"Literature / Poetry" Essays

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Frost's Poetry and Landscape Term Paper

17 pages (4,592 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… After the ceremony, Frost proposed to Elinor. Because they were going to distant colleges, Elinor wanted the engagement to be kept a secret. Frost wanted to be married right away, but she argued that there would be plenty of time for marriage when circumstances were different (Parini 31).

College life did not agree with RF, and after a year, he… [read more]

Victorian Prose and Poetry Term Paper

3 pages (1,189 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Many Victorian writers, such as Dickens, compromised between Romanticism and Realism, trying to find a balance in their beliefs and how they portrayed them to their audience of readers. Times and culture was changing when these writers wrote, and they had to discover ways to compromise between staid Victorian culture and the modern culture that was rapidly following it. Morals were becoming less strict, and Victorian principles were being replaced with more realistic and modern beliefs. The writers at the end of the Victorian era helped illustrate the changes that were happening, and the compromises that people were making to blend the old and new belief systems. Poets such as Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear wrote nonsense verses that would have never been published at the beginning of the Victorian era, for they were far too frivolous for staid Victorians (Tilling and Bloom 692-704). By the end of the era, their silly rhymes were not only accepted, they were enjoyed with relish. This shows compromise on the part of the writers, who knew the time was right for their work, and waited until it was, and compromise on the part of the public, too, who were ready to accept new ways of looking at the same old stodgy thing in their reading or their lives.

Of course, there was criticism and dislike of the realistic form of writing becoming more popular as the Victorian age wore on.

The immediate danger of the realist is to sacrifice the beauty and significance of the whole to local dexterity, or, in the insane pursuit of completion, to immolate his reader under facts; but he comes, in the last resort, and as his energy declines, to discard all design, abjure all choice, and, with scientific thoroughness, steadily to communicate matter which is not worth learning (Decker 158).

Many readers simply did not want to read about real situations, such as the London slums Dickens portrayed so graphically in his novels. They wanted to escape when they read a novel or a poem, so they could put aside the harsh realities of real life. They might have a difficult life themselves, and did not want to be reminded of it. While Realism was a very popular form of writing during late Victorian times, it was not universally accepted, and realistic writers often drew criticism for their works. This did not dissuade them however, and they continued to write with clarity and Realism.

In conclusion, the Victorian age was a time of great change around the world. The Industrial Revolution had changed the way people lived and worked, and created a wealthy upper class that could afford to attend plays, read and buy books, and sponsor literary efforts. It changed the way people wrote, too. Great writers came to be known during this time, like Dickens, Thackeray, Austen, London, Twain, and Wordsworth. They wrote what they saw, and about things that were important to them. They wrote about the evils of society, and hoped people would… [read more]

Poetry in an Prosaic World Term Paper

4 pages (1,289 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… 4 Hands that can grasp, eyes

5 that can dilate, hair that can rise

6 if it must, these things are important not because a.

In other words, one desires a true connection with reality, with hair and hands, rather than the literary representation thereof, that is rendered pregnant with meaning rather than the thing itself.

A high sounding interpretation can be put upon them but because they are

8 useful; when they become so derivative as to become unintelligible, 9 the same thing may be said for all of us, that we

10 do not admire what

11 we cannot understand: the bat, 12 holding on upside down or in quest of something to Eat," reads the next line, line thirteen, as if the poet caught up in her own rhetoric and tropes has suddenly forgotten about one of the most basic necessities of all. The poem thus contains a kind of a parody of the poetic life and style, the starving artist too caught up in his or her head and work to function in reality. Yet there is also a curious power to the language she uses. This takes the reader up in the poetic quest and thus renders the poetic life and struggle in a meaningful and vital way, for all of the poet's and the medium's ability to deflate its own sense of importance.

Ultimately, Moore's poem functions as an argument for poetry, in stressing how poetry still fulfills a need in the world. It also further stresses the poetic quest must not be a theoretical one, but a real one. Poetry, rather than holding the mundane details of life at a distance, can enable a writer and a reader to appreciate them.

24 for inspection, imaginary gardens with real toads in them, shall we have

25 it. In the meantime, if you demand on one hand, 26 the raw material of poetry in

27 all its rawness and

28 that which is on the other hand

29 genuine, then you are interested in poetry.

The interest in poetry springs up, not out of a desire to escape life, but to become more interested in life in a complete and vital way. When "dragged into prominence by half poets, the result is not poetry," she notes in her line nineteen. In other words, it is only poor poets who attempt to construct poetry out of the true tools and practical details of the physical and render such details into theoretical examples.

Rafael Campo comes from a slightly different poetic school and poetic voice than does Moore. Moore, one of the most famous poets of her day, is part of the traditional canon in American literature. Campo is a doctor, and is thus quite intimately acquainted with a discipline beyond that of literary theory and also, as a bilingual Spanish speaker, and a gay man, comes from a tradition that does not directly spring out the American or English literary poetic tradition. Nor does he write… [read more]

Life William Blake's Poem Term Paper

5 pages (2,363 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… As we read though the poem we see that there is a change of attitude when there is an incident effect the solders. There is an 'ecstasy of fumbling' as there is an event that is taking the soldiers out of the numbness that they have fallen into with the terrible condition, this numbness needs to be relieved and even… [read more]

Classic Literature for a New Term Paper

5 pages (1,781 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Modernising the message does not mean diluting it.


Bloom, Harold (1994) The Western Canon: the Books and School of the Ages. New York, Harcourt Brace.

Burgess, Anthony (1984) "Modern Novels: the 99 Best." The New York Times, late city final edition, section 7, p. 1, col. 1, Book Review Desk.

Fiedler, Leslie (1982) What Was Literature? Class Culture and Mass Society. New York, Simon and Schuster.

Kernan, Alvin. (1992) The Death of Literature. U.S., Yale University Press.

McLuhan, Marshall & Fiore, Quentin (1967) The Medium is the Massage. New York, Bantam Books.

Postman, Neil (1986) "Chapter 5: The Peek-A-Boo World" Amusing Ourselves to Death. U.S., Viking Press, pp. 64-82.

Scholes, Robert (1998) The Rise and Fall of English. U.S., Yale University Press

Scholes, Robert (1985) Textual Power: Literary Theory and the Teaching of English. U.S., Yale University Press.

Simon, Richard K. (1999) Trash Culture: Popular Culture and the Great Tradition. California, The University of California Press.

Spectrum. "Trash vs. Treasure with Some Help from Friends: Richard Keller Simon on the Power of Pop Culture" (Sat., September 2, 2000) The Sydney Morning Herald, Australia, John Fairfax Publications Pty. Ltd.

Spitzer, Leo (1998) Hotel Bolivia: the Culture of Memory in a Refuge from Nazism. New York, Hill and Wang. http://humanities.byu.edu/classes/rus340gb/function.htm



http://www.regent.edu/acad/schcom/rojc/mdic/mcluhan.html… [read more]

Sylvia Plath: Use of Dramatic Monologue as Confessional Poetry Research Paper

5 pages (1,464 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… " In this poem, the speaker is not the male Lazarus of the Bible but a woman who has made coming back from the grave her carnival-like 'trick.' There is obvious, implied reference to Plath's own, highly public suicide attempt when she was still an undergraduate at Smith College, from which she recovered.

Lady Lazarus, the resurrected woman, simultaneously mocks… [read more]

Human Memory Literature Review Chapter

25 pages (7,275 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Another intriguing aspect of Conway & Pleydell-Pearce's research about human memory and autobiographical memories is not just that autobiographical memories exist, but how they believe them to function. They contend that autobiographical memories are constantly present, yet are "activated" by events or occurrences in our present lives that trigger these memories, as well as their influence.

A fundamental premise of… [read more]

Ancient the Egyptian Love Songs/Poetry Essay

2 pages (650 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… The juxtaposition of objects to the body or parts of the body express the longing and near obsession of the authors for the objects of their desires. All of these elements combined put the reader in close proximity to both the author and the person desired (lover). It puts the reader close to the author in terms of the author's thoughts, feelings, and daydreams. It puts the reader close to the lover that is described because of the clarity and intensity of the feelings the author has. The love songs are very personal; by the time a person has reader has gone through all of the poems, he/she might almost feel as if he/she knows the people the poems are about and the people who wrote the poems in the first place.

A surprisingly theme in the poems (surprising to this reader) is the lack of possession in the love poetry. In western poetry from the distance past and even the present, there is often mention of "I'm yours" or "You're mine" and similar language. There is a distinct lack of possession and subsequent jealous as a result of feelings of possession. There is mention of feelings of belonging, yearning, desiring, happiness, pain, and other emotions, yet at no point is there some kind of threat. There is no threat of "if I can't have you, no one can" or "if I can't have you I'll commit suicide," which is fairly typical of poetry that is typically taught as part of the western canon of literature. It was a pleasant and somewhat startling surprise, for the lack of possessive feelings makes the Egyptian love songs unique, and enjoyable in an abnormal way. There is certainly an urgency, intensity, and passion expressed, but without fear, anxiety, or just plain scary feelings that people who are madly in love often feel for those they do love.… [read more]

Pasolini's Final Interviews Essay

2 pages (743 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Salo incorporates a minimum of four physical layers: the year it was made (1975); the span of the final year of the Italian Fascist stooge government beneath Mussolini in Salo, on Lago di Garda, in Northern Italy; the novel The 120 Days of Sodom by the Marquis de Sade in 1785; and the narrative Divine Comedy of Dante. Pasolini presents these temporalities analytically as well as metaphorically, at the center of which is his distaste for modern society, modified and consumerist, as it appeared to him, up to the final fortress of defiance and liberty as it pertained to language, sexuality, and the body.

The domain of the libertines as depicted in Salo is one of forced structure, restraint, laws, and responsibilities. It is a domain of sheer uniformity gone demented and destructive, where any divergence, any infraction of rule, is banned and penalized. It is a domain of dissolution, because it is a domain of monotony. It is bestowed, however, by process of a mixture of various references, spaces, languages, and outlandish images, an extreme of majorities that go further than accepted and the traditional.

It would be unjust to curb Pasolini's work to a single immovable viewpoint or implication. The expression of his images creates a depressing reality, at the same time restores it. Pasolini was exceedingly creative and over a broad range of avenues: one of contemporary Italy's most notable poets, a principal filmmaker, a significant essayist and theorist of language and the arts.

Title for this essay can be: Pasolini, an artist beyond film


Pasolini, The Cinema of Poetry. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/17576940/Pasolini-The-Cinema-of-Poetry… [read more]

French Literature? (Pick Research Paper

2 pages (580 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Which of the following could be considered Romantic authors?


Samuel Beckett, author of "Waiting for Godot"


Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who wrote that all people are created equal but everywhere we see them prisoners of society's conventions


Alexandre Dumas, author of many historical novels including "The Three Musketeers" and "The Man in the Iron Mask"

Question 7

Realism and Naturalism followed on the heels and in some ways overlapped with the emergence of Romanticism. Writers of realist novels and plays like Balzac or Zola paid attention to which aspects of life in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? (Pick out as many as you think are important to them)


The King and his court


Industrialization and its effects on people's daily lives


Social and class issues


How characters' social environment (poverty, difficult jobs, poor housing or the contrary) shape who they are and how they act.


Epic stories of knights and ladies of the long ago past

Question 8

Two of the most important and influential poets of the nineteenth century, who are still exerting their influence today. They are Arthur Rimbaud and Charles Baudelaire. Both died young, but led wild and exciting lives. Match the poet to the description of his life.

This man was a brilliant poet in his early life, this fellow was friends with Paul Verlaine, a giant of symbolist poetry. Having renounced poetry, he left Europe and travelled in Africa, where he ran guns to rebels. He is still celebrated today by rebellious cultural movements - such as punk.


Charles Baudelaire


Arthur Rimbaud

Question 9

Two of the most important and influential poets… [read more]

Deinstitutionalization Literature and Research Sources Research Paper

14 pages (4,057 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Deinstitutionalization

Discussion Question One: What is the importance of a historical literature review?

Literature review, a critical step in research procedure, is a synthesis of what is published concerning a selected topic by accredited researchers and scholars, and it provides an explanation of the literature pertinent to a certain topic or field. Literature review helps in expanding knowledge relating to… [read more]

Transformation About Litertura Term Paper

5 pages (1,711 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Transformations of Literature:

This focus of this article is to provide a discussion on transformations of literature based on William Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's Dream. The literature is a play that is widely believed to have been written between 1590 and 1596 to show the events surrounding the marriage of Hippolyta and Theseus, the Duke of Athens. The description of… [read more]

Poetry During the 17th Century Essay

3 pages (1,136 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… A shift in tone occurs in the second stanza as the focus of the poem turns from the narrator's mistress to the narrator himself. While in the first stanza the narrator contends that he would submit to his mistresses wishes of waiting for the appropriate time to take their relationship to the next level, the second stanza allows the narrator to state his selfish desires. The narrator attempts to convince his mistress to give in to his desires by telling her that time is running out. He states, "But at my back I always hear/Time's winged chariot hurrying near;/And yonder all before us lie/Deserts of vast eternity" (lines 21-24). Additionally, the narrator attempts to convince his mistress that she, too, will fall victim to time and that then, "worms shall try/That long preserv'd virginity,/And your quaint honour turn to dust,/And into ashes all my lust," which helps to emphasize the overarching tone of urgency of the poem (lines 27-30). The narrator concludes this stanza by stating, "The grave's a fine and private place/But non-I think do there embrace," which further urges the mistress to give in to the narrator, or be doomed to have spent all her life, and all of eternity, alone (lines 31-32).

In the final stanza of the poem, the narrator assumes he has provided sufficient evidence and arguments to his mistress, and he hopes that she will finally give in to him. He once again appeals to her beauty, and by comparing it to "morning dew," he emphasizes once more the need to act as quickly as possible (line 34). The third stanza uses imagery that aims to convince the narrator's mistress that giving in to their mutual desires is natural. Marvell writes, "Now let us sport us while we may;/And now, like am'rous birds of prey, Rather at once our time devour,/Than languish in this slow-chapp'd power" (lines 37-40). The narrator contends that they should be like these birds and give in to their natural desires, insinuating that it is unnatural for them to continue torturing themselves and that they should "roll all our strength, and all/Our sweetness, up into one ball;/And tear our pleasures with rife strife/Thorough the iron gates of life" because they cannot stop time, or even slow it down, but they have the ability to make the most of the time that they have left, or as Marvell writes, "though we cannot make our sun/Stand still, yet we will make him run" (line 45-46).

