Study "Literature / Poetry" Essays 111-165

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Fern Hill (Dylan Thomas) Research Paper

… The imagery of "shining" and "praise" dramatize an older person's is gracious in giving to life.

"And honoured among foxes and pheasants by the gay house / under the new made clouds and happy as the heart was long / in the sun born over and over / I ran my heedless ways / my wishes raced through the house high hay / and nothing I cared, at my sky blue trades, that time allows / in all his tuneful turning so few and such morning songs / before the children green and golden / follow him out of grace…"

Earlier the speaker posited that the sun is just young once, but in this verse the sun is born "over and over" (imagery reflects the near-monotony / redundancy of aging and the passage of time); the speaker characterizes the passage of time (and the confusion brought on by aging) by saying he "ran heedless" (all is not as it should be in this age).

"Nothing I cared, in the lamb white days, that time would take me / up to the swallow thronged loft by the shadow of my hand / up to the moon that is always rising / nor that riding to sleep / I should hear him fly with the high fields / and wake to the farm forever fled from the childless land / Oh as I was young and easy in the mercy of his means / time held me green and dying / though I sang in my chains like the sea…"

"Lamb white days" is exploding with imagery that embraces color, innocence, God and time. The lamb of course is Biblical and illustrates innocence; Jesus was the "lamb of God." In Luke (10:3): "Behold I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves…" (biblemeanings.info). White is a color reflecting purity and suggesting innocence. He has come a long way, the speaker, from the carefree days of innocence, but now at an advancing age he is on his way to the "loft" in the proverbial barn of life. Only the swallows build nests there, but he is on his way (swallow nests are little caves built from the mud along the banks of rivers and streams, earlier images from this poem. The moon always seemed to be rising (this addresses loss of innocence) but time is slowing that motion down.

Throughout the poem readers have encountered meteorically presented rivers and streams and now, as life is nearing an end, those rivers and streams end in the sea (he is "chained" to the reality that time took him from "young and easy" to "green and dying"

Works…… [read more]


Ovid, Giovanni Boccaccio Essay

… Setting the stage for stories about love and romance, death and war, Ovid asks the reader to interpret these tales through the frame of transformation and change. The author can remain as didactic as he wishes, because he hides behind the framing narrative. Readers can much more easily forgive the presence of the author intruding on the story when the author unself-consciously metamorphoses into the narrator in the frame.

In The Decameron, framing serves an even more direct function than it does in Ovid's Metamorphoses. In Boccaccio's The Decameron, the frame narrative provides a historical context that is much appreciated by modern readers who might not otherwise understand the motives of some of the central characters. More importantly, the frame narrative introduces the narrator unequivocally as a character. Boccaccio is more detached from The Decameron than Ovid is from The Metamorphoses. Being holed up in a farm during the "late mortal pestilence," the seven ladies and three men who weave the tales seek "in some measure to compensate the injustice of Fortune," (Proem 013). Using poignant symbolism, the author is sure to make a reference to the spinning wheel: for spinning tales is akin to spinning yarn. The frame narrative in The Decameron, the title of which refers to the ten tales told by the men and women, heralds the function of storytelling as being a salve for the soul. Therefore, frame narratives inherently celebrate the act of storytelling.

In One Thousand and One Nights, Persian queen Scheherazade is the narrator presenting the frame for the collection of tales. This is a stark contrast to both Ovid and Boccaccio, who are clearly the respective authors of their work. Authorship is not the issue in One Thousand and One Nights. These are oral narratives collected along trade routes, coalescing in a compilation and united under a Persian framework. Scheherazade, like the narrator in Ovid's Metamorphoses, invokes the divine spirit prior to framing the stories. The tone is established: a sense of wonderment and awe permeates the reading experience. Like the narrators of The Decameron, furthermore, Scheherazade provides necessary historical and cultural context that gives shape to the stories and helps the reader understand them. "The lives of former generations are a lesson to posterity; that a man may review the remarkable events which have happened to others, and be admonished; and may consider the history of people of preceding ages," (Introduction). What is remarkable about One Thousand and One Nights is the fact that the frame narrative permits a strikingly multicultural literary collection, collated under one framework.

Works Cited

From Norton Anthology of World Literature:

Ovid" in Volume A, pp. 1073-1076

"Metamorphoses" in Volume A, pp.1076-1088; pp. 1104-1116

"Giovanni Boccaccio" in Volume B, pp. 605-609

"Decameron, Day 10, Story 10" in Volume B, pp. 649-656

"The Thousand and One Nights" in…… [read more]


Poetry and Politics in 1079 Term Paper

… Su Shih was a vocal opponent of the "New Policies" and he submitted writings to the emperor expressing differing opinions than Wang An-shih. A majority of his poems were seen as hostile to various aspects of the "New Policies" or their advocates.

The popularity of Su Shih's verse was another factor that drew attention. The first indictments against him states, "There is nothing he has not slandered or ridiculed. The common people therefore expect that as soon as there is a flood or a famine or an outbreak of banditry, Su Shih will surely be the first to criticize the situation, attributing all blame to the New Policies."

Su Shih drew a distinction between "indirect criticism' and "malicious slander," however at the time no one was able to define that distinction. (This brings to mind a famous quote of Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Potter Stewart about pornography being hard to define "but I know it when I see it."). A government's attempt to suppress the dissemination of ideas and opinions that differ from their own rhetoric is founded in the fear that the differing ideas threaten either the status quo or the agenda being pushed. There is also a fine line between what one sees as freedom of expression and another sees as propaganda. Su Shih was a dangerous poet to those with whom he did not agree and his popularity made him a source of unwanted criticism for the reform party. This type of governmental behavior, restricting the freedom of expression by those who do not support their agenda, is not unique to any political party or type of government.

Works Cited

Hartman, Charles. "Poetry and Politics in 1079: The Crow Terrace Poetry Case of Su Shih." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews, Vol. 12. (December 1990): 15-44. JSTOR. Web. 11 May 2012.

Mitgang, Herbert. Dangerous Dossiers: Exposing the Secret War Against America's Greatest Authors. New…… [read more]


Children's Lit Montano Urges Essay

… Tin in the Congo is one of the more overtly racist of childhood classics; such a book would not be published today in any serious publishing house. The book plays up stereotypes of African culture without revealing the diversity of the continent, and generally supports the practices and worldviews of colonialism. Gender issues are also apparent, mainly in the complete absence of any female characters. Similarly, linguicism is evident in the ways African phrases are repeated as if they are only magical incantations. Tin in the Congo certainly deserves to be studied from an adult's standpoint, rather than be read to children as an example of reality.

3. Riorden, Rick. The Titan's Curse. 2007

Part of the Percy Jackson and the Olympians series, The Titan's Curse is the third installment. The series builds on themes extant in Greek mythology, enhancing those themes with modern scenarios and characters. Although the book is about a standard European mythos, Riorden's series does not bear any sign of racial or ethnic superiority. It is not as if the author is suggesting that Greek mythology is the only mythology worth studying, as it has been presented in many school curricula. Rather, the author is writing what he knows best and it comes across as being ironically multicultural. The series could even become a stepping stone for discussing the role and impact of Greek mythology on the development of Western cultural identity. Furthermore, there are several half-breed characters that draw attention to the relevance of bi-racialism in the United States. The novels have strong female characters, rendering them relatively free of gender-bias. Even though the main characters are male, the female characters do not fall pray to stereotypes. Generally, Riorden's series show that it is not enough to include non-European cultural references in a reading curricula and that even books on traditional European subjects can be enlightening for young readers.

4. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. 2003.

J.K. Rowling seems consciously aware of gender, race, and linguistic bias; writing to shatter each of them. Her title character is a studious type, as gender neutral as some of the other characters in the book. In, fact, some of the antagonistic male characters in Harry Potter series are depicted as "jock" types. The author makes a strong statement against gender stereotype and bias. In The Order of the Phoenix, Potter and his friends encounter many of the same types of challenges that are presented in the other installments in the series. Race, gender, and language issues are not central to the book, which can be enjoyed without being picked apart too eagerly. Rowling makes sure to include students at the school that are non-white, in approximately the proportion they might be encountered in modern English boarding schools. Yet herein is a problem: Rowling does not necessarily want to address socio-economic class issues plaguing England, or the race-class interface that should not be ignored in novels that are aimed at older readers. Because Rowling… [read more]


Rime of Ancient Mariner Samuel Term Paper

… This transformation results into his urge to tell his story to everyone and he repents throughout the rest of his life. Hence, the Mariner comes to the conclusion that the better world can be achieved if one sees the values of the petty things in life.

