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Assessment on Poetry Assessment

… ¶ … poetry? Why or not?

An absolute YES, and for various reasons. From a practical standpoint, poetry allows students to experience the language, to make connections that are otherwise not apparent, and to entertain, get children to talk about language (and not just children), and to make intellectual discoveries that are not necessarily easy. Party of being a teach is motivating children to learn -- what better way to teach reading than to use poetry? Poetry helps in other ways, too: memorization, public speaking, the ability to explain abstract thoughts, and a way to translate words into art. What better way to translate prose into images, and have the students understand and explain such (Paschen, 2005)?

What has been your response to poetry and/or the students in your charge, and what do you think influenced such responses?

Clearly, it depends on the poem, and the way it is presented. If poetry is used in regularly to help children understand the emotional response to literature, it can be an enlightening and empowering experience. For instance, using holiday poems, or poems that express a particular sense of the emotion the child is feeling, an event, etc. makes it all the more viable and robust. The real power of poetry, though, is not just reading, but actually allowing the children to write and participate in the learning experience. There are so many different types of poems that children can use to express themselves, and frankly, once they are able to visualize that they can indeed express themselves in ways that are nonsensical, deep, meaningful, emotional, etc., they are often quite comfortable using this medium to help them understand and interact/react with their world (See also: Moore, 1999).

Poetry is meant to be seen on the page AND read aloud. Choose a poem from the anthology you read for this class. First, analyze how its look on the page - its font, the layout, the illustrations that accompany it. Then read it aloud, first to yourself and then to someone else, and analyze the effect of the poem?

" your response to it - according to how it sounds. (Consider the items authors choose from on the "Lit Techniques and Elements" posted earlier in the term).

Source: Always Surprised -- Owl Started This. From Cowing, S. (1996) Fire in the Sea.

1. Page layout -- Childlike drawing of owl in brown tones with oriental script; page shows poem on right, laid out for easy reading as well as story line.

2. Illustrations -- Almost primitive, one can tell it is an owl, but the wings, for instance,…… [read more]

Element of Literature Theme or Conflict Essay

… ¶ … Conflict

The Theme of Freedom in Three Works

What is freedom and how does it arrive? This challenging question has been answered in various ways through literature as well as philosophy. It remains a stable concern for every… [read more]

Children's Literature Picture Books Allard Term Paper

… One evening she transforms her parents and her little sister for a life on the town. The book is designed for a primary level audience.

Swanson, Susan. The House in the Night. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 2008. Print.

A young… [read more]

Family:' Familial Love in Literature While Romantic Essay

… ¶ … family:' Familial love in literature

While romantic, erotic, and even platonic (friendly) love may vary in their significance across cultures, it is difficult to name a society that does not give great significance to familial love. The genetic… [read more]

Postmodernism in American Literature Death Essay

… Postmodernism in American Literature

Death of a Salesman is, a play written by Arthur Miller, can be loosely considered as postmodern literature by virtue of its being written in 1949, after World War II when most critics supposed the postmodern era began. Looking at Miller's play on a deeper level and analyzing its elements, one can see that it indeed adheres to the postmodern movement.

The play is told from the perspective of the main character, Willy Loman who is a 63-year-old salesman. Willy Loman is a rather unsuccessful salesman, only receiving small commission. He is obsessed with achieving the American Dream of being materially successful and in the process, he loses his mind. There are a few times when the play focuses on the other characters such as Biff, Happy, Linda, and Charley and the perspective shifts from Willy's point-of-view to these characters' points-of-view. These shifts in perspective are characteristic of postmodern works as Tamara Ponzo Brattoli pointed out in her article about postmodernism.

In Death of a Salesman, when the perspective shifts from Willy Loman to the other characters, time, as well as place, does not change. This is in contrast to Willy Loman's perspective where the story is discontinuous and fragmented. This is illustrated in the breaks in continuity characterized by Willy Loman's daydreams. There are shifts in time when these breaks occur. A scene starts with the present time and as the scene is disrupted by Willy Loman's daydreams wherein shifts in time occur. The present day drifts to memories from the past or to imagined conversations with other characters. Take one scene for example, when Willy comes home from an unsuccessful sales trip and he complains to his older son, Biff. When Biff and his younger brother, Happy, reminisce their adolescence, Willy engages in a daydream where he commends his sons for washing his car. In this scene, Willy's sons are shown to be young.…… [read more]

Elizabethan Love Poetry Is Laden With Themes Essay

… Elizabethan love poetry is laden with themes related to morality, such as in relation to sexual relations. Many Elizabethan poems also address morality in the general context of ethics and social grace. Morality is sometimes referred to in a political context as well. William Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 is one such poem that addresses morality within the context of politics and social norms. Sonnet #29 displays the poet's remarkable ability to convey moral meaning without being pedantic. Moreover, the sonnet reveals a secular set of morals. Alternatively, a set of religious Christian morals is addressed in Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke's Psalm 51. Simply calling her poems psalms reveals Herbert's religiosity. The poem also reads like a guilt-ridden confessional and therefore has a different tone than Shakespeare's Sonnet #29. Shakespeare and Herbert demonstrate the distinction between secular and religious moral attitudes that emerged in Elizabethan England.

One of the differences between secular and religious morality is that secular morality refers simply to being in conflict with mundane social norms, whereas religious morality refers to a state of sin. In other words, Herbert suggests that following social norms is insufficient; a person must be in tune with God. Shakespeare, on the other hand, implies that social norms define morality. For example, the narrator of Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 begins by stating he or she is "in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes," (l 1). Shakespeare's sonnet completely lacks any reference to God in the context of moral righteousness. The narrator is concerned about his or her social standing and of being an outcast but not necessarily about angering God or facing spiritual perdition. Mary Sidney Herbert, on the other hand, describes moral virtue only within the context of a relationship with God. The narrator of Herbert's Psalm 51 places moral transgression squarely within the framework of spiritual sin and implores, "wipe, O Lord, my sins from sinful me," (l 4).

Another difference between secular and religious morality is the preferred method of absolution. When the narrator of Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 seeks absolution he or she does not petition the Lord. In fact, the narrator does not seem remorseful at all. The last line of the sonnet reads, "I scorn to change my state with kings," which suggests that the narrator feels morally justified for whatever action led to his being a pariah (l 14). On the other hand, Herbert's narrator in Pslam 51 repeatedly begs the Lord for grace and forgiveness. Likewise, the narrator of Herbert's poem expresses shame in a way that the narrator of Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 does not. "My filthy fault, my faulty filthiness," is an example of how the narrator feels inherently dirty and sinful (Herbert l 9). The narrator of Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 is angry at himself but does not feel so innately sinful. For example,…… [read more]

Romantic Modern Post Modern Literature Thesis

… Romantic, Modern and Postmodern Literature

There is a great deal of debate about the demarcation points or the areas of transition between romanticism, modernism and postmodernism. On the one hand, many see the modernist movement in art and literature as… [read more]

Explication of Poetry Essay

… ¶ … Art

Elizabeth Bishop's poem, "One Art," is a study on the ironies we encounter when as we move through life. While many of us strive to be masters of our art, or talent, we rarely desire to become a master at losing things. While this may be true, the poet demonstrates how this art can be easily achieved almost on a daily basis. Bishop illustrates how the art of losing is not difficult to mater through examples in her own life. She moves from seemingly unimportant things to perhaps extremely significant things and then to extremely important personal things that she lost to prove her point.