Through the use of imagery and metaphors, Marvell attempts to convince his mistress that giving in to their desires and temptations is natural, and while she may long to hold on to her innocence, he maintains that if they do not act now, their love and youth will be wasted and that they will never be able to express their love for each other as it should be expressed. Ultimately, Marvell believes that individuals should take advantage of the time they have and to enjoy life and… [read more]

Nature in American Literature Term Paper

3 pages (816 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… The most poignant feature of transcendentalism is reflected in the belief that God is personally accessible outside the religious congregations, present in each individual and most notably in nature. This particular conviction led to the portrayal of an enthusiastic support for self-reliance and forsaking of traditional authority, Emerson's writings being clearly dominated by the image of man striving to attain personal communion with divinity, a rather bold approach compared to Jonathan Edwards' previous piety. By contrast, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow has a less abstract approach to nature, depicting it as a more tangible, visible phenomenon which has the quality of shaping character, thought and feeling patterns.

Defiance of religious control and social order was endemic among the artists of nineteenth century. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Walt Whitman visibly renounced the conventional in favor of seclusion. It could be interpreted that the initial individualism pervaded a sense of alienation from a society that was becoming more and more rigid and suffused with material preoccupations. In addition, Herman Melville rejects the optimism of transcendentalism, for he perceives nature as a combined mixture of cruelty and beauty. Henry David Thoreau, similarly to Walt Whitman and all the other transcendentalists, celebrates "the simple separate person" (Whicher, 1945), and yet his particularity is excess because he embraces nature to the detriment of his fellow human beings.

Finally, Harriet Ann Jacobs, Harriet Beecher Stowes and Frederick Douglas all offer another view on contemporary self-reliance as opposed to authority, as they deal with the historically charged issue of slavery. In this sense, the abolitionist authors attack the Southern church, condemning slaveholding as a corruption of Christianity and of human souls, with special emphasis on the unfairness of slaves' imposed ignorance -- which deprives human beings of their inherent independent capacities and valuable identities.

To conclude, the American writers from seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth century for the most part linked nature with divinity, and the later works placed a high value on individual experiences unencumbered by religious authority, social hierarchy or any other constraints apart from a person's own conscience.


Barna, Mark. (2001, May) Our Romance with Nature. The World and I, Vol.16, No.5

Webb, J. Echoes of Paine: Tracing the Age of Reason through the Writings of Emerson (2006). ATQ (The American Transcendental Quarterly), Vol. 20, No.3

Whicher, G.F. (1945) Walden Revisited: A…… [read more]

Beauty &amp Sadness in Japanese Term Paper

6 pages (1,970 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… In Kokoro, the narrative device used to propel the story forward is the gift received by Train Man after his courageous intervention. A set of intricately designed and expensively priced Hermes tea cups is presented without comment by the woman from the train, and upon receiving this genuine gift of gratitude, the young otaku soon begins to experience an evolution in terms of his own appearance, confidence, and attitude. The role of gifting in Japanese culture is widely considered to be a sacred extension of the traditional way of life, wherein the presentation of a gift from one party to another is laden with symbolic significance and greater meaning. When the young otaku in Train Man first appraises the tea cups he has received, his initial impressions are of a simple thank-you gift, something given to express appreciation for his magnanimous actions. The comments voiced by 2 channel members, however, lead him to examine the gift more closely, and he eventually surmises that the pair of delicate teacups is representative of more than a simple gesture of thankfulness.

Just as the gift of inheritance, which was dishonorably stripped from Sensei in Kokoro provides the foundational basis for the rest of his life's choices, the gift given to Train Man enables him to discover the path on which he belongs. As the first gift he has ever been given by a woman, the simple set of teacups holds a deep level of symbolic import, as the pair indicates that they should be used together by close companions. The young otaku confirms this during a chat session with his fellow 2 channel members, stating cautiously that "I've never been thanked by a woman before, so… I got so nerrrrrrvoussss," before revealing "Damn. I'm getting all feverish. Gotta take a chill pill" (Hitori). By contextualizing the traditional practice of exchanging mutually meaningful gifts within the modern setting of internet chat forums and otaku fandom, Densha Otoko (Train Man) allows for a reexamination of gifting within previous works of cultural expression. When the love stricken J-ji in Naomi observes of traditional Japanese marriage rituals that "if neither side has any objections, an official intermediary is chosen, engagement gifts are exchanged, and the trousseau is carried to the groom's house" (Tanizaki 3), the use of gifts to make a betrothal official is an important aspect of the process. The story presented in Densha Otoko (Train Man) modernizes this exchange, with the woman presenting a gift in hopes of earning her desired man's attention and affection, and the result is an inspiringly recreated version of Japan's classic conception of courtship.

Works Cited

Hitori, Nakano. "Densha otoko (Train Man)." Tokyo: Shinchsha (2004).

Murakami, Haruki. Hard-boiled Wonderland and the End of the World. Vintage, 2010.

Shirane, Haruo. Traditional Japanese literature: an anthology, beginnings to 1600.…… [read more]

Peer Evaluation Writing Poetry Peer Reviewed Journal

2 pages (552 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Furthermore, the writer should stay away from absolutes. For instance, she writes that she "obviously" needed to include Whitman in her poem, however, she does not explain why it is obvious. Instead, I would recommend that instead of using the word "obvious," the sentence be rewritten to start off, "I chose to use Whitman…" because what is obvious to the writer is not obvious to the reader.

The same issues are applicable to the claim about Dickinson's poetry. The writer needs to provide concrete examples the reader can refer to and not assume the reader understands what she is talking about. Dickinson's poems explore a wide variety of Dickenson's thoughts and emotions and it cannot be assumed that all of Dickinson's poems are emotional. Additionally, the last sentence of the explanation is very confusing and not only does it need to be clarified, but it also needs to have concrete examples of what the writer is referring to provided.

As for the poem itself, it allows the reader to begin to understand the conflict the writer must be feeling, however, it sounds somewhat disjointed and does not connect one idea to the next as fluidly as it could have. While the first and second stanzas seem to go together, they are disjointed from the third stanza, which is the most successful stanza of the poem. Overall, I think that the poem was a good attempt and provides insight into the struggles the writer had.… [read more]

Poetry Captures Both the Personal Essay

2 pages (655 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Three lines start with the word "Let." These lines are the imploring, to a god or universe, for spiritual salvation.

The three-stanza poem illustrates ways free verse poetry has internal coherence. In "The Lost Baby Poem," the first two stanzas are the mother's words to her unborn child. The final stanza is more of a spiritual tribute, and an act of self-forgiveness. Something has happened in the poem; the speaker has come to a definite realization or epiphany. She has purged herself of the pain of remembering the abortion and has come to a point of forgiveness.

The personal meets the political in "The Lost Baby Poem," in which the mother eulogizes her "almost body" baby. Abortion is a personal and political topic, and yet the poet refrains from any judgment whatsoever. In fact, this poem can be used in a rich discussion of the use of poetry for personal healing. The speaker contemplates what would have been had she carried the child to term and had instead placed it up for adoption; she would be talking to the child about "these and some other things." As it was, the pregnant woman "dropped your almost body down / down to meet the waters under the city." Imagery of water is integral to the poem, as water is a parallel motif of pregnancy and childbirth (when the water breaks) as well as a symbol of emotional intensity (the water of tears). There are also subtle inferences of patriarchy, as when the speaker mentions the difference between "drowning" and "being drowned." The former is an act of nature; the latter is a malicious act.

"The Lost Baby Poem" allow for a rich intellectual groundwork. It permits exploration of poetic devices like imagery, motif, metaphor, and repetition. The poem also offers rich social and political commentary about gender roles, and shows how poetry is an art of spiritual healing.

Work Cited

Clifton, Lucille. "The Lost Baby…… [read more]

Poetry, Drama, Aristotle, Sophocles's Oedipus Research Paper

6 pages (2,233 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Aristotle's vision of a hero is further foregrounded in Sophocles' play by the fact that Oedipus has not only proven himself worthy of the title because of his nobility, but also because of his sensitivity, intelligence, and the "natural greatness of soul."

But the hero, the man "not pre-eminently virtuous" as Aristotle described him (Part 13), is also blinded by… [read more]

Composition Project Essay

4 pages (1,431 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Charles Simic told his elderly mother that he still wrote poetry, he claimed, "she sighed and shook her head, probably thinking to herself this son of mine has always been a little nuts," (Simic, the New York Review of Books). Simic also claims that his motivation for starting to write poetry was frivolous: to meet girls in school.… [read more]

Poetry and Beverage Analysis Essay

3 pages (1,219 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Poe Poem and Drink

Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven"

Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most well-known American Gothic literature writers of the 19th century. Poe is often identified by his dark and macabre writing style that examines a variety of issues such as the death of a beautiful woman and an individual's descent into madness. These two themes are a focal point of "The Raven" in which an unnamed narrator mourns the loss of his lover, Lenore, and is inexplicably haunted by a raven.

Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 19, 1809, the second of three children born to David and Elizabeth Arnold Poe. Poe's father abandoned his family shortly after his younger sister was born, and Poe's mother died when he was two years old, which may point to the foundation of his obsession with the death of a beautiful woman. Poe's literary career began during his brief enrollment at West Point. After being expelled from West Point, Poe worked as an editor, writer, and literary critic. Poe married Virginia Clemm on May 16, 1836 and although he was deeply committed to her, she fell seriously ill in 1845, which sent Poe into a maddening depression. Virginia died in January 1847, which drove him into further despair. After his wife's death, Poe wrote, "My enemies referred to the insanity…it was the horrible never-ending oscillation between hope and despair which I could not longer have endured with total loss of reason. In the death of what was my life, then, I receive a new but -- oh God! how melancholy an existence" (Poe, 1480). It is this oscillation between hope and despair that pervade "The Raven" and illustrate not only the narrator's descent into grieving madness, but also Poe's.

In "The Raven," an unnamed narrator is mourning the loss of the woman he loves. In the poem, the narrator is trying to lose himself in "a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore" vainly seeking "to borrow/From my books surcease of sorrow -- sorrow for the lost Lenore,/for the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore:/Nameless here for evermore" (lines 2, 9-12). The narrator is attempting to forget his sorrows when he is distracted by a mysterious noise, "As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door" (ln 4). Because of the time of night, "a midnight dreary," and the weather and time of year, "bleak December," the narrator quickly becomes concerned about who might be knocking at his door, and though he tries to assure himself by telling himself, "Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door,/Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door:/This it is and nothing more," he grows to realize that his late night visitor is not there to comfort him, but rather torment him (ln 1,7, 16-18). The longer the narrator attempts to discern the reason for the raven's visit, the deeper into paranoia he falls, and the poem becomes more maddening. It is interesting… [read more]

History of Rosicrucian Order Thesis

21 pages (5,816 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 21

… History Of the Rosicrucian Order

Despite being one of the oldest esoteric societies, the Rosicrucian Order remains one of the most mysterious and least well-known of the various groups that arose in Europe over the course of the second millennium. Although Rosicrucianism was one of the key influences on the development of Freemasonry, and, as will be discussed in the… [read more]

New World Poetry Essay

2 pages (525 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Your choice to include passages from Martin Espada's poem Blessed Be the Truth-Tellers made perfect sense from this perspective, because Prada's beautiful poem shows how fragile our concept of truth and deceit can truly become. The scene Prada presents in his poem, of a boy fearfully anticipating his scheduled tonsil-removal surgery while being misled by the trusted adults in his life, illustrates how an abstract idea like truth can shift depending on the situation. Just as Whitman believed that the best poets were able to know and speak the truth, Prada's simple man, Jack the Truth-Teller, possesses the soul of a poet, speaking the truth simply because it is all he knows how to say.

After reading your essay I was left to wonder what you think Whitman would say about Prada's poem. Would Whitman consider Prada a representation of his new world poet, somebody who, as you wrote in the essay, "sees everyone equal and know that there is more than one ways?" Personally, I believe that Whitman would be proud to know that poets in later generations embraced his view of poetry as the essence of truth, because during his era it appeared as if the true beauty of nature would be destroyed in the name of industrial progress. Prada's poem could potentially show Whitman that, despite the increasingly industrialized way in which humanity constructs society, the truth of nature's beauty will always be revealed through poetic expression.


Whitman, W. (1965).…… [read more]

Poetry Analysis Peer Reviewed Journal

2 pages (543 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… The introduction could have been strengthened as well. The essay is not about the various kinds of formatting in poetry, such as the lengths of the lines. If it were, then the introduction would be fully appropriate. The length is just fine, but the connection to the main theme is not apparent and a bit of a stretch. Perhaps the author can introduce the essay by talking about themes in poetry or movements in American poetry that are connected? Another idea is to talk about poetry's connection to movement, rhythm, and music, since the author comments on the rhythm of Whitman's poetry, and the musical qualities to Hughes' poetry. This would be a more attention grabbing and relevant introduction than the one that is there now.

The author should additionally consider improving the quality of the vocabulary words. There were some problems with subject-verb agreement, too. They did not interfere with understanding the essay, but they were noticeable. This is a strong essay, so fixing the little things will make it even better.

Finally, I enjoyed how the author demonstrated his/her knowledge of jazz. It was very clear that the author understand how jazz fit as part of African-American culture as well as American history. The historical information contextualized the analysis of jazz very well. This was one of the best parts of the essay.


Poem Hunter. (2013). Langston Hughes -- All Poems. Web, Available from: http://www.poemhunter.com/langston-hughes/. 2013 March 12.… [read more]

Lucille Clifton's Poetry Peer Reviewed Journal

2 pages (455 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Turning to the poet herself, I too was struck by the imagery of Lucille Clifton's words finding them vivid and memorable. Yes, I too am drawn right there into the poem feeling that I am alongside the writer leaning against those rails. The sensuality is impacting. The scene is tangible: you can smell it, feel it, almost smell the sweat of those in the poem, feel the woman who "leaned across the front porch/the huge pillow of her breasts/pressing against the rail," maybe even be leaning next to her.