This poem has also been considered an allegory of the man's relation with the spiritual and the metaphysical world. The killing of the albatross results in the punishment of the Mariner by the spiritual world with the help of the natural world. The sun, water, wind, crew members and the ghosts all carry some sort of supernatural element. They all become a cause of suffering for the Mariner. The spiritual world as weaved by the Coleridge has also been balanced between the religious and the fantasy. It also shows that societal pleasures can distance man away from the spirituality and he abandons the reverence of the natural world.

This poem is also the story of retribution since in the poem; the Ancient Mariner spends the remaining part of his life paying for the killing of Albatross. The natural world avenges Mariner for the death and sends physical as well and the psychological devastation on the Ancient Mariner and his crew members. (Keach, 2004) They all suffer from the torments of the nature such as thirst and death. The punishment of the Mariner also gets extended when the punishment of Life-in Death is reserved for the Mariner. He must endure the everlasting grief of death of crew members and he is kept alive to warn others about the consequences of foolishness of man and disgracing of the natural world.

Many critics have also emphasized on the Christian interpretation of this poem. The poem has been attributed to touch the theme of closeness to God through the act of prayer and the importance of showing love and respect to nature and the creations of God. The Ancient Mariner also highlights the joy that one gets when one joins others in prayers when he mentions that "walk together to the Kirk, / And all together pray." (Keach, 2004) He also praises the hermit who has excluded himself from the worldly pleasures and does nothing but to pray to God and to love God's creations. The killing of the Albatross can also be compared to the sin of Adam and Eve and the betrayal of Judas with Christ. Just like Adam and Eve, the Ancient Mariner challenges the God's rule of nature and tries to understand things that are out of his reach. He becomes a sinner and he is driven into the limbo-like state. Also, this poem can be linked with the salvation of Christ and the betrayal of Judas. Like Judas, the Mariner kills the soul who brought the good fortune for the crew members and who could help him in his salvation and understanding of the Divine. Many critics have also compared the Albatross with the Jesus Christ. (Fulmer, 1969) In the end, the Ancient… [read more]


Poetry About Struggle: The African-American Essay

… " The poem famously opens with a rhetorical question: "What happens to a dream deferred?" Then it lists various possibilities for the deferred dream. Although it is not specifically stated that the poem is about the African-American experience in the text of the poem, the title of the poem makes it clear.

Various striking images are used to characterize African-American's deferred dreams in the Hughes poem. "Does it dry up/like a raisin in the sun?" Implicit in the image of the dried, beaten-down raisin in the sun is that of a slave working in the cotton fields, drying up. The slave metaphor is further reinforced by the question. "Or [Does it] fester like a sore -- / And then run?" This refers to the attempts of slaves to run away North (and possibly black men and women who migrated Northward after the end of slavery to cities like Chicago in search of greater opportunities).

The reference to covering over the misery of oppression with sweetness is referred to in the question: "Does it stink like rotten meat? / Or crust and sugar over -- / like a syrupy sweet? " The masking behavior referred to by Dunbar would seem to be a kind of 'crusting over' like a syrupy sweet. Finally, the poem raises the specter of angry violence after so many years of being beaten down and forced to smile. "Maybe it just sags / like a heavy load. / Or does it explode?" Hughes' reference to exploding could sound potentially threatening, but because it is expressed in a metaphor, it sounds more poignant. Also, by pairing it against the heavy load that metaphorically suggests how African-Americans are forced to bear so much literal and metaphorical weight in their servile occupations, Hughes explains why and how the explosion is likely to occur.

Rita Dove's poem "Persephone, Falling" uses metaphors like Hughes, but Dove deploys a long, extended metaphor in her work to illustrate how women, specifically African-American women are judged harshly because of their sexuality. Any fall from grace is read as utterly ruining the woman, just like the mythical Persephone's life was destroyed by a single action -- her abduction and eating six pomegranate seeds in the underworld. And it is read as the fallen woman's fault. "No one heard her. / No one! She had strayed from the herd," Dove writes of Persephone, as the woman is pulled down.

Dove's poem sounds more like a conventional use of Greek mythology, in contrast to the more explicit use of images to speak about political situations in the earlier poet's works. However, when a speaker uses the example of Persephone to try to limit the actions of women in a scolding fashion: "Don't answer to strangers. Stick / with your playmates. Keep your eyes down," the reader senses a reference to something outside of the realm of pure myth. There are clear parallels with the cautions given to women to keep them in line, particularly nonwhite women whose sexuality… [read more]


Intersection of History and Literature Essay

… ¶ … Overlap of History and Literature

World War II and the era which surrounded it would produce momentous and cataclysmic change on a global scale. Whole states expanded, collapsed, emerged and disappeared in the midst of a military conflict which would ultimately engulf all inhabited continents. As these enormous and terrible events impacted the world on a whole, infinite stories of individual struggle also developed. The incredibly fertile body of literary material produced from these individual struggles stands today as one of the lasting collective documents to a time that humanitarian responsibility demands we never forget. Though war is often seen through history's eyes as sweeping, recalibrating political events, the literature produced in its aftermath is often most valuable in evoking some sense of the emotional and psychological toll levied by war. Here, in Elie Wiesel's Night (1960) and Kazuo Ishiguro's an Artist in the Floating World (1986), two writers use the same historical backdrop in order to recount two dramatically different human experiences.

In both is a commonality that is frequently seen in all manner of historically-driven narrative. Namely, in both, we find a character who is largely moved by the events around him rather than the reverse. This is frequently a feature found in the overlap between history and literature and denotes the experience of being made to bend to forces far larger than one's self. In the case of Ishiguro's work, Masuji Ono is an artist who has allowed himself to become a vessel for the propaganda of Japanese fascism. His story, therefore, occurs in to phases, neither of which finds him very much in control of his fate. In the first phase, Ono is an artist of much acclaim, largely by virtue of his commitment to a draconian ruling political and cultural power. The second phase finds Ono, by this same virtue, reviled by a post-war leftist authority. His acclaim and his isolation respectively show the artist as a…… [read more]


Stability of Wing Tip Vortex Over Rough Literature Review

… Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of the stability of wing tip vortex over rough wing.The work of Beninati and Marshall (2005) for instance was an experiment which was dedicated to the study of the effects of the… [read more]


Don Quixote in Literature Essay

… And, other times, people let literature empower them to live better lives. For example, in the article, "Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication," it discusses that people mistakenly believe their loved ones understand them better than anyone else. In truth, people have a harder time communicating with their loved ones than they do strangers. I read this article and empowered me because my husband and I have trouble communicating because he does not listen very well and I grow impatient with that. I want to be able effectively communicate with him so that he will listen and not twist things around. I tell myself to keep communicating short and to the point so he will focus more on what I am saying more rather than just hearing noise. Normally, I do not have trouble communicating with anyone else except for my mother, which is another loved one. She likes to talk over people especially me. However, through this article, it empowered me to change communication skills. Sometimes, by my husband not listening to what I am saying, it causes a big fight because he spends too much money and overdraws the checking account or I tell him that there is very little money in the bank and he has our five-year ask me if we can get McDonald's. Over the years, I have grown short tempered with him because of these poor communication skills. Furthermore, in a sense, we both want to be heard and understood as it has been shown in our text.

"One of the most obvious benefits of human communication is that it allows people to share thoughts, feelings, experiences, and views of the world. When you do so, you share the meaning they have for you, and you connect with others. A prominent early 20th century British psychologist named Frederic Bartlett (1932) believed that people are motivated by what he called "effort after meaning" (p. 20), a fundamental need to understand reality and the world around them. This meaning and shared view of reality is achieved through communication" (Sole 2011).

In order to fix this communication issue with my husband, I have tried to talking calmly with him. Furthermore, I have shown him the bank statement so that he could see for himself how much money we have. I have told him not to involve our five-year-old in arguments because it makes things worse. In the article, it shows the communication issue that I have with my husband is common.

"We know that literacy leads to empowerment, especially for women, whether in 19th-century Britain, contemporary America, or in developing countries today. The stats are clear: Give a girl an education, and she'll save the world. Sharing engaging and inspiring stories of girls who defy expectations and live happily ever after is a powerful way to encourage them to break the rules, embrace their power, and seek happiness -- but only if those stories are celebrated, not scorned" (Rodale).

