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Chinua Achebe: Imperialism in Africa Term Paper

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Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe is a compelling story of imperialism in Africa and how it tears the native people apart. The story was important to read because it shows just how English rule affected the Africans, and how their world literally "fell apart" as the white man took over their land and their culture. The story is a sad one, and it makes the reader think about their culture, and how hard it would be to give it up or lose it to another country's aggression. The story was written in the 1970s, and takes place in what is now Nigeria. It is a poignant story filled with the folklore of the native people, their love for the natural world, and a look at how they still lived simple, uncomplicated lives that did not need interference with the white man. The author uses metaphors to show the people's familiarity with their land: "Let the kite perch and let the eagle perch too. If one says no to the other, let his wing break" (Achebe). Later, another character, Uchendu, says, "The world has no end, and what is good among one people is an abomination with others. We have albinos among us. Do you…… [read more]


Voltaire's Title Character Candide: Fool Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,066 words)
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521).

In the topsy-turvy world inhabited by Candide and his friends, almost nothing is, in fact, either as it morally should be or as it superficially appears to be. The old woman Candide and Cunegonde meet along the way, who tells them her story in Chapters 11 and 12, turns out to be "the daughter of Pope Urban the Tenth" (p. 535). Later on, Candide, still sincerely in love, asks Don Fernando, the Governor of Buenos Aires, to marry him and Cunegonde. Instead, Cunegonde, at the old woman's coaxing, is easily persuaded to marry Don Fernando, who is, in the words of the old woman, "the greatest lord in South America, who has a really handsome moustache" (p. 540).

Finally, by Chapter 19, in which Candide and his friend Cacambo arrive in Surinam, where they also meet Martin, Candide begins to view optimism as nothing but "a mania for saying things are well when one is in hell" (p. 552).

Near the end of his globe-trotting adventures, Candide reconnects with two members of his original circle: Pangloss and Cunegonde's brother, now Baron of Thunder-Ten-Tronckh. At this point, however, both the Baron and Pangloss are working, on a Turkish chain gang, having survived (like others before them) their supposed deaths. Not surprisingly, even after all his suffering, Pangloss clings stubbornly to his old optimism.

After buying both the young Baron's and Pangloss's freedom from the Turks Candide sets out, with them, in search of Cunegonde and the old woman. When they find them, Candide sees that the once beautiful Cunegonde has grown ugly. Still, Candide buys her freedom, and the old woman's. Finally, Candide, Cunegonde, Cacambo, Pangloss, and the old woman move together to a farm outside Constantinople. At first not much changes, even in this new and very different environment: "Candide, Martin, and Pangloss sometimes [still] argued over metaphysics and morals" (p. 578). Later, however, Candide encounters a hard-working farmer who lives simply, and deliberately avoids the gossip, excitement, intrigues, and the sorts of extremes so well-known to Candide and company. As the farmer tells Candide, "I never listen to the news from Constantinople; I am satisfied with sending the fruits of my garden to be sold there" (p. 580). After that, the group, convinced by Candide's description of the farmer and his life, decides to itself follow the farmer's example, through working hard to cultivating a garden of their own. That new endeavor, representing a radically different approach to life than any of them have ever taken before, leaves no extra time for the abstract speculation of their shared past. At last, having now embraced the tangible and real, Candide and his friends discover meaning and contentment in, of all things, mere hard work and the simplest of lives. From that point on springs an entirely more genuine optimism on the part of Candide and his friends.

Works Cited

Lawall, Sarah, and Maynard Mack. (Eds.). The Norton Anthology of World

Literature: 1650 to the Present, Vol. D (Pkg. 2).… [read more]


Theodore Roethke in the American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,617 words)
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"

Now the poet can take pride that he has had a hand, almost like Jesus breaking the bread and parcelling out fish, in creating new life and food from apparently nothing, except with the aid and communing with nature, through the act of planting. Although this saint of the common greenery admits that "I quail," as I "lean to beginnings, sheath-wet," as if he is afraid of the power such planting provokes in the soil, after the act of cutting and pruning. The fear of adulthood, rather than the carelessness of childhood has taken hold.

"Cuttings (Later)" is a development of an earlier poem of Roethke, not simply "My Papa's Waltz," but also a poem entitled "Cutting" where "Sticks-in-a-drowse droop over sugary loam / Their intricate stem-fur dries;" as the plants lay in an apparent slumber. "But still the delicate slips keep caxing up water;/The small cells bulge;" as the plants soak up sustenance from their environment, much in the same way that Roethke soaked up learning and sustenance as a child from his father's tutelage. "One nub of growth/Nudges a sand-clumb loose, / Pokes through a musty sheath/Its pale tendrilous horn." Roethke paints a picture in the first "Cuttings" poem of a plant striving for life, as he strove for life and teaching and affection from his father -- and upon reading all of these poems together, as a sequence of portraits of the poet's life and consciousness, the reader is granted a feeling and moving vision of the presence of awe and love and the divine even in parental relationships and in ordinary settings.

Works Cited

Roethke, Theodore. "Cuttings." 2005. http://plagiarist.com/poetry

Roethke, Theodore. "Cuttings Later." The Plagiarist: Poetry. 2005. http://plagiarist.com/poetry/4621/

Roethke, Theodore. "My Papa's Waltz." Favorite Poem Project. 2005.

http://www.favoritepoem.org/poems/roethke/waltz.html… [read more]


Elixir George Herbert's " Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,048 words)
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Elixir

George Herbert's "The Elixir"

The title of George Herbert's deceptively titled poem "The Elixir" initially suggests that the poem will have an intoxicating rather than a theological subject. But the title of the poem is actually derived from the name for the medieval science of alchemy. Alchemy was a field of ancient study that was devoted to finding the substance or the elixir that could change base metals such as lead into to precious metals such as gold. This alchemical science of the divine and all-transforming elixir becomes a metaphor in George Herbert's poem of the same title. But the poem, rather than about finding earthly riches, is really about finding the right way of belief and mentally approaching one's daily tasks. By finding the right mode of belief and thought, the commonest servant can actually dignify all his or her experiences by changing his or her base beliefs, feelings, and practices into holy ones.