I also see how my peer relishes her tone. I do too. It is fantastic. This feistiness of this phrase, for instance: "I am almost the dead woman's age times two, - is endearing."

The poems, and my peer's description of them, transport me in two places at once. They transport me to the scene of the place in the first instance, and they make me see the poet in the other. I see a wise, mature, compassionate, and powerful woman, one whom I quite likely would have liked to have known and one whom I almost certainly would have found inspiring. It is interesting how not only does author reveal herself in her works, but reader displays her own character in her rendition of the works.… [read more]

Poetry by Knight Essay

2 pages (679 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… In terms of this poem's representation of the notion of Groddeck's living and dying tradition, particular emphasis must be placed on the poem's ending. In the previous paragraph, the uselessness of the WASP woman's visit was already elucidated. However, her visit still had a discernible effect upon the protagonist, one which is readily indicated in the following quotation. "Her chatter sparked no resurrection…no shackles were shaken/But after sh had taken her leave, he walked softly,/And for hours used no hot words" (Knight). In this quotation, the author shows the true democratic aspect of this poem, and, frankly, of integration. The woman's visit had a sedating effect on the protagonist, who is more calm, uses no "hot" words or angry language, and is somewhat more docile in response. Such an effect attests to a democracy, although it is not one that appears to be a welcome fulfillment of democratic values or viewed in any positive aspect by the author. In this respect then, the great chasm between the protagonist and his visitor merely attests to what Groddeck would regard as a dying tradition of a division among racial lines.

This poem both references the values of democracy and alludes to the dying tradition of racial separation that Groddeck believes is soon to end. It is clear from the poem's ending and the uselessness of the woman's visit, that the author does not embrace the democratic values that the woman's visit represents. Instead, he utilizes it to point to the sedating effects of integration, which helped to calm down and ultimately pacify a number of African-Americans who, prior to integration, were a lot more combustible, unified, and resentful towards White Anglo Saxon Protestants due to the history of slavery and the ill treatment they received in the decades after it was abolished.

Works Cited

Knight, Etheridge. "A Wasp Woman Visits A Black Junkie in Prison." www.poetryfoundation.org. 1986. Web. http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/181863… [read more]

Natural Sciences and Geometry Term Paper

3 pages (1,220 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… " In the Renaissance, the circle was considered to be the most perfect geometric form, given that every point is equidistant from the center (Uddin 46).

The poem likens the poet and his beloved to the movement of heavenly bodies: "Donne's extensive use of astrological allusions, particularly in reference to the expansive universe, is evident in these two stanzas as a means of representing a macrocosmic understanding of the condition of human love" (Uddin 47). Rather than saying that the poet's love makes 'the earth move,' Donne instead urges quiet acceptance of death: "Moving of th' earth brings harms and fears." For himself and his beloved: "So let us melt, and make no noise. / No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move." Ideal love is beyond the material world, and so death should be meaningless and provoke no strong emotions. This is in contrast to "Dull sublunary lovers' love / -- Whose soul is sense -- cannot admit / Of absence, 'cause it doth remove / The thing which elemented it." Love which is purely physical dies when the body dies. Because Donne and his beloved's passion transcends the physical and is not ultimately relegated to the body, it is immortal like the soul. Through love, Donne gains an understanding of human immortality, as particular as his affection might be for his wife.

Andrew Marvell's poem "The Definition of Love" is even more abstract than Donne's poetic works. Marvell addresses the poem as if to love itself, not a specific beloved, and talks about the unrequired nature of his love as born of abstract entities: " My Love is of a birth as rare / As 'tis for object strange and high: / It was begotten by Despair / Upon Impossibility." Fate is also personified as a physical presence that keeps Marvell away from his beloved: "For Fate with jealous eye does see / Two perfect Loves; nor lets them close: / Their union would her ruin be, / And her tyrannic power depose." In the poem, the actual, physical characteristics of 'Love' are not rendered into a specific woman, and the philosophical concepts of Fate and Despair actually have more of an embodied quality than Marvell's real beloved. The poet and his beloved are conceived of being on separate, magnetic polar opposites, unable to be united by natural laws and forever longing for one another, but never able to touch.

The laws of the natural world, whether the physicality of the flea, the geometry of a circle, or the magnetic polar opposites of the earth thus are all used in Donne and Marvell as ways of conceiving love. Human love is paralleled in the laws of the universe, just as the universe offers a rich treasure-trove of metaphorical possibilities for the poet. The poets are always careful to use these metaphors with scientific and philosophical accuracy, to illustrate the symmetry between nature, humanity, and God. Yet despite the fact that the poets speak in the first-person, it is a first-person voice… [read more]

Contemplated an Individual's Relationship Term Paper

7 pages (2,421 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… In the poem, Daphne regrets her hasty call for help and subsequent transformation into a tree. It can be argued that Daphne and Apollo are both victims of Eros, who influenced Apollo to pursue Daphne and subsequently led to Daphne being transformed. While it is unknown as to how Apollo felt about pursuing Daphne or if he was attracted to… [read more]

Post Colonial Literature Historical Essay

2 pages (778 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… But, the theme of contagion is not just biological- but psychological and sociological as well. This theme is echoed in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown, in which the Puritan belief that humanity exists in a state of depravity and sin, and with similar symbolism in color and shape: "The road grew wilder and drearier….. leaving him in the heart of the dark wilderness, still rushing onward with the instinct that guides mortal man to evil" (Hawthrone, 23). Of course, in Heart of Darkness, it is clear from the start that the trip into the "bowels" of Africa is not one of a positive or optimistic nature. "Mad terror scattered them [the natives], men, women, and children, through the bush, and they had never returned" (Conrad, 21). But it is in the explanation of the nature of Marlow's universe when the boat moves back towards civilization that sets the stage for what the diseased continent has done:

The brown current ran swiftly out of the heart of darkness, bearing us down towards the sea with twice the speed of our upward progress; and Kurtz's life was running swiftly too, ebbing, ebbing out of his heart into the sea of inexorable time (Conrad, 188).

Apocalpyse Now, the film version of Conrad's Heart of Darkness and pieces of Lord Jim, set in Vietnam, continues this theme, particularly evident in the 2001 release of Apocalpyse Now Redux in which there are extended scenses involving a rubber plantation, showing the development of the class system and disruption of the native population that eventually led to the North/South split and the war. Who can forget the powerful scenes of the American helicopters blastinc Wagner's Ride of the Valkyries, with shells and bombs raining down on the countryside civilians and the complete lack of empathy of santifty of life that this process of dehumanization engendered in all who entered the dark realm?


Achebe, C.Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books, 1994, Print.

Conrad, J. Heart of Darkness. Web. Plain Label Books. 2009. Retrieved from: googlebooks.

Hawthorne, N. Young Goodman Brown. Boston, MA: Wildside Press, 2006.

Scott, A. "Apocalypse Now Redux (2001). The New York Times. 2001, Web.

< http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review? res=9404E6D9143CF930A3575 BC0A9679C8B63&scp=11&sq=apocalypse%20now&st=cse>… [read more]

Poetry of Langston Hughes Research Paper

5 pages (1,436 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… "Democracy" opens with "Democracy will not come/Today, this year/Nor ever/Through compromise and fear." This is very interesting writing. He immediately implies that though America claims to be a democracy, it is not, as evidence by the injustices experienced by those who are not white Americans. He also claims that democracy will not come immediately or during the year, or ever.… [read more]

Fern Hill (Dylan Thomas) Research Paper

3 pages (1,171 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… The imagery of "shining" and "praise" dramatize an older person's is gracious in giving to life.

"And honoured among foxes and pheasants by the gay house / under the new made clouds and happy as the heart was long / in the sun born over and over / I ran my heedless ways / my wishes raced through the house high hay / and nothing I cared, at my sky blue trades, that time allows / in all his tuneful turning so few and such morning songs / before the children green and golden / follow him out of grace…"

Earlier the speaker posited that the sun is just young once, but in this verse the sun is born "over and over" (imagery reflects the near-monotony / redundancy of aging and the passage of time); the speaker characterizes the passage of time (and the confusion brought on by aging) by saying he "ran heedless" (all is not as it should be in this age).

"Nothing I cared, in the lamb white days, that time would take me / up to the swallow thronged loft by the shadow of my hand / up to the moon that is always rising / nor that riding to sleep / I should hear him fly with the high fields / and wake to the farm forever fled from the childless land / Oh as I was young and easy in the mercy of his means / time held me green and dying / though I sang in my chains like the sea…"

"Lamb white days" is exploding with imagery that embraces color, innocence, God and time. The lamb of course is Biblical and illustrates innocence; Jesus was the "lamb of God." In Luke (10:3): "Behold I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves…" (biblemeanings.info). White is a color reflecting purity and suggesting innocence. He has come a long way, the speaker, from the carefree days of innocence, but now at an advancing age he is on his way to the "loft" in the proverbial barn of life. Only the swallows build nests there, but he is on his way (swallow nests are little caves built from the mud along the banks of rivers and streams, earlier images from this poem. The moon always seemed to be rising (this addresses loss of innocence) but time is slowing that motion down.

Throughout the poem readers have encountered meteorically presented rivers and streams and now, as life is nearing an end, those rivers and streams end in the sea (he is "chained" to the reality that time took him from "young and easy" to "green and dying"

Works…… [read more]

Ovid, Giovanni Boccaccio Essay

3 pages (975 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Setting the stage for stories about love and romance, death and war, Ovid asks the reader to interpret these tales through the frame of transformation and change. The author can remain as didactic as he wishes, because he hides behind the framing narrative. Readers can much more easily forgive the presence of the author intruding on the story when the author unself-consciously metamorphoses into the narrator in the frame.

In The Decameron, framing serves an even more direct function than it does in Ovid's Metamorphoses. In Boccaccio's The Decameron, the frame narrative provides a historical context that is much appreciated by modern readers who might not otherwise understand the motives of some of the central characters. More importantly, the frame narrative introduces the narrator unequivocally as a character. Boccaccio is more detached from The Decameron than Ovid is from The Metamorphoses. Being holed up in a farm during the "late mortal pestilence," the seven ladies and three men who weave the tales seek "in some measure to compensate the injustice of Fortune," (Proem 013). Using poignant symbolism, the author is sure to make a reference to the spinning wheel: for spinning tales is akin to spinning yarn. The frame narrative in The Decameron, the title of which refers to the ten tales told by the men and women, heralds the function of storytelling as being a salve for the soul. Therefore, frame narratives inherently celebrate the act of storytelling.

In One Thousand and One Nights, Persian queen Scheherazade is the narrator presenting the frame for the collection of tales. This is a stark contrast to both Ovid and Boccaccio, who are clearly the respective authors of their work. Authorship is not the issue in One Thousand and One Nights. These are oral narratives collected along trade routes, coalescing in a compilation and united under a Persian framework. Scheherazade, like the narrator in Ovid's Metamorphoses, invokes the divine spirit prior to framing the stories. The tone is established: a sense of wonderment and awe permeates the reading experience. Like the narrators of The Decameron, furthermore, Scheherazade provides necessary historical and cultural context that gives shape to the stories and helps the reader understand them. "The lives of former generations are a lesson to posterity; that a man may review the remarkable events which have happened to others, and be admonished; and may consider the history of people of preceding ages," (Introduction). What is remarkable about One Thousand and One Nights is the fact that the frame narrative permits a strikingly multicultural literary collection, collated under one framework.

Works Cited

From Norton Anthology of World Literature:

Ovid" in Volume A, pp. 1073-1076

"Metamorphoses" in Volume A, pp.1076-1088; pp. 1104-1116

"Giovanni Boccaccio" in Volume B, pp. 605-609

"Decameron, Day 10, Story 10" in Volume B, pp. 649-656

"The Thousand and One Nights" in…… [read more]

Poetry and Politics in 1079 Term Paper

2 pages (647 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Su Shih was a vocal opponent of the "New Policies" and he submitted writings to the emperor expressing differing opinions than Wang An-shih. A majority of his poems were seen as hostile to various aspects of the "New Policies" or their advocates.

The popularity of Su Shih's verse was another factor that drew attention. The first indictments against him states, "There is nothing he has not slandered or ridiculed. The common people therefore expect that as soon as there is a flood or a famine or an outbreak of banditry, Su Shih will surely be the first to criticize the situation, attributing all blame to the New Policies."

Su Shih drew a distinction between "indirect criticism' and "malicious slander," however at the time no one was able to define that distinction. (This brings to mind a famous quote of Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Potter Stewart about pornography being hard to define "but I know it when I see it."). A government's attempt to suppress the dissemination of ideas and opinions that differ from their own rhetoric is founded in the fear that the differing ideas threaten either the status quo or the agenda being pushed. There is also a fine line between what one sees as freedom of expression and another sees as propaganda. Su Shih was a dangerous poet to those with whom he did not agree and his popularity made him a source of unwanted criticism for the reform party. This type of governmental behavior, restricting the freedom of expression by those who do not support their agenda, is not unique to any political party or type of government.

Works Cited

Hartman, Charles. "Poetry and Politics in 1079: The Crow Terrace Poetry Case of Su Shih." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews, Vol. 12. (December 1990): 15-44. JSTOR. Web. 11 May 2012.

Mitgang, Herbert. Dangerous Dossiers: Exposing the Secret War Against America's Greatest Authors. New…… [read more]

Children's Lit Montano Urges Essay

4 pages (1,279 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Tin in the Congo is one of the more overtly racist of childhood classics; such a book would not be published today in any serious publishing house. The book plays up stereotypes of African culture without revealing the diversity of the continent, and generally supports the practices and worldviews of colonialism. Gender issues are also apparent, mainly in the complete absence of any female characters. Similarly, linguicism is evident in the ways African phrases are repeated as if they are only magical incantations. Tin in the Congo certainly deserves to be studied from an adult's standpoint, rather than be read to children as an example of reality.

3. Riorden, Rick. The Titan's Curse. 2007

Part of the Percy Jackson and the Olympians series, The Titan's Curse is the third installment. The series builds on themes extant in Greek mythology, enhancing those themes with modern scenarios and characters. Although the book is about a standard European mythos, Riorden's series does not bear any sign of racial or ethnic superiority. It is not as if the author is suggesting that Greek mythology is the only mythology worth studying, as it has been presented in many school curricula. Rather, the author is writing what he knows best and it comes across as being ironically multicultural. The series could even become a stepping stone for discussing the role and impact of Greek mythology on the development of Western cultural identity. Furthermore, there are several half-breed characters that draw attention to the relevance of bi-racialism in the United States. The novels have strong female characters, rendering them relatively free of gender-bias. Even though the main characters are male, the female characters do not fall pray to stereotypes. Generally, Riorden's series show that it is not enough to include non-European cultural references in a reading curricula and that even books on traditional European subjects can be enlightening for young readers.

4. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. 2003.

J.K. Rowling seems consciously aware of gender, race, and linguistic bias; writing to shatter each of them. Her title character is a studious type, as gender neutral as some of the other characters in the book. In, fact, some of the antagonistic male characters in Harry Potter series are depicted as "jock" types. The author makes a strong statement against gender stereotype and bias. In The Order of the Phoenix, Potter and his friends encounter many of the same types of challenges that are presented in the other installments in the series. Race, gender, and language issues are not central to the book, which can be enjoyed without being picked apart too eagerly. Rowling makes sure to include students at the school that are non-white, in approximately the proportion they might be encountered in modern English boarding schools. Yet herein is a problem: Rowling does not necessarily want to address socio-economic class issues plaguing England, or the race-class interface that should not be ignored in novels that are aimed at older readers. Because Rowling… [read more]

Rime of Ancient Mariner Samuel Term Paper

7 pages (2,173 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… This transformation results into his urge to tell his story to everyone and he repents throughout the rest of his life. Hence, the Mariner comes to the conclusion that the better world can be achieved if one sees the values of the petty things in life.

This poem has also been considered an allegory of the man's relation with the spiritual and the metaphysical world. The killing of the albatross results in the punishment of the Mariner by the spiritual world with the help of the natural world. The sun, water, wind, crew members and the ghosts all carry some sort of supernatural element. They all become a cause of suffering for the Mariner. The spiritual world as weaved by the Coleridge has also been balanced between the religious and the fantasy. It also shows that societal pleasures can distance man away from the spirituality and he abandons the reverence of the natural world.

This poem is also the story of retribution since in the poem; the Ancient Mariner spends the remaining part of his life paying for the killing of Albatross. The natural world avenges Mariner for the death and sends physical as well and the psychological devastation on the Ancient Mariner and his crew members. (Keach, 2004) They all suffer from the torments of the nature such as thirst and death. The punishment of the Mariner also gets extended when the punishment of Life-in Death is reserved for the Mariner. He must endure the everlasting grief of death of crew members and he is kept alive to warn others about the consequences of foolishness of man and disgracing of the natural world.

Many critics have also emphasized on the Christian interpretation of this poem. The poem has been attributed to touch the theme of closeness to God through the act of prayer and the importance of showing love and respect to nature and the creations of God. The Ancient Mariner also highlights the joy that one gets when one joins others in prayers when he mentions that "walk together to the Kirk, / And all together pray." (Keach, 2004) He also praises the hermit who has excluded himself from the worldly pleasures and does nothing but to pray to God and to love God's creations. The killing of the Albatross can also be compared to the sin of Adam and Eve and the betrayal of Judas with Christ. Just like Adam and Eve, the Ancient Mariner challenges the God's rule of nature and tries to understand things that are out of his reach. He becomes a sinner and he is driven into the limbo-like state. Also, this poem can be linked with the salvation of Christ and the betrayal of Judas. Like Judas, the Mariner kills the soul who brought the good fortune for the crew members and who could help him in his salvation and understanding of the Divine. Many critics have also compared the Albatross with the Jesus Christ. (Fulmer, 1969) In the end, the Ancient… [read more]

Poetry About Struggle: The African-American Essay

3 pages (1,126 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… " The poem famously opens with a rhetorical question: "What happens to a dream deferred?" Then it lists various possibilities for the deferred dream. Although it is not specifically stated that the poem is about the African-American experience in the text of the poem, the title of the poem makes it clear.

Various striking images are used to characterize African-American's deferred dreams in the Hughes poem. "Does it dry up/like a raisin in the sun?" Implicit in the image of the dried, beaten-down raisin in the sun is that of a slave working in the cotton fields, drying up. The slave metaphor is further reinforced by the question. "Or [Does it] fester like a sore -- / And then run?" This refers to the attempts of slaves to run away North (and possibly black men and women who migrated Northward after the end of slavery to cities like Chicago in search of greater opportunities).

The reference to covering over the misery of oppression with sweetness is referred to in the question: "Does it stink like rotten meat? / Or crust and sugar over -- / like a syrupy sweet? " The masking behavior referred to by Dunbar would seem to be a kind of 'crusting over' like a syrupy sweet. Finally, the poem raises the specter of angry violence after so many years of being beaten down and forced to smile. "Maybe it just sags / like a heavy load. / Or does it explode?" Hughes' reference to exploding could sound potentially threatening, but because it is expressed in a metaphor, it sounds more poignant. Also, by pairing it against the heavy load that metaphorically suggests how African-Americans are forced to bear so much literal and metaphorical weight in their servile occupations, Hughes explains why and how the explosion is likely to occur.

Rita Dove's poem "Persephone, Falling" uses metaphors like Hughes, but Dove deploys a long, extended metaphor in her work to illustrate how women, specifically African-American women are judged harshly because of their sexuality. Any fall from grace is read as utterly ruining the woman, just like the mythical Persephone's life was destroyed by a single action -- her abduction and eating six pomegranate seeds in the underworld. And it is read as the fallen woman's fault. "No one heard her. / No one! She had strayed from the herd," Dove writes of Persephone, as the woman is pulled down.

Dove's poem sounds more like a conventional use of Greek mythology, in contrast to the more explicit use of images to speak about political situations in the earlier poet's works. However, when a speaker uses the example of Persephone to try to limit the actions of women in a scolding fashion: "Don't answer to strangers. Stick / with your playmates. Keep your eyes down," the reader senses a reference to something outside of the realm of pure myth. There are clear parallels with the cautions given to women to keep them in line, particularly nonwhite women whose sexuality… [read more]

Intersection of History and Literature Essay

2 pages (648 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Overlap of History and Literature

World War II and the era which surrounded it would produce momentous and cataclysmic change on a global scale. Whole states expanded, collapsed, emerged and disappeared in the midst of a military conflict which would ultimately engulf all inhabited continents. As these enormous and terrible events impacted the world on a whole, infinite stories of individual struggle also developed. The incredibly fertile body of literary material produced from these individual struggles stands today as one of the lasting collective documents to a time that humanitarian responsibility demands we never forget. Though war is often seen through history's eyes as sweeping, recalibrating political events, the literature produced in its aftermath is often most valuable in evoking some sense of the emotional and psychological toll levied by war. Here, in Elie Wiesel's Night (1960) and Kazuo Ishiguro's an Artist in the Floating World (1986), two writers use the same historical backdrop in order to recount two dramatically different human experiences.

In both is a commonality that is frequently seen in all manner of historically-driven narrative. Namely, in both, we find a character who is largely moved by the events around him rather than the reverse. This is frequently a feature found in the overlap between history and literature and denotes the experience of being made to bend to forces far larger than one's self. In the case of Ishiguro's work, Masuji Ono is an artist who has allowed himself to become a vessel for the propaganda of Japanese fascism. His story, therefore, occurs in to phases, neither of which finds him very much in control of his fate. In the first phase, Ono is an artist of much acclaim, largely by virtue of his commitment to a draconian ruling political and cultural power. The second phase finds Ono, by this same virtue, reviled by a post-war leftist authority. His acclaim and his isolation respectively show the artist as a…… [read more]

Stability of Wing Tip Vortex Over Rough Literature Review Chapter

8 pages (2,189 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of the stability of wing tip vortex over rough wing.The work of Beninati and Marshall (2005) for instance was an experiment which was dedicated to the study of the effects of the phenomenon of free-stream turbulence on a trailing vortex. In this study the duo investigated the evolution of turbulence as well… [read more]

Don Quixote in Literature Essay

4 pages (1,268 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… And, other times, people let literature empower them to live better lives. For example, in the article, "Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication," it discusses that people mistakenly believe their loved ones understand them better than anyone else. In truth, people have a harder time communicating with their loved ones than they do strangers. I read this article and empowered me because my husband and I have trouble communicating because he does not listen very well and I grow impatient with that. I want to be able effectively communicate with him so that he will listen and not twist things around. I tell myself to keep communicating short and to the point so he will focus more on what I am saying more rather than just hearing noise. Normally, I do not have trouble communicating with anyone else except for my mother, which is another loved one. She likes to talk over people especially me. However, through this article, it empowered me to change communication skills. Sometimes, by my husband not listening to what I am saying, it causes a big fight because he spends too much money and overdraws the checking account or I tell him that there is very little money in the bank and he has our five-year ask me if we can get McDonald's. Over the years, I have grown short tempered with him because of these poor communication skills. Furthermore, in a sense, we both want to be heard and understood as it has been shown in our text.

"One of the most obvious benefits of human communication is that it allows people to share thoughts, feelings, experiences, and views of the world. When you do so, you share the meaning they have for you, and you connect with others. A prominent early 20th century British psychologist named Frederic Bartlett (1932) believed that people are motivated by what he called "effort after meaning" (p. 20), a fundamental need to understand reality and the world around them. This meaning and shared view of reality is achieved through communication" (Sole 2011).

In order to fix this communication issue with my husband, I have tried to talking calmly with him. Furthermore, I have shown him the bank statement so that he could see for himself how much money we have. I have told him not to involve our five-year-old in arguments because it makes things worse. In the article, it shows the communication issue that I have with my husband is common.

"We know that literacy leads to empowerment, especially for women, whether in 19th-century Britain, contemporary America, or in developing countries today. The stats are clear: Give a girl an education, and she'll save the world. Sharing engaging and inspiring stories of girls who defy expectations and live happily ever after is a powerful way to encourage them to break the rules, embrace their power, and seek happiness -- but only if those stories are celebrated, not scorned" (Rodale).

Through literature, people, like who are the character,… [read more]

Daughters in Literature Requires Essay

6 pages (1,924 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The act of getting on one knee resembles a marriage proposal; there is a great deal of subtext embedded in the relationship between Cordelia and Lear to suggest that the Oedipal complex is at play. Cordelia's character is, moreover, completely defined by her relationship with men. Her relationship with her father, and his subsequent scorn, are what prompt her to marry and move to France. Her death is due directly to the actions of other Lear daughters, who are likewise defined by their relationship with men as well as their nefarious natures.

The relationship between Lear and Cordelia also highlights a common thread throughout literature: that the relationship between father than daughter is similar to the relationship between daughter and her husband. In King Lear, the similarity between the relationships is spelled out symbolically when Lear tells Cordelia that he will get on one knee for her, and that they will live as two birds in a cage together. In Pride and Prejudice, the connection is less overt but still apparent in the ways the five daughters pursue their relationships with men. In Crime and Punishment, the relationship between father and daughter is also problematic and exploitative. Daughters serve first their parents, and then their husbands. Women do not have a right to self-determination or self-love. Only Woolf suggests that complete independence from male bondage is possible; the relationships between the daughters Cam, Nancy, Rose, and Prue are explored much more through Mrs. Ramsay than with her husband. Woolf offers an alternative vision of family that flattens gender roles and enables a more egalitarian society. This is why Lily's presence as a painter becomes especially meaningful: her creativity and self-empowerment serve as role models for the Ramsay girls. Lily remains committed to extricating herself from patriarchy, which is why she is not even portrayed as a daughter at all. To do so would negate the fact that women are not defined by their relationships to men, but by what they choose to do with their own time.

Works Cited

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Edited by James Kinsley. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated and annotated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

Shakespeare. William. King Lear. Edited…… [read more]

Contemporary Irish Literature Essay

4 pages (1,099 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Post-Modernist Features of Contemporary Irish Literature

The Irish have always had a strong sense of itself as a nation and as a way of thinking. Although Ireland has often been associated and defined by its political activity, the core beliefs and opinions of the Irish are have been best expressed through literary activity. As a result, contemporary Irish literature has provided some of the most compelling and tragic literature in the English-speaking language. Building on the tradition of modern Irish literature and its themes of personal and national discontent, it provides a very honest, self-confrontational sort of introspection rarely seen in literature.

Contemporary Irish literature continues Modern Irish literature's focus on nationalism and religion and, more importantly, a uniformly critical treatment of those themes. However, Contemporary Irish Literature provides alternative perspectives on the themes of Nationalism and religion, often resulting in sort of self-reflexivity and parody indicative of post-Modernist literature in general but distinctly Irish in voice.


The "Steward of Christendom" is a play written in 1995 by Irish author Sebastian Barry. It follows the experiences of former police captain under the British regime in Ireland, Thomas Dunne,. It describes his fall in status as a result of Irish independence and the new political order that succeeds it. Dunne is very similar to the majority of Ireland, as a Catholic instead of a Protestant like the British. However, he is ostracized from Irish society because of his former association with the British.

The "Cripple of Inishmaan" is a play written in 1996 by London-born Irish author Martin McDonagh. Set in the 1930's, it describes the experiences of a crippled Irish orphan, Billy Claven, who moves to the Aran islands from the neighboring, rural town of Inishman to audition for a Hollywood movie. Inishmore is known for its poverty, isolation, and backwardness, yet is also known by the Irish, perhaps tellingly, for its "Irishnssness." Claven encounters much ignorance, cruelty, and mistreatment at the hands of his townsmen in Inishmore, which is partly the reason he wants to visit the island and the fiml crew.


The Literature of the Disenfranchised and Ignored

Contemporary Irish literature characterized by a critical, incisive evaluation of a modern society dominated by industrial Capitalism and Nationalism. Modern society, despite the lessons and the promise engendered by Judeo-Christian religion and the age of Enlightenment, is still a place where groups tend to dominate less ambitious or organized groups. The result, at times, is the dominance of the many by the few, as in Capitalist economies, and, other times, the dominance of the few by the many, as with the English dominance of Ireland. Although the distributions between such groups vary according to emphasis, it appears that the dominant groups appear to get smaller every day.