Through literature, people, like who are the character,… [read more]


Daughters in Literature Requires Essay

… The act of getting on one knee resembles a marriage proposal; there is a great deal of subtext embedded in the relationship between Cordelia and Lear to suggest that the Oedipal complex is at play. Cordelia's character is, moreover, completely defined by her relationship with men. Her relationship with her father, and his subsequent scorn, are what prompt her to marry and move to France. Her death is due directly to the actions of other Lear daughters, who are likewise defined by their relationship with men as well as their nefarious natures.

The relationship between Lear and Cordelia also highlights a common thread throughout literature: that the relationship between father than daughter is similar to the relationship between daughter and her husband. In King Lear, the similarity between the relationships is spelled out symbolically when Lear tells Cordelia that he will get on one knee for her, and that they will live as two birds in a cage together. In Pride and Prejudice, the connection is less overt but still apparent in the ways the five daughters pursue their relationships with men. In Crime and Punishment, the relationship between father and daughter is also problematic and exploitative. Daughters serve first their parents, and then their husbands. Women do not have a right to self-determination or self-love. Only Woolf suggests that complete independence from male bondage is possible; the relationships between the daughters Cam, Nancy, Rose, and Prue are explored much more through Mrs. Ramsay than with her husband. Woolf offers an alternative vision of family that flattens gender roles and enables a more egalitarian society. This is why Lily's presence as a painter becomes especially meaningful: her creativity and self-empowerment serve as role models for the Ramsay girls. Lily remains committed to extricating herself from patriarchy, which is why she is not even portrayed as a daughter at all. To do so would negate the fact that women are not defined by their relationships to men, but by what they choose to do with their own time.

Works Cited

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Edited by James Kinsley. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated and annotated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

Shakespeare. William. King Lear. Edited…… [read more]


Contemporary Irish Literature Essay

… Post-Modernist Features of Contemporary Irish Literature

The Irish have always had a strong sense of itself as a nation and as a way of thinking. Although Ireland has often been associated and defined by its political activity, the core beliefs and opinions of the Irish are have been best expressed through literary activity. As a result, contemporary Irish literature has provided some of the most compelling and tragic literature in the English-speaking language. Building on the tradition of modern Irish literature and its themes of personal and national discontent, it provides a very honest, self-confrontational sort of introspection rarely seen in literature.

Contemporary Irish literature continues Modern Irish literature's focus on nationalism and religion and, more importantly, a uniformly critical treatment of those themes. However, Contemporary Irish Literature provides alternative perspectives on the themes of Nationalism and religion, often resulting in sort of self-reflexivity and parody indicative of post-Modernist literature in general but distinctly Irish in voice.

Background

The "Steward of Christendom" is a play written in 1995 by Irish author Sebastian Barry. It follows the experiences of former police captain under the British regime in Ireland, Thomas Dunne,. It describes his fall in status as a result of Irish independence and the new political order that succeeds it. Dunne is very similar to the majority of Ireland, as a Catholic instead of a Protestant like the British. However, he is ostracized from Irish society because of his former association with the British.

The "Cripple of Inishmaan" is a play written in 1996 by London-born Irish author Martin McDonagh. Set in the 1930's, it describes the experiences of a crippled Irish orphan, Billy Claven, who moves to the Aran islands from the neighboring, rural town of Inishman to audition for a Hollywood movie. Inishmore is known for its poverty, isolation, and backwardness, yet is also known by the Irish, perhaps tellingly, for its "Irishnssness." Claven encounters much ignorance, cruelty, and mistreatment at the hands of his townsmen in Inishmore, which is partly the reason he wants to visit the island and the fiml crew.

Analysis

The Literature of the Disenfranchised and Ignored

Contemporary Irish literature characterized by a critical, incisive evaluation of a modern society dominated by industrial Capitalism and Nationalism. Modern society, despite the lessons and the promise engendered by Judeo-Christian religion and the age of Enlightenment, is still a place where groups tend to dominate less ambitious or organized groups. The result, at times, is the dominance of the many by the few, as in Capitalist economies, and, other times, the dominance of the few by the many, as with the English dominance of Ireland. Although the distributions between such groups vary according to emphasis, it appears that the dominant groups appear to get smaller every day.

Contemporary Irish literature, though unique, shares many features with other types of literature by the disenfranchised and ignored. Its critical bent is highly reminiscent of African-American literature or feminist (concerned with themes of gender) literature. Just as African-American literature express the… [read more]


Rime of the Ancient Mariner Essay

… He had, as a result, what pop-psychology would call a nervous breakdown. The stress was too great, and his brain disengaged; he fell victim to PTSD, but he saw it as visions (Ribkoff & Inglis). Because he survived the trauma, he has self-imposed the therapy of needing to "absolve" himself through the continual telling of the tale. Interestingly, this is the opposite of one of the results of PTSD. Normally the sufferer will become very stoic and unable to tell what happened (Ribkoff & Inglis).

Conclusion

The tale of the ancient mariner is difficult to fully understand because it is so disjointed and chaotic. The mariner jumps from one reality to another and his rime is so fantastical that it cannot be believed. But it is easy to see the aesthetic, philosophical and psychological elements that are hidden within Coleridge's poem. The beauty may be couched in the horror, the philosophy in religion, and the psychology in stress, but he is able to distinguish all of these points and more in the way he tells the tale. It may be difficult to distinguish truth from reality at times, but it is probably just as difficult for the person who has experienced a traumatic event to do this either. It seems that the rime is more a psychological tale, given what is now known, than a metaphysical one. PTSD could very easily send someone down the strange trails the mariner experiences in his journey.

Works Cited

Curran, Stuart. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Web.

Hiller, Russell M. "Coleridge's Dilemma and the Method of "Sacred Sympathy": Atonement as Problem and Solution in Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Papers on Language & Literature 45.1 (2009): 8-21. Web.

Howson, Chris. "Rime of the Ancient Mariner Summarized." Valley City State University, 1999. Web.

Rearick, T. "Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Mount Vernon Nazarene University, 1998. Web.

Ribkoff, Fred, and Karen Inglis. "Post-Traumatic Parataxis and the Search for a 'Survivor by Proxy' in Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." PSYART. Web.

Stokes, Christopher. "My Soul in Agony": Irrationality and Christianity in the rime of the Ancient Mariner." Studies in Romanticism 50.1 (2011): 3-19. Web.…… [read more]


Analysis of Poets War Poetry Essay

… Gentle images such as the "flowers to love" and the glorious picture of the English countryside, including the "rivers" and the "suns of home," emphasize the peaceful tone. The sestet gives an sanguine tone of idyllic peace as well, with… [read more]


Langston Hughes Poetry Essay

… The narrator also understands that the discrimination that he is subjected to is temporary and believes "Tomorrow/I'll be at the table/When company comes" (8-10). The narrator recognizes that change is inevitable, yet he continues to hope that change is more rapid and does not take too long to be put into place. He hopes that the people and institutions that have discriminated against him are able to see the wrong that they have done and hopes that they are "ashamed" for what they have done. The most poignant lines of the poem help to relay the narrator's aspirations.

While "Mother to Son" and "I, Too" show how one's hard work and dedication pay off, even if one's actions and behaviors go unrecognized, Hughes's "Dream Deferred" posits the possibility that one's dreams and ambitions may go unfulfilled. This poem, unlike the previous, is very simple in nature and explores the mortality, so to speak, of an idea. Despite the fact that the narrators in "Mother to Son" and "I, Too" are able to accomplish their goals and fulfill their dreams through hard work and dedication, "Dream Deferred" explores the possibility of failure. Because Hughes is not able to definitively describe what happens to a dream that fails, it can be argued that a dream never really dies, but instead transforms into a different dream with the original intent still intact.

Hughes's poetry draws upon the American experience as was seen from an African-American perspective. By drawing upon these experiences, Hughes brings to light the conflicts and obstacles that have had to be overcome in order for African-Americans to succeed. In each poem, Hughes's narrators encourage others to pursue their dreams, not only for themselves, but to demonstrate to others that they are a part of society and not a marginalized culture. Hughes demonstrates that while not all dreams can be fulfilled, they cannot be killed either.

Works Cited

Hughes, Langston. "Dream Deferred." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.

-. "I, Too." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.

-. "Mother to Son." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.… [read more]


Irish Literature Ireland Essay

… The narrator does use the word "you," indicating that he or she is discussing the content of the poem with a specific readership. Additionally, both of the poems use the metaphor that is comparing the process of writing and publishing of literature with the violence of their country's history, both past and recent.

