.3.378-380), Iago reveals to the audience that he has heard rumors of his wife Emilia's infidelity with Othello. This provides further insight… [read more]


Characteristic About Hiromi Goto's Book, Chorus Term Paper

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Characteristic about Hiromi Goto's book, Chorus of Mushrooms, is the unique presentation of the immigration phenomenon, from the subjective view points of three women. Awarded the Commonwealth Writers' Prize for Best First Book in the Caribbean and Canadian Region, Chorus of Mushrooms focuses on three generations of women: the eighty-year-old Naoe, her daughter Keiko and the granddaughter Muriel. Among the numerous motifs present in the book, an increased attention should be granted to the immigration motif.

Five-year-old Naoe and her family were forced out of their home and thrown into the world in search of a new life. The need for e new life has taken Naoe to numerous towns, cities and even countries, eventually leading her to Canada at the age of sixty. The immigration motif is relevant to the Chorus of Mushrooms as it portraits the elements that define a large part of the population. Just as Naoe, most immigrants leave their houses with the hope of finding a better life. Some find it, while others don't. But what unites this large mass of immigrants is their constant longing for the places and the people they left behind, for the things they grew up with and for the things that first gave meaning to the word home. Also, similar to Naoe, most immigrants share the reticence for the new communities and their desire to preserve their roots.

This subjective presentation reveals the different positions taken by grandmother, daughter and granddaughter in relating to and accepting the new territories, cultures, language and people. The subjectivism of the novel takes the immigration phenomenon out of its demographic and political context to look at it through the eyes of those leaving their homes. The immigration statistics are translated into life experiences that define the individual. The immigration motif is presented from a subjective view point to aid the reader see the issue from a different perspective that focuses on the life experiences provided by those who felt the effects of immigration.

Subjectivity of the Immigration Motif

First of all, the immigration motif is presented from a subjective point-of-view because the book by its nature is subjective. Author Hiromi Goto was born in Japan and at the age of three, her family immigrated to Canada. The following eight years of Goto's life were spent on the west coast of British Columbia; after that, her family moved to Nanton, Alberta. Here, her father started a business of a mushroom farm, hence the title of the novel.

Then, the immigration motif is a subjective one as it is depicted through the eyes of three generations of women who emigrated from Japan to Canada. Eighty-year-old Naoe has an increased recollection of her years in Japan. She desires to maintain her memories of the Japanese culture, civilization and language alive and she is quite reticent to the foreign country's customs. Naoe's daughter Keiko has limited recollection of the Japanese culture and language, but does not desire to maintain these recollections alive. As such, she is interested… [read more]


My Critical Review of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Term Paper

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Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory

Roald Dahl famously complained that the first film version of his seminal work, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was a corruption that neutered the sting of his parable. The book is simply drawn and was intended to be in the vein of the traditional cautionary tales. The story, centering on a clearly eccentric and out-of-the-mainstream adult, presents the reader with a simple idea - that if you pursue your passion with honor, integrity, and with a clear sense of purpose, you will be successful. Were that all the book discussed, it could have been seen as a mere pro-business tract. However, given the context of the time of publication (1964) and the burgeoning counter-culture movement that would explode just three years later, it is not too hard to understand the other themes of this book - that defiance of authority gets you in serious trouble, that respect for authority, art and elders gets you rewarded, this book also could be interpreted as a pro-social tract aimed at keeping the kids of beatniks in line and brought back to the fold of the establishment. However, Dahl had no such direct intentions with this story, regardless of the social or economic implications of the work, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory stands as a testament more to the author's personal take on a child's moral tale. The first movie, however, takes many of the central elements of the book and turns them into a post-Vietnam psychedelic experience in which musical numbers, swirling and disturbing colors, and a direct focus upon a child's message packaged in a seemingly adult-centric film. These two versions of the story stand as unique entities and deserve separate reviews.

The original (a much-edited revision was published in 1973) book, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, is told in third-person narrative and is peppered with cultural idiosyncracies (such as referring to the Oompa Loompas as "black pygmies"), real-life-inspired industrial sabotage (as experienced during his own career working within the candy industry as a young adult), and of the simple economics of supply and demand - all carried out on the shoulders of little Charlie Bucket (our protagonist and "everykid"). Dahl makes nods to the standards of English literature about children - they must either be from the uppermost or lowest classes, and those characters such as Oliver Twist and Charlie Bucket must be of the honest, rarely swayed, highly and genuinely moral caste - he also focuses his work on three separate phases of childhood and adolescent development: infantilism (and the escape from it), hyper self-interest (as is demonstrated by the children in the story's dedication to their personal gluttonies at any cost), and the transition to adolescent individualism (as is described when each of the children, including Charlie, question and challenge the authority of the adults).