In the fist lines of the poem, the poet introduces us to her theory, that the art of loss "isn't hard to master / so many things seem filled with the intent / to be lost that their loss is no disaster" (Bishop 1-3). These first few lines are painfully honest and ironic in that no one sets out to be a master at the art of loss - it just happens in out lives. With this notion, the poet continues in the same vein by focusing on some things that she has lost without meaning to have lost them. For example, she points out that many of us lose something every day - from keys to time when we waste an hour doing something worthless. In this respect, we can see how losing can become an art without much effort at all. The second stanza, the poet elaborates on her theory by focusing on "places, names, and where it was you meant / to travel" (8-9). By doing these things, the poet points out, one is not actually involved in so much of a disaster as the art of losing.

In the fourth stanza, the poet turns to more personal losses, as she begins speaking in first person. She begins with seemingly small items of not much interest, including her "mother's watch" (10) and moves quickly to larger more significant items, such as her "next-to-last" (11) house. It is interesting to note that the poet draws attention to things that are lost and things that simply do…… [read more]

Responding to Literature Term Paper

… ¶ … people view metaphysical poetry as contrived, but I tend to find this view flawed. The poetry is not a plot to confuse the audience, but it is more of a deeper meaning of a connection between two previously unrelated objects that the poet sees himself. Just because the reader might not understand that connection, does not mean that it is not there. I personally believe that there are some connections in metaphysical poetry which truly do work. A more obvious example of the conceits of this type of poetry as successful is in the work of George Herbert's "Easter Wings." Not only does Herbert make metaphysical connections with the words of the poem, he does so with the visual structure as well. The actual stanzas look like wings, and the rise and fall of the action coincides with the angles of the wing shape. This is a connection which brings the religious ideals into the visual frame of the reader.

John Donne's famous work "Death Be Not Proud," personifies death in a much different way than the normal idea of death as scary and fearful. In fact, Donne does the exact opposite, and strips death of all its fearful images saying that the act of taking life is not up to him, and that he is a…… [read more]

American Literature: From Colonialism to Realism Term Paper

… American Literature: From Colonialism to Realism

Some of the first American literature was authored in the Colonial period. Both European visitors and Colonists authored pamphlets and brochures explaining life in the colonies during this period. Captain John Smith is thus considered to be the first American author. Other major writers from this period include George Percy, William Penn, and John Lawson.

Central to the Colonists' concern were the religious disputes that had prompted them to re-locate to America. John Winthrop describes the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in great detail in a journal. Chief among the early American poets were Michael Wigglesworth and Anne Bradstreet.

After the Revolution, the Federalist papers - essays penned by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay - would become a classic of American political literature. Thomas Jefferson is also considered to be one of the most talented and prolific authors of this era, having penned the Declaration of Independence, Notes on the State of Virginia, and countless letters.

The post-Revolutionary period produced more than just political writing, however. It also gave birth to the first American novel - the Power of Sympathy by Hill Brown. American writers had yet to discover a distinctly American style, though. Many of the earliest American novels are heavily derivative of the Gothic style that was popular in England at this time.

It was not until the early 19th century that a distinctly American style of writing emerged in the works of such prolific authors as Edgar Allan Poe, Washington Irving, and James Fennimore Cooper. In the middle…… [read more]

American Poetry Term Paper

… Robert Frost's Poetry

Robert Frost is America's poet. Living a life dedicated to poetry, Frost wrote some of the best and most-admired poetry in American literature. Frost is famous because his poetry reads well - it seems simple but there… [read more]

Canon Defining African-American Literature Term Paper

… ¶ … African-American Literature

The African-American Literary Cannon

The African-American Literary Canon is not easy to define briefly. Still, the corpus of African-American literature is clearly modeled on a few distinct characteristics. First of all, the roots of African-American Literature… [read more]

New Revolution Literature Term Paper

… New Revolution Literature

The Literature of the New Republic 1776-1836

The Declaration of Independence of 1776 is probably the most significant moment in American history of all times. This date marks the end of America's War of Independence, when the… [read more]

American Literature, Like All Other Nationalistic Term Paper

… American Literature, like all other nationalistic literature has had an evolution that marks frequently changing opinions with regard to what are to be included in the voice of literature. What do we consider the "classic" works of American literature and… [read more]

Personae in Literature the Yellow Wallpaper Crazy Term Paper

… Personae in Literature

The Yellow Wallpaper" crazy, obsessed, subjugated, depressed, sad. The author uses voice in this story, the voice of the narrator, which is disjointed, sad, and increasingly mad to show the narrator's sadness, subjugation, obsession, and depression. The voice of the narrator changes as the story moves on, showing her descent into madness, and it shows how her husband subjugates and patronizes her, in her own words. The voice in this story is a voice of despair, and only the reader knows how sad and depressed she really is.

After Apple-Picking" tired, busy, outdoorsy, natural, funny. The author uses voice in this poem to give a very clear picture of a man picking far too many apples to enjoy the job any longer. Some will go into cider, some will be eaten, and some will be stored. This voice shows the man is industrious but tired, ready for a long, deep sleep, and enjoys the outdoors, but not such consistent hard work. The poem is amusing, which shows the man has a sense of humor and can laugh at himself, but also that he is busy, probably a farmer, and intent on getting…… [read more]

Poetry Has Often Been an Innocuous Demand Term Paper

… Poetry has often been an innocuous demand of social and political change, as it can be quickly developed and then easily smuggled out of any situation in the coat pocket of the writer or another, or even written years later… [read more]

Poetry as Social Challenge in Any Situation Term Paper

… Poetry as Social Challenge

In any situation of social or indeed personal upheaval, artists and writers play a central role in shaping the collective consciousness of their environment. Langston Hughes and Adrienne Rich are no exceptions. While Hughes takes a… [read more]

American Literature Myth in the Poetry of Allen Ginsberg a Jungian Analysis Term Paper

… American Literature

Allen Ginsberg's epic poem Howel, is not only a personal statement of society, but also a classic poem full of illusions to mythology and psychology. It is a history lesson of the 1950s and 1060s, an era of… [read more]

North American Literature Term Paper

… As Claudia states (p. 2079), when Mrs. MacTeer discovers Pecola has drunk three quarts of milk on her own, "Pecola, Freida, and I, listened to her downstairs in the kitchen fussing about the amount of milk Pecola had drunk."Then she gets her period right afterward, meaning she is definitely not a baby anymore, physically, although psychologically she still is. She has not even ever been told anything about her period coming at a certain age. Pecola has never had any love or guidance she needed, so she is like a baby and a young woman all at once.