The themes of both "Belfast Confetti" and "The Ulster Way" appear to be the ways in which the violent history of Ireland can be both explained and celebrated without necessarily having to approve of the methods of either side of the equation. "Belfast Confetti" begins with the narrator explaining that the present of the piece is a violent upheaval, a riot of some kind. Among the debris of the violent actions are exclamation marks as well as building materials and car keys. It is a comingling of propaganda, the foundation of society, and the necessities of an everyday life that comprise existence in Ireland. After the stanza break, the narrator's tone seems to change so that instead of more observational he instead becomes paranoid and panicked so that he feels that he is being cornered by the world in which he lives. The narrator appears to be someone in the literary field who does not know how to express himself in this world because the events of Ireland's history have become so palpable to him that he can no longer write about it without including himself emotionally. For Gillis, the narrator also is witness to a world around him that is dying in the wake of constant violence. Even the plants and trees, symbols of the natural world, are becoming violent and inhumane after witnessing so many atrocities. At the heart of this piece is not an uncertain writer, but instead deals with an individual who is trying to cope with his own place in Ireland's national identity. The culmination is in the final line of the poem when the narrator claims that the person to whom it is talking is all that matters in the world and the reasoning for this is that either the person to whom the narrator speaks is uncertain or the narrator is speaking to himself and trying to fortify himself with the knowledge that no matter what the rest of the nation may be doing or how, the self is all that matters.

Both Ciaran Carson and Allan Gillis are Irish writers of the modern period. Given their national identity and the history of their culture, it is not surprising that this national identification makes its way into their poetry. In "Belfast Confetti," a young Irish writer tries to understand the violence of his homeland and still try to understand his individual identity. "The Ulster Way" deals with an observer who cannot help but feel that everything has been negatively impacted by Ireland's violent past. Trying to understand that past and his own unique identity, the narrator comes to the conclusion that the only thing that matters is the self. Both… [read more]


Human Commonalities in Literature in the Preface Essay

… Human Commonalities in Literature

In the preface to his edition of Shakespeare's works, the 18th century scholar and author Samuel Johnson asked why Shakespeare's plays were still popular among common people so long after his death. He then answered his own question by asserting that Shakespeare was "the poet that holds his readers a faithful mirrour of manners and life." (Johnson) He was popular hundreds of years after his death because his characters were "the genuine progeny of common humanity," they had characteristics that every human being shared and could relate to. (Johnson, 8) Shakespeare's characters and stories may have been set in specific places and times, but they contained universal themes and emotions which made them timeless. More than two centuries have past since Johnson made his assertions and it is necessary to ask if they as true in the 21st century as they were in the 18th. Two short stories which contrast Johnson's ideas are Ernest Hemingway's the Old Man and the Sea and Harrison Bergeron by Kurt Vonnegut. While Hemingway's story contains universal themes which all humanity can relate to, Vonnegut's is strange and not representative of the common human experience. However, despite these differences, both stories effectively present the reader with an experience that can be related to by the common person.

The Old Man and the Sea is a tale that is set in the modern world and even contains references to 1950's American baseball players, but this tale of a Cuban fisherman is representative of the common human experience. The story begins with the "old man" on his eighty-fourth day without catching a fish. He is having a spot of bad luck, or a losing streak as they say in baseball terminology; something that every person has experienced. The other fishermen feel as though he cannot do his job, but the old man knows that he still has what it takes to catch the big ones. He has the drive and determination to continue and not give up. Eventually the old man takes his skiff out further than any of the other fishermen and his determination is rewarded when he lines "the biggest fish that he had ever seen and bigger than he had ever heard of…" (Hemmingway, 22)

But the old man is far from finished in his struggle to catch the fish as it drags him out into the open ocean and he does not come back to shore until two days after he initially left. During this time the old man struggles to maintain his focus and determination, to keep going when he is exhausted, to have faith that he will make it. These are all themes and concepts that each human being must face in their daily lives; a just representation of general human nature. The readers may not be Cuban fishermen, but everyone has had times in their lives when they are faced with the decision to give up or go on, to take the easy way out or… [read more]


Modest Proposal Literature Is a Window Essay

… Modest Proposal

Literature is a window into the society of Jonathon Swift's time in which created he created "A Modest Proposal." It mirrors English society and addresses the concerns of the day with regard to the social problems of poverty,… [read more]


Frankenstein and Romanticism Essay

… Frankenstein and Romanticism

Having long been viewed as peripheral to the study of Romanticism, Frankenstein has been moved to the center. Critics originally tried to assimilate Mary Shelley's novel to patterns already familiar from Romantic poetry. But more recent studies… [read more]


American and European Literature Research Paper

… Attempting to identify the differences between American and European literature is actually more difficult than it may appear at first, because while there are distinct differences between American and European culture in general, one must first confront the fact that nearly all American culture can trace its roots back to Europe and the first white settlers which came to the region. This is because any indigenous culture is generally not regarded as part of the American identity, due to a concerted effort to erase that culture through violence and political disenfranchisement. However, recognizing this fact does allow one to begin a productive discussion of the differences between American and European literature, because it reveals how the notion of a distinct American literature is dependent upon the creation of an American identity that claims a prehistory for itself that does not exist, as evidenced in the emergence of American folk traditions over a relatively short period of time.

Mark Twain both records and embodies these traditions, as his work emerged in a time of cultural and political crisis, and served to cement the notion of a preexisting American identity free from the particular political rivalries of the day. Oscar Wilde's work reveals this fact even more explicitly by contrasting the image of the European literary tradition against the American identity in his short story "The Canterville Ghost," which uses the character of the new American minister in order to represent the kind of manufactured identity which confronts and disarms the traditional European ghost. Thus, while one may note a number of differences between American and European literature in general, one cannot escape the fact that these myriad differences are inextricably linked to the development of the American political and social identity, a development which was explicitly oriented against traditional European notions of propriety, culture, and political organization.

Works Cited

Guillory, John. Cultural capital: the problem of literary canon formation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Kronick, Joseph. "Writing American: Between Canon and Literature." CR: The New Centennial

Review. 1.3 (2001): 37-66. Print.

Messent, Peter, and Louis Budd. A companion to Mark Twain. Malden: Blackwell, 2005.

Wilde,…… [read more]


Literary Terms Booklet Essay

… ¶ … unifies and permeates an entire literary work. The theme can be a brief and meaningful insight or a comprehensive vision of life; it may be a single idea. The theme may be also a more complicated paradigm. A theme is the author's way of communicating and sharing ideas, perceptions, and feelings with readers. It may be directly stated in the book, or it may only be implied. Example: Socialism as a means to cleanse society of capitalism in The Jungle by Upton Sinclair.

Metaphor -- A comparison or analogy describe to implicate that one object is another one, figuratively speaking. Example: Catch 22 by Joseph Heller.

Internal conflict -- An argument or decision-making progress within one character's mind. An internal conflict has intent and the resolution is crucial to the success of the plot. Example: Brutus in "Julius Caesar" by William Shakespeare.

Dialect -- The language of a particular district, class, or group of people. The term encompasses the sounds, spelling, grammar, and diction employed by a specific people as distinguished from other persons either geographically or socially. Example: Their Eyes Were Watching God, by Zora Neale Hurston.

Alliteration -- The repeating of a consonant sound in words in close proximity to others, or repeating a sound at the beginning several words with the same vowel sound. Most often it involves the sounds at the beginning of words in close proximity to each other. Example: "The Raven" by Edgar Allen Poe.

Drama -- A composition presenting, using action and dialogue, a narrative involving conflict between a character or characters and some external or internal force. Example: The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger.

Autobiography -- A non-fictional account of a person's life -- usually a celebrity, important historical figure, or a writer -- written by that actual person. Example: The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, by Benjamin Franklin.

Non-fiction -- A narrative that is based on actual events, facts, and persons. It is the opposite of fiction. Example: The Education of Henry Adams by Henry Adams.

Fiction -- An imagined story, whether in prose, poetry, or drama. Example: Breakfast of Champions, by Kurt Vonnegut.

Climax -- The turning point of the action in the plot of a play or story, typically the most important point of the story. Example: "Oedipus Rex" by Sophocles when Oedipus realizes he's killed his father and married his mother.

Biography -- The story of a person's life written by someone other than the person whose life story it is. Example: Gandhi, by Amy Pastan and Primo Levi.

Protagonist -- The main characters in a work, on whom the author focuses the most of the narrative attention, usually what we could call "the good guy." Example: Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee.

Antagonist -- The character against whom the protagonist struggles against, usually who we would call "the bad guy." Example: Luzhin in Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky.

Simile -- An analogy or comparison created usually by using adverbs… [read more]


African-American Literature Term Paper

… What it does not tell you, is that it will show the reader (from vantage point of slave) how this practice is wrong.