By painting a surreal world in which all things are edible, all things are able to be indulged in, and all "childhood" fantasies of a world made of… [read more]


Robert Frost Acquainted With the Night Term Paper

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Robert Frost's "Acquainted with the Night"

Robert Frost's poem, "Acquainted with the Night," employs a terse rima sonnet style, similar to a Shakespearean sonnet, which uses four tercets in an interlocking three-line rhyme strategy.

The first stanza of Frost's poem embraces a trinity, which has powerful spiritual and philosophical implications in all literature, especially in poetry. In this poem, Frost uses the number three to great advantage; in fact the noted poet employs three symbols that are important in every human's life. In the first line "night," arouses thoughts of darkness as juxtaposed to the preferred opposite, light. The second line offers "rain" - a pure form of water - which is of course vital to the survival of all forms of life. And in the third line the word "light," the opposite of darkness and in this context an important aspect of the poem.

Viewed philosophically, this opening stanza - and indeed the entire poem - has a certain aura of mystery about it. That is not too surprising; the author has been identified with embracing the literary tool of mystery by scholars like Keat Murray in Midwest Quarterly (Murray, 2000). Murray quotes Frost as saying, "I like anything that penetrates the mysteries. And if it penetrates straight to hell, then that's all right, too."

Were it not for the mysteries built into excellent poetry, readers' imaginations might be left in neutral. But in the case of "Acquainted with the Night," the mind has a myriad of ideas to explore and examine. But by "mysteries" this writer is not alluding to vagueness - but rather to a stimulation of the senses. An inquiry into the meaning of life and of time.

Murray believes that in this poem, Frost is "imaginatively" attempting to "penetrate the mystery of his own nature." The very first line sets an "inescapable mood," Murray writes, and induces the alert reader into a "...mythical conception of consciousness." Frost uses present-perfect tense to imply that the poet's persona has had - and still has - a close relationship with the night. Although when the reader digs further into the poem, the image of a city is presented (a city with a multitude of images and people), the first line lets the reader know there is a "lone consciousness" (Murray) that is withdrawn from normal daylight. The mystery, Murray continues, is in Frost's approach to "night." In the first line night is "ambivalent" because the poet is "somewhat detached from night" and yet at the same time the poet's persona is being drawn to night as a place where his emptiness and loneliness can be expressed.

And so, the mystery to the reader is in whether the speaker (poet) is comforted by the night or whether the poet is wallowing in desolation and the night presents a perfect venue for that morbid self-pity. Murray suggests that Frost is exploring a poetic concept that renowned psychologist Carl Jung has alluded to as "visionary." Jung meant that visionary literature provides… [read more]


Jasper Mayne's the City Match ) Term Paper

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Jasper Mayne's "The City Match" (1639) -- the relationship of the drama to the British Commonwealth and the Restoration

One of the most seismic events of British literature was the silencing of the British stage during the period of history known as the Commonwealth, when the monarchy was abolished and the Puritan Parliament was officially in control of the nation.… [read more]


Ae Housman Term Paper

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a.E. Housman

Poetry is above all a form of personal expression, and it is clear that the poet draws on his or her own experience as a source. Finding the links between the observations and expressions of a poet may not always be that easy, though a general tenor can be discerned that links to the poet's life. a.E. Housman became an important English poet in the early part of the twentieth century and expressed a degree of pessimism linked by many critics to a Romantic spirit but also reflecting aspects of the poet's life. The poem "Shot? So Quick, so Clean an Ending?" serves as one example of this pessimistic spirit and a reflection of elements from the life of the poet.

Housman experienced numerous difficulties in his life that would shape the way he viewed the world. His mother died when he was twelve, a blow that certainly contributed to his pessimism in life. He discovered he was a homosexual while he was at Oxford, and when his love for another student was rebuffed, he was devastated. He was a scholar of some ability, but he failed his final examination at Oxford. Still, he overcame this difficulty and became a professor of Latin at University College in London. He may have become convinced that he had to live without love and so became more and more reclusive, turning more to his notebooks and to the poems he wrote. He saw himself as a Latinist and avoided the literary world that celebrated his poetry. After 1911, he was professor of Latin at Cambridge and remained there almost until his death. During this time, he worked on his major scholarly effort over a thirty-year period, an annotated edition of Manilius, even though the latter wrote poetry he did not like ("A.E. Housman Biography" paras. 1-5).

The poem "Shot? So Quick, so Clean an Ending?" was written by Housman after he read about the suicide of a homosexual cadet (Reed para. 6), clearly evoking his concerns about his own homosexuality and how he reacted to it when he was younger. The poem is found in the volume a Shropshire Lad. Reed notes how Housman preferred that readers know nothing of him but only reacted to the words on the page, and his mask of being a Cambridge don of colorless propriety is shown by some biographers to be false, for the poet was actually "a homosexual wrestling with his 'curse,' an atheist, gourmet, lover of nonsense verse and devoted companion to the few people he could tolerate" (Reed para. 3).

The opening stanza of the poem suggests a degree of despair on the part of the poet as well as a sense of resentment that society makes this idea necessary. Housman writes,

Shot? so quick, so clean an ending?