The poem begins, "Teach me, my God and King, / in all things Thee to see." In other words, the poem begins by imploring God to make over the poet, or his base vision into a holy vision. The poet's voice asks that his eyes of the common day be infused with the divine when seeing all earthly things. He asks for God to be present not simply in the sacred spheres specifically designated as God's place as church, but in all places where he dwells, and in all things that he does. "And what I do in anything/to do it as for Thee." Let me, the poet asks, do God's bidding not simply in the pulpit, but make even the mundane actions of the base world, through divine alchemy, into acts of worship.

The poet thus wishes to proceed through life so that simply seeing a neighbor on the street and smiling to that neighbor becomes a divine act, because the poet sees the divine presence in his neighbor's face. Herbert makes a distinction between human and animal life and consciousness, setting humanity above mere and base nature as he begs to act, "Not rudely, as a beast, / to run into an action;" in other words, to go about action with base thoughts and feelings. Rather, "But still to make Thee prepossest, / and give it his perfection," in other words, to make perfect all Herbert does on a daily basis. Unlike beasts, humans have rational thought and God-crafted souls. Thus, Herbert wishes to use this ability to think rationally about God when in motion, so his daily motions are not the motions of a beast.

Even gazing into a mirror, a traditional act of vanity can become divine, in Herbert's view. "A man that looks on glass," or looks at himself in a mirror, may become transfixed with his own image, "On it may stay his eye;" in other words, may indulge in senseless, sensual vanity, but with the right perspective, that vision "Or it he pleaseth, through it pass," in… [read more]


Short Story of Riki Tiki Tavi by Rudyard Kipling Term Paper

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Kipling's "Rikki-tikki-tavi"

Rudyard Kipling is a spokesman for British imperialism, and though he is a rather talented writer, I found him immensely irritating in his self-assured white supremacy. This mood is not only evident in blatantly jingoistic works such as "The White Man's Burden," but even colors his most non-political writings for children. One supposes that he is not entirely at fault for this stance, as he seems to have been bred into it. Kipling was born in Bombay to colonialist parents, and spent a great deal of his life in the colonies. He spent some time as a child at a boarding school in England before returning to India and working there for a year as a newspaper editor. Subsequently he toured Burma, China, and Japan on his way back to London, where he met and married his wife. They lived together both in America and England, with frequent jaunts to Africa. "His fame grew rapidly, and he positioned himself as the literary voice most closely associated with the imperialist tempo of the time in the United Kingdom (and, indeed, the rest of the Western world and Japan)." (Wikipedia) He eventually lost a son to the first World War, and his jingoism fell out of style in the more sober years after that conflict. He died in 1936.

Kipling was not particularly well educated, but nonetheless a talented writer. He secured the Nobel Prize for Literature and shared the Gothenburg Prize for Poetry with William Butler Yeats. He was offered many more honors, such as the post of Poet Laureate, though to his credit he realized he did not deserve such laud and rejected the offer. He is today best known for authoring the Jungle Book, Kim, and the poems 'Gunga Din,' 'If --, ' and 'The White Man's Burden.' " (Wikipedia) He is also well-known for his short stories, including Rikki-tikki-tavi. This particular short story is aimed at children and is remarkably well written, providing a metaphor of the coming of a young protector to maturity, and the other is of the noble association of white-acting natives against heathen natives in defense of good old England.

The title of this story, Rikki-tikki-tavi, is onomatopoeiatic, being the name not only of this story but of its protagonist, a mongoose which speaks in chittering sounds. The theme and setting of the story is made clear in its first line, that this is "the story of the great war that Rikki-tikki-tavi fought single-handed, through the bath-rooms of the big bungalow in Segowlee cantonment." (Kipling) Like many of Kipling's other works, it takes place in India during the Imperial period. It has a fascinating mixture of tone, alternating between simple heroic prose for children, and the rather high tones of some of its characters, such as the cobras.

The protagonist of this story, Rikki-tikki, is a mongoose which has been domesticated since youth by a colonialist family. He is both a typical animorphic figure with a primal heroic appeal, and also an… [read more]


Appalachian Poets and Their Poetic Sources Term Paper

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Appalachian Poets and Their Poetic Sources.

The land of the old South, as it filled with western souls, was refitted of its Creeks, Choctaws, and Cherokees by the transient bodies from the Northern Isles, who, having left cold, rocky, ancient homes of the past, crossed the Atlantic to find the same anew. The families of the Highlands, weary and hardened,… [read more]


Othello by Shakespeare and a Clean, Well-Lighted Place by Ernest Hemingway Term Paper

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¶ … Clean Well-Lighted Place by Ernest Hemingway and the play "Othello" by William Shakespeare. Specifically it will discuss the theme of alienation from a community. Both of these stories illustrate alienation from a community because of age or race. They are both tragic pieces, and they both involve men who have problems with the people in their lives. One drinks, and one becomes insanely jealous of those around him. They are both unhappy characters who also have an affect on the other characters in the works. Thus they show that alienation from a community is common, and it also affects more people than just those who are alienated.

In Hemingway's work, an old man sits in a bar every night and drinks, keeping the waiters later than they want to work. He is a sad old man because he is deaf, and seems to have few people who care for him. He is alienated from his community because he cannot hear, and because he has simply outlived his usefulness. Many people do not care about the old and infirm, and so they live their lives alone, with only a "clean well-lighted place" and their alcohol to console them. Some of this man's isolation is illustrated by the uncaring waiter who cannot wait for him to leave so he can go home to his wife. He is selfish and unfeeling, and makes fun of the old man to his face, knowing the old man cannot hear him. He is mean-spirited, and he represents the society and community that has turned its back on the old man, leaving him to live and drink alone.