The Confession of Nate Turner

In The Confession of Nate Turner, Thomas Gray is speaking for Nate Turner. He is slave who led the largest uprising in U.S. history. What happened was Turner published a pamphlet before his death that described: how and why the 1831 insurrection would occur in Virginia. As he was able to lead a group of slaves who: overpowered and gained control of South Hampton Country, Virginia. Once the uprising was over is when Turner would tell everything that happened with these events to his attorney (Thomas Gray). He would then take these conversations and distribute them as a pamphlet for the public to read.

In the literature, Gray is painting Turner as someone who knowingly violated the law and is unremorseful about the actions that they have engaged in. Where, he is seen as a fugitive slave who planned on murdering white people. Evidence of this can be seen with Gray writing, "Whilst everything upon the surface wore a calm and peaceful aspect. A gloomy fanatic was revolving in the recesses of his own dark, bewildered and overwrought schemes to indiscriminately massacre all of the whites." (Gray, 1856, pg. 338) This is significant, because it is showing how Gray is trying to make Turner out to be a criminal that is confessing to his crimes.

When you compare this with Turner's accounts, he believes that his insurrection is a larger plan of God's to end slavery for good. Evidence of this can be seen with Turner saying, "I was placed under an overseer for whom I ran away and remained in the woods for thirty days. I returned to the astonishment of everyone on the plantation, who thought that I had escaped to some other part of the country. But the reason of my return was that the Spirit appeared to me and told me to return to the service of my earthly master." (Gray, 1856, pg. 342) This is significant, because Turner is justifying how God wanted him to lead an uprising as part of his overall plan. When you compare this with Gray's account, Turner is taking a religious tone to justify his actions. While Gray, is making him out to be a criminal that is confessing to this crimes.

What both works are showing; is how they are critiquing white exploration about the institution of slavery. This is accomplished by having the prologue at the beginning of these works, written by someone who will try to set the tone of what is being read. While at the same time, this is creating a new genre of literary expression for African-Americans. As, they were able to discuss the ideas and issues that they believe need to be explored by the rest of society (the abolition of slavery). Over the course of time, this would lead to changes in views about… [read more]


Experimental Research Methods in Business Literature Review

… 123). The research approaches to which the authors refer in their definition include, for example, data collection and analysis, inference techniques, qualitative perspectives, and quantitative perspectives. When placing a mixed methods approach in the research -- as a type of… [read more]


Tell-Tale Heart: A Descent Essay

… Unable to shake the ringing in his ears, the narrator finally breaks down and confesses his crimes. It may be argued that the ringing that the narrator heard was not the old man's heart, which he believed was still beating under the floorboards, but rather his own beating heart which he paid more attention to because of his heightened senses. The inability to distinguish between his own beating heart and the dead man's heart is an effect of his increased anxiety and the unease that was created due to the presence of the policemen in the room.

Poe is able to successfully explore the dangers of mental instability through the characterization of the narrator in "The Tell-Tale Heart." Poe brought attention to an unknown and often undiagnosed disease and presented the dangers of not seeking or obtaining treatment. While the narrator maintains that he is sane, he does not deny his guilt, freely recounting the meticulous details of his diabolical plan. In the process of denying his insanity, the narrator is able to provide evidence to support that he is indeed suffering from a mental disorder.

Works Cited

"Dorothea Dix Begins Her Crusade." Mass Moments. Web. Accessed 14 October 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Paranoid Schizophrenia." Mayo Clinic. 16 December 2010. Web.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart." Literature: An Introduction…… [read more]


Play? We're Heading Down to the Lake Essay

… ¶ … play? We're heading down to the lake."

"Nah."

"Are you the new boy?"

"I guess so."

"Don't talk much, do you?" The dark-skinned young boy sitting on the step warily regarded the white and the black child on… [read more]


American Literature What Elements of Free Verse Essay

… American Literature

What elements of free verse do you find in Aboard at a Ship's Helm? Identify three elements of free verse used by Whitman. Give an example of each from the poem.

Free verse gives a poet practically freedom… [read more]


Why Christians to Study Secular Literature Essay

… Christians and Secular Literature

Both secular and Christian literature benefit society in disparate ways. Christian literature encourages discernment in what people read; that is -- encouraging Christians to read faith-based literature can help them explore their faith and look at different theories related to Christianity. At the same time, secular literature can be educational as well because it can challenge individuals to find a Christian message within the scope of the secular world. Not only can secular literature do the aforementioned, but, of course, secular literature has beauty to be appreciated and it can encourage individuals to help explore different perspectives and worldviews. In this sense, both secular and Christian literature can benefit society.

An important way in which secular literature can benefit individuals in society is by helping individuals relate to specific material with acumen. As human beings, we are constantly growing and stretching ourselves as individuals. Life is a constant process of growth and secular…… [read more]


Lotus-Eaters: From Literature to Television Essay

… One of the things that she notices in this alternate world is how enchanted the people appear to be. She also notices that they have been enchanted fruit from the trees in the alternate dimension. It is also during this time that she spots her grandfather who mysteriously disappeared more than twenty years prior. When they are reunited, her grandfather realizes that though he feels as though he has only been there a few minutes, he has, in reality, been trapped in the alternate dimension for more than twenty years. By eating the fruit in this alternate world, the people that have been taken there by fairies have forgotten about their lives on Earth and do not realize how long they have been gone from their homes ("She's Not There"). Moreover, the myth of the lotus-eaters is combined with the rape of Persephone. Though Sookie refuses to eat any of the fruit offered to her, as she noticed the fruit's intoxicating effect on others, she is informed that anyone that has eaten the fruit cannot return to Earth and that they are doomed to spend the rest of their lives in the fairy world. Soon after Sookie reveals to her grandfather her suspicions regarding the fruit and the fairies that appear to be guarding all the people that ate the fruit, her life is endangered and she must escape. Because she has not eaten any of the fruit, Sookie can safely return to Earth, whereas her grandfather, who helps her escape, dies soon after he returns to Earth.

Greek mythology was a major inspiration in Romantic and Victorian poetry, and continues to inspire literature and entertainment to this day. From popular literature, and their major motion picture adaptations such as Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief, to popular television programs such as True Blood, which has adapted other Greek myths into its story line, audiences spanning several generations are continuously being reintroduced to Greek mythology in educational and entertaining formats.

Works Cited

"She's Not There." True Blood. HBO. 26 June 2011. Television.

Tennyson, Alfred. "The Lotos-Eaters." Poet's Graves: Serious about Poets and Poetry. Web.

Accessed 11 July 2011, from http://www.poetsgraves.co.uk/Classic%20Poems/Tennyson/song_of_the_lotos-eaters.htm… [read more]


Walt Whitman's Poetry Is Unique Term Paper

… It begins with the narrator nearly begging the deceased to rise up from his grave to witness how he has been missed and to see through this act of national mourning, the effect he had on the world. Whitman lists the various ways that the citizens are expressing their grief, such as with the American flag, "ribbon'd wreaths," and ringing bells. Every eye is on the funeral procession just like every mind is focused on the culmination of the Civil War. It is as if the narrator, and by extension Whitman, is trying to reach his dead captain from the land of the living.

In the third and final stanza of the poem, Whitman and the rest of the nation through this continued metaphor express their despondence when the knowledge of Lincoln's assassination finally sinks in and the people have no choice but to accept that their leader is now gone. The narrator chronicles all the physical and emotional signs make the knowledge and comprehension of the president's demise unable to be ignored. He lists the physical signs of lack of life, such as being without a pulse. In the end however, the death of Lincoln functions as a sign of impending destruction. In death, Lincoln unites everyone, shown by the fact that the narrator call him "father." Lincoln was not only the president during the Civil War, he was the founder of the modern United States as it icurrently known and understood.

Works Cited:

Whitman, Walt. "O Captain! My Captain!" The American Tradition in Literature. New York:

McGraw-Hill,…… [read more]


Beowulf as a Hero Lesson 1 Journal Journal

… Beowulf as a Hero

Lesson 1 Journal Entry #

Journal Exercise 1.3A: What makes a hero?