Oh that was…… [read more]


Hospital Mortality and the Quality and Timeliness Term Paper

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¶ … hospital mortality and the quality and timeliness of care received in Emergency Departments. Furthermore, the purpose of this is to determine ways in which better care can be provided to patients needing emergency services in order to minimize the mortality rate. This is a valid objective, as the document states that little literature is available in the field. As a result, little evidence is available of what is needed to help patients receive the best of medical care. It is therefore clear that intensive study is necessary in this field, making this a groundbreaking study in a very necessary field. Where human lives are at stake, any attempt to reduce mortality is a worthwhile endeavor. In terms of research criteria, the objective is valid, as the field of study lends itself to much deeper investigation.

Literature Review

The author states that literature focusing on mortality rates of patients directly admitted to the ICU is limited. The Reference List is therefore not extensive, consisting of only thirteen sources. Nevertheless, the author does focus on sources that provide the most targeted information for the study concerned. Sources such as reports on ED trends and a comparative mortality study are mentioned and referenced by footnotes. The author might perhaps have mentioned the specific reports and studies by name in the document itself. Still, the available literature seems to have been thoroughly considered in terms of the objective of the study. The literature study therefore adheres to good research criteria.

Population Sampling

Being a study of mortality rates, the population sample will have to focus on patients admitted to the ICU and making use of ED services. For this study specifically, the population sample was drawn from an inner-city teaching hospital level I trauma center. Being quantitative and retrospective in nature, the study did not require a specific population sample, but rather focused on collecting data from historical patient records. The patients were not contacted for consent, as no personal identifiers were collected from these records. The records used were from the period between August 2001 and July 2003. Two years of data were therefore scrutinized in order to determine mortality rates.

In terms of research criteria, I feel the data are somewhat limited in terms of population, especially as few studies have been conducted in the field. Firstly, greater validity might be obtained from a wider area of study. More than one hospital could for example be used. Furthermore, medical records could be supplemented by an actual population sample…… [read more]


Believability in Business Research as John Kmetz Term Paper

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Believability in Business Research

As John Kmetz implies, the information explosion and concomitant technological developments have had widespread implications for believability in research. Research has become both easier and more difficult as a result of the Internet. While many sources are more easily accessible, the fact that Internet publication has become widely accessible to the public often makes it difficult to find serious, valid research resources. The question of truth has therefore become central to research in any field. The result of this in turn is that an increasing amount of literature addresses the issue of validity and 'truth' in research. In addressing this issue, it is also important to consider how important the truth issue is in research. After all, research itself is focused upon studying questions and uncertainties rather than answers. Furthermore, the research findings of yesterday are more often than not either proved untrue by current research, or indeed become the questions as a result of new findings. Perhaps then the question is rather appropriateness than truth. These issues are addressed, as mentioned, by various authors, two of which include John Kmetz and Tony Oulton. Their different approaches to assessing research sources provide the researcher with valuable insight into the process of finding and selecting the most appropriate research sources in the management field.

Kmetz emphasizes that there are several fields in the management, each with its targeted literature. The important focus here is therefore to find the source that is most appropriate for the field and purpose of research. In this, five different categories are addressed, with a consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of each. Each source also has a different level of believability according to its nature and target audience.

The first category is the popular press. Kmetz includes Internet sources in this category. The major strength of this category is that it provides the reader with the most current information regarding a topic. While many have derided the Internet for its lack of credible sources, the author mentions that those sources targeted towards academic specialties such as management tend to be based upon accurate and credible reporting. In terms of believability however, the reader should distinguish between those sources whose sole purpose is to provide information and those also advocating their particular cause. Regardless of its role, the writing for popular publications is done in a very readable manner, and is therefore easy to understand and use for research purposes.

More than a possible lack of credibility in the information provided by the popular press, is its currency. The level of currency in the popular press makes for incomplete or fragmentary information. While therefore not lacking in believability as such, believability is indeed hampered by the incompleteness of the data, and the fact that the currency of the data may reflect bias. Nevertheless, this does not mean that the information provided is as such untrue.

The second source type identified by the author is practitioner books and compendia. These are popular books in… [read more]


Lord Alfred Tennyson's the Lotos Eaters and Ulysses Term Paper

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Alfred, Lord Tennyson

Two poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson were derived from Homer, concerning different periods in the life of Ulysses (or Odysseus, in the Greek). "The Lotos-Eaters" refers to a land where this people lived and where Ulysses spent a decade or more idling away his time when he was on his way home from the Trojan War. "Ulysses"… [read more]


What Defines a Hero Term Paper

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Heroism in Literature

The word "hero" today entails a variety of meanings, depending upon the situation, the person referred to, and the mindset of the person speaking. Generally, the connotation of the word refers to somebody who performs a brave action regardless of the danger to him or herself. When examining the ancient literature from different cultures, the meaning of… [read more]