In all of the twentieth century works of American literature mentioned, characters who are members of minority groups within the United States, either Chinese; Chinese-American, or African-American, feel alienated, often from themselves as much as their culture; moreover, both forms of alienation are interrelated. Maxine Hong Kingston, James Baldwin, and Toni Morrison all express, each in his or her own way, the major North American twentieth century literary theme of alienation.

Works Cited

Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." The Harper American

Literature, Vol. 2, 2nd Ed. Donald Mc Quade et al. (Eds). New York:

Longman, 19931475.

Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. In The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women. (Eds. Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar). New York: Norton, 1985,

pp. 2068-2184.

"Morrison, Toni, 1931 -- " Retrieved May 26, 2005, from:

'Thoughts on the American Novel: Toni Morrison." The Language of Literature:

American Literature. (Eds. Arthur N. Applebee et al.). Evanston, Illinois:

McDougal Littell, 1997.

Works Consulted

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." The Harper American Literature, Vol. 2, 2nd

Ed. Donald Mc Quade et al. (Eds). New York: Longman, 1993. 1774-1797.

Kingston, Maxine Hong. "No Name Woman." The Norton Anthology of Literature

By Women. Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar (Eds.). New York: Norton,

1985. 2337-2347.

Morrison, Toni. Beloved.…… [read more]

Medieval Romance Has Inspired Literature Term Paper

… The various images of beauty the poet paints about love and its exhilarating effect make "The Eve of St. Agnes" a wonderful combination of medieval and romantic elements. Here we see how the poet has moved away from moralizing in… [read more]

English Literature John Dryden Term Paper

… As exemplified in the discussion of Dryden's "An essay of dramatic poesy," the great English poet and critic considers literary criticism as a form of exercise in which writers are given a guideline on what their purpose should be in writing a creative literary piece. For Dryden, literary criticism attempts to create meaning to the writer's work; any literary work devoid of meaning and lacks the universal appeal Dryden talks about is considered as bad writing, and the writer, a bad writer. The most beneficial kind of literary criticism is similar to an important piece of literature: it must have a well-defined purpose and universality of message and language that every individual of any culture in the world can readily identify with and understand the literary work.

Pope, meanwhile, has a similar thesis as Dryden: literary criticism must have a well-defined purpose, especially when it concerns poor writing and writers. However, unlike Dryden's principle of universality in literary writing, Pope's style encourages the use of subjectivity and writing for the benefit, not of the general public, but also for the writer and selected people who can understand the conveyed message given in the literary piece. In effect, Pope's notion of literary criticism does not include the principle of universality; instead he stresses the importance of one's purpose in writing. This is expressed explicitly in his "An essay on criticism," wherein Pope expresses his discouragement for "senseless" and wrongfully interpreted and analyzed literary pieces: 'Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill Appear in writing or in judging ill; But of the two less dangerous is the offense To tire our patience than mislead our sense ... " From this essay, Pope elucidates on his subjective analysis of what literary criticism should be, that which must value purpose first and foremost, notwithstanding its subjective nature or lack of universal appeal.

Bibliography…… [read more]

English Literature. Robert Browning Term Paper

… "$8

Barret made use of his intelligence and techniques of writing to help his husband in his literary work. Due to the involvement of his wife and her ideas numerous poems were written and developed which are counted amongst… [read more]

Poetry of William Butler Yeats Term Paper

… However, as his poetry matured, so did his images of Ireland, such as in a later work, "No Second Troy," which celebrates the noble beauty of Ireland, but laments the troubles the Irish people are facing under English rule. "That… [read more]

WWI and Literature World War Term Paper

… This realism marked most important literary pieces produced during and immediately after the Great War. Hemingway's war poems indicate the fact that he seriously thought about war and its futility. Some of the best war stories of this time include "In Another Country," "Now I Lay Me," and "A Way You'll Never Be."

But apart from people like Hemingway, American literature did not produce any significant war poets and/or verses that could show clear effects of WWI. Though there were vast number of verses created during this period, the quality was rather inferior as Harvey (1993) writes: "...more than 99 per cent of First World War poetry is not very impressive, and if 99.9 per cent of First World War poets were not as good as Wilfred Owen or Isaac Rosenberg."

WWI though had a serious impact on American literature of the time; still most of the fiction and poems produced during and immediately after the war were soon forgotten. Only few writers and poets stayed in picture after the war hysteria died down. But WWI had long lasting effects on American literature of later years, as realism became the most sought after style and theme.


A.D. Harvey, First World War literature. Magazine Title: History Today. Volume: 43. Publication Date: November 1993.

Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.

Hemingway, Ernest. Complete Poems. Lincoln: U. Of Nebraska, 1983.

Granville Hicks, The Great Tradition: An Interpretation of American Literature since the Civil War. Publisher: Biblo and Tannen. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1967.

Cowley, Malcolm. "Hemingway's Wound -- And Its Consequences for American Literature." The Georgia Review Summer 1984: 223-39.

Suzanne Raitt, Trudi Tate, Women's Fiction and the Great War. Publisher: Clarendon Press. Place of Publication: Oxford. Publication Year: 1997

Jane Potter, 'A great purifier': The Great…… [read more]

Metaphysical Poetry of John Donne Term Paper

… This poem is again juxtaposed with the extreme spiritual optimism of "A Valediction Forbidding Mourning," where the poet affirms the faith he has struggled through a lifetime to acquire. It is the completeness of both romantic love and spiritual truth.

This is also done in "The Flea," where the poet compares human life and death to the "murder" of a flea. The image appears trivial, but combined with the importance of human life, the effect is profound. Donne here finds meaning and perfection in the smallest thing, and even in repulsive things. The almost sexual image of the flea mixing the blood of lovers in its belly is conceivably repulsive to the 17th century reader. This may be tied in once again with the poet's profound insecurity in established rules of religion. By breaking the "rules" prevalent in the poetic genre of the time, Donne can be seen to rebel in the only way he is able to against the spiritual constraints that have been part of his whole life.

It is interesting that Donne's love poetry forms such a contrast with his religious poetry. It is as if in love Donne was able to express himself much more sincerely and profoundly than in his love for God. Like the lovers in "The Canonization"[6] the poet appears to be able to separate completely the concept of romantic love from both life in general and from religion. It was thus for him something pure and completely untainted by either death or sin.