The old waiter is more patient and understanding with the old man, because he too knows the fear of living alone that it is clear the man faces. One critic writes, "The old waiter commiserates with the suffering of the old man, who needs some brandy in a clean well-lighted cafe in order to hold at bay the demons of the night. The aging soldiers of the night need one another to survive" (Sipiora 63). Thus, the old waiter knows that he could become the old man someday, and face the same alienation from a community that the man faces today. He is more understanding, but he also has his own problems. Hemingway writes, "Nor can you stand before a bar with dignity although that is all that is provided for these hours. What did he fear? It was not a fear or dread, it was a nothing that he knew too well. It was all a nothing and a man was a nothing too" (Hemingway). The waiter fears he is nothing, just as the old man is nothing more than a bother and a pest to the young waiter. This shows again the way society and community tend to alienate the old and infirm, excluding them from the community and leaving them alone to cope and ultimately die by themselves. This is a sad story, and… [read more]


Gilgamesh and Odysseus Different Heroic Ideals Term Paper

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¶ … epic poem "Gilgamesh" and "The Odyssey" by Homer. Specifically it will discuss the heroes of the two works, Gilgamesh and Odysseus, two heroes with very different ideals. Both King Gilgamesh and Odysseus are heroes; there is no doubt about their heroic natures, their bravery, and their larger than life presence. However, they do embody very different heroic ideals,… [read more]


Drama Is the Importance Term Paper

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3. Agree or disagree that Lady Gregory was more successful at writing farce (Spreading the News) than at serious drama (The Rising of the Moon).

A successful play is one that withstands the test of time and place, and although "The Rising of the Moon" is a good play, I would have to agree Lady Gregory was more successful in writing farce than serious drama. Gregory's play "Spreading the News" is more entertaining than "The Rising of the Moon." "Spreading the News" is a highly amusing, but utterly improbable farce that Gregory executed quite successfully. Although most readers do not live in Ireland or under British law, most can still relate to the speeches in the play. When the Magistrate stops at Mrs. Tarpey's apple-cart to question her about the business of the fair, she answers with the telling comment, "What business would the people here have but to be minding each other's business?" (Gregory 41). This response foreshadows the primary action of the play, which revolves around a single misunderstood remark that spirals out of control. This type of misunderstanding is universal. Gossip is a problem in any community, and this play explores the dangers in it. By conveying a serious message through a farcical play, Lady Gregory displays her true talent.

4. If literature is "always one man's vision of the world" (Yeats, p. 389) what is Synge's vision of the world in Riders to the Sea?

"Riders to the Sea" sums up the constant struggle of the islanders against their enemy, the sea. Maurya's grief over the loss… [read more]


Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe (1749 Research Paper

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This consciousness is reflected in lines that were discovered after his death: "And so my life took its course, amid activity and enjoyment, suffering and resistance, amid the love and approval, the hatred and dislike of others. Let any man whom a like fate has befallen, find himself mirrored in mine." (Willoughby, p. 27).

Works Cited

Amrine, F. "Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von." The John Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory

and Criticism. Accessed 24 April 1995: http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/johann_wolfgang_von_goethe.html

Amrine, F. "Goethe's Science in the Twentieth Century." Goethe in the Twentieth Century.

Ed. Alexej Ugrinsky. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Goethe, John W. "Goethe and Modern Psychiatry." Goethe in the Twentieth Century. Ed.

Alexej Ugrinsky. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Kaufmann, W. From Shakespeare to Existentialism: Studies in Poetry, Religion, and Philosophy. Boston" Beacon Press, 1959.

Neuhaus, R.J. "The Liberated Lost." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public

Life. October 2000, p. 81.

Rascoe, B. Titans of Literature: From Homer to the Present. New York G.P. Putnam's

Sons, 1932.

Smith, P.D. "German Literature and the Scientific World-View in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries." Journal of European Studies. Vol. 27:4, p. 389 ff.

Vietor, K. Goethe: The Thinker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950.

Vincent, D. "Eugene L. Stelzig, the Romantic Subject in Autobiography: Rousseau and Goethe." Biography. Vol. 26:3, p. 479 ff.

Willoughby, L.A. "Goethe -- The Man." Goethe on Human Creativeness, and other Goethe

Essays. Ed. Rolf King, Associated Ed. Calvin Brown, & Erich…… [read more]


Investigating the Butterfly Effect Term Paper

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¶ … Dream of the Red Chamber

Among the diverse themes of this novel are the meaning of jade, of stone, of love, and the imagery that jade and stone offer, based on the authors' view of Chinese religion (Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism), Chinese society and culture. And one of the early and main themes, and certainly a central theme… [read more]


Origin and Appeal of Drama Term Paper

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When a drama is staged in a theater with an audience, the audience pretends that what is happening on stage is real and forgets that the action is not real. This is called the willing suspension of disbelief. The play allows the audience members to feel what it is like "to be another person or in a situation that we would not normally encounter such as, being a general in a war" (Drama: Definition and much more web site). Thus, the audience members participate in the action and learn from it. By entering into the world of another person, and seeing it from someone else's point-of-view, the audience members gain understanding. Audience members forget their own identities and problems, as they immerse themselves in the problems and conflicts of the drama. Drama is a safe way to gain vicarious experience and broaden perceptions of the world. It can also be very entertaining.

Drama is a form of play. When children play, they use their imaginations to pretend they are someone else, and then they act out new ways of doing things and new situations. Usually, they make up the interactions as they go along, and they learn about themselves and others as they play. Most people stop playing as they get older, however, and for many adults it gets harder and harder to use their own imaginations. Drama is a way for adults to recapture the world of their imaginations. In a socially acceptable manner, in a theater watching the actors on stage, they can once again try out new situations, attempt to solve new problems, and "be" somebody else for awhile (Drama: Definition and Much More web site).

Bibliography

"Drama: Definition" and Much More From Answers.com:

http://www.answers.com/topic/drama?hl=theatrical& hl=plays 'Ancient Drama":

http://www.geocities.com/broadway/balcony/7634/ancient_drama.htm?200517

'Theatre History Thru Renaissance"

http://www.selu.edu/Academics/Faculty/cfrederic/TheatreHistoryThruRenaissance.htm… [read more]


Hamlet Many Consider Shakespeare Term Paper

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The scenes are interchangeably diversified with happiness and sadness: the happiness includes judicious and instructive observations, and the sadness or "solemnity not strained by poetical violence above the natural sentiments of man" (Johnson pp). One example is found in Claudius' speech "Have we, as 'twere with a defeated joy, With an auspicious and a dropping eye, With mirth in funeral and with dirge in marriage" (Shakespeare I ii).