Beowulf is a hero who possesses strength, courage and loyalty; these are the elements that make up a hero during his time. There is… [read more]


Earl of Rochester / Aphra Essay

… Within this rhetorical inversion, I think it possible that "cunt" is a term of great praise. It follows from the rhetorical inversion that Rochester's presentation of Corinna will be a whore who can speak in the lofty terms of abstract… [read more]


Patriotic Themes in American Literature Essay

… The second view, pessimism, is demonstrated in Robert Lowell's depiction of America's future in his poem "For the Union Dead." Lowell foretells the deterioration of American ideals through detailed imagery. The poem begins with a gloomy depiction of the Old South Boston Aquarium boarded up and standing abandoned "in a Sahara of snow" (line 2). The author contrasts this present gloom with the romanticized childhood memory where his "hand tingle to burst the bubbles" created by the fish (lines 6-7). The forsaken aquarium represents Lowell's belief that American's principles are all but lost. Digging deeper, beyond the abandonment of past ideals, Lowell believes that the country has adopted new inspirations that are not lofty or innocent. He speaks of a photograph that shows a Mosler safe, called "the Rock of Ages" (line 57), that remarkably survives the atomic bomb at Hiroshima. For Lowell, the safe represents America's captivation with wealth and power. In a final play on words, Lowell reiterates America's fall from grace with the image of "Giant finned cars" that have "nose forward like fish" (line 66). The Aquarium, and the innocence of childhood, is gone. They have been replaced.

Somewhere between an over-the-top idealistic view of the past and a bleak pessimistic view of the future lays the stability of the realistic view which recognizes that virtue exists in the present and will exist in the future just as much as vice existed in the past. Contemporary patriotism seems to have found this balance. American columnist, Marilyn vos Savant sums it up asking, "What is the essence of America? Finding and maintaining that perfect, delicate balance between freedom 'to' and freedom 'from'"(Parade magazine). Countrymen must have the freedom to express their love, their hopes, their fears, and their disappointments. Their words (whether pessimistic, optimistic, or realistic) stir the heart and promote the patriotic bond.… [read more]


Caribbean Literature Essay

… Cesaire's work is regarded as filled with humanism, and is done so in the spirit of simplicity.

George Lamming is highly regarded for his literary works concerned with the decolonization as well as the reconstruction of the Caribbean (Odhiambo, 1994). His writings are commended for their nationalistic spirit through his poetic prose and style. Lamming's works are seen as more positive as compared to Cesaire, they focus on finding a new political and social identity, instead of dwelling on their lost ones. He also writes about the long-effects of colonialism in the minds of the Caribbean people. Lamming is said to dramatize the situation of the people during colonial rule (Odhiambo, 1994). He makes use of allegory and metaphor to give his poems deeper political meaning in his stories of his people being freed from oppression. Lamming's style can be regarded as experimental, his plot structures are circular and abrupt shifts in narrative can be seen. This has gotten mixed critical receptions; some state that it is because of Lamming's lack of coherence why his writings are not organized. However, some have noted that these shifts are forms of allegory for the confusion in the lives of the people under oppression during colonial rule (Odhiambo, 1994). He has an inventive style of writing and has been known to be a groundbreaking writer who has a positive influence on younger Caribbean authors. Lamming has confronted the negative definitions of his region through imaginative possibilities, and encourages new visions as well as meanings of experience.

Derek Walcott has been regarded as a major modern poet and has also developed into a respected playwright (Cabrera, 1992). His works reflect the voice of the West Indian culture and thought. He has received numerous awards for his poems, and has been awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for his literature. His themes are the same as Cesair's and Lamming's; they are of the search of identity for the Caribbean islands, and a search for identity within. Walcott's work reflects loyalty in his background: English and African. This, however, provides tension in his work because his language is split between literary in English poems and island themes in his plays (Cabrera, 1992). However, throughout his writing, these two styles have merged in the sense that they came to use natural speech and rhythm patterns; this was seen as a more direct and open mode of expression for the writer. Walcott makes use of the same metaphors to create political and social issues resound in his work; this can be seen also in the works of Lamming.

The three writers all reflect on the decolonization of the Caribbean in their work, however their approaches are different (Jonnasaint, 2007). Cesaire beings about negativity and resentment in his works, this can be seen in his language and use of rhythm in his poetry. Lamming has been commented to be confused in his writing with abrupt shifts in narrative; however, he makes good use of metaphors and connecting them with political… [read more]


American Literature Which Can Be Viewed Term Paper

… ¶ … American literature which can be viewed as groundbreaking for the era they were created as well as for the subjects they dealt with. The 70s and the 80s represented a very important period in the history of the… [read more]


Poetry Often Use Imagery Essay

… ¶ … poetry often use imagery as a way to connect the reader to the work. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate this specific use of imagery by analyzing the four following poems: Bogland by Seamus Heaney, The lake of Innisfree, by WB Yeats, Dylan Thomas "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" and Seamus Heaney uses strong visual images in order to construct the landscape of his country Ireland. The images however have a powerful metaphorical and symbolical dimension. The space which is open towards infinity "we have no prairies/To slice a big sun at evening" (Heaney, 1-2) is actually a metaphor for the free spirit of its inhabitants and the infinite possibilities of development they are provided with. The island therefore becomes a symbol of freedom, associated with perpetual creation. "Butter sunk under / More than a hundred years/Was recovered salty and white. / The ground itself is kind, black butter" (Heaney, 13-16) where butter suggests the root of life in the island is strong and fertile, thus allowing for a constant recreation of the country and its spirit.

The image of the soil's fertility is translated into a concept of the life's fertility and ultimately into spiritual fertility. The readers are brought into the poet's vision through a strong imagery connected not only to landscapes, but also to mindscapes. Innisfree on the other hand, still a symbol of freedom, is the place where the poet can escape. The imagery depicts an almost paradisaical island set in the middle of lake waters in clear opposition with the civilized world where the poet feels oppressed. The grey pavement creates not only a sad and gloomy image, but also communicates an inner stare. From an imagery which depicts reality, Yeats passes to one depicting the spiritual reality: "And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,/Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;" (Yeats, 5-6).

The use of imagery is somewhat different in "Do not go gentle into that good night." Here the metaphorical…… [read more]


History of Modern Medicine Taj Mahal Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Modern Medicine

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is India's most famous architectural structure. It is actually a beautifully preserved tomb whose name is translated as "Crown Palace." It dates back to the Seventeenth Century and the reign of the Fifth Mughal Emperor as a tribute to his second wife, Mumtaz Mahal who died as the result of public rebellion against the regime after bearing her husband's fourteenth child. The original construction of the TAJ was inspired by the Persian Princess' request of her husband before her death.

The Life and Work of Galileo

Galileo Galilee was a Sixteenth Century inventor and astronomer who revolutionized man's understanding of the universe and the Earth's relationship to the Solar System, in particular. Among Galileo's most important contributions where the demonstration that objects of different mass all fall at the same rate and the confirmation of Copernican's view that the Solar System was heliocentric and not geocentric. Galileo was eventually confined by the Pope to house arrest for publishing his heretical astronomical observations.

3. Jean Jacques Rousseau

Jean Jacques Rousseau was a Seventeenth Century (1712-1778) political philosopher originally from Geneva, Switzerland. He contributed important writings in the area of human morality and its connection to government and society.

4. Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley was a Nineteenth Century British intellectual whose father held a seat in the British Parliament. Instead of flowing in his father's footsteps, Shelley became a radical writer who vehemently opposed oppressive government and advocated political reform and atheism. As a result, he was expelled from Oxford University and all but disowned by his father.

5. The History of the American Abolitionist Movement

The official establishment of the American Anti-Slavery Society was in 1833, but the abolitionist movement against slavery in the United States actually predated that by decades. In fact, abolitionist literature had been published and circulated and conventions held in opposition to slavery as early as the late Eighteenth Century.

6. Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian composer who lived from 1813 to 1901. Among his most well-known operas that are still widely performed today are La Rigoletto (1851), La Traviata (1853), and Otello (1887).

7. The Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower is one of the world's most historic landmarks. It is located in Paris, France and was built in two years by Gustave Eiffel and completed in 1889. The structure is made entirely from iron and its shape is the product of a mathematical equation that guarantees its structural stability in the wind.

8. Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh was a psychologically troubled post-impressionist Nineteenth Century artist and painter from Holland in the Netherlands who only sold one painting during his lifetime. He committed suicide at the age of 37 but produced many works of art during a three-year period that are some of the world's best known paintings today.