Contemporary Irish literature, though unique, shares many features with other types of literature by the disenfranchised and ignored. Its critical bent is highly reminiscent of African-American literature or feminist (concerned with themes of gender) literature. Just as African-American literature express the… [read more]

Rime of the Ancient Mariner Essay

6 pages (1,871 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… He had, as a result, what pop-psychology would call a nervous breakdown. The stress was too great, and his brain disengaged; he fell victim to PTSD, but he saw it as visions (Ribkoff & Inglis). Because he survived the trauma, he has self-imposed the therapy of needing to "absolve" himself through the continual telling of the tale. Interestingly, this is the opposite of one of the results of PTSD. Normally the sufferer will become very stoic and unable to tell what happened (Ribkoff & Inglis).


The tale of the ancient mariner is difficult to fully understand because it is so disjointed and chaotic. The mariner jumps from one reality to another and his rime is so fantastical that it cannot be believed. But it is easy to see the aesthetic, philosophical and psychological elements that are hidden within Coleridge's poem. The beauty may be couched in the horror, the philosophy in religion, and the psychology in stress, but he is able to distinguish all of these points and more in the way he tells the tale. It may be difficult to distinguish truth from reality at times, but it is probably just as difficult for the person who has experienced a traumatic event to do this either. It seems that the rime is more a psychological tale, given what is now known, than a metaphysical one. PTSD could very easily send someone down the strange trails the mariner experiences in his journey.

Works Cited

Curran, Stuart. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Web.

Hiller, Russell M. "Coleridge's Dilemma and the Method of "Sacred Sympathy": Atonement as Problem and Solution in Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Papers on Language & Literature 45.1 (2009): 8-21. Web.

Howson, Chris. "Rime of the Ancient Mariner Summarized." Valley City State University, 1999. Web.

Rearick, T. "Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Mount Vernon Nazarene University, 1998. Web.

Ribkoff, Fred, and Karen Inglis. "Post-Traumatic Parataxis and the Search for a 'Survivor by Proxy' in Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." PSYART. Web.

Stokes, Christopher. "My Soul in Agony": Irrationality and Christianity in the rime of the Ancient Mariner." Studies in Romanticism 50.1 (2011): 3-19. Web.…… [read more]

Analysis of Poets War Poetry Essay

10 pages (3,686 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Gentle images such as the "flowers to love" and the glorious picture of the English countryside, including the "rivers" and the "suns of home," emphasize the peaceful tone. The sestet gives an sanguine tone of idyllic peace as well, with phrases such as "dreams as happy as her day," "laughter," and "an English heaven." The last line especially explains the… [read more]

Langston Hughes Poetry Essay

2 pages (714 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… The narrator also understands that the discrimination that he is subjected to is temporary and believes "Tomorrow/I'll be at the table/When company comes" (8-10). The narrator recognizes that change is inevitable, yet he continues to hope that change is more rapid and does not take too long to be put into place. He hopes that the people and institutions that have discriminated against him are able to see the wrong that they have done and hopes that they are "ashamed" for what they have done. The most poignant lines of the poem help to relay the narrator's aspirations.

While "Mother to Son" and "I, Too" show how one's hard work and dedication pay off, even if one's actions and behaviors go unrecognized, Hughes's "Dream Deferred" posits the possibility that one's dreams and ambitions may go unfulfilled. This poem, unlike the previous, is very simple in nature and explores the mortality, so to speak, of an idea. Despite the fact that the narrators in "Mother to Son" and "I, Too" are able to accomplish their goals and fulfill their dreams through hard work and dedication, "Dream Deferred" explores the possibility of failure. Because Hughes is not able to definitively describe what happens to a dream that fails, it can be argued that a dream never really dies, but instead transforms into a different dream with the original intent still intact.

Hughes's poetry draws upon the American experience as was seen from an African-American perspective. By drawing upon these experiences, Hughes brings to light the conflicts and obstacles that have had to be overcome in order for African-Americans to succeed. In each poem, Hughes's narrators encourage others to pursue their dreams, not only for themselves, but to demonstrate to others that they are a part of society and not a marginalized culture. Hughes demonstrates that while not all dreams can be fulfilled, they cannot be killed either.

Works Cited

Hughes, Langston. "Dream Deferred." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.

-. "I, Too." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.

-. "Mother to Son." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.… [read more]

Irish Literature Ireland Essay

3 pages (1,094 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The narrator does use the word "you," indicating that he or she is discussing the content of the poem with a specific readership. Additionally, both of the poems use the metaphor that is comparing the process of writing and publishing of literature with the violence of their country's history, both past and recent.

The themes of both "Belfast Confetti" and "The Ulster Way" appear to be the ways in which the violent history of Ireland can be both explained and celebrated without necessarily having to approve of the methods of either side of the equation. "Belfast Confetti" begins with the narrator explaining that the present of the piece is a violent upheaval, a riot of some kind. Among the debris of the violent actions are exclamation marks as well as building materials and car keys. It is a comingling of propaganda, the foundation of society, and the necessities of an everyday life that comprise existence in Ireland. After the stanza break, the narrator's tone seems to change so that instead of more observational he instead becomes paranoid and panicked so that he feels that he is being cornered by the world in which he lives. The narrator appears to be someone in the literary field who does not know how to express himself in this world because the events of Ireland's history have become so palpable to him that he can no longer write about it without including himself emotionally. For Gillis, the narrator also is witness to a world around him that is dying in the wake of constant violence. Even the plants and trees, symbols of the natural world, are becoming violent and inhumane after witnessing so many atrocities. At the heart of this piece is not an uncertain writer, but instead deals with an individual who is trying to cope with his own place in Ireland's national identity. The culmination is in the final line of the poem when the narrator claims that the person to whom it is talking is all that matters in the world and the reasoning for this is that either the person to whom the narrator speaks is uncertain or the narrator is speaking to himself and trying to fortify himself with the knowledge that no matter what the rest of the nation may be doing or how, the self is all that matters.

Both Ciaran Carson and Allan Gillis are Irish writers of the modern period. Given their national identity and the history of their culture, it is not surprising that this national identification makes its way into their poetry. In "Belfast Confetti," a young Irish writer tries to understand the violence of his homeland and still try to understand his individual identity. "The Ulster Way" deals with an observer who cannot help but feel that everything has been negatively impacted by Ireland's violent past. Trying to understand that past and his own unique identity, the narrator comes to the conclusion that the only thing that matters is the self. Both… [read more]

Human Commonalities in Literature in the Preface Essay

3 pages (1,134 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Human Commonalities in Literature

In the preface to his edition of Shakespeare's works, the 18th century scholar and author Samuel Johnson asked why Shakespeare's plays were still popular among common people so long after his death. He then answered his own question by asserting that Shakespeare was "the poet that holds his readers a faithful mirrour of manners and life." (Johnson) He was popular hundreds of years after his death because his characters were "the genuine progeny of common humanity," they had characteristics that every human being shared and could relate to. (Johnson, 8) Shakespeare's characters and stories may have been set in specific places and times, but they contained universal themes and emotions which made them timeless. More than two centuries have past since Johnson made his assertions and it is necessary to ask if they as true in the 21st century as they were in the 18th. Two short stories which contrast Johnson's ideas are Ernest Hemingway's the Old Man and the Sea and Harrison Bergeron by Kurt Vonnegut. While Hemingway's story contains universal themes which all humanity can relate to, Vonnegut's is strange and not representative of the common human experience. However, despite these differences, both stories effectively present the reader with an experience that can be related to by the common person.

The Old Man and the Sea is a tale that is set in the modern world and even contains references to 1950's American baseball players, but this tale of a Cuban fisherman is representative of the common human experience. The story begins with the "old man" on his eighty-fourth day without catching a fish. He is having a spot of bad luck, or a losing streak as they say in baseball terminology; something that every person has experienced. The other fishermen feel as though he cannot do his job, but the old man knows that he still has what it takes to catch the big ones. He has the drive and determination to continue and not give up. Eventually the old man takes his skiff out further than any of the other fishermen and his determination is rewarded when he lines "the biggest fish that he had ever seen and bigger than he had ever heard of…" (Hemmingway, 22)

But the old man is far from finished in his struggle to catch the fish as it drags him out into the open ocean and he does not come back to shore until two days after he initially left. During this time the old man struggles to maintain his focus and determination, to keep going when he is exhausted, to have faith that he will make it. These are all themes and concepts that each human being must face in their daily lives; a just representation of general human nature. The readers may not be Cuban fishermen, but everyone has had times in their lives when they are faced with the decision to give up or go on, to take the easy way out or… [read more]

Modest Proposal Literature Is a Window Essay

4 pages (1,631 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Modest Proposal

Literature is a window into the society of Jonathon Swift's time in which created he created "A Modest Proposal." It mirrors English society and addresses the concerns of the day with regard to the social problems of poverty, hunger and the blindness to those issues of inequality in English society. The piece reflects those problems and comments upon… [read more]

Frankenstein and Romanticism Essay

8 pages (3,711 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… Frankenstein and Romanticism

Having long been viewed as peripheral to the study of Romanticism, Frankenstein has been moved to the center. Critics originally tried to assimilate Mary Shelley's novel to patterns already familiar from Romantic poetry. But more recent studies of Frankenstein have led critics to rethink Romanticism in light of Mary Shelley's contribution. Gradually emerging from the shadow of… [read more]

American and European Literature Research Paper

6 pages (1,898 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Attempting to identify the differences between American and European literature is actually more difficult than it may appear at first, because while there are distinct differences between American and European culture in general, one must first confront the fact that nearly all American culture can trace its roots back to Europe and the first white settlers which came to the region. This is because any indigenous culture is generally not regarded as part of the American identity, due to a concerted effort to erase that culture through violence and political disenfranchisement. However, recognizing this fact does allow one to begin a productive discussion of the differences between American and European literature, because it reveals how the notion of a distinct American literature is dependent upon the creation of an American identity that claims a prehistory for itself that does not exist, as evidenced in the emergence of American folk traditions over a relatively short period of time.

Mark Twain both records and embodies these traditions, as his work emerged in a time of cultural and political crisis, and served to cement the notion of a preexisting American identity free from the particular political rivalries of the day. Oscar Wilde's work reveals this fact even more explicitly by contrasting the image of the European literary tradition against the American identity in his short story "The Canterville Ghost," which uses the character of the new American minister in order to represent the kind of manufactured identity which confronts and disarms the traditional European ghost. Thus, while one may note a number of differences between American and European literature in general, one cannot escape the fact that these myriad differences are inextricably linked to the development of the American political and social identity, a development which was explicitly oriented against traditional European notions of propriety, culture, and political organization.

Works Cited

Guillory, John. Cultural capital: the problem of literary canon formation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Kronick, Joseph. "Writing American: Between Canon and Literature." CR: The New Centennial

Review. 1.3 (2001): 37-66. Print.

Messent, Peter, and Louis Budd. A companion to Mark Twain. Malden: Blackwell, 2005.

Wilde,…… [read more]

Literary Terms Booklet Essay

3 pages (1,176 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … unifies and permeates an entire literary work. The theme can be a brief and meaningful insight or a comprehensive vision of life; it may be a single idea. The theme may be also a more complicated paradigm. A theme is the author's way of communicating and sharing ideas, perceptions, and feelings with readers. It may be directly stated in the book, or it may only be implied. Example: Socialism as a means to cleanse society of capitalism in The Jungle by Upton Sinclair.

Metaphor -- A comparison or analogy describe to implicate that one object is another one, figuratively speaking. Example: Catch 22 by Joseph Heller.

Internal conflict -- An argument or decision-making progress within one character's mind. An internal conflict has intent and the resolution is crucial to the success of the plot. Example: Brutus in "Julius Caesar" by William Shakespeare.

Dialect -- The language of a particular district, class, or group of people. The term encompasses the sounds, spelling, grammar, and diction employed by a specific people as distinguished from other persons either geographically or socially. Example: Their Eyes Were Watching God, by Zora Neale Hurston.

Alliteration -- The repeating of a consonant sound in words in close proximity to others, or repeating a sound at the beginning several words with the same vowel sound. Most often it involves the sounds at the beginning of words in close proximity to each other. Example: "The Raven" by Edgar Allen Poe.

Drama -- A composition presenting, using action and dialogue, a narrative involving conflict between a character or characters and some external or internal force. Example: The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger.

Autobiography -- A non-fictional account of a person's life -- usually a celebrity, important historical figure, or a writer -- written by that actual person. Example: The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, by Benjamin Franklin.

Non-fiction -- A narrative that is based on actual events, facts, and persons. It is the opposite of fiction. Example: The Education of Henry Adams by Henry Adams.

Fiction -- An imagined story, whether in prose, poetry, or drama. Example: Breakfast of Champions, by Kurt Vonnegut.

Climax -- The turning point of the action in the plot of a play or story, typically the most important point of the story. Example: "Oedipus Rex" by Sophocles when Oedipus realizes he's killed his father and married his mother.

Biography -- The story of a person's life written by someone other than the person whose life story it is. Example: Gandhi, by Amy Pastan and Primo Levi.

Protagonist -- The main characters in a work, on whom the author focuses the most of the narrative attention, usually what we could call "the good guy." Example: Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee.

Antagonist -- The character against whom the protagonist struggles against, usually who we would call "the bad guy." Example: Luzhin in Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky.

Simile -- An analogy or comparison created usually by using adverbs… [read more]

African-American Literature Term Paper

3 pages (1,085 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… What it does not tell you, is that it will show the reader (from vantage point of slave) how this practice is wrong.

The Confession of Nate Turner

In The Confession of Nate Turner, Thomas Gray is speaking for Nate Turner. He is slave who led the largest uprising in U.S. history. What happened was Turner published a pamphlet before his death that described: how and why the 1831 insurrection would occur in Virginia. As he was able to lead a group of slaves who: overpowered and gained control of South Hampton Country, Virginia. Once the uprising was over is when Turner would tell everything that happened with these events to his attorney (Thomas Gray). He would then take these conversations and distribute them as a pamphlet for the public to read.

In the literature, Gray is painting Turner as someone who knowingly violated the law and is unremorseful about the actions that they have engaged in. Where, he is seen as a fugitive slave who planned on murdering white people. Evidence of this can be seen with Gray writing, "Whilst everything upon the surface wore a calm and peaceful aspect. A gloomy fanatic was revolving in the recesses of his own dark, bewildered and overwrought schemes to indiscriminately massacre all of the whites." (Gray, 1856, pg. 338) This is significant, because it is showing how Gray is trying to make Turner out to be a criminal that is confessing to his crimes.