New characters appear in continual succession, demonstrating various forms of life and particular modes of conversation (Johnson pp). Johnson remarks that Hamlet's 'pretend madness' causes much mirth, while the mournful distraction of Ophelia fills the heart with tenderness (Johnson pp). Moreover, every character produces the effect intended, from the "apparition that in the first act chills the blood with horror, to the fop in the last, that exposes affectation to just contempt" (Johnson pp). For the most part, the action is in continual progression, however, there are some scenes, according to Johnson, that neither forward, nor retard it (Johnson pp). There appears to be no adequate cause of Hamlet's feigned madness, for he does nothing that he might not have done with the reputation of sanity (Johnson pp).

T.S. Eliot wrote that Shakespeare's "Hamlet" was more puzzling and more disquieting than any of his plays, and of all his plays, it was the longest and "possibly the one on which Shakespeare spent most pains," yet left in it superfluous and inconsistent scenes which even hasty revision should have noticed (Eliot pp). Eliot believed that more people have thought of "Hamlet" as a work of art because they found it interesting, than the fact that they found it interesting because it was a work of art (Eliot pp).

Eliot believed that the "guilt of a mother' could not be handled the same way in which Shakespeare handled "the suspicion of Othello, the infatuation of Antony, or the pride of Coriolanus," for then the subject might have expanded into a tragedy like these, "intelligible, self-complete, in the sunlight" (Eliot pp).

O God! A beast that wants discourse of reason,

Would have mourn'd longer, -- married with mine uncle,

My father's brother; but no more like my father

Than I to Hercules: within a month;

Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tears

Had left the flushing in her galled eyes,

She married: -- O, most wicked speed, to post

With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!

(Shakespeare I ii).

According to Eliot, Hamlet, like the sonnets, is filled with "stuff" that the writer could not drag to light, contemplate, or manipulate into art (Eliot pp). And as one searches for this feeling, one finds it, as in the sonnets, "very difficult to localize" (Eliot pp). It cannot be pointed to in the speeches, and upon examination of the two famous soliloquies, one sees the versification of Shakespeare (Eliot pp). According to Eliot, Shakespeare's Hamlet is not found in the action or in any of the quotations, but in an 'unmistakable tone" (Eliot pp).

Work Cited… [read more]


Walcott Translating Derek Term Paper

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Mythology, family, and dominance all are part of the narrative play in "Ti-Jean and his Brothers."

The purpose of translation is to make the themes and language of one author, one part of history, and/pr one region of the world comprehensible and relevant to other areas of the world, who do not share the common language or who wish to make that language part of their own contemporary argot. Thus, the psychologically dense plays of the 19th century Russian author Chekhov have been translated into the sparse yet tense and pitched punctuated vocabulary of words of the American translator David Mamet in works such as "Three Sisters." The transcendent themes of class conflict were not simply pertinent to John Gay's "The Beggar's Opera" in English -- they were also rendered into German words and songs in "Threepenny Opera" in the 20th century by the German Author Bertold Brecht. And one of the British poet Ted Hugh's last works was to translate the French dramatist Racine's "Phaedra" and "Britannicus" into English. Racine was a poet and so was Hughes, and the obsessions of the 20th century British author Hughes with mythology and dense language were well suited to the words of Racine, even though Racine lived many years before Hughes was born.

Thus play "Ti-Jean and his Brothers" is particularly relevant to the Spanish-speaking people of Venezuela, given the many varieties of ethnicities (such as native, Spanish, and Hispanic) dwelling in that nation, and the plurality of cultures represented by the diversity all of its inhabitants. St. Lucia, Walcott's home island, was a French island before it became a British one; thus French phrases and French Creole are part of the language of St. Lucia -- as is the concern about hammering out an equitable and multiethnic society through the use of language that can be achieved through the re-envisioning of the play in the language and setting of another colonized…… [read more]


Explication of Poems With Concentration on Yeats Political Changes Term Paper

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W.B. Yeats

William Butler Yeats is one of the most acclaimed poets of the 20th Century. His works span a range of emotions and contexts. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate Yeats' passion along with his politics, his political changes, within the context of a select number of poems. Let us begin our discussion with a brief description… [read more]


William Faulkner: Barn Burning Term Paper

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William Faulkner: Barn Burning

Although William Faulkner stood less than 5'6" tall, he is considered a giant among American writers. Although he never graduated from high school, did not earn a college degree, and grew up in the poorest state in the union, he accomplished a great deal. He became a Nobel Prize winner, a novelist, short story writer, and… [read more]


Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell Term Paper

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¶ … Coy Mistress" by Andrew Marvell and "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T.S. Eliot. Specifically, it will examine the approaches to love and courtship in the poems. Both these poems discuss love and but in very different ways. Marvell's work is incredibly romantic and loving, while Eliot's work is darker and more difficult to understand. Clearly, love means very different things to these two poets, and that is why they approach it with such diverse results. Reading these poems helps show that while a theme can be universal, how a poet writes about it can be very personal and unique.

Love and courtship are very common themes in poetry, and these two poems show just how differently two poets can view the same subject. Marvell's poem is lush and romantic, and everything most people would think of when they think of a romantic poem about love and courtship. He writes, "My vegetable love should grow / Vaster than empires, and more slow; / An hundred years should go to praise / Thine eyes and on thy forehead gaze; / Two hundred to adore each breast, / But thirty thousand to the rest;" (Marvell). In contrast, Eliot's verse is about a man nearing the end of his life, and there seems little romantic or lovely about it. He looks back on his life, what it all meant and tries to make sense of it.

However, there are some memories of love and women he has loved. Eliot writes, "And I have known the arms already, known them all -- / Arms that are braceleted and white and bare / [But in the lamplight, downed with light brown hair!] / It is perfume from a dress / That makes me so digress? / Arms that lie along a table, or wrap about a shawl" (Eliot). He remembers the women in his life fondly, and he remembers their perfume, their graceful arms, and their actions. He is a man looking back with sentimental fondness on the women he knew and loved, while Marvell's poem shows a man who is not looking back at all, but is right in the middle of falling in love with his "coy mistress." That is perhaps the biggest difference between these two poems. One is about a man who has loved and knows the joys and pain of love, while the other is about a man who is right in the middle of love, and is only experiencing the joy and the wonder it brings, especially when it is new and exciting.