Shakespeare Sonnet William Shakespeare Registered 154 Term Paper

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Shakespeare Sonnet

William Shakespeare registered 154 of his sonnets in 1609. A number of his sonnets describe love with its heart rendering anguish and worshipful adoration. Anyone who has loved someone for a period of time, however, realizes that this form of gut-wrenching blind, romantic love does not last forever. As the relationship continues, either it dies out because the initial physical feelings and fantasies disappear and reality sets in, or the couple begins to respect and love each other for other more long-lasting reasons. As the quote by the French writer Henri De Montherlant states: "We like someone because. We love someone although." In fact, in his sonnet 130, "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun," Shakespeare uses imagery, satire and irony to demonstrate the difference between idealizing women as goddesses and recognizing what actually makes women attractive and desirable for long-term.

Although the sonnet is written in the English rhyming form of ABABCDCDE, Shakespeare's argument of comparing idealized love to actual love is expressed in either one or two lines, almost as an essay with a thesis and rationale. The idealized female in the courtly poetry of Elizabethan England was the personification of perfection. Here, however, Shakespeare makes clear through his of satirical contrasts that his beloved has many human flaws. Unlike Petrarchan love sonnets that take idealization of women as far as it can possibly go -- almost absurdly so -- as in Petrarch Sonnet 16:

Blessed may be the day, the month, the year,

And the season, the time, the hour, the point,

And the country, the place where I was joined

By two fair eyes that now have tied me here.

And blessed be the first sweet agony

That I felt in becoming bound to Love,

And the bow and the arrows piercing me

By taking this approach, therefore, Shakespeare is breaking with tradition or…… [read more]


Poet Mary Wollstonecraft Term Paper

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¶ … Mary Wollstonecraft Shelly and her works. Mary Shelley's best-known work is Frankenstein, or a Modern Prometheus, a work of fiction that has been remade into myth, film, and legend around the world. However, Shelley wrote several other works of fiction, including this daring and eye-opening novella that was suppressed during her lifetime because of its scandalous content. Mary… [read more]


Daddy by Sylvia Plath Term Paper

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Daddy by Sylvia Plath

Sylvia Plath's Daddy is a deeply personal account of coming to terms with the loss of a parent, i.e. her father, but beyond that, the poem is a reflection of the paternal symbol and its implication in Plath's life. The thesis of this paper is to illustrate that Sylvia Plath's poem, Daddy, strives at personal healing through literary imagery. Using profound and beautifully crafter imagery, the poem Daddy becomes much more than a mere account of a true-life situation, it transforms into a demonstration of the power of the human mind when confronted with its own grief, as well as its efforts to control the reason behind this intense personal suffering. There is a certain feeling of fluidity throughout the poem; the images appeared to be easily transformed, enhanced, reduced, they seem ever changing as an attempt to convey deep meanings related to themes such as personal loss, grief and self-discovery. Phrases are short, and the rhythm is rather simplistic but very insistent bordering on obsessive, becoming a kind of reflection of the inner trials and tribulations of the author (Uroff). A good example of fluid images can be found in the very beginning of the poem, when she imagines herself as a prisoner trapped just like a foot, inside her father's shoe: "You do not do, you do not do / Any more, black shoe / in which I have lived like a foot." The image slowly flows into another, which presents her father in her role, i.e."one grey toe / Big as a Frisco seal." Moreover, throughout the poem her father takes different shapes such as statue, shoe, Nazi, teacher, devil, and vampire - images which help her ritual of exorcism.

Although she starts her childhood recollection from the level of a child, i.e. with nursery rhymes - the tale of the old lady in the shoe, she moves on to making historical references that represent an opportunity to deepen and further elaborate on her rebellion against the memory of her father. In this sense, she uses images of Jews being taken off to "Dachau, Auschwitz, Belsen" during World War II and a mixture of German and English "I never could talk to you. / the tongue stuck in my jaw. It stuck in a barb wire snare. / Ich, ich, ich, ich." Her childish perspective is perhaps the most disturbing because she recalls the feeling of fear and impotence which she…… [read more]


Rudyard Kipling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,383 words)
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¶ … Rudyard Kipling. The writer takes the reader on an exploration of Kipling's life, his works, and his writing style. In addition the writer presents an interview with a person who is familiar with Kipling's work as well as four literary criticisms. There were 12 sources used to complete this paper.

Since the beginning of time authors of literature… [read more]


Whitman vs. Emerson and Transcendental Thought Term Paper

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Emerson v. Whitman

What characteristics of Transcendental thought can be seen in Walt Whitman's poetry?

One's Self I sing, a simple separate person," is the first line of Walt Whitman's poem celebrating, or so it seems, the type of individualism advocated in Ralph Waldo Emerson's Transcendentalist essay "Self-Reliance." As a poet, Whitman embodied and exhibited the ideals of "Self-Reliance," in that he disdained conventional traditions, metrical constructions, and attempted to be true to his own voice and vision. But Whitman's ideal was not a selfish ideal that denied the responsibility of the citizen to the larger collective whole of America, and Whitman was more willing than Emerson to embrace the complete picture provided by nature of the human spirit, the negative as well as the positive.