It can thus be said that poetically John Donne found a much more fulfilling aspect of life in his relationship with his wife than in his relationship with God. The two relationships were however also intermingled, as Anne was for him the inspiration towards holiness. The fact remains that all of the poems created by this artist retains a profound beauty, and captures the spirit of his age with a depth that will be meaningful in the centuries to come.

The apparent parody of this poem can then also be seen as a "violent yoke." Lovers are placed on the same level as saints, who are by definition free of the constraints of romantic and physical love.


Brooks, C. "The Language of Paradox." In The Language of Poetry. Edited by Allen Tate. New York: Russell & Russell, 1960.

Eliot, T.S. "The Metaphysical Poets." In Selected Essays. London: Faber and Faber Limited, 1934.

Gardner, H. "The Religious Poetry of John Donne." In John Donne, A Collection of Critical Essays. Edited by Helen Gardner. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentic-Hall, Inc., 1962.

Gardner, H. Religion and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Winny, J. A Preface to Donne. London: Longman, 1981.


Donne, John:

Valediction Forbidding Mourning.

Holy Sonnets."

Love's Infiniteness.

Love's Usury.

The Canonization.

The Flea.

The Paradox."

The Will."… [read more]

Frost's Poetry and Landscape Term Paper

… After the ceremony, Frost proposed to Elinor. Because they were going to distant colleges, Elinor wanted the engagement to be kept a secret. Frost wanted to be married right away, but she argued that there would be plenty of time… [read more]

Victorian Prose and Poetry Term Paper

… Many Victorian writers, such as Dickens, compromised between Romanticism and Realism, trying to find a balance in their beliefs and how they portrayed them to their audience of readers. Times and culture was changing when these writers wrote, and they had to discover ways to compromise between staid Victorian culture and the modern culture that was rapidly following it. Morals were becoming less strict, and Victorian principles were being replaced with more realistic and modern beliefs. The writers at the end of the Victorian era helped illustrate the changes that were happening, and the compromises that people were making to blend the old and new belief systems. Poets such as Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear wrote nonsense verses that would have never been published at the beginning of the Victorian era, for they were far too frivolous for staid Victorians (Tilling and Bloom 692-704). By the end of the era, their silly rhymes were not only accepted, they were enjoyed with relish. This shows compromise on the part of the writers, who knew the time was right for their work, and waited until it was, and compromise on the part of the public, too, who were ready to accept new ways of looking at the same old stodgy thing in their reading or their lives.

Of course, there was criticism and dislike of the realistic form of writing becoming more popular as the Victorian age wore on.

The immediate danger of the realist is to sacrifice the beauty and significance of the whole to local dexterity, or, in the insane pursuit of completion, to immolate his reader under facts; but he comes, in the last resort, and as his energy declines, to discard all design, abjure all choice, and, with scientific thoroughness, steadily to communicate matter which is not worth learning (Decker 158).

Many readers simply did not want to read about real situations, such as the London slums Dickens portrayed so graphically in his novels. They wanted to escape when they read a novel or a poem, so they could put aside the harsh realities of real life. They might have a difficult life themselves, and did not want to be reminded of it. While Realism was a very popular form of writing during late Victorian times, it was not universally accepted, and realistic writers often drew criticism for their works. This did not dissuade them however, and they continued to write with clarity and Realism.

In conclusion, the Victorian age was a time of great change around the world. The Industrial Revolution had changed the way people lived and worked, and created a wealthy upper class that could afford to attend plays, read and buy books, and sponsor literary efforts. It changed the way people wrote, too. Great writers came to be known during this time, like Dickens, Thackeray, Austen, London, Twain, and Wordsworth. They wrote what they saw, and about things that were important to them. They wrote about the evils of society, and hoped people would… [read more]

Poetry in an Prosaic World Term Paper

… 4 Hands that can grasp, eyes

5 that can dilate, hair that can rise

6 if it must, these things are important not because a.

In other words, one desires a true connection with reality, with hair and hands, rather than the literary representation thereof, that is rendered pregnant with meaning rather than the thing itself.

A high sounding interpretation can be put upon them but because they are

8 useful; when they become so derivative as to become unintelligible, 9 the same thing may be said for all of us, that we

10 do not admire what

11 we cannot understand: the bat, 12 holding on upside down or in quest of something to Eat," reads the next line, line thirteen, as if the poet caught up in her own rhetoric and tropes has suddenly forgotten about one of the most basic necessities of all. The poem thus contains a kind of a parody of the poetic life and style, the starving artist too caught up in his or her head and work to function in reality. Yet there is also a curious power to the language she uses. This takes the reader up in the poetic quest and thus renders the poetic life and struggle in a meaningful and vital way, for all of the poet's and the medium's ability to deflate its own sense of importance.

Ultimately, Moore's poem functions as an argument for poetry, in stressing how poetry still fulfills a need in the world. It also further stresses the poetic quest must not be a theoretical one, but a real one. Poetry, rather than holding the mundane details of life at a distance, can enable a writer and a reader to appreciate them.

24 for inspection, imaginary gardens with real toads in them, shall we have

25 it. In the meantime, if you demand on one hand, 26 the raw material of poetry in

27 all its rawness and

28 that which is on the other hand

29 genuine, then you are interested in poetry.

The interest in poetry springs up, not out of a desire to escape life, but to become more interested in life in a complete and vital way. When "dragged into prominence by half poets, the result is not poetry," she notes in her line nineteen. In other words, it is only poor poets who attempt to construct poetry out of the true tools and practical details of the physical and render such details into theoretical examples.

Rafael Campo comes from a slightly different poetic school and poetic voice than does Moore. Moore, one of the most famous poets of her day, is part of the traditional canon in American literature. Campo is a doctor, and is thus quite intimately acquainted with a discipline beyond that of literary theory and also, as a bilingual Spanish speaker, and a gay man, comes from a tradition that does not directly spring out the American or English literary poetic tradition. Nor does he write… [read more]

Life William Blake's Poem Term Paper

… As we read though the poem we see that there is a change of attitude when there is an incident effect the solders. There is an 'ecstasy of fumbling' as there is an event that is taking the soldiers out… [read more]

Classic Literature for a New Term Paper

… Modernising the message does not mean diluting it.


Bloom, Harold (1994) The Western Canon: the Books and School of the Ages. New York, Harcourt Brace.

Burgess, Anthony (1984) "Modern Novels: the 99 Best." The New York Times, late city final edition, section 7, p. 1, col. 1, Book Review Desk.

Fiedler, Leslie (1982) What Was Literature? Class Culture and Mass Society. New York, Simon and Schuster.