It is clear the two men in the poems have quite different approaches to love and courtship too. Marvel's characters is impetuous and eager to explore his mistress and their love before they die, while Eliot's character is much more relaxed and at home with his love. He speaks of waking up next to his love in the afternoon. Eliot writes, "And the afternoon, the evening, sleeps so peacefully! / Smoothed by… [read more]


Sonnet Term Paper

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Sonnet

In general the term 'sonnet' in literature refers to "A lyric poem of fourteen lines, following one or another of several set rhyme-schemes." (THE SONNET)

The consensus is that the word sonnet comes from the Italian sonetto, which means liitle sound. The sonnetto was "...originally a poem recited with sound, that is, with a musical accompaniment, a short poem of the rispetto kind, sung to the strains of lute or mandolin." (Sharp W)

There are three main sonnet forms that are most commonly identified in literary studies. These are the Petrarchan, Shakespearean and Spenserian sonnet forms The Petrarchan sonnet is also known as the Italian sonnet and was named after Petrarch, the Italian poet. The structure of this sonnet form comprises an octet and a sestet. The octave contains two quatrains (stanzas of four lines) with an abbba rhyme scheme.. There is also a " volta" or change between the octave and the sestet. This refers to a change in the viewpoint, tone or subject matter of the sonnet. The sestet, or second division, consists of six lines, rhyming cdecde, cdccdc, or cdedce. This division is not only structural but also important in terms of the overall artistic flow and integrity of the poem.

The octave bears the burden; a doubt, a problem, a reflection, a query, an historical statement, a cry of indignation or desire, a Vision of the ideal The sestet eases the load, resolves the problem or doubt, answers the query, solaces the yearning, realizes the vision."

Sonnet Structure)

The Petrarchan was to develop into a major form of love poetry.

The Italian sonnet was well established by 1200 and by 1500 it was being adapted by Shakespeare, among others, to create the English or Shakespearean sonnet. The structure of the English sonnet comprises three quatrains with a final couplet in iambic pentameter. The rhyme scheme is usually abab cdcd efef gg. This sonnet form has four divisions: three quatrains and a rhymed couplet. The concluding couplet usually provides a form of commentary…… [read more]


Things Fall Apart Chinua Achebe Term Paper

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The disruption is in fact caused by the missionaries that arrive in Nigeria, and the protagonist of the novel, Okonkwo, who returns after a brief seven-year exile, to Nigeria, finds that his village is almost unrecognizable, and he is amazed at all the various changes that have taken place in Nigeria and also in his tribe of Igbo people, just… [read more]


Saikaku, Pushkin and El Saadawi Term Paper

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Justice, within such circumstances, is ambiguous. Arguably, since Hermann likely contributed to the old Countess's death, he should not be rewarded by successfully executing her secret and growing rich. He is not. It seems harsh justice that Hermann should go mad (except, perhaps, as an ironic replacement for his over-rational approach to life). In terms of human concepts of justice, one could reasonably wonder rather or not it is indeed just, early on in the story, for the Countess to insist on keeping her lucrative gambling secret, when others (including her grandson) might have also benefited from it. It might also have been unjust, considering the Countess's own, earlier, chronic card-playing compulsion, that she herself was ever told the secret, instead of being forced, as most would be in similar circumstances, to simply sweat out her losses.

If justice indeed exists (and the question of whether it exists is never answered in this story) Pushkin implies in "The Queen of Spades" that it is up to fate, rather than human beings, to either understand, recognize, or dispense it.

In a more contemporary short story "In Camera" [trans. "In Closed Session"] (p. 2999), by Egyptian author Nawal El Saadawi, justice appears similarly mysterious and elusive. A young woman, described by the judge hearing charges brought by the government against her, as "This student, who is not yet twenty years old" (p. 3002), is on trial, at first in open court (later in closed session) for allegedly referring "to Him, whom God protect to lead this noble nation all his life [i.e., the King of this nation], as 'stupid'" (El Saadawi).

In general (at least, traditionally speaking) the idea of justice includes presumption of innocence until proven guilty. However, this young woman, Leila Al Fargani, is not treated as if she might be innocent. Leila has already been raped and otherwise severely tortured by prison guards, to the point where merely sitting, as she does now, on a courtroom chair seems an immense pleasure. So traumatized is Leila, by the time she even enters court, that all around her seems more dream than reality; she sees the gray hair of her mother, which invites her to focus on more pleasant memories. She wonders if her father, who has been ill lately, is also present. She cannot be sure, of this or anything. She has been so physically injured and psychologically traumatized, while merely awaiting trial that she cannot now think or… [read more]


William Faulkner a Renowned Novelist Term Paper

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After the death of her father, when Emily was free to choose and do what she willed, she came in contact with a man who Faulkner has named Homer Barron. Mentally immature, Emily clung onto him and fell deeply in love with him. The whole town was aware of their affair and wondered if they were already married to each… [read more]


Irony in "Soldier's Home Term Paper

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" At the end of the poem the narrator comments that the saying is "the old Lie." In other words, it is not true.

Instead of merely telling the reader that war is a terrible thing, not sweet or decorous, the poet creates a setting by describing the physical world of the battlefield in World War I -- maybe in… [read more]


Iliad an Example of Oral Poetic Techniques Term Paper

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Iliad

An example of oral poetic techniques: "The Iliad" Book

Because to modern eyes, Homer's "Iliad" has been passed down to contemporary audience as a book that is seemingly 'written' and of a seamless and unified authorship, apparently composed at a fixed point in time, it is easy to forget that the poetic epic work "Iliad" was once transmitted to its audience as a work of oral poetry. It was a cultural myth as well as a text, and it changed and evolved in its telling, as well as deployed certain stock phrases, scenes, and characters to enable the original narrators to remember what transpired over the course of the epic poetic narrative.

The evidence of oral nature of the original form of the "Iliad "can be seen through Homer's frequent us of repeated lines and parts of lines. This is perhaps most evident in the ever-present use of formulaic phrases or tags lines to identify particular characters, as a way to highlight to Homer's listening public which person was speaking or acting. For example, in Book 7, when Athena makes her entrance into battle, she is called the daughter of the great Zeus, and her half- brother Apollo is called the son of Zeus. The reference to Zeus is a frequent label for the goddess throughout the text. Unlike in a modern novel, it is not particularly significant Athena is called the daughter of Zeus at this point in the narrative.