Even the complex construction of the first, apparently self-reliant phrase of the poem, demonstrates Whitman's different brand of Transcendentalism. Whitman does not say that he loves himself as a poet. Instead, he speaks of "one's self" in the abstract, a self that embodies and represents all human beings, or at least all Americans. The second line of the poem reads: "Yet utter the word Democratic, the word En-Masse." Whitman, like Emerson, celebrates the unique possibilities provided by America to create a new culture and spirit. This is along the lines of the Transcendentalist belief that the spirits of the present spoke more to the needs of America than the spirits of the past. However, Whitman's philosophy espoused a kind of collective individualism, not just the universal individualism of the poet of Emerson's writings. Whitman's poet embodied the whole: "The Female equally with the Male I sing." The ideal, for Whitman, was the "Modern Man" who was many ordinary American men, not just the best nonconformist, the Socrates or the Galileo.

Whitman's most Transcendentalist work is "When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer" in which the speaker describes himself as sickened by a technical lecture in astronomy. The poet hates sitting in the company of others, and a true Transcendentalist, he heads out alone into nature. He says he prefers to be in the "mystical moist night-air" and stare in perfect silence at the stars. The bonding with nature in an individualistic, solitary and mystical fashion is very Emersonian. But Whitman's disdain of intellectualism, even contemporary intellectualism also quite…… [read more]


Stanley Fish How to Recognize a Poem Term Paper

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Stanley Fish blurs the distinction between subject and object, between subjectivity and objectivity, in his essay "How to Recognize a Poem When You See One." Using an anecdote from his classroom, Fish notes that when students expect to be reading poetry, they begin to infer meaning and structure where there were none. These fallacies of interpretation show how human communication is a predefined, agreed-upon system. The contents of our consciousness are not as free as we would like to think, argues Fish. There is no "unconstrained self" that can freely interpret the universe. Rather, we buy into a "structure of interests and understood goals" that underlie every human interaction or communication.

Fish shows how easily and often we take for granted the inherent meanings of words or gestures. For example, he notes that when students raise their hands we automatically understand that gesture to mean permission to speak. Another culture would perceive that same gesture…… [read more]


Poetry Edna St. Vincent Millay and Gordon Parks Term Paper

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¶ … Courage that my Mother Had" by Edna St. Vincent Millay and "The Funeral" by Gordon Parks. Specifically it will discuss the literary devices the poets use to help the reader understand the subject of death and dying. Poetry is full of effective literary devices such as simile, metaphor, rhyme, and meter that help create vivid pictures in the poem and help the reader identify with the words. These two works graphically illustrate the pain of losing a loved one with their use of poetic devices and raw emotions.

Both of these poems concern death, specifically the death of a parent, which is one of the most difficult kinds of death to deal with. Millay's poem concerns the death of her mother, and she laments her lack of courage, something she wishes she had inherited from her mother. She uses simile "courage like a rock" to indicate the strength of her mother's courage, and by using figurative language, likens it to granite as well. By using these devices, she makes it quite clear she envies her mother's courage, and feels she has little of her own. He only uses twelve lines to convey these images, but they are extremely powerful and memorable because of her use of these devices. The reader feels her pain and understands her anguish and need for "courage" of her own.

Parks' poem is also about the loss of a parent, but nine lines give more information than Millay's twelve lines, if that is possible. Parks has returned home for the funeral of his father, and he notes it is after many "snows" or years away. Like most adults, he sees his hometown with fresh eyes, noting how everything looks smaller as you get older. He writes, "Raging rivers I once swam trickled now like gentle streams" (Parks). This use of simile is similar to Millay's, in that it takes something from the natural world (granite or a river) and uses a simile to describe as something completely different. They indicate how childish illusions often remain with people through adulthood, and it takes a major event, such as the death of a parent, for the truth to be understood. It also indicates how people often take their parents for granted until they are gone. Millay wants her mother's courage, but it is too late, and Parks realizes that many of his illusions of childhood are incorrect, and again, it is too late to correct any of those illusions he had about his father.

Millay also uses rhythm and rhyme to convey messages in her poem. The first and third and second and fourth lines rhyme with each other in a very common poetic rhyming pattern. Some of the lines use a little "poetic license" in their rhyming, (for example, grave with have), which shows she was also concerned with how the poem appeared on the page, as well as how it sounded when read out loud. The words look like they rhyme, and so they… [read more]


Szymborska Nobel Prize Laureate Wislawa Szymborska Comments Term Paper

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¶ … Szymborska

Nobel prize laureate Wislawa Szymborska comments on the compelling mythos of romantic love in her poem "True Love." A free-verse poem, "True Love" satirizes the saccharine romance popularized on film and television. The poet uses rhetorical questions liberally throughout the poem as if engaging the reader in a dialogue, allowing us to probe our own feelings about "true love" and romance. Szymborska's "True Love" is sublimely sarcastic and ironically sentimental. While the narrator disparages "true love," she also upholds its validity through the richness of the sardonic descriptions used in the poem. She comments on the "practicality" of love, which is inherently impractical and intangible. Using rich sarcasm and irony, Szymborska therefore encapsulates the pain of loneliness, the longing for true love.