When you compare this with Turner's accounts, he believes that his insurrection is a larger plan of God's to end slavery for good. Evidence of this can be seen with Turner saying, "I was placed under an overseer for whom I ran away and remained in the woods for thirty days. I returned to the astonishment of everyone on the plantation, who thought that I had escaped to some other part of the country. But the reason of my return was that the Spirit appeared to me and told me to return to the service of my earthly master." (Gray, 1856, pg. 342) This is significant, because Turner is justifying how God wanted him to lead an uprising as part of his overall plan. When you compare this with Gray's account, Turner is taking a religious tone to justify his actions. While Gray, is making him out to be a criminal that is confessing to this crimes.

What both works are showing; is how they are critiquing white exploration about the institution of slavery. This is accomplished by having the prologue at the beginning of these works, written by someone who will try to set the tone of what is being read. While at the same time, this is creating a new genre of literary expression for African-Americans. As, they were able to discuss the ideas and issues that they believe need to be explored by the rest of society (the abolition of slavery). Over the course of time, this would lead to changes in views about… [read more]

Experimental Research Methods in Business Literature Review Chapter

16 pages (4,846 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 14

… 123). The research approaches to which the authors refer in their definition include, for example, data collection and analysis, inference techniques, qualitative perspectives, and quantitative perspectives. When placing a mixed methods approach in the research -- as a type of research -- the authors suggest research employing mixed methods "would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program… [read more]

Tell-Tale Heart: A Descent Essay

5 pages (1,733 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Unable to shake the ringing in his ears, the narrator finally breaks down and confesses his crimes. It may be argued that the ringing that the narrator heard was not the old man's heart, which he believed was still beating under the floorboards, but rather his own beating heart which he paid more attention to because of his heightened senses. The inability to distinguish between his own beating heart and the dead man's heart is an effect of his increased anxiety and the unease that was created due to the presence of the policemen in the room.

Poe is able to successfully explore the dangers of mental instability through the characterization of the narrator in "The Tell-Tale Heart." Poe brought attention to an unknown and often undiagnosed disease and presented the dangers of not seeking or obtaining treatment. While the narrator maintains that he is sane, he does not deny his guilt, freely recounting the meticulous details of his diabolical plan. In the process of denying his insanity, the narrator is able to provide evidence to support that he is indeed suffering from a mental disorder.

Works Cited

"Dorothea Dix Begins Her Crusade." Mass Moments. Web. Accessed 14 October 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Paranoid Schizophrenia." Mayo Clinic. 16 December 2010. Web.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart." Literature: An Introduction…… [read more]

Play? We're Heading Down to the Lake Essay

10 pages (2,745 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … play? We're heading down to the lake."


"Are you the new boy?"

"I guess so."

"Don't talk much, do you?" The dark-skinned young boy sitting on the step warily regarded the white and the black child on the other side of the fence. The day was warm, and he would have liked to have gone swimming. However,… [read more]

American Literature What Elements of Free Verse Essay

4 pages (1,620 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… American Literature

What elements of free verse do you find in Aboard at a Ship's Helm? Identify three elements of free verse used by Whitman. Give an example of each from the poem.

Free verse gives a poet practically freedom to do whatever they would like with their writing, breaking conventional rules of how a poem is supposed to be… [read more]

Why Christians to Study Secular Literature Essay

1 pages (314 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Christians and Secular Literature

Both secular and Christian literature benefit society in disparate ways. Christian literature encourages discernment in what people read; that is -- encouraging Christians to read faith-based literature can help them explore their faith and look at different theories related to Christianity. At the same time, secular literature can be educational as well because it can challenge individuals to find a Christian message within the scope of the secular world. Not only can secular literature do the aforementioned, but, of course, secular literature has beauty to be appreciated and it can encourage individuals to help explore different perspectives and worldviews. In this sense, both secular and Christian literature can benefit society.

An important way in which secular literature can benefit individuals in society is by helping individuals relate to specific material with acumen. As human beings, we are constantly growing and stretching ourselves as individuals. Life is a constant process of growth and secular…… [read more]

Lotus-Eaters: From Literature to Television Essay

2 pages (744 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… One of the things that she notices in this alternate world is how enchanted the people appear to be. She also notices that they have been enchanted fruit from the trees in the alternate dimension. It is also during this time that she spots her grandfather who mysteriously disappeared more than twenty years prior. When they are reunited, her grandfather realizes that though he feels as though he has only been there a few minutes, he has, in reality, been trapped in the alternate dimension for more than twenty years. By eating the fruit in this alternate world, the people that have been taken there by fairies have forgotten about their lives on Earth and do not realize how long they have been gone from their homes ("She's Not There"). Moreover, the myth of the lotus-eaters is combined with the rape of Persephone. Though Sookie refuses to eat any of the fruit offered to her, as she noticed the fruit's intoxicating effect on others, she is informed that anyone that has eaten the fruit cannot return to Earth and that they are doomed to spend the rest of their lives in the fairy world. Soon after Sookie reveals to her grandfather her suspicions regarding the fruit and the fairies that appear to be guarding all the people that ate the fruit, her life is endangered and she must escape. Because she has not eaten any of the fruit, Sookie can safely return to Earth, whereas her grandfather, who helps her escape, dies soon after he returns to Earth.

Greek mythology was a major inspiration in Romantic and Victorian poetry, and continues to inspire literature and entertainment to this day. From popular literature, and their major motion picture adaptations such as Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief, to popular television programs such as True Blood, which has adapted other Greek myths into its story line, audiences spanning several generations are continuously being reintroduced to Greek mythology in educational and entertaining formats.

Works Cited

"She's Not There." True Blood. HBO. 26 June 2011. Television.

Tennyson, Alfred. "The Lotos-Eaters." Poet's Graves: Serious about Poets and Poetry. Web.

Accessed 11 July 2011, from http://www.poetsgraves.co.uk/Classic%20Poems/Tennyson/song_of_the_lotos-eaters.htm… [read more]

Walt Whitman's Poetry Is Unique Term Paper

2 pages (535 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… It begins with the narrator nearly begging the deceased to rise up from his grave to witness how he has been missed and to see through this act of national mourning, the effect he had on the world. Whitman lists the various ways that the citizens are expressing their grief, such as with the American flag, "ribbon'd wreaths," and ringing bells. Every eye is on the funeral procession just like every mind is focused on the culmination of the Civil War. It is as if the narrator, and by extension Whitman, is trying to reach his dead captain from the land of the living.

In the third and final stanza of the poem, Whitman and the rest of the nation through this continued metaphor express their despondence when the knowledge of Lincoln's assassination finally sinks in and the people have no choice but to accept that their leader is now gone. The narrator chronicles all the physical and emotional signs make the knowledge and comprehension of the president's demise unable to be ignored. He lists the physical signs of lack of life, such as being without a pulse. In the end however, the death of Lincoln functions as a sign of impending destruction. In death, Lincoln unites everyone, shown by the fact that the narrator call him "father." Lincoln was not only the president during the Civil War, he was the founder of the modern United States as it icurrently known and understood.

Works Cited:

Whitman, Walt. "O Captain! My Captain!" The American Tradition in Literature. New York:

McGraw-Hill,…… [read more]

Beowulf as a Hero Lesson 1 Journal Journal

19 pages (8,817 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Beowulf as a Hero

Lesson 1 Journal Entry #

Journal Exercise 1.3A: What makes a hero?

Beowulf is a hero who possesses strength, courage and loyalty; these are the elements that make up a hero during his time. There is a certain heroic code that must be followed in Beowulf and Beowulf follows that code perfectly. During the course of… [read more]

Earl of Rochester / Aphra Essay

10 pages (4,609 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Within this rhetorical inversion, I think it possible that "cunt" is a term of great praise. It follows from the rhetorical inversion that Rochester's presentation of Corinna will be a whore who can speak in the lofty terms of abstract concepts when speaking about the poet's inability to achieve erection a second time after premature ejaculation:

When, with a thousand… [read more]

Patriotic Themes in American Literature Essay

2 pages (646 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… The second view, pessimism, is demonstrated in Robert Lowell's depiction of America's future in his poem "For the Union Dead." Lowell foretells the deterioration of American ideals through detailed imagery. The poem begins with a gloomy depiction of the Old South Boston Aquarium boarded up and standing abandoned "in a Sahara of snow" (line 2). The author contrasts this present gloom with the romanticized childhood memory where his "hand tingle to burst the bubbles" created by the fish (lines 6-7). The forsaken aquarium represents Lowell's belief that American's principles are all but lost. Digging deeper, beyond the abandonment of past ideals, Lowell believes that the country has adopted new inspirations that are not lofty or innocent. He speaks of a photograph that shows a Mosler safe, called "the Rock of Ages" (line 57), that remarkably survives the atomic bomb at Hiroshima. For Lowell, the safe represents America's captivation with wealth and power. In a final play on words, Lowell reiterates America's fall from grace with the image of "Giant finned cars" that have "nose forward like fish" (line 66). The Aquarium, and the innocence of childhood, is gone. They have been replaced.

Somewhere between an over-the-top idealistic view of the past and a bleak pessimistic view of the future lays the stability of the realistic view which recognizes that virtue exists in the present and will exist in the future just as much as vice existed in the past. Contemporary patriotism seems to have found this balance. American columnist, Marilyn vos Savant sums it up asking, "What is the essence of America? Finding and maintaining that perfect, delicate balance between freedom 'to' and freedom 'from'"(Parade magazine). Countrymen must have the freedom to express their love, their hopes, their fears, and their disappointments. Their words (whether pessimistic, optimistic, or realistic) stir the heart and promote the patriotic bond.… [read more]

Caribbean Literature Essay

3 pages (1,167 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Cesaire's work is regarded as filled with humanism, and is done so in the spirit of simplicity.

George Lamming is highly regarded for his literary works concerned with the decolonization as well as the reconstruction of the Caribbean (Odhiambo, 1994). His writings are commended for their nationalistic spirit through his poetic prose and style. Lamming's works are seen as more positive as compared to Cesaire, they focus on finding a new political and social identity, instead of dwelling on their lost ones. He also writes about the long-effects of colonialism in the minds of the Caribbean people. Lamming is said to dramatize the situation of the people during colonial rule (Odhiambo, 1994). He makes use of allegory and metaphor to give his poems deeper political meaning in his stories of his people being freed from oppression. Lamming's style can be regarded as experimental, his plot structures are circular and abrupt shifts in narrative can be seen. This has gotten mixed critical receptions; some state that it is because of Lamming's lack of coherence why his writings are not organized. However, some have noted that these shifts are forms of allegory for the confusion in the lives of the people under oppression during colonial rule (Odhiambo, 1994). He has an inventive style of writing and has been known to be a groundbreaking writer who has a positive influence on younger Caribbean authors. Lamming has confronted the negative definitions of his region through imaginative possibilities, and encourages new visions as well as meanings of experience.

Derek Walcott has been regarded as a major modern poet and has also developed into a respected playwright (Cabrera, 1992). His works reflect the voice of the West Indian culture and thought. He has received numerous awards for his poems, and has been awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for his literature. His themes are the same as Cesair's and Lamming's; they are of the search of identity for the Caribbean islands, and a search for identity within. Walcott's work reflects loyalty in his background: English and African. This, however, provides tension in his work because his language is split between literary in English poems and island themes in his plays (Cabrera, 1992). However, throughout his writing, these two styles have merged in the sense that they came to use natural speech and rhythm patterns; this was seen as a more direct and open mode of expression for the writer. Walcott makes use of the same metaphors to create political and social issues resound in his work; this can be seen also in the works of Lamming.

The three writers all reflect on the decolonization of the Caribbean in their work, however their approaches are different (Jonnasaint, 2007). Cesaire beings about negativity and resentment in his works, this can be seen in his language and use of rhythm in his poetry. Lamming has been commented to be confused in his writing with abrupt shifts in narrative; however, he makes good use of metaphors and connecting them with political… [read more]

American Literature Which Can Be Viewed Term Paper

6 pages (1,789 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … American literature which can be viewed as groundbreaking for the era they were created as well as for the subjects they dealt with. The 70s and the 80s represented a very important period in the history of the United States because it reflected the struggle of the American people for acceptance. There are in this case particular works… [read more]

Poetry Often Use Imagery Essay

2 pages (689 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … poetry often use imagery as a way to connect the reader to the work. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate this specific use of imagery by analyzing the four following poems: Bogland by Seamus Heaney, The lake of Innisfree, by WB Yeats, Dylan Thomas "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" and Seamus Heaney uses strong visual images in order to construct the landscape of his country Ireland. The images however have a powerful metaphorical and symbolical dimension. The space which is open towards infinity "we have no prairies/To slice a big sun at evening" (Heaney, 1-2) is actually a metaphor for the free spirit of its inhabitants and the infinite possibilities of development they are provided with. The island therefore becomes a symbol of freedom, associated with perpetual creation. "Butter sunk under / More than a hundred years/Was recovered salty and white. / The ground itself is kind, black butter" (Heaney, 13-16) where butter suggests the root of life in the island is strong and fertile, thus allowing for a constant recreation of the country and its spirit.

The image of the soil's fertility is translated into a concept of the life's fertility and ultimately into spiritual fertility. The readers are brought into the poet's vision through a strong imagery connected not only to landscapes, but also to mindscapes. Innisfree on the other hand, still a symbol of freedom, is the place where the poet can escape. The imagery depicts an almost paradisaical island set in the middle of lake waters in clear opposition with the civilized world where the poet feels oppressed. The grey pavement creates not only a sad and gloomy image, but also communicates an inner stare. From an imagery which depicts reality, Yeats passes to one depicting the spiritual reality: "And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,/Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;" (Yeats, 5-6).

The use of imagery is somewhat different in "Do not go gentle into that good night." Here the metaphorical…… [read more]

History of Modern Medicine Taj Mahal Term Paper

4 pages (1,190 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … History of Modern Medicine

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is India's most famous architectural structure. It is actually a beautifully preserved tomb whose name is translated as "Crown Palace." It dates back to the Seventeenth Century and the reign of the Fifth Mughal Emperor as a tribute to his second wife, Mumtaz Mahal who died as the result of public rebellion against the regime after bearing her husband's fourteenth child. The original construction of the TAJ was inspired by the Persian Princess' request of her husband before her death.