This tag line is not a unique name for Athena in this particular section of the work nor is the other tag lines of the other characters, mortals and gods. Hector is always great Hector, as Achilles is identified by his lineage. These tag lines are simply ways of highlighting, in a different way the character who is acting in the narrative, as well as perhaps, less significantly, relating the actors to previous events in their heritage that may not have been spoken by the poet, but are still part of a common cultural understanding and narrative as to what the story is about. After all, to Homer's audience, there was no need to…… [read more]


Wordsworth the World Term Paper

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This has been expressed in his own words as Brennan (2003) observes: "Central to Wordsworth's romanticism is the role of poetry to combat the evils of industrialization. In the "Preface" he argues that urbanization and factory life generate the need for a poetry that can strengthen and purify readers' "affections" (735). He asserts, the "increasing accumulation of men in cities" and the 11 uniformity of their occupations" not only blunt the mind's "discriminating powers" but also "reduce it to a state of almost savage torpor" (735)."

Wordsworth's ideas on nature and industrialization were expressed in a similar manner in many other poems as well. The very title of this one indicates exactly what the theme is. The abandonment of nature and acceptance of capitalism, technology and industrialization were some core issues that Wordsworth handled in this poem. He is known for having said "Because we are insensitive to the richness of Nature, we may be forfeiting our souls." (Consuming Nature)

References

1. Brennan, Matthew C. Simms, Wordsworth, and "the mysterious teachings of the natural world"; Southern Quarterly, Winter 2003

2. "Consuming Nature - Poems of William Wordsworth on Nature and Technology," available online at: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/ind_rev/voices/wordsworth.html#steamboat [Accessed 13th September 2005]… [read more]


Children's Literature a Corner Term Paper

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Another important aspect of the book is that Hattie is dealing with several issues that are common to children aged nine to twelve. This is important because it means that many readers will find the book relevant, since Hattie's concerns mirror their own. The first issue is Hattie's shyness. This aspect is first revealed where her mother says that Hattie… [read more]


Life of a "Free Artist Term Paper

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The Romantics favored innovation on the part of the free artist, again outside of society and social ties. The Classical writers stressed their ability to use old forms of poetry, to translate ancient Greek and Roman works such as Homer, and their continuity with a rationalist tradition, and to create music in a highly organized and stately style.

The artist in Romantic literature was often depicted free in nature, as nature allowed the individual to exit society and the world of other humans, allowing the artist to be truly free to create original works. In contrast, Classicism through its pictorial depiction carefully shaped gardens, its literary use of carefully shaped couplets, and its stress upon the beauty of social civilization in philosophy affirmed the beauty of humanity's cultivation and the discipline of nature for social pleasure, of which the free artist was a participant and advocate.

Works Cited

"Romanticism: Introduction to Romanticism." Adapted from A Guide to the Study of Literature: A Companion Text for Core Studies 6, Landmarks of Literature. English Department. Brooklyn College. 2005. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/rom.html… [read more]


Literary Analysis of the Road Not Taken Term Paper

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Frost's The Road Not Taken

By titling his poem "The Road Not Taken," poet Robert Frost draws the reader's attention to the realms of mystery and the unknown. On the surface, it is a delightful and lyrical tribute to individuality. The narrator "took the road less traveled by," because as he states, "it was grassy and wanted wear," (lines 19; 8). However, "The Road Not Taken" is a deceptively simple poem. Although the narrator of the poem took the road less traveled, he remains curious about the road not taken, the path that was slightly more worn and therefore easier to travel by. "That has made all the difference," he concludes, but the reader does not know why (line 20). Perhaps in taking the road less traveled the narrator has met with brambles and burrs that have made his trek through life more difficult. On the other hand, the tone of Frost's poem is cheerful and hopeful, suggesting that all roads may ultimately lead to the same place. "The Road Not Taken" demonstrates that the journey may be more important than the destination. Not once in the poem does the narrator allude to the nature of his goal or to the place that his path led. Rather, he simply longs to know what it would have been like to have made a different choice when he was at that fork in the road. Robert Frost's "The Road Not Taken" encapsulates the sense of wistfulness, of the seductive nature of missed opportunities.

Literally, "The Road Not Taken" is a poem describing a juncture on a wooded path on which "two roads diverged," (line 1). The woods are described as "yellow," meaning the season could be spring, summer, or autumn but doubtfully winter. Because the narrator later states that "I shall be telling this with a sigh / Somewhere ages and ages hence," the reader can assume that the events taking place in the poem were relatively recent in the narrator's memory (lines 16-17). He is not on his death bed wishing he had made different decisions in life. He is simply wondering what would have happened if he took the road not taken. In addition to being described as "yellow," the woods are covered with significant undergrowth and therefore the season is most likely late summer (line 5). Furthermore, the time of day is morning (line 11).

The speaker's mood by the end of the poem is wistful; he is curious about the road not taken, but not regretful. He says he was "sorry I could not travel both / And be one traveler," meaning that he comes to terms with the laws of physics and science (lines 2-3). Human beings cannot be two places at once. At the same time, he is "telling this with a sigh" because he does wish that he could have experienced both paths fully. Using the word "sigh" as well as the word "doubted" indicates that the speaker's mood borders on being melancholic and regretful… [read more]


Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare Essay

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¶ … Midsummer Night's Dream" by William Shakespeare. Specifically it will discuss how an all male cast affects three pivotal scenes and explain how this staging tactic demands that audiences respond in a particular way. This play is one of Shakespeare's most famous and most loved. It is funny, entertaining, and fanciful. Using only men in all the roles would have been common in Shakespeare's time, but today, it seems to take away from the impact and humor of the play.

Clearly, the implications and consequences of the play are different when all the cast members are one gender. Some of the passion goes out of the play, and some of the scenes may even seem ridiculous or far-fetched. Personally, the play is funny and emotional, and some of that might just seem like farce to the audience when the cast was all male. It might seem more like "The Bird Cage" or other gay films. Giving hints of femaleness may work with some of the cast, but in other scenes, giving hints may simply take away the dramatic effect and lessen the impact of the play. The femaleness of the female characters is very important to the play, but it can be overcome with actors who believe in what they are doing and deliver their lines with conviction. Tongue-in-cheek lines will ruin the entire meaning and impact of the play.