Kernan, Alvin. (1992) The Death of Literature. U.S., Yale University Press.

McLuhan, Marshall & Fiore, Quentin (1967) The Medium is the Massage. New York, Bantam Books.

Postman, Neil (1986) "Chapter 5: The Peek-A-Boo World" Amusing Ourselves to Death. U.S., Viking Press, pp. 64-82.

Scholes, Robert (1998) The Rise and Fall of English. U.S., Yale University Press

Scholes, Robert (1985) Textual Power: Literary Theory and the Teaching of English. U.S., Yale University Press.

Simon, Richard K. (1999) Trash Culture: Popular Culture and the Great Tradition. California, The University of California Press.

Spectrum. "Trash vs. Treasure with Some Help from Friends: Richard Keller Simon on the Power of Pop Culture" (Sat., September 2, 2000) The Sydney Morning Herald, Australia, John Fairfax Publications Pty. Ltd.

Spitzer, Leo (1998) Hotel Bolivia: the Culture of Memory in a Refuge from Nazism. New York, Hill and Wang.… [read more]

Sylvia Plath: Use of Dramatic Monologue as Confessional Poetry Research Paper

… " In this poem, the speaker is not the male Lazarus of the Bible but a woman who has made coming back from the grave her carnival-like 'trick.' There is obvious, implied reference to Plath's own, highly public suicide attempt… [read more]

Human Memory Literature Review Chapter

… Another intriguing aspect of Conway & Pleydell-Pearce's research about human memory and autobiographical memories is not just that autobiographical memories exist, but how they believe them to function. They contend that autobiographical memories are constantly present, yet are "activated" by… [read more]

Ancient the Egyptian Love Songs/Poetry Essay

… The juxtaposition of objects to the body or parts of the body express the longing and near obsession of the authors for the objects of their desires. All of these elements combined put the reader in close proximity to both the author and the person desired (lover). It puts the reader close to the author in terms of the author's thoughts, feelings, and daydreams. It puts the reader close to the lover that is described because of the clarity and intensity of the feelings the author has. The love songs are very personal; by the time a person has reader has gone through all of the poems, he/she might almost feel as if he/she knows the people the poems are about and the people who wrote the poems in the first place.

A surprisingly theme in the poems (surprising to this reader) is the lack of possession in the love poetry. In western poetry from the distance past and even the present, there is often mention of "I'm yours" or "You're mine" and similar language. There is a distinct lack of possession and subsequent jealous as a result of feelings of possession. There is mention of feelings of belonging, yearning, desiring, happiness, pain, and other emotions, yet at no point is there some kind of threat. There is no threat of "if I can't have you, no one can" or "if I can't have you I'll commit suicide," which is fairly typical of poetry that is typically taught as part of the western canon of literature. It was a pleasant and somewhat startling surprise, for the lack of possessive feelings makes the Egyptian love songs unique, and enjoyable in an abnormal way. There is certainly an urgency, intensity, and passion expressed, but without fear, anxiety, or just plain scary feelings that people who are madly in love often feel for those they do love.… [read more]

Pasolini's Final Interviews Essay

… Salo incorporates a minimum of four physical layers: the year it was made (1975); the span of the final year of the Italian Fascist stooge government beneath Mussolini in Salo, on Lago di Garda, in Northern Italy; the novel The 120 Days of Sodom by the Marquis de Sade in 1785; and the narrative Divine Comedy of Dante. Pasolini presents these temporalities analytically as well as metaphorically, at the center of which is his distaste for modern society, modified and consumerist, as it appeared to him, up to the final fortress of defiance and liberty as it pertained to language, sexuality, and the body.

The domain of the libertines as depicted in Salo is one of forced structure, restraint, laws, and responsibilities. It is a domain of sheer uniformity gone demented and destructive, where any divergence, any infraction of rule, is banned and penalized. It is a domain of dissolution, because it is a domain of monotony. It is bestowed, however, by process of a mixture of various references, spaces, languages, and outlandish images, an extreme of majorities that go further than accepted and the traditional.

It would be unjust to curb Pasolini's work to a single immovable viewpoint or implication. The expression of his images creates a depressing reality, at the same time restores it. Pasolini was exceedingly creative and over a broad range of avenues: one of contemporary Italy's most notable poets, a principal filmmaker, a significant essayist and theorist of language and the arts.

Title for this essay can be: Pasolini, an artist beyond film


Pasolini, The Cinema of Poetry. (n.d.). Retrieved from… [read more]

French Literature? (Pick Research Paper

… Which of the following could be considered Romantic authors?


Samuel Beckett, author of "Waiting for Godot"


Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who wrote that all people are created equal but everywhere we see them prisoners of society's conventions


Alexandre Dumas, author of many historical novels including "The Three Musketeers" and "The Man in the Iron Mask"

Question 7

Realism and Naturalism followed on the heels and in some ways overlapped with the emergence of Romanticism. Writers of realist novels and plays like Balzac or Zola paid attention to which aspects of life in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? (Pick out as many as you think are important to them)


The King and his court


Industrialization and its effects on people's daily lives


Social and class issues


How characters' social environment (poverty, difficult jobs, poor housing or the contrary) shape who they are and how they act.


Epic stories of knights and ladies of the long ago past

Question 8

Two of the most important and influential poets of the nineteenth century, who are still exerting their influence today. They are Arthur Rimbaud and Charles Baudelaire. Both died young, but led wild and exciting lives. Match the poet to the description of his life.

This man was a brilliant poet in his early life, this fellow was friends with Paul Verlaine, a giant of symbolist poetry. Having renounced poetry, he left Europe and travelled in Africa, where he ran guns to rebels. He is still celebrated today by rebellious cultural movements - such as punk.


Charles Baudelaire


Arthur Rimbaud

Question 9

Two of the most important and influential poets… [read more]

Deinstitutionalization Literature and Research Sources Research Paper

… Deinstitutionalization

Discussion Question One: What is the importance of a historical literature review?

Literature review, a critical step in research procedure, is a synthesis of what is published concerning a selected topic by accredited researchers and scholars, and it provides… [read more]

Transformation About Litertura Term Paper

… Transformations of Literature:

This focus of this article is to provide a discussion on transformations of literature based on William Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's Dream. The literature is a play that is widely believed to have been written between 1590… [read more]

Poetry During the 17th Century Essay

… A shift in tone occurs in the second stanza as the focus of the poem turns from the narrator's mistress to the narrator himself. While in the first stanza the narrator contends that he would submit to his mistresses wishes of waiting for the appropriate time to take their relationship to the next level, the second stanza allows the narrator to state his selfish desires. The narrator attempts to convince his mistress to give in to his desires by telling her that time is running out. He states, "But at my back I always hear/Time's winged chariot hurrying near;/And yonder all before us lie/Deserts of vast eternity" (lines 21-24). Additionally, the narrator attempts to convince his mistress that she, too, will fall victim to time and that then, "worms shall try/That long preserv'd virginity,/And your quaint honour turn to dust,/And into ashes all my lust," which helps to emphasize the overarching tone of urgency of the poem (lines 27-30). The narrator concludes this stanza by stating, "The grave's a fine and private place/But non-I think do there embrace," which further urges the mistress to give in to the narrator, or be doomed to have spent all her life, and all of eternity, alone (lines 31-32).