In a manner characteristic of the phrase "thou dost protest too much," Polish poet Szymborska criticizes romance to the point where readers can taste the pain of her loss. She complains about the happy couples holding hands in a manner not unlike the embittered recipient of an unwanted break-up. In the third stanza, the narrator bitterly states, "Look at the happy couple / Couldn't they at least try to hide it, / Fake a little depression for their friends' sake?" (lines 14-16). Apparently the poet herself is one of the "friends." For the lovelorn, lovers are too painful to watch.

One of the core themes of Szymborska's poem is the irrationality of romance. She establishes this theme in the first stanza, referring to how "normal" love is in line 1 and how "practical" it might be in line 2. Notably, the poet indents the phrase "For nothing" in line 8 for both visual and semantic emphasis. Love, suggests the narrator, has no practical value. For one, "true love" denies the moral tenet that all persons are created equal, because inherent in romance is the belief that the beloved is somehow more special, more perfect, than anyone else. The narrator notes further that the joy experienced in the state of being in love should itself be more widely distributed: "The light descends from nowhere / Why on these two and not…… [read more]


Dickinson, Frost, Auden the Three Poems Share Term Paper

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Dickinson, Frost, Auden

The three poems share a common literary device: irony. In all three, the major theme seems to be human life and all three view it in an ironic way. The poems are liable to different interpretations as well, and the authors use irony in a way that could induce the reader to understand the texts in the opposite way. Thus, in all three works, irony is used with such craft that it can lead to an ambiguous reading.

Dickinson's famous poem, Because I Could not Stop for Death, seems at first glance to regard life and death with a certain detachment. Death is represented as a friend or a lover that kindly passes by the author's house, to carry her somewhere in a symbolic carriage. The irony is however obvious: the fact that the author "could not stop for death" implies that it wasn't actually her wish to die, and that death came leaving her with no choice but to follow: "Because I could not stop for Death --/He kindly stopped for me --/the Carriage held but just / Ourselves --/and Immortality."(Dickinson, 78) the situation is very ironic precisely because Dickinson speaks about the 'kindness' of death that actually stops at every man's gate to take them on a one-way journey. The fact that eternity itself seems "shorter than a day" is again ironic, since immortality seems no different than life: "Since then -- 'tis Centuries -- and yet / Feels shorter than the Day / I first surmised the Horses' / Heads / Were toward Eternity -"(Dickinson, 78)

In Frost's poem, the Road not Taken, the irony is used with the same subtlety. At first sight, the poem seems to be a testimony in favor of individuality, since the poet symbolically makes a choice between two roads, one more trodden and one less trodden: "Two roads diverged in a wood, and I -- / I took the one less traveled by, / and that has made all the difference."(Frost, 122)

However, it plainly appears that, in fact the two roads had been traveled the same: "Though as for that the passing there / Had worn them really about the same..." (Frost, 122) Thus, the poet ironically observes that,…… [read more]


Compare and Contrast of Two Short Stories Term Paper

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English Literature

The two short stories, Faulkner's a Rose for Emily and Oates' Where are you Going, Where have you Been? both deal with a common theme of violence. However, both stories use violence as a symbol, or allegory, for an actual event in history and a method to subversively make a statement on the author's point-of-view as to that event. The result is two stories that, on their face, are rather gruesome and disturbing tales that serve as a symbolic critic of modern society.

William Faulkner's a Rose for Emily was published in 1930 was unique for its first person plural point-of-view and post-modern technique of telling the story in a non-chronological order. These styles are used to emphasize the bizarre nature and randomness of the violent acts that take place.

The story is about Emily Grierson, an eccentric spinster who has a generally odd life that stems from her odd relationship with her controlling and manipulating father and with her lover, Homer Barron. Emily's eccentricities are the talk of the town and rumors of her family's mental health problems run rampant. As the stories grow and her lover presumably returns North for work, Emily isolates herself from society. Not until her death do the townspeople realize that in fact Emily has been holed upstairs in her bedroom with the corpse of homer Barron, which thus explains the permeating stench that comes from their home.

What makes this story compelling is the author's use of subtle narrative to tell the story. Everything the reader learns about Emily comes from the narrator and the town people, meaning that the reader becomes part of the local gossip. Although most of the detail of Emily's life is not directly stated, the reader is able to fill in the blanks through the gossip. For example, many readers find accept that Emily poisoned Homer with rat poison that she previously purchased. Further, the reason for her killing him is judged to because he was "not the marrying type."