9. Franz Kafka

Franz Kafka was a prolific early Twentieth Century writer. An Austrian Jew, Kafka was intellectually gifted but… [read more]


"Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?": Word Choice, Tone, and Point-Of-View Essay

… Shakespeare Poem

Shakespeare on Love and Death

William Shakespeare is largely held in such high esteem by writers, scholars and historians because of the breadth and depth of his work as a playwright. It may be said that the universality and continued relevance of his folios is predicated by their unique plumbing of the depths of human experience and their unflinching confrontation of emotions and ethical debates which remain pertinent today. However, there is another dimension of Shakespeare's plays which distinguishes them from many bodies of work in literary history which do approach these same themes. Namely, it is the bard's poetic dexterity that makes his work so timeless. His turn of phrase is unlike that of any other and his prolific career is matched only by the many individual moments of rhetorical profundity. It is thus that we consider the poem "Shall I compare thee to a Summer's Day?," which stands as evidence apart from his work as a playwright to demonstrate the poetic lucidity which is at the core of this work.

Word Choice:

Word choice is one of Shakespeare's most notable strengths. Indeed, it is often said that Shakespeare possessed an enormous vocabulary, so much to the point that his authorship of so many works has been called into doubt under the assumption that one man of his background could not have known so many words. With respect to the poem in question though, the focus is on the economy of his decisions. Capable of great complexity, the poet's work here is quite appealing for its simplicity. An explicitly stated simile characterizing what we may assume to be the subject of the poet's romantic intentions as she compares to a summer's day, the work is plotted out according to a set of well-played devices.

Among the devices that carry the greatest impact in his poem, Shakespeare's personification of death offers a deeply compelling impression in the poem's eventual resolution. Here, the poem intones, "Nor shall death brag thou wand' rest in his shade," using this representation of death as a way of magnifying the scope of the beauty in its subject. There is a hyperbolic sentiment which befits a poem of love to its recipient, and which here attributes some human traits as boastfulness and desire to the otherwise abstract notion of death. To portray it this way is for Shakespeare to suggest that the subject of his poem is so beautiful as to inspire vain longing even in death. Moreover, it serves as a vehicle for the poet to ultimately declare that his subject is so beautiful that death would ultimately not be sufficient to deprive the world of it. The poet tells that "So long as men can breathe or eyes can see / So long lives this, and his gives life to thee." This is to denote that her beauty will remain to haunt all of those who have beheld her, a sentiment which the grave word choice here renders so deeply compelling.

Tone:… [read more]


Charge of the Light Brigade -- History Essay

… Charge of the Light Brigade -- History and Literature

What is the relationship between history and literature? Is one subordinate to the other? What can we learn, for example, from the stories you read (be specific)? Does knowledge of history make a story more powerful, more "real?" Does history create literature and, in turn, literature creates history?

The discipline of history is both an art and science, designed to uncover the knowledge of culture, society and motivations of past civilizations. In such, it is beyond the idea of rote memorization of names, dates, and places and focuses more on the establishment of a verifiable past based on appropriate documents, interpretation, and an overall understand of the society in question and its relationship to other societies and future trends. The study includes who wrote what and in what time frame, bias, preconceptions, and audience (Bently, 1994). Literature, on the other hand, is also a process of artistically utilizing the written word in several genres (e.g. nonfiction, fiction, poetry, etc.), but with less stringent research requirements and greater allowances for opinion, fantasy, and speculation. To say that both are interrelated, though, is an understatement. Both not only chronicaol events but give the reader a greater insight into actual individual implications, feedback, and the way grand events impact individuals on a day-to-day basis (Frisina., 1999).

Literature is a medium which allows the witer to take events, be they maco or micro-events, and place them into the human context -- or living history. While individual reactions may or may not be indicative of the broad base of society, literature has the power to make one "feel" events as opposed to reading "about" them. One example might be Boris Pasternak's Dr. Zhivago. Certainly there is historical fact within the novel, the Russian Revolution, Civil War, and disasterous entry into World War I. However, instead of a broad societal picture, Pasternak's novel uses a familial grouping to allow the audience to "feel" the events, the pain, the anguish, and hopelessness, and the way that overt, political events impacted the individual (Rosenberg, 1995).

The paradigm of literature creating history or history creating literature is akin to the chicken and the egg maxim. In some cases, historical events are a basis for literature: poems such as The Charge of the Light Brigade, novels like Doctor Zhivago and Gone with the Wind. However, other novels and pieces of literature have the power to incite, to critically analyze what is happening in society, and to influence historical events; (e.g. Candide or Uncle Tom's Cabin). One must be cautious, however, since it is the victor that often writes the history of an event, and certain aspects of literature tend to glorify and magnify events into almost mythical proportions.

Why does Acton…… [read more]


Love Theme of Langston Hughes Essay

… ¶ … Langston Hughes' poetry appears to this author to center around mother and son. Due to the bad relationship with his father, he was particularly close to his mother. This was vital relationship and by extension may have reflect badly upon many of the male models (particularly his father). It is the assertion of the author that this conflict was reflected in his biracial identity as well as in the relationship with both parents and was worked out eventually successfully later on in life in his poetry.

A good example of this type of poem of the theme of love between mother and son can be found in "Mother to Son." In this poem, the mother ruminates upon the hard life that she has had, particularly as a black woman. This particular theme of love is complicated by the theme of the mulatto that runs through much of Hughes' poetry. With this in mind, this author will also center in on three of Hughes' other poems for analysis as well: "Sweet brown Harlem Girl" and "Love Song for Linda."

"Mother to Son" presents the contradictory love role of the African-American mother. She is often in a double bind with regard to her duties in her role as mother. On the one hand, she wants the best for her son which may compromise his role as a black man. On the other, she is a proud black woman who chaffs at this compromise. In 1926, Hughes wrote an article in the Nation magazine that explores the contradictory role of both parents of a family he terms as "the negro middle class" that is not only busy keeping up with the Jones family, but the white Jones family in particular. This double self-hating entendre is spelled out as follows:

But let us look at the immediate background of this young poet. His family is of what I suppose one would call the Negro middle class: people who are by no means rich yet never uncomfortable nor hungry -- smug, contented, respectable folk, members of the Baptist church. The father goes to work every morning. He is a chief steward at a large white club. The mother sometimes does fancy sewing or supervises parties for the rich families of the town. The children go to a mixed school. In the home they read white papers and magazines. And the mother often says "Don't be like niggers" when the children are bad. A frequent phrase from the father is, "Look how well a white man does things." And so the word white comes to be unconsciously a symbol of all virtues. It holds for the children beauty, morality, and money. The whisper of "I want to be white" runs silently through their minds. This young poet's home is, I believe, a fairly typical home of the colored middle class. One sees immediately how difficult it would be for an artist born in such a home to interest himself in interpreting the beauty of… [read more]


Poetry Has Been Used to Evoke Essay

… Poetry has been used to evoke a variety of emotions and life experiences. The epic poems of history transformed into structured sonnets and the form continues to evolve. In recent time there emerged a new type of poetry that resisted strict structure in preference of a sort of stream of consciousness. Charles Bukowski's "Are you drinking?" is an example of subverting a genre by taking a short conversational story, ultimately a prose poem, and adding emphasis with line breaks.

Reading this poem evokes every moment that I've felt exhausted -- either by life, or work. Regardless of the obvious differences between my life experiences and those of Bukowski's, his working-man tone effectively conjures up an overall exhaustion that works for anyone of any class. The image of washed up yellow notebook takes on more meaning by adding a hyphen in washed-up. Already from the first word there is an image evoked of a tired and washed up person and then the words that follow take that impression and apply it to a tattered notebook that Bukowski writes in. This lived in and aged feeling implies that writing is what makes Bukowski who he is, but it is not a glamorous endeavor and is, in fact, just a facet of who he is without any sort of fanfare.

Meeting with his doctor, Bukowski predicts their conversation and it takes on a rote quality laced with the overall weariness that was one his themes. The various injuries and illnesses are catalogued and emphasized by more inventive line breaks. Within the lines "are you drinking?" he will ask/"are you getting your/exercise, your/vitamins?" The line breaks following your makes the emphasis personal not only to the author, but for the reader. As I read that passage aloud I start to think about my own aches and pain- not only the physical, but also the mental fatigues that flare up every once in a while as a result of nothing so much as life.

Even Bukowski thinks his pains are nothing special, but just the result of life and all of its "fluctuating/factors." The alliteration between the two words brought emphasis out for me and…… [read more]


Poetry Amiri Baraka Essay

… ¶ … Black Poem:

The Convergence of Culture, Art, and Identity

in the Works of Amiri Baraka

It is difficult to characterize Amiri Baraka's legacy in American literature and pop culture. He is deeply respected by some, deeply reviled by others. He has been considered a national treasure and a national disgrace. His poems have inspired, intrigued, empowered, terrified, and disgusted readers for over five decades. This extreme range of reactions speaks to the power of Baraka's artistic voice, a power that he uses to provoke emotion, reflection, and revolution both in individual readers and in society as a whole. As he said in a speech given at Rutgers University in 1997, "form and content are weapons of self-consciousness and revolution" (Chicago Review 111). Over the past fifty years, Baraka has used the "weapon" of his writing to eviscerate the concepts of race, sexuality, gender, and faith that underlie American society, sometimes in broad hacks and sometimes with surgeon-like precision. While his cuts are often brutal, they are never meaningless; every word serves to expose, explore, and expunge hypocrisy and injustice as he finds them.