In the final stanza of the poem, the narrator assumes he has provided sufficient evidence and arguments to his mistress, and he hopes that she will finally give in to him. He once again appeals to her beauty, and by comparing it to "morning dew," he emphasizes once more the need to act as quickly as possible (line 34). The third stanza uses imagery that aims to convince the narrator's mistress that giving in to their mutual desires is natural. Marvell writes, "Now let us sport us while we may;/And now, like am'rous birds of prey, Rather at once our time devour,/Than languish in this slow-chapp'd power" (lines 37-40). The narrator contends that they should be like these birds and give in to their natural desires, insinuating that it is unnatural for them to continue torturing themselves and that they should "roll all our strength, and all/Our sweetness, up into one ball;/And tear our pleasures with rife strife/Thorough the iron gates of life" because they cannot stop time, or even slow it down, but they have the ability to make the most of the time that they have left, or as Marvell writes, "though we cannot make our sun/Stand still, yet we will make him run" (line 45-46).

Through the use of imagery and metaphors, Marvell attempts to convince his mistress that giving in to their desires and temptations is natural, and while she may long to hold on to her innocence, he maintains that if they do not act now, their love and youth will be wasted and that they will never be able to express their love for each other as it should be expressed. Ultimately, Marvell believes that individuals should take advantage of the time they have and to enjoy life and… [read more]

Nature in American Literature Term Paper

… The most poignant feature of transcendentalism is reflected in the belief that God is personally accessible outside the religious congregations, present in each individual and most notably in nature. This particular conviction led to the portrayal of an enthusiastic support for self-reliance and forsaking of traditional authority, Emerson's writings being clearly dominated by the image of man striving to attain personal communion with divinity, a rather bold approach compared to Jonathan Edwards' previous piety. By contrast, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow has a less abstract approach to nature, depicting it as a more tangible, visible phenomenon which has the quality of shaping character, thought and feeling patterns.

Defiance of religious control and social order was endemic among the artists of nineteenth century. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Walt Whitman visibly renounced the conventional in favor of seclusion. It could be interpreted that the initial individualism pervaded a sense of alienation from a society that was becoming more and more rigid and suffused with material preoccupations. In addition, Herman Melville rejects the optimism of transcendentalism, for he perceives nature as a combined mixture of cruelty and beauty. Henry David Thoreau, similarly to Walt Whitman and all the other transcendentalists, celebrates "the simple separate person" (Whicher, 1945), and yet his particularity is excess because he embraces nature to the detriment of his fellow human beings.

Finally, Harriet Ann Jacobs, Harriet Beecher Stowes and Frederick Douglas all offer another view on contemporary self-reliance as opposed to authority, as they deal with the historically charged issue of slavery. In this sense, the abolitionist authors attack the Southern church, condemning slaveholding as a corruption of Christianity and of human souls, with special emphasis on the unfairness of slaves' imposed ignorance -- which deprives human beings of their inherent independent capacities and valuable identities.

To conclude, the American writers from seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth century for the most part linked nature with divinity, and the later works placed a high value on individual experiences unencumbered by religious authority, social hierarchy or any other constraints apart from a person's own conscience.


Barna, Mark. (2001, May) Our Romance with Nature. The World and I, Vol.16, No.5

Webb, J. Echoes of Paine: Tracing the Age of Reason through the Writings of Emerson (2006). ATQ (The American Transcendental Quarterly), Vol. 20, No.3

Whicher, G.F. (1945) Walden Revisited: A…… [read more]

Beauty and Sadness in Japanese Term Paper

… In Kokoro, the narrative device used to propel the story forward is the gift received by Train Man after his courageous intervention. A set of intricately designed and expensively priced Hermes tea cups is presented without comment by the woman from the train, and upon receiving this genuine gift of gratitude, the young otaku soon begins to experience an evolution in terms of his own appearance, confidence, and attitude. The role of gifting in Japanese culture is widely considered to be a sacred extension of the traditional way of life, wherein the presentation of a gift from one party to another is laden with symbolic significance and greater meaning. When the young otaku in Train Man first appraises the tea cups he has received, his initial impressions are of a simple thank-you gift, something given to express appreciation for his magnanimous actions. The comments voiced by 2 channel members, however, lead him to examine the gift more closely, and he eventually surmises that the pair of delicate teacups is representative of more than a simple gesture of thankfulness.

Just as the gift of inheritance, which was dishonorably stripped from Sensei in Kokoro provides the foundational basis for the rest of his life's choices, the gift given to Train Man enables him to discover the path on which he belongs. As the first gift he has ever been given by a woman, the simple set of teacups holds a deep level of symbolic import, as the pair indicates that they should be used together by close companions. The young otaku confirms this during a chat session with his fellow 2 channel members, stating cautiously that "I've never been thanked by a woman before, so… I got so nerrrrrrvoussss," before revealing "Damn. I'm getting all feverish. Gotta take a chill pill" (Hitori). By contextualizing the traditional practice of exchanging mutually meaningful gifts within the modern setting of internet chat forums and otaku fandom, Densha Otoko (Train Man) allows for a reexamination of gifting within previous works of cultural expression. When the love stricken J-ji in Naomi observes of traditional Japanese marriage rituals that "if neither side has any objections, an official intermediary is chosen, engagement gifts are exchanged, and the trousseau is carried to the groom's house" (Tanizaki 3), the use of gifts to make a betrothal official is an important aspect of the process. The story presented in Densha Otoko (Train Man) modernizes this exchange, with the woman presenting a gift in hopes of earning her desired man's attention and affection, and the result is an inspiringly recreated version of Japan's classic conception of courtship.

Works Cited

Hitori, Nakano. "Densha otoko (Train Man)." Tokyo: Shinchsha (2004).

Murakami, Haruki. Hard-boiled Wonderland and the End of the World. Vintage, 2010.

Shirane, Haruo. Traditional Japanese literature: an anthology, beginnings to 1600.…… [read more]

Peer Evaluation Writing Poetry Peer Reviewed Journal

… Furthermore, the writer should stay away from absolutes. For instance, she writes that she "obviously" needed to include Whitman in her poem, however, she does not explain why it is obvious. Instead, I would recommend that instead of using the word "obvious," the sentence be rewritten to start off, "I chose to use Whitman…" because what is obvious to the writer is not obvious to the reader.