On another level, this story is an allegory for the Civil War and the continuing effect it had on the relations between the North and the South. For example, when Homer says he's leaving Emily, she murders him, which is an allusion to the South's secession and the North's subsequent military action and invasion. Emily's keeping of Homer's corpse in her house is representative of the North keeping the South as part of the country when the South is both economically and morally devastated from the brutal actions of the North. Further, Emily herself is symbolic of the North's continuation of its economic exploitation of the South for decades after the war, or after the South had been "killed." This allegory makes more sense when one considers the time period this story was written, during which the South was still significantly poorer than the North as a result of…… [read more]


CT Yankee Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur Term Paper

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CT Yankee

Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court: Sustained satire in American literature

One of the most famous demonstrations of the power of knowledge and science over custom, mystery and faith is how Mark Twain's Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court is able to free himself from the Camelot prison where he is interred at the beginning of the story. He is a stranger, friendless, and ignorant of the customs of the strange land. This makes him powerless at first. However, with scientific knowledge that the inhabitants of Camelot do not have, he is able to terrify the inhabitants of Camelot, who still live in a world of superstition.

The man's knowledge saves his life, He predicts an eclipse he knows will occur and says: "I will smother the whole world in the dead blackness of midnight; I will blot out the sun, and he shall never shine again; the fruits of the earth shall rot for lack of light and warmth, and the peoples of the earth shall famish and die, to the last man" if he is not freed (Chapter 5). The knowledge of history and natural phenomenon becomes his salvation.

After this knowledge allows him to demonstrate his fearsome authority, much like a primitive sorcerer, the king commands that the former captive be clothed "like a prince" and treated like royalty (Chapter 6). Science gives even the powerless great power when people are ignorant, a lesson that lives on today. The…… [read more]


Andrei Codrescu Term Paper

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Andrei Codrescu is a writer currently living in New Orleans. He is a poet, fiction writer, and essayist who has adopted English as his medium, though he was born in Romania in 1946 end emigrated to the United States in 1966. he became a citizen in 1981. he isd well-known as a poet and essayist though his literary journal Exquisite… [read more]


Consider the Impact of the Great War on Modern Western Literature Term Paper

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¶ … Great War on Modern Western Literature

The Great War, or World War I, had a great and lasting impact not only on the history of the Western world, but particularly on the development of Western literature. The soldiers of the Great War came home as the Lost Generation. Out of the Lost Generation and the feelings of isolation and pessimism emerged some of the greatest writers of all time. Names like Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald and T.S. Eliot are icons in the Western literature cannons.

The Lost Generation is known for their trait of disillusionment, often cited as resulting from the large number of casualties of the Great War. They developed a cynical attitude towards Victorian notions of morality and optimism, instead seeing life with pessimism. This sense of disillusionment, pessimism and disdain for all things traditional is what led to the creation of the modern movement and the modern novel as we know it.

The novel and writing of the modern era focused on disrupting the novel by implementing new, literary approaches and techniques such as disjointed timelines, emancipatory metanarratives, realism and remarkable pessimism. This fact alone, more than anything, states the difference between the modern and Victorian eras: whereas the Victorian era held onto the Romantic era's use of optimism, Modernism was anything but optimistic.

Instead of portraying the "perfect Victorian" the heroes of the modern novel were often alienated, dysfunction…… [read more]


Aeneid by Virgil Is Currently the Text Term Paper

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¶ … Aeneid by Virgil is currently the text that has impressed and moved me the most for its splendid lyricism and historical import. We are currently translating the Aeneid in my Latin class, and reading the text in its original Latin brings Virgil's epic to life and makes me feel like I am touching history. The text will continue to fascinate me as I unfold it in Latin for two main reasons: first because translating the story helps me understand the context of the Trojan war and second because the story itself is exciting. As a translator what I have found most fascinating about the Aeneid is how a thousand-year old tale can apply to modern times. The Aeneid is about romance, war, and human suffering and is therefore a universal tale.

Even though the Aeneid is thousands of years old, Vergil's depiction of human nature still holds true for people of today. The universal motifs of love, jealousy, grief, anger, friendship, and fear all appear in Aeneas and his countless adventures. For instance, Dido kills herself because Aeneas left her. Aeneas pushes onward in his journey in spite of setbacks. Just like today, different groups of people are willing to fight to the death to defend their principles.

Perhaps more amazing than its content, the entire Aeneid is one long epic poem, with each line set in perfect meter and embellished with literary devices. Elements of the…… [read more]


Molly Bloom Term Paper

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Molly Bloom

How do you characterize Molly Bloom and why? How would you characterize the overall message of the piece?