The first scene chosen is in Act I, Scene i, and this scene is pivotal because it sets the entire action of the play in motion. In this scene, Helena, who loves Demetrius, hopes to win his love back, and so she will tell him Hermia is running away with Lysander, because Demetrius loves Hermia. She says, "I will go tell him of fair Hermia's flight. / Then to the wood will he tomorrow night / Pursue her, and for this intelligence / If I have thanks, it is a dear expense" (Shakespeare 1401). This scene would be very different with only men playing the parts, for it would seem a bit ludicrous for two men to be declaring their love for each other and plotting to gain back the love of another man. One way to stage this scene to make it less silly would be to make sure the men were costumed very well, and make sure they did not play the scene "over the top" as too feminine, which could make the entire scene seem campy when it should show passion and emotion. The man playing Helena has to make her believable by making the lines seem real and the motives selfish, because she is setting the entire play in motion because she is selfish and willful. If she really loved Demetrius, she would want his happiness more than anything else would, and the actors need to use this to their advantage.

The second scene takes place in Act II, Scene i. This is the scene when Oberon first decides to use the love potion on… [read more]


Shakespeare's Play Term Paper

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Helena's opening soliloquy conveys the plight of a woman trapped between active ("masculine") and passive ("feminine") modes of desire. She clearly expresses her desire to consummate a sexual love, calling herself a "hind" who wishes to be "mated by the lion" (1.1.85-92). At the same time, she adopts a "feminine" posture: she cannot mate but only be "mated." Furthermore, as… [read more]


Poe's Assertion That the Ultimate Subject Term Paper

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¶ … Poe's assertion that the ultimate subject for a work of art is the death of a beautiful woman. Poe's assertion that death begets art is certainly appropriate for many of the greatest works of fiction and poetry. "Romeo and Juliet," "The Awakening," and even the film "Moulin Rouge" all depend on the death of a beautiful woman to… [read more]


Arthur Miller or John Steinbeck Term Paper

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In the beginning of "The House of Usher," Poe talks of "bleak walls ... vacant eye-like windows ... rank sedges ... decaying trees ... black and lurid tarn" to represent the struggle between life and death.

Poe, himself, was his own critic. He stressed matters of form while his peers worried about content. He believed that method supports meaning and… [read more]


Romantic Poetry Term Paper

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¶ … Byronic hero and human sympathy

In order to understand and explain the link between the concept of the hero in Byron's work and human sympathy one has to firstly examine the complex relationship between his Romantic ideals and the reality of the world in which he found himself. The Byronic hero is the classic ant-hero, the rebel who rails against the constraints of a society the he feels to be without meaning - but which is still human and in need of salvation. The Byronic hero is " A romantic hero that goes against and runs away from society, alienates himself and in doing so gets obtains new greatness, achieves poetic power." (Faust page)

Another view of the Byronic hero is expressed as follows."... The "anthithetically mixed" Villain-Hero. Aristocratic, suave, moody, handsome, solitary, secretive, brilliant, cynical, sexually intriguing, and nursing a secret wound... (A Glossary of Literary Gothic Terms)

Examples of the hero in the Byronic oeuvre are Childe Harold and gothic Manfred

In other words, the hero in Byron's work is the one who opposes the restraints and restrictions of society and even rejects his own conventional humanity in the search for something greater and better. At the same time we also sympathize with the suffering and tragedy of the hero figure struggling to attain meaning in a world which he is an alienated figure. It is this alienation from society in Bryon that elicits the sympathetic response in our understanding of the hero. The Byronic hero is "Extreme in all things" (Childe Harold, III, 36). The "fire / And motion of the soul" of the Byronic hero is "quenchless evermore" and "Preys upon high adventure" (III, 42). At the same time he is also isolated in his search for a greater meaning to reality.

The following points summarize the main aspects of the Byronic hero.

Rebel against social, religious custom-free, outside constraints of society (outlaw, mis-anthropist, renegade)

Loner, outcast - melancholy, brooding, withdrawn from society

Emotional honesty: seeks deeper truths

Self-destructive & destroys others, tortured by secret misery or guilt

Divided character:

warring contraries, internal & external conflicts, violent extremes

Refusal to compromise

Vengeful, vindictive, angry; brutal relationships & violent passions

Unrestrained rebellious spirits

Twin souls: union of feminine + masculine sides?

REVIEW:

General Characteristics of Literary "Romanticism")

However, an important part of Byronic artistic and poetic vision is that while he rejects the constraints and norms of conventional society his vision also encompasses sympathy for the pathos and sadness of humanity. "...unlike the angry existential philosophers who follow him some years later, Byron's existential vision is a theistic one: a vision comprised of isolation and loneliness while encompassing a compassion for humanity as a greater whole." (Holstad S.C.)

These two sides of Byron's vision can be seen in his epic poem, Don Juan. The poem explores his extreme existential anxiety and the uncertainty and trauma of being trapped as human being on this earth. While the hero is defiant he is also lonely and he… [read more]


Narrow Fellow in the Grass by Emily Dickinson Term Paper

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Narrow Fellow

Emily Dickinson's "A Narrow Fellow in the Grass:" How focused reading of the poem central image and use of the word fellow shows the uncomfortable 'fellowship' we all share, with all members of the animal kingdom

One of the most central images of Western culture and literature is that of the evil serpent who threatens and tempts humanity.… [read more]


Learning Journals in Higher Article Critique

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Methodology

The use of a qualitative methodology was effective and allowed the researcher to adequately answer the questions posed. The data were collected through an evaluation of learning journals and interviews with selected students (Langer 343). This approach to data collection allows the researcher to examine the conclusions of the assessment of the learning journals, through the in depth interviews. Using two sets of data provides greater understanding and explication of the problematic as constructed by the researcher.

Results or Findings

The valuable element of the results would be the qualitative descriptive components rather than the identified percentages. The author presented several percentages as an attempt to describe the sample behavior (Langer 344). These are not necessarily very useful since they cannot be generalized from. However the statements from the students relating to their experiences and opinions may be expanded to wider publics. The value of qualitative work is not necessarily statistical generalizability but adequate representativeness of the phenomenon.