The Life and Work of Galileo

Galileo Galilee was a Sixteenth Century inventor and astronomer who revolutionized man's understanding of the universe and the Earth's relationship to the Solar System, in particular. Among Galileo's most important contributions where the demonstration that objects of different mass all fall at the same rate and the confirmation of Copernican's view that the Solar System was heliocentric and not geocentric. Galileo was eventually confined by the Pope to house arrest for publishing his heretical astronomical observations.

3. Jean Jacques Rousseau

Jean Jacques Rousseau was a Seventeenth Century (1712-1778) political philosopher originally from Geneva, Switzerland. He contributed important writings in the area of human morality and its connection to government and society.

4. Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley was a Nineteenth Century British intellectual whose father held a seat in the British Parliament. Instead of flowing in his father's footsteps, Shelley became a radical writer who vehemently opposed oppressive government and advocated political reform and atheism. As a result, he was expelled from Oxford University and all but disowned by his father.

5. The History of the American Abolitionist Movement

The official establishment of the American Anti-Slavery Society was in 1833, but the abolitionist movement against slavery in the United States actually predated that by decades. In fact, abolitionist literature had been published and circulated and conventions held in opposition to slavery as early as the late Eighteenth Century.

6. Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian composer who lived from 1813 to 1901. Among his most well-known operas that are still widely performed today are La Rigoletto (1851), La Traviata (1853), and Otello (1887).

7. The Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower is one of the world's most historic landmarks. It is located in Paris, France and was built in two years by Gustave Eiffel and completed in 1889. The structure is made entirely from iron and its shape is the product of a mathematical equation that guarantees its structural stability in the wind.

8. Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh was a psychologically troubled post-impressionist Nineteenth Century artist and painter from Holland in the Netherlands who only sold one painting during his lifetime. He committed suicide at the age of 37 but produced many works of art during a three-year period that are some of the world's best known paintings today.

9. Franz Kafka

Franz Kafka was a prolific early Twentieth Century writer. An Austrian Jew, Kafka was intellectually gifted but… [read more]

"Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?": Word Choice, Tone, and Point-Of-View Essay

4 pages (1,185 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Shakespeare Poem

Shakespeare on Love and Death

William Shakespeare is largely held in such high esteem by writers, scholars and historians because of the breadth and depth of his work as a playwright. It may be said that the universality and continued relevance of his folios is predicated by their unique plumbing of the depths of human experience and their unflinching confrontation of emotions and ethical debates which remain pertinent today. However, there is another dimension of Shakespeare's plays which distinguishes them from many bodies of work in literary history which do approach these same themes. Namely, it is the bard's poetic dexterity that makes his work so timeless. His turn of phrase is unlike that of any other and his prolific career is matched only by the many individual moments of rhetorical profundity. It is thus that we consider the poem "Shall I compare thee to a Summer's Day?," which stands as evidence apart from his work as a playwright to demonstrate the poetic lucidity which is at the core of this work.

Word Choice:

Word choice is one of Shakespeare's most notable strengths. Indeed, it is often said that Shakespeare possessed an enormous vocabulary, so much to the point that his authorship of so many works has been called into doubt under the assumption that one man of his background could not have known so many words. With respect to the poem in question though, the focus is on the economy of his decisions. Capable of great complexity, the poet's work here is quite appealing for its simplicity. An explicitly stated simile characterizing what we may assume to be the subject of the poet's romantic intentions as she compares to a summer's day, the work is plotted out according to a set of well-played devices.

Among the devices that carry the greatest impact in his poem, Shakespeare's personification of death offers a deeply compelling impression in the poem's eventual resolution. Here, the poem intones, "Nor shall death brag thou wand' rest in his shade," using this representation of death as a way of magnifying the scope of the beauty in its subject. There is a hyperbolic sentiment which befits a poem of love to its recipient, and which here attributes some human traits as boastfulness and desire to the otherwise abstract notion of death. To portray it this way is for Shakespeare to suggest that the subject of his poem is so beautiful as to inspire vain longing even in death. Moreover, it serves as a vehicle for the poet to ultimately declare that his subject is so beautiful that death would ultimately not be sufficient to deprive the world of it. The poet tells that "So long as men can breathe or eyes can see / So long lives this, and his gives life to thee." This is to denote that her beauty will remain to haunt all of those who have beheld her, a sentiment which the grave word choice here renders so deeply compelling.

Tone:… [read more]

Charge of the Light Brigade -- History Essay

2 pages (920 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Charge of the Light Brigade -- History and Literature

What is the relationship between history and literature? Is one subordinate to the other? What can we learn, for example, from the stories you read (be specific)? Does knowledge of history make a story more powerful, more "real?" Does history create literature and, in turn, literature creates history?

The discipline of history is both an art and science, designed to uncover the knowledge of culture, society and motivations of past civilizations. In such, it is beyond the idea of rote memorization of names, dates, and places and focuses more on the establishment of a verifiable past based on appropriate documents, interpretation, and an overall understand of the society in question and its relationship to other societies and future trends. The study includes who wrote what and in what time frame, bias, preconceptions, and audience (Bently, 1994). Literature, on the other hand, is also a process of artistically utilizing the written word in several genres (e.g. nonfiction, fiction, poetry, etc.), but with less stringent research requirements and greater allowances for opinion, fantasy, and speculation. To say that both are interrelated, though, is an understatement. Both not only chronicaol events but give the reader a greater insight into actual individual implications, feedback, and the way grand events impact individuals on a day-to-day basis (Frisina., 1999).

Literature is a medium which allows the witer to take events, be they maco or micro-events, and place them into the human context -- or living history. While individual reactions may or may not be indicative of the broad base of society, literature has the power to make one "feel" events as opposed to reading "about" them. One example might be Boris Pasternak's Dr. Zhivago. Certainly there is historical fact within the novel, the Russian Revolution, Civil War, and disasterous entry into World War I. However, instead of a broad societal picture, Pasternak's novel uses a familial grouping to allow the audience to "feel" the events, the pain, the anguish, and hopelessness, and the way that overt, political events impacted the individual (Rosenberg, 1995).

The paradigm of literature creating history or history creating literature is akin to the chicken and the egg maxim. In some cases, historical events are a basis for literature: poems such as The Charge of the Light Brigade, novels like Doctor Zhivago and Gone with the Wind. However, other novels and pieces of literature have the power to incite, to critically analyze what is happening in society, and to influence historical events; (e.g. Candide or Uncle Tom's Cabin). One must be cautious, however, since it is the victor that often writes the history of an event, and certain aspects of literature tend to glorify and magnify events into almost mythical proportions.

Why does Acton…… [read more]

Love Theme of Langston Hughes Essay

3 pages (1,356 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Langston Hughes' poetry appears to this author to center around mother and son. Due to the bad relationship with his father, he was particularly close to his mother. This was vital relationship and by extension may have reflect badly upon many of the male models (particularly his father). It is the assertion of the author that this conflict was reflected in his biracial identity as well as in the relationship with both parents and was worked out eventually successfully later on in life in his poetry.

A good example of this type of poem of the theme of love between mother and son can be found in "Mother to Son." In this poem, the mother ruminates upon the hard life that she has had, particularly as a black woman. This particular theme of love is complicated by the theme of the mulatto that runs through much of Hughes' poetry. With this in mind, this author will also center in on three of Hughes' other poems for analysis as well: "Sweet brown Harlem Girl" and "Love Song for Linda."

"Mother to Son" presents the contradictory love role of the African-American mother. She is often in a double bind with regard to her duties in her role as mother. On the one hand, she wants the best for her son which may compromise his role as a black man. On the other, she is a proud black woman who chaffs at this compromise. In 1926, Hughes wrote an article in the Nation magazine that explores the contradictory role of both parents of a family he terms as "the negro middle class" that is not only busy keeping up with the Jones family, but the white Jones family in particular. This double self-hating entendre is spelled out as follows:

But let us look at the immediate background of this young poet. His family is of what I suppose one would call the Negro middle class: people who are by no means rich yet never uncomfortable nor hungry -- smug, contented, respectable folk, members of the Baptist church. The father goes to work every morning. He is a chief steward at a large white club. The mother sometimes does fancy sewing or supervises parties for the rich families of the town. The children go to a mixed school. In the home they read white papers and magazines. And the mother often says "Don't be like niggers" when the children are bad. A frequent phrase from the father is, "Look how well a white man does things." And so the word white comes to be unconsciously a symbol of all virtues. It holds for the children beauty, morality, and money. The whisper of "I want to be white" runs silently through their minds. This young poet's home is, I believe, a fairly typical home of the colored middle class. One sees immediately how difficult it would be for an artist born in such a home to interest himself in interpreting the beauty of… [read more]

Poetry Has Been Used to Evoke Essay

2 pages (721 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Poetry has been used to evoke a variety of emotions and life experiences. The epic poems of history transformed into structured sonnets and the form continues to evolve. In recent time there emerged a new type of poetry that resisted strict structure in preference of a sort of stream of consciousness. Charles Bukowski's "Are you drinking?" is an example of subverting a genre by taking a short conversational story, ultimately a prose poem, and adding emphasis with line breaks.

Reading this poem evokes every moment that I've felt exhausted -- either by life, or work. Regardless of the obvious differences between my life experiences and those of Bukowski's, his working-man tone effectively conjures up an overall exhaustion that works for anyone of any class. The image of washed up yellow notebook takes on more meaning by adding a hyphen in washed-up. Already from the first word there is an image evoked of a tired and washed up person and then the words that follow take that impression and apply it to a tattered notebook that Bukowski writes in. This lived in and aged feeling implies that writing is what makes Bukowski who he is, but it is not a glamorous endeavor and is, in fact, just a facet of who he is without any sort of fanfare.

Meeting with his doctor, Bukowski predicts their conversation and it takes on a rote quality laced with the overall weariness that was one his themes. The various injuries and illnesses are catalogued and emphasized by more inventive line breaks. Within the lines "are you drinking?" he will ask/"are you getting your/exercise, your/vitamins?" The line breaks following your makes the emphasis personal not only to the author, but for the reader. As I read that passage aloud I start to think about my own aches and pain- not only the physical, but also the mental fatigues that flare up every once in a while as a result of nothing so much as life.

Even Bukowski thinks his pains are nothing special, but just the result of life and all of its "fluctuating/factors." The alliteration between the two words brought emphasis out for me and…… [read more]

Poetry Amiri Baraka Essay

4 pages (1,127 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… ¶ … Black Poem:

The Convergence of Culture, Art, and Identity

in the Works of Amiri Baraka

It is difficult to characterize Amiri Baraka's legacy in American literature and pop culture. He is deeply respected by some, deeply reviled by others. He has been considered a national treasure and a national disgrace. His poems have inspired, intrigued, empowered, terrified, and disgusted readers for over five decades. This extreme range of reactions speaks to the power of Baraka's artistic voice, a power that he uses to provoke emotion, reflection, and revolution both in individual readers and in society as a whole. As he said in a speech given at Rutgers University in 1997, "form and content are weapons of self-consciousness and revolution" (Chicago Review 111). Over the past fifty years, Baraka has used the "weapon" of his writing to eviscerate the concepts of race, sexuality, gender, and faith that underlie American society, sometimes in broad hacks and sometimes with surgeon-like precision. While his cuts are often brutal, they are never meaningless; every word serves to expose, explore, and expunge hypocrisy and injustice as he finds them.

Born Everett LeRoi Jones in 1934, Amiri Baraka first came to public attention as a member of the literary avant-garde in Greenwich Village in the early 1960s. As was the case with many of his contemporaries, Baraka (then known as LeRoi Jones) was seeking to define himself in opposition to the past -- his own past, his race's past, and his country's past. As a member of the Beatnik group in the late 1950s and early 1960s, he was more interested in the possibilities of the form of his art than in effecting social change with its message. By the mid-sixties, however, his racial consciousness had become central to his worldview, and he became intensely active in the black political community. (Eahrle 1)

It was during this time, referred to as his "Transitional Period," that Baraka's unique poetic voice came to the fore. Baraka was conscious of the emergence of this voice, and would often address the ideological changes occurring within him in his poetry. In "The Liar," a poem written and published during this time, he mused on the challenges of embodying a shifting identity: "I am a man / who is loud / on the birth / of his ways. Publicly redefining / each change in my soul, as if I had predicted / them / & #8230;even tho / their chanting weight / erased familiarity / from my face" (12-21). This tendency towards "public redefining" would become a hallmark of Baraka's poetry. James Miller suggests that this is, in fact, the unifying principle in Baraka's art as a whole:

If there is any single preoccupation that runs through Baraka's work, it the theme of change itself, the endless question for appropriate vehicles of expression and action in a world which is itself constantly changing. (Literature Resource Center)

Baraka was intensely aware that even the most intimately personal self-discovery achieved in his poetry… [read more]

African and African-American Poetry Essay

2 pages (732 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… African/African-American Poetry

Poetry Analysis of Baraka and Soyinka

Amiri Baraka and Wole Soyinka are both voices of the black experience, but their differences in background, philosophy, and motive highlight the extreme separation of the black experience in the United States and in Africa. Baraka's poetry is punctuated, both in content and in style, by the angry forcefulness of someone who participated in the difficult birth of civil rights in America, while Soyinka's poetry is pervaded by the sadness and quiet patience of someone who has watched his country turn upon itself with deadly consequences.

In Baraka's poem "Fresh Zombies," the sharpness and bitterness for which he is known comes through not only in the content, but in his edgy use of syncopated rhythms, alliterative word play, and aggressive diction. His disgust with the younger generation is introduced with a litany of strong verbs that land like punches on the psyche of the reader: "Stink… Lie… Betray… Assassinate" (1-3). This is followed by an indictment in the form of a series of complicated double-entendres and near-homophones: "Not old toms / but New Toms, Double Toms / a Tom Macoute" (3-5). In addition to bringing in connotations of Uncle Tom ("New Toms") and the notorious death squads of Papa Doc in Haiti ("Tom Macoute"), the passage reiterates the rapid, punching rhythm with which the poem started. The stark violence of this rhythm is reinforced with the repetition of the passage at the end of the poem.