The title of James Joyce's final chapter of Ulysses, "Penelope" seems bitterly ironic. In Homer's "Odyssey," Penelope was the faithful wife of the hero. But the modern Penelope Molly Bloom is the faithless wife of Leopold Bloom, and she is primarily concerned with her sexual relations with other men rather than her love for her husband. "The central parallel to Homer [in the book] is that Bloom's wife Molly -- like Penelope in Homer -- is being courted by a suitor, the dashing Blazes Boylan. In order to win her back, Bloom must negotiate twelve trials -- his Odyssey" (Barger 2001).

Even in comparison to the other stream-of-consciousness monologues of Ulysses, Molly's monologue strikes the reader as the least coherent. It has no punctuation and thus makes her seem less rational than the other characters. She is primarily defined by her rampant sexuality. Even when talking about other women, Molly can only describe them in terms of their attractiveness to the opposite sex: "suppose she was pious because no man would look at her twice," she says of one woman. Molly is common in her class, as is…… [read more]


American Themes and Americanism in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou Term Paper

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African-American Literature

The American experience is varied and includes both the good and bad aspects of American life, and both elements are reflected in American literature as well. The experience of black Americans is expressed most fully by black writers, and these expression are also reflective of aspects of American life and of the development of American society over time.… [read more]


Madame Bovary Emma Woman or Child Term Paper

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Madame Bovary: Emma, Woman or Child?

Flaubert's famous heroine Emma Bovary is one of the most original characters in French literature. Her story is a tragic one. She lives in a quiet, provincial town in France, and she eventually marries a village doctor, Charles Bovary. She marries him willingly enough, but simply because she ardently wants to get married. However,… [read more]


Never Let Me Go Term Paper

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¶ … carer" and "donation" mean in this novel is revealed slowly. The way the characters treat these words and various other ideas in the course of the novel suggests to the reader that something is wrong behind the normal world that is shown, though it is not clear for most of the novel what that might be. It is… [read more]


White Heron Term Paper

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White Heron - Sarah Orne Jewett

This is a story with several important themes, and one of them is pastoral innocence coming into contact and into conflict with the loss of innocence in a modern, industrial world. The tone, conflict and character development in this story follows along the lines of what is known as American literary realism; indeed, realism… [read more]


Liberal Arts Ways of Knowing Term Paper

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¶ … Tobias Wolff disagrees with others who say that studying the humanities is losing favor. He says, given the concerns of people today, it is even more important to study literature. He argues: "There is a need in us for exactly what literature can give, which is a sense of who we are, beyond what data can tell us,… [read more]


Patronage System in Renaissance England Term Paper

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Patronage System in Renaissance England

Whenever modern observers review literary works from the past, there is a real danger that contemporary values and perspectives will preclude any meaningful interpretation. Likewise, without recognizing why and when many of these works were written, it is difficult it discern the rationale for their creation, making any understanding of their context all the more… [read more]


Literature the Glass Menagerie Term Paper

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¶ … Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams. The story of the Wingfield family is tragic and without hope. Laura, the daughter, walks with a limp and is painfully shy and afraid of the "real" world. Her brother, Tom, only wants to leave the family behind, and the mother cannot forget her past to get on with her future. The family is tragic, and the most tragic figure is Laura, whose only real enjoyment is polishing the little glass animals she collects, the "glass menagerie." Williams wrote this play in 1944, and it won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award in 1945. Laura in "The Glass Menagerie" is a tragic figure because she is so dependent upon her family and because she is desperately afraid of the outside world.

Laura is a tragic figure in this play because even her family admits she is flawed, but they do not help her deal with her fears and distress. Her brother Tom says, "Mother, you mustn't expect too much of Laura" (Williams PAGE #), which dooms her to failure and allows her to remain tragically alone throughout her life. Her family also never really faces her disability, which is the main reason she is fearful of the outside world. Her mother, Amanda, says, "Nonsense! Laura, I've told you never, never to use that word. Why, you're not crippled you just have a little defect - hardly noticeable, even!" (Williams PAGE #). These things combine to support Laura's fears and insecurities, rather than helping her to overcome them and live a full, rich life. Her family is flawed, as well, because they are so concerned with themselves, they cannot take the time to help Laura discover who she is and make a life of her own. Tom only wants to leave home to get out from under his controlling mother's thumb and the mother only wants to control her children's lives because she has no control over her own.

Laura's life is especially tragic because she is so alone and so afraid of the outside world. Amanda forces her into uncomfortable situations and then watches her fail, such as the episode with the "gentleman caller" and the secretarial school that Laura simply could not attend. Her mother says, "Fifty dollars' tuition, all of our plans - my hopes and ambitions for you - just gone up the spout, just gone up the spout like that" (Williams PAGE #). Amanda thinks she is helping Laura, but in reality, she is just reinforcing her control over her daughter. She does not consult Laura, and when she does, she does not listen to her objections. She makes Laura even more dependent when she fails, because it proves that she cannot take care of herself or survive in the outside world. In effect, she is reinforcing Laura's disability and fears, and then dismissing them. Amanda is a big part of Laura's problems and insecurities, but she would never admit it. Instead, she sets her daughter up in… [read more]