The same issues are applicable to the claim about Dickinson's poetry. The writer needs to provide concrete examples the reader can refer to and not assume the reader understands what she is talking about. Dickinson's poems explore a wide variety of Dickenson's thoughts and emotions and it cannot be assumed that all of Dickinson's poems are emotional. Additionally, the last sentence of the explanation is very confusing and not only does it need to be clarified, but it also needs to have concrete examples of what the writer is referring to provided.

As for the poem itself, it allows the reader to begin to understand the conflict the writer must be feeling, however, it sounds somewhat disjointed and does not connect one idea to the next as fluidly as it could have. While the first and second stanzas seem to go together, they are disjointed from the third stanza, which is the most successful stanza of the poem. Overall, I think that the poem was a good attempt and provides insight into the struggles the writer had.… [read more]

Poetry Captures Both the Personal Essay

… Three lines start with the word "Let." These lines are the imploring, to a god or universe, for spiritual salvation.

The three-stanza poem illustrates ways free verse poetry has internal coherence. In "The Lost Baby Poem," the first two stanzas are the mother's words to her unborn child. The final stanza is more of a spiritual tribute, and an act of self-forgiveness. Something has happened in the poem; the speaker has come to a definite realization or epiphany. She has purged herself of the pain of remembering the abortion and has come to a point of forgiveness.

The personal meets the political in "The Lost Baby Poem," in which the mother eulogizes her "almost body" baby. Abortion is a personal and political topic, and yet the poet refrains from any judgment whatsoever. In fact, this poem can be used in a rich discussion of the use of poetry for personal healing. The speaker contemplates what would have been had she carried the child to term and had instead placed it up for adoption; she would be talking to the child about "these and some other things." As it was, the pregnant woman "dropped your almost body down / down to meet the waters under the city." Imagery of water is integral to the poem, as water is a parallel motif of pregnancy and childbirth (when the water breaks) as well as a symbol of emotional intensity (the water of tears). There are also subtle inferences of patriarchy, as when the speaker mentions the difference between "drowning" and "being drowned." The former is an act of nature; the latter is a malicious act.

"The Lost Baby Poem" allow for a rich intellectual groundwork. It permits exploration of poetic devices like imagery, motif, metaphor, and repetition. The poem also offers rich social and political commentary about gender roles, and shows how poetry is an art of spiritual healing.

Work Cited

Clifton, Lucille. "The Lost Baby…… [read more]

Poetry, Drama, Aristotle, Sophocles's Oedipus Research Paper

… Aristotle's vision of a hero is further foregrounded in Sophocles' play by the fact that Oedipus has not only proven himself worthy of the title because of his nobility, but also because of his sensitivity, intelligence, and the "natural greatness… [read more]

Composition Project Essay

… ¶ … Charles Simic told his elderly mother that he still wrote poetry, he claimed, "she sighed and shook her head, probably thinking to herself this son of mine has always been a little nuts," (Simic, the New York Review… [read more]

Poetry and Beverage Analysis Essay

… Poe Poem and Drink

Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven"

Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most well-known American Gothic literature writers of the 19th century. Poe is often identified by his dark and macabre writing style that examines a… [read more]

History of Rosicrucian Order Thesis

… History Of the Rosicrucian Order

Despite being one of the oldest esoteric societies, the Rosicrucian Order remains one of the most mysterious and least well-known of the various groups that arose in Europe over the course of the second millennium.… [read more]

New World Poetry Essay

… Your choice to include passages from Martin Espada's poem Blessed Be the Truth-Tellers made perfect sense from this perspective, because Prada's beautiful poem shows how fragile our concept of truth and deceit can truly become. The scene Prada presents in his poem, of a boy fearfully anticipating his scheduled tonsil-removal surgery while being misled by the trusted adults in his life, illustrates how an abstract idea like truth can shift depending on the situation. Just as Whitman believed that the best poets were able to know and speak the truth, Prada's simple man, Jack the Truth-Teller, possesses the soul of a poet, speaking the truth simply because it is all he knows how to say.

After reading your essay I was left to wonder what you think Whitman would say about Prada's poem. Would Whitman consider Prada a representation of his new world poet, somebody who, as you wrote in the essay, "sees everyone equal and know that there is more than one ways?" Personally, I believe that Whitman would be proud to know that poets in later generations embraced his view of poetry as the essence of truth, because during his era it appeared as if the true beauty of nature would be destroyed in the name of industrial progress. Prada's poem could potentially show Whitman that, despite the increasingly industrialized way in which humanity constructs society, the truth of nature's beauty will always be revealed through poetic expression.


Whitman, W. (1965).…… [read more]

Poetry Analysis Peer Reviewed Journal

… The introduction could have been strengthened as well. The essay is not about the various kinds of formatting in poetry, such as the lengths of the lines. If it were, then the introduction would be fully appropriate. The length is just fine, but the connection to the main theme is not apparent and a bit of a stretch. Perhaps the author can introduce the essay by talking about themes in poetry or movements in American poetry that are connected? Another idea is to talk about poetry's connection to movement, rhythm, and music, since the author comments on the rhythm of Whitman's poetry, and the musical qualities to Hughes' poetry. This would be a more attention grabbing and relevant introduction than the one that is there now.

The author should additionally consider improving the quality of the vocabulary words. There were some problems with subject-verb agreement, too. They did not interfere with understanding the essay, but they were noticeable. This is a strong essay, so fixing the little things will make it even better.

Finally, I enjoyed how the author demonstrated his/her knowledge of jazz. It was very clear that the author understand how jazz fit as part of African-American culture as well as American history. The historical information contextualized the analysis of jazz very well. This was one of the best parts of the essay.


Poem Hunter. (2013). Langston Hughes -- All Poems. Web, Available from: 2013 March 12.… [read more]

Lucille Clifton's Poetry Peer Reviewed Journal

… Turning to the poet herself, I too was struck by the imagery of Lucille Clifton's words finding them vivid and memorable. Yes, I too am drawn right there into the poem feeling that I am alongside the writer leaning against those rails. The sensuality is impacting. The scene is tangible: you can smell it, feel it, almost smell the sweat of those in the poem, feel the woman who "leaned across the front porch/the huge pillow of her breasts/pressing against the rail," maybe even be leaning next to her.

I also see how my peer relishes her tone. I do too. It is fantastic. This feistiness of this phrase, for instance: "I am almost the dead woman's age times two, - is endearing."