Born Everett LeRoi Jones in 1934, Amiri Baraka first came to public attention as a member of the literary avant-garde in Greenwich Village in the early 1960s. As was the case with many of his contemporaries, Baraka (then known as LeRoi Jones) was seeking to define himself in opposition to the past -- his own past, his race's past, and his country's past. As a member of the Beatnik group in the late 1950s and early 1960s, he was more interested in the possibilities of the form of his art than in effecting social change with its message. By the mid-sixties, however, his racial consciousness had become central to his worldview, and he became intensely active in the black political community. (Eahrle 1)

It was during this time, referred to as his "Transitional Period," that Baraka's unique poetic voice came to the fore. Baraka was conscious of the emergence of this voice, and would often address the ideological changes occurring within him in his poetry. In "The Liar," a poem written and published during this time, he mused on the challenges of embodying a shifting identity: "I am a man / who is loud / on the birth / of his ways. Publicly redefining / each change in my soul, as if I had predicted / them / & #8230;even tho / their chanting weight / erased familiarity / from my face" (12-21). This tendency towards "public redefining" would become a hallmark of Baraka's poetry. James Miller suggests that this is, in fact, the unifying principle in Baraka's art as a whole:

If there is any single preoccupation that runs through Baraka's work, it the theme of change itself, the endless question for appropriate vehicles of expression and action in a world which is itself constantly changing. (Literature Resource Center)

Baraka was intensely aware that even the most intimately personal self-discovery achieved in his poetry… [read more]


African and African-American Poetry Essay

… African/African-American Poetry

Poetry Analysis of Baraka and Soyinka

Amiri Baraka and Wole Soyinka are both voices of the black experience, but their differences in background, philosophy, and motive highlight the extreme separation of the black experience in the United States and in Africa. Baraka's poetry is punctuated, both in content and in style, by the angry forcefulness of someone who participated in the difficult birth of civil rights in America, while Soyinka's poetry is pervaded by the sadness and quiet patience of someone who has watched his country turn upon itself with deadly consequences.

In Baraka's poem "Fresh Zombies," the sharpness and bitterness for which he is known comes through not only in the content, but in his edgy use of syncopated rhythms, alliterative word play, and aggressive diction. His disgust with the younger generation is introduced with a litany of strong verbs that land like punches on the psyche of the reader: "Stink… Lie… Betray… Assassinate" (1-3). This is followed by an indictment in the form of a series of complicated double-entendres and near-homophones: "Not old toms / but New Toms, Double Toms / a Tom Macoute" (3-5). In addition to bringing in connotations of Uncle Tom ("New Toms") and the notorious death squads of Papa Doc in Haiti ("Tom Macoute"), the passage reiterates the rapid, punching rhythm with which the poem started. The stark violence of this rhythm is reinforced with the repetition of the passage at the end of the poem.

In contrast, Soyinka's "In the Small Hours" uses repetitive rhythms, diction, and alliteration to create an entrancing atmosphere that melts around the edges and never quite becomes concrete. Like "Fresh Zombies," "In the Small Hours" contains a series of verbs in its first few lines, but unlike Baraka's brutal strikes, these verbs land softly and fade: "Mutes…wreathes…Dims" (3-4). Soyinka's use of sibilant syllables intensifies this mesmerizing effect. In the second stanza, he describes "Applause…steeped in lassitude, / Tangled in webs of lovers' whispers" (12-13). In these lines, the shifting sibilance of the words, the sticky metaphor of the web, and the image of applause drenched in languidness combine to evoke the stupor of the bar and its patrons. Where Baraka used poetic…… [read more]


Nature in Robert Frost's Poetry Research Paper

… Nature

Poetry is how some authors express their feelings about a subject or attitude that is occurring around them. The poems by Robert Frost that have been studied all discuss how man and nature are separate from one another. He uses nature as a metaphor to explain a situation with man. "Frost uses nature as metaphor. He observes something in nature and says this is like that. He leads you to make a connection, but never forces it on the reader. Read on a literal level, Frost's poems always make perfect sense. His facts are correct, especially in botanical and biological terms. But he is not trying to tell nature stories nor animal stories. He is always using these metaphorically implying an analogy to some human concern" (Frost and Nature). Along with that, Frost also saw nature being able to destroy man but at the same time, he saw man's struggle with nature. Therefore, Frost's poetry gives a different outlook about nature by using it as a metaphor for his poems

Birches.

Frost believes that people should express what they feel through poetry like he used nature as metaphor. For example, in the poem, "Birches," he uses ice storms to explain how people have to face the truth before everything falls apart without being able to fix it. It clearly shows that the poet is a poet that thinks with emotions. This is due to the fact that people must face their obstacles and overcome them before they become unfixable as it is seen from the following "Birches" stanza

Ice-storms do that. Often you must have seen them

Loaded with ice a sunny winter morning

After a rain. They click upon themselves

As the breeze rises, and turn many-colored

As the stir cracks and crazes their enamel.

Soon the sun's warmth makes them shed crystal shells

Shattering and avalanching on the snow-crust

Such heaps of broken glass to sweep away

This poetry helps people to understand that they must face their problem before they are uncontrollable. Sometimes when facing problems, a person needs support to overcome them without feeling overwhelmed. If people have socially supportive arrangements as the attributes of socially legitimate roles which provide for the meeting dependency needs without loss of esteem, they are less likely to show aggression while suppressing destructive behavior. Social support can also serve as a salve to pains encountered along the way. It gives people the confidence to making a positive change and testing their limits when they know they have a community of support they can call upon. Social support refers to social interactions that are perceived by the recipient to facilitate coping and assist in responding to stress. Social support is thought to reduce the total amount of stress a person experience as well as to help one cope better when stressed (Landau, J., Garrett, J., & Webb, R p. 498-2008). From there, socially supportive environments were presented as pattern interpersonal relationships mediated through shared values and sentiments as well as… [read more]


Russian Literature -- Journal Entry Book Report

… Russian Literature -- Journal

Entry #1 -- Bezhin Meadows -- Ivan Turgenev -- "I finally reached the corner of the woods… but there was no road there at all…an empty field was visible."

What an absolutely perfect representation of the… [read more]


Russian Literature and Vladimir Sorokin Essay

… Russian Literature and Vladimir Sorokin: What Is the Goal and Is the Soviet Response Reasonable

The plots in the two novels by Vladimir Sorokin are sharply different, however the author's approach appears to be relatively similar. The use of extreme… [read more]


Poison Tree Essay

… William Blake's poem, "A Poison Tree," examines anger from the perspective of one controlled by anger. This poem is compelling because while it takes place within the speaker's mind, it divulges the levels of contempt of which we are all capable. Things occur because the speaker allows them to occur. He understands his culpability but, in the end can only acknowledge that he is only human and, as a result, hypocritical. The truth of the human spirit is that it can be tricky and plat many poison trees.

The scene of the poem takes place in the speaker's imagination, where the speaker realizes the dangers of the human mind. In short, he does not have to go anywhere to see how cruel people can be to one another. Neil Heims notes the poem states the "correspondence between the spiritual and natural worlds that is effected by the mind" (Heims) and the tree "grows in the human brain, not in nature. Taken from the imagination, the tree is planted in culture" (Heims). The speaker, an unidentified man, speaks honestly about how the anger grew for his foe grew.

The plot in "A Poison Tree" unfolds as the speaker allows his anger to fester. Because he did not speak his grievance, it did not leave him. Instead, it grew. It fell to the ground like a seed and it grew because the speaker continued to feed it. Neil Heims writes the central image of the poem is the tree, which is a metaphor representing "wrath" (Heims). The tree began from a single thought, just a seed, and not only grew but also bore dangerous fruit. In addition, it was lovely and tempting. Furthermore, the speaker allows his foe to eat the fruit.

The speaker…… [read more]


Modernism, Factors That Led to the Rise Research Proposal

… ¶ … Modernism, factors that led to the rise of Modernism and the characteristics of the period.

Modernist literature is notable for its far more subjective and unreliable narrators, in contrast to the protagonists of the