Discussion or Implications and conclusion

The discussion and implications were bold and highly consistent with the data. The author identifies student perception and reception as key to understanding the usefulness of reflectiveness (Langer 349). The boldness is in the suggestion that established paradigms may need to be reexamined to create an improved learner experience (Langer 350). While it strikes against established protocols it is consistent with the findings of the study. It should be noted that the study did not test theory and the author could have been more reserved in his pronouncements.

Conclusion

The critique of this study was a useful experience since it entailed the employment of different cognitive skills. The article possessed excellent internal logical cohesion between the different components. Additionally, it was beneficial to observe a challenge to an established paradigm. This refreshing push into this direction suggests that new knowledge is being created. I would without hesitation recommend this article to anyone interested in the subject.

References

Langer, A.M. (2002). Reflecting on Practice: Using learning journals…… [read more]


Lesson Plan for 11th Term Paper

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Assessment

Students will write and draw in their journals. (Teacher instructs) Bring your own experience (and connotative meanings) to the story by writing in detail about what happened just before the story began. In an another paragraph write about who you think should get the baby. Who actually got the baby? Draw a picture to illustrate your part of the story (15 minutes).

Denotative/Connotative Discussion Questions

Directions: Discuss the following questions and take notes.

1. The author shows us how the characters act in only one specific situation. What sort of people do you think the man and the woman are? Why?

2. Why did the woman refuse to let the man have the baby's picture?

3. Do you think the action in the story might have gone differently if the woman had allowed the man to keep the picture of the baby? Why?

4. What do you think the author is saying about society or human nature in this story?

5. What do you think of when you think of the word popular? (Write down different connotative meanings and discuss them.) What do you think of when you think of the word mechanics? (Write down different connotative meanings and discuss them.)

6. Why did the author choose the title "Popular Mechanics" for this story? Do any of the meanings you discussed in #5 apply somehow to this story? What…… [read more]


Papa's Waltz by Theodore Roethke and Stopping Term Paper

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¶ … Papa's Waltz" by Theodore Roethke and "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" by Robert Frost. Specifically it will compare and contrast the themes, imagery, and symbolism used in the poems. Poetry can vary in style, meter, theme, and symbolism, but they all still share many common elements that are vital to all poems.

These poems seem very different on the outside, but they share many common elements. For example, the themes of the two poems seem very different. Roethke's poem is a touching childhood memory of unconditional love. The father may have problems, such as alcohol abuse, but he loves his son and shows him the unconditional love of a father, just as the son shows the unconditional love of a child. This is in direct contrast to the mother, who cannot hide her disapproval of her husband. Roethke shows this by her unsmiling face. He writes, "My mother's countenance / Could not unfrown itself" (Roethke). The poem is about love, and about the little things that make up everyday life that are so special.

Like Roethke's poem, Frost's poem shows an everyday occurrence but makes it special by noting the details and having the narrator stop and watch the silent snow for a few moments. He writes, "The only other sound's the sweep / Of easy wind and downy flake. / The woods are lovely, dark and deep" (Frost). Here, Frost uses vivid details of the landscape that are slow and quiet to contrast the busy life of the narrator who has "miles to go before I sleep" (Frost). Thus, both of these poems show real people who have real responsibilities, and that is the theme of the two poems.

They share a common theme, but also symbolize the many things that pull us apart in our lives, from disapproving mothers to "promises to keep." They symbolize the business of our lives that is in contrast to the peacefulness and security we would like to feel. They also symbolize how people cope with difficulties in their lives. The father copes by drinking and escaping into a magic world where he waltzes with his son. The narrator copes by stopping for a moment…… [read more]


Setting and Plot in Puig's and Levi Term Paper

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Setting and Plot in Puig's And Levi's Novels

In both "Kiss of the Spider Woman" by Manuel Puig and "If This Is a Man" by Primo Levi both setting and characterization help develop the plot very directly. Plot is developed through the characters tales of their lives, whether fictional or real life to help lift the characters from their oppressive… [read more]


Soldier by Rupert Brooke Term Paper

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Poetry Analysis of "The Soldier" by Rupert Brooke

The poem "The Soldier" by Rupert Brooke is a literary piece that reflects the thoughts and feelings of an individual who has offered his life for his beloved country, England: the soldier. Simply identified as the Soldier, the poem is reminiscent of the patriotism and nationalism associated with one's dedication to join the war and fight in it for the sake of his/her country. This analysis of the poem centers on the elements and techniques utilized in the poem: the theme, voice, rhyming, rhythm and imagery.

As was discussed earlier the poem was a dedication to the Soldier, the anonymous yet significant individual for Brooke's society, mainly because the Soldier represented all individuals who were willing to sacrifice their lives just to ensure that their country would be successful in their war effort. Looking into the historical in which the poem was written, it was noticeable that it was written in memory of the soldiers who will be engaging in the First World War. The great repercussions that this first ever world war that the world will be witnessing had influenced Brooke's psyche, highlighting the poet's nostalgic yet somewhat proud feeling as he offered his poem as a dedication for his patriotic fellowmen.

In order to fully express his thoughts and feelings about the First World War, Brooke used a melancholic yet stable tone as the voice of the Soldier. The poem was created with clarity and stability, which reflect the Soldier's feelings of sadness, and at the same, happiness and contentment, as he is about to embark in a dangerous yet meaningful mission for his country.

Apart from the use of melancholic yet…… [read more]


Carver Given Poet and Author Raymond Term Paper

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Carver

Given poet and author Raymond Carver's life's history, it comes as no surprise that his works consist of the raw and often severe existence of the blue collar worker, yet their innate ability to be resilient and find a way to rise above their circumstances. Born in the mill town of Clatskanie on the Columbia River in Oregon in… [read more]


Anne Bradstreet Called "Upon the Burning Essay

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¶ … Anne Bradstreet called "Upon the Burning of our House" and/or "The Flesh and the Spirit"

Like most of the movements in literature, the movements in the literary theory emerged as a response to a previous movement they didn't agree with. Being no exception, New Historicism appeared in response to New Criticism. These two are, of course like two… [read more]