The poems, and my peer's description of them, transport me in two places at once. They transport me to the scene of the place in the first instance, and they make me see the poet in the other. I see a wise, mature, compassionate, and powerful woman, one whom I quite likely would have liked to have known and one whom I almost certainly would have found inspiring. It is interesting how not only does author reveal herself in her works, but reader displays her own character in her rendition of the works.… [read more]

Poetry by Knight Essay

… In terms of this poem's representation of the notion of Groddeck's living and dying tradition, particular emphasis must be placed on the poem's ending. In the previous paragraph, the uselessness of the WASP woman's visit was already elucidated. However, her visit still had a discernible effect upon the protagonist, one which is readily indicated in the following quotation. "Her chatter sparked no resurrection…no shackles were shaken/But after sh had taken her leave, he walked softly,/And for hours used no hot words" (Knight). In this quotation, the author shows the true democratic aspect of this poem, and, frankly, of integration. The woman's visit had a sedating effect on the protagonist, who is more calm, uses no "hot" words or angry language, and is somewhat more docile in response. Such an effect attests to a democracy, although it is not one that appears to be a welcome fulfillment of democratic values or viewed in any positive aspect by the author. In this respect then, the great chasm between the protagonist and his visitor merely attests to what Groddeck would regard as a dying tradition of a division among racial lines.

This poem both references the values of democracy and alludes to the dying tradition of racial separation that Groddeck believes is soon to end. It is clear from the poem's ending and the uselessness of the woman's visit, that the author does not embrace the democratic values that the woman's visit represents. Instead, he utilizes it to point to the sedating effects of integration, which helped to calm down and ultimately pacify a number of African-Americans who, prior to integration, were a lot more combustible, unified, and resentful towards White Anglo Saxon Protestants due to the history of slavery and the ill treatment they received in the decades after it was abolished.

Works Cited

Knight, Etheridge. "A Wasp Woman Visits A Black Junkie in Prison." 1986. Web.… [read more]

Natural Sciences and Geometry Term Paper

… " In the Renaissance, the circle was considered to be the most perfect geometric form, given that every point is equidistant from the center (Uddin 46).

The poem likens the poet and his beloved to the movement of heavenly bodies: "Donne's extensive use of astrological allusions, particularly in reference to the expansive universe, is evident in these two stanzas as a means of representing a macrocosmic understanding of the condition of human love" (Uddin 47). Rather than saying that the poet's love makes 'the earth move,' Donne instead urges quiet acceptance of death: "Moving of th' earth brings harms and fears." For himself and his beloved: "So let us melt, and make no noise. / No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move." Ideal love is beyond the material world, and so death should be meaningless and provoke no strong emotions. This is in contrast to "Dull sublunary lovers' love / -- Whose soul is sense -- cannot admit / Of absence, 'cause it doth remove / The thing which elemented it." Love which is purely physical dies when the body dies. Because Donne and his beloved's passion transcends the physical and is not ultimately relegated to the body, it is immortal like the soul. Through love, Donne gains an understanding of human immortality, as particular as his affection might be for his wife.

Andrew Marvell's poem "The Definition of Love" is even more abstract than Donne's poetic works. Marvell addresses the poem as if to love itself, not a specific beloved, and talks about the unrequired nature of his love as born of abstract entities: " My Love is of a birth as rare / As 'tis for object strange and high: / It was begotten by Despair / Upon Impossibility." Fate is also personified as a physical presence that keeps Marvell away from his beloved: "For Fate with jealous eye does see / Two perfect Loves; nor lets them close: / Their union would her ruin be, / And her tyrannic power depose." In the poem, the actual, physical characteristics of 'Love' are not rendered into a specific woman, and the philosophical concepts of Fate and Despair actually have more of an embodied quality than Marvell's real beloved. The poet and his beloved are conceived of being on separate, magnetic polar opposites, unable to be united by natural laws and forever longing for one another, but never able to touch.

The laws of the natural world, whether the physicality of the flea, the geometry of a circle, or the magnetic polar opposites of the earth thus are all used in Donne and Marvell as ways of conceiving love. Human love is paralleled in the laws of the universe, just as the universe offers a rich treasure-trove of metaphorical possibilities for the poet. The poets are always careful to use these metaphors with scientific and philosophical accuracy, to illustrate the symmetry between nature, humanity, and God. Yet despite the fact that the poets speak in the first-person, it is a first-person voice… [read more]

Contemplated an Individual's Relationship Term Paper

… In the poem, Daphne regrets her hasty call for help and subsequent transformation into a tree. It can be argued that Daphne and Apollo are both victims of Eros, who influenced Apollo to pursue Daphne and subsequently led to Daphne… [read more]

Post Colonial Literature Historical Essay

… But, the theme of contagion is not just biological- but psychological and sociological as well. This theme is echoed in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown, in which the Puritan belief that humanity exists in a state of depravity and sin, and with similar symbolism in color and shape: "The road grew wilder and drearier….. leaving him in the heart of the dark wilderness, still rushing onward with the instinct that guides mortal man to evil" (Hawthrone, 23). Of course, in Heart of Darkness, it is clear from the start that the trip into the "bowels" of Africa is not one of a positive or optimistic nature. "Mad terror scattered them [the natives], men, women, and children, through the bush, and they had never returned" (Conrad, 21). But it is in the explanation of the nature of Marlow's universe when the boat moves back towards civilization that sets the stage for what the diseased continent has done:

The brown current ran swiftly out of the heart of darkness, bearing us down towards the sea with twice the speed of our upward progress; and Kurtz's life was running swiftly too, ebbing, ebbing out of his heart into the sea of inexorable time (Conrad, 188).

Apocalpyse Now, the film version of Conrad's Heart of Darkness and pieces of Lord Jim, set in Vietnam, continues this theme, particularly evident in the 2001 release of Apocalpyse Now Redux in which there are extended scenses involving a rubber plantation, showing the development of the class system and disruption of the native population that eventually led to the North/South split and the war. Who can forget the powerful scenes of the American helicopters blastinc Wagner's Ride of the Valkyries, with shells and bombs raining down on the countryside civilians and the complete lack of empathy of santifty of life that this process of dehumanization engendered in all who entered the dark realm?


Achebe, C.Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books, 1994, Print.

Conrad, J. Heart of Darkness. Web. Plain Label Books. 2009. Retrieved from: googlebooks.

Hawthorne, N. Young Goodman Brown. Boston, MA: Wildside Press, 2006.

Scott, A. "Apocalypse Now Redux (2001). The New York Times. 2001, Web.

< res=9404E6D9143CF930A3575 BC0A9679C8B63&scp=11&sq=apocalypse%20now&st=cse>… [read more]

Poetry of Langston Hughes Research Paper

… "Democracy" opens with "Democracy will not come/Today, this year/Nor ever/Through compromise and fear." This is very interesting writing. He immediately implies that though America claims to be a democracy, it is not, as evidence by the injustices experienced by those… [read more]

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