In contrast, Soyinka's "In the Small Hours" uses repetitive rhythms, diction, and alliteration to create an entrancing atmosphere that melts around the edges and never quite becomes concrete. Like "Fresh Zombies," "In the Small Hours" contains a series of verbs in its first few lines, but unlike Baraka's brutal strikes, these verbs land softly and fade: "Mutes…wreathes…Dims" (3-4). Soyinka's use of sibilant syllables intensifies this mesmerizing effect. In the second stanza, he describes "Applause…steeped in lassitude, / Tangled in webs of lovers' whispers" (12-13). In these lines, the shifting sibilance of the words, the sticky metaphor of the web, and the image of applause drenched in languidness combine to evoke the stupor of the bar and its patrons. Where Baraka used poetic…… [read more]

Nature in Robert Frost's Poetry Research Paper

4 pages (1,109 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Nature

Poetry is how some authors express their feelings about a subject or attitude that is occurring around them. The poems by Robert Frost that have been studied all discuss how man and nature are separate from one another. He uses nature as a metaphor to explain a situation with man. "Frost uses nature as metaphor. He observes something in nature and says this is like that. He leads you to make a connection, but never forces it on the reader. Read on a literal level, Frost's poems always make perfect sense. His facts are correct, especially in botanical and biological terms. But he is not trying to tell nature stories nor animal stories. He is always using these metaphorically implying an analogy to some human concern" (Frost and Nature). Along with that, Frost also saw nature being able to destroy man but at the same time, he saw man's struggle with nature. Therefore, Frost's poetry gives a different outlook about nature by using it as a metaphor for his poems


Frost believes that people should express what they feel through poetry like he used nature as metaphor. For example, in the poem, "Birches," he uses ice storms to explain how people have to face the truth before everything falls apart without being able to fix it. It clearly shows that the poet is a poet that thinks with emotions. This is due to the fact that people must face their obstacles and overcome them before they become unfixable as it is seen from the following "Birches" stanza

Ice-storms do that. Often you must have seen them

Loaded with ice a sunny winter morning

After a rain. They click upon themselves

As the breeze rises, and turn many-colored

As the stir cracks and crazes their enamel.

Soon the sun's warmth makes them shed crystal shells

Shattering and avalanching on the snow-crust

Such heaps of broken glass to sweep away

This poetry helps people to understand that they must face their problem before they are uncontrollable. Sometimes when facing problems, a person needs support to overcome them without feeling overwhelmed. If people have socially supportive arrangements as the attributes of socially legitimate roles which provide for the meeting dependency needs without loss of esteem, they are less likely to show aggression while suppressing destructive behavior. Social support can also serve as a salve to pains encountered along the way. It gives people the confidence to making a positive change and testing their limits when they know they have a community of support they can call upon. Social support refers to social interactions that are perceived by the recipient to facilitate coping and assist in responding to stress. Social support is thought to reduce the total amount of stress a person experience as well as to help one cope better when stressed (Landau, J., Garrett, J., & Webb, R p. 498-2008). From there, socially supportive environments were presented as pattern interpersonal relationships mediated through shared values and sentiments as well as… [read more]

Russian Literature -- Journal Entry Book Report

8 pages (2,696 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… Russian Literature -- Journal

Entry #1 -- Bezhin Meadows -- Ivan Turgenev -- "I finally reached the corner of the woods… but there was no road there at all…an empty field was visible."

What an absolutely perfect representation of the Russian soul -- empty fields, no roads, unmet expectations, broad, unkempt forests, night closing in, overgrown paths. It seems as… [read more]

Russian Literature and Vladimir Sorokin Essay

10 pages (3,099 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… Russian Literature and Vladimir Sorokin: What Is the Goal and Is the Soviet Response Reasonable

The plots in the two novels by Vladimir Sorokin are sharply different, however the author's approach appears to be relatively similar. The use of extreme depictions of violence and unusual rituals are evident in both Next Item on the Agenda and Four Stout Hearts. Whether… [read more]

Poison Tree Essay

2 pages (585 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… William Blake's poem, "A Poison Tree," examines anger from the perspective of one controlled by anger. This poem is compelling because while it takes place within the speaker's mind, it divulges the levels of contempt of which we are all capable. Things occur because the speaker allows them to occur. He understands his culpability but, in the end can only acknowledge that he is only human and, as a result, hypocritical. The truth of the human spirit is that it can be tricky and plat many poison trees.

The scene of the poem takes place in the speaker's imagination, where the speaker realizes the dangers of the human mind. In short, he does not have to go anywhere to see how cruel people can be to one another. Neil Heims notes the poem states the "correspondence between the spiritual and natural worlds that is effected by the mind" (Heims) and the tree "grows in the human brain, not in nature. Taken from the imagination, the tree is planted in culture" (Heims). The speaker, an unidentified man, speaks honestly about how the anger grew for his foe grew.

The plot in "A Poison Tree" unfolds as the speaker allows his anger to fester. Because he did not speak his grievance, it did not leave him. Instead, it grew. It fell to the ground like a seed and it grew because the speaker continued to feed it. Neil Heims writes the central image of the poem is the tree, which is a metaphor representing "wrath" (Heims). The tree began from a single thought, just a seed, and not only grew but also bore dangerous fruit. In addition, it was lovely and tempting. Furthermore, the speaker allows his foe to eat the fruit.

The speaker…… [read more]

Modernism, Factors That Led to the Rise Research Proposal

3 pages (1,040 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Modernism, factors that led to the rise of Modernism and the characteristics of the period.

Modernist literature is notable for its far more subjective and unreliable narrators, in contrast to the protagonists of the immediately preceding Victorian period. Modernist literature also tends to have a more fragmented narrative structure. Its tone is often pervaded by a sense of despair because of a perceived loss of faith in traditional institutions. Its focus on psychological interiority rather than exterior relationships and 'plot' also reflects a sense that it is impossible to know anything for certain, other than one's own thoughts and feelings.

The death and destruction of a generation of young men in the wake of World War I was one of the most significant factors in giving rise to the movement. Freudian psychoanalysis also was influential in disseminating the idea that a character's inner life could be just as potentially significant as a characters' outer life. What goes on in a character's mind might be more exciting than what he or she 'did' on a daily basis, as well as profoundly discordant with the protagonist's placid surface. The rise in scientific literacy gave rise to the cultural questioning of traditional religious and sexual more. Stream-of-consciousness narration, bitter irony and satire, despair at the failure of old institutions, and fairly simple plots (versus the long, epic novels of the Victorians) were all characteristic of Modernism because of cultural as well as historical influences.

It should be noted that, although Modernism was highly focused upon the individual, it was also profoundly anti-heroic in nature. In contrast to the upstanding moral protagonists of many Victorian novels, Modernist heroes and heroines were highly imperfect and riddled with doubt. They also lacked the epic brilliance of Romantic heroes, and tended to be ordinary people who aspired to greatness, to escape the limitations of their daily lives.

Q2. Give examples of Modernism using the following writers:

a) T.S. Eliot: Eliot's fragmented images of the "Wasteland" and their allusions to previous works of literature both satirize and express despair over the Modernist loss of faith. The Bible, Shakespeare, and many images of high and low culture are blended together to suggest that ordinary experience is all that is left of the great epics of the past, like the poetic refrain of "Hurry up please, it's time" to the lower-class women in the bar. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" is an extended stream-of-consciousness narration whereby the placid surface of social life (where women talk of Michelangelo and drink tea) hide the painfully ordinary title character's burning feelings of passion for an unnamed woman.

b) James Joyce: Ulysses is an almost entirely non-linear stream-of-consciousness narration. The novel has no plot and merely portrays a day in Dublin, although it contains literary allusions to Shakespeare and other works in a parodic form, and has a non-believing protagonist in the form of Stephen Daedalus. Joyce's writings were frankly sexual in a way that threatened the sensibilities of many… [read more]

Various Books in Literature Essay

4 pages (984 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … young adult is advantageous.

Historical fiction refers to stories that are set in specific time periods in particular places. The characters are not historical figures, but they may be modeled after them. Settings are as genuine as possible, with detailed references to social, cultural, political, and economic issues. Historical fiction allows young adult readers to understand details that may be excluded from history textbooks, and therefore enhance traditional history lessons. Students are likely to become more engaged in the historical fiction than in the drier factual bits of history that accompany the lesson.

Write a three to five sentence explanation of the history and culture as presented in The Middle Ages as presented in THE MIDWIFE'S APPRENTICE.

Cushman's The Midwife's Apprentice explains the role of the midwife in medieval Europe. The book also explores mundane, everyday life for common people during that time including references to the poor hygiene that characterizes the Middle Ages. Issues related to gender, class, and social stratification are explored as Alyce tries to navigate her place in a complex society. Midwifery was a respectable profession for a female, albeit one of the only ones a woman could perform. The medieval model of labor included relationships like the one between Alyce and Jane, between apprentice and master.

Question 3: Create a Venn diagram comparing the main character in A SINGLE SHARD and THE MIDWIFE'S APPRENTICE. Make sure to include at least three points about each character. You don't have to drawn the Venn diagram, I can put them on a diagram.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce are poor and alone at the start of the story.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce become apprentices, Tree-Ear to a potter and Alyce to a midwife.

Both become determined to succeed at their chosen craft.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce act with ethical integrity, and are faced with difficult moral choices.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce grow up in roughly the same time period, the Middle Ages.

Tree-Ear is a Korean male, whereas Alyce is an English female.

Question 4: Define a Newbery award winning children's book. You may consult a source for your answer, but be sure to give credit to the source, and don't copy information word for word, which I know you wouldn't anyway.

The Newbery Medal is honored each year to an outstanding work of children's literature. Only American authors and books published in the United States are eligible to receive the award. Award winners are selected based on their contributions to their chosen genre within children's literature, as well as to American literature in general. Works of fiction, non-fiction, and poetry are all eligible for the Newbery Medal, although multimedia compositions are not (American Library Association).

Question 5: Define non-fiction, and explain how it can be useful in disciplines like science and social studies.

Non-fiction is factual prose. Any narrative element in a work of non-fiction must be based on true stories such as biographies of historical figures or…… [read more]

Thematic Bridges in English Literature: Frost Essay

2 pages (590 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Thematic Bridges in English Literature: Frost's "After Apple-picking" and Shakespeare's the Tempest

The passage of time, especially from the perspective of a human life, is one of the most universally resounding and consistent themes in the literature and poetry of any age. Given the symbolism and imagery in many examples of this theme throughout world literature, it is safe to assume that the correlation of other observed changes in nature -- the passing of the seasons and the seasons themselves, especially -- with human mortality is a natural and almost automatic human sentiment. Two very different yet remarkably similar examples of this theme, and the purpose of illuminating the transience of human life, are Robert Frost's poem "After Apple Picking," and the epilogue spoken by Prospero in Shakespeare's The Tempest.

Prospero speaks more directly on the theme of mortality and the changes wrought by the passage of time on an individual's life and identity. He approaches the topic from a more pessimistic view then does Frost, as well, seeing in his old age and arguably even in his own mortality a certain sense of freedom and release. His repeated use of words like "confined," "pardon'd," "release," "relieved," and "mercy" all indicate the freedom from earthly troubles that Prospero is seeking. This figurative message of a freedom from imprisonment is also an implicit reference to the literal freedom from the prison of this world, and the salvation found in the next, as evidenced by the use of the words "prayers" and "indulgences later in the poem. The purpose of this epilogue, then, is an instruction to the viewer/reader on what truly matters, which is not so much the passing of the joys of this life, but rather the passing of the ills, the limitations, and the…… [read more]

Wordsworth Poetry Has Existed Research Paper

7 pages (2,171 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… This connection is beneficial to the reader because enlightenment takes place.

Poetry According to John Stuart Mill and Roman Jakobson

John Stuart Mill attempts to provide a definition for poetry in his essay "Thoughts on Poetry and its Varieties." Interestingly enough he begins the essay by statating what poetry is not. He explains that poetry is not limited to just metrical composition. He goes to explain that poetry contains both verse and prose.

As it pertains to the comparison between Wordworths belefs about poetry and Mill's beliefs. Mill explains,

"The object of poetry is confessedly to act upon the emotions;-and therein is poetry sufficiently distinguished from what Wordsworth affirms to be its logical opposite-namely, not prose, but matter of fact, or science. The one addresses itself to the belief; the other, to the feelings. The one does its work by convincing or persuading; the other, by moving. The one acts by presenting a proposition to the understanding; the other, by offering interesting objects of contemplation to the sensibilities (Mills)."

As was mentioned previously in this discussion, Wordsworth believed poetry to be the spontaneous overflow of feelings. Mills asserted that the purpose of poetry is to act upon the emotions. In this respect both Mills and Wordsworth believe that as an expression poetry provides an emotional release for the writer.

Mills goes on to state that But, in this state of society, there is little poetry except ballads, which are mostly narrative,-that is, essentially stories,-and derive their principal interest from the incidents. Considered as poetry, they are of the lowest and most elementary kind: the feelings depicted, or rather indicated, are the simplest our nature has; such joys and griefs as the immediate pressure of some outward event excites in rude minds, which live wholly immersed in outward things, and have never, either from choice or a force they could not resist, turned themselves to the contemplation of the world within.

Like Mills, Jakobson's explanation of what poetry is, starts by expressing what poetry is not. According to Jakobson poetry is not what it used to be. That is the definitnion of poetry has shifted. The author asserts that there was a time when there was very clear subject matter present in poetry. However, poetry no longer has subject matter that cannot or will not be explored. Jakobson further ruminates about what poetry is. He does not seem to have much of a concrete definition. Like Wordsworth, he alludes to the fact that poetry has a great deal to do with human emotions.


The purpose of this discussion was to focus on what poetry, poets, and the lyric mean to William Wordsworth as related in his preface to Lyrical Ballads. Wordsworth had string feeling of what constitutes poetry, poets and lyrics. Wordsworth believed the lyrical ballads should contain simple lyrics that would reflect everyday life of the common people. He believed that simple language was truly philosophical and caused readers to think about wahat was written at a fundamental level.… [read more]

Importance of a Theme in Works of Literature Essay

8 pages (2,361 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Alienation in "A Rose for Emily" and "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"

Alienation is a curious thing. While we would like to think that alienation is something that happens to people against their will, that is often not the case. Two pieces of literature that demonstrate this point are "A Rose for Emily" by William Faulkner and "The… [read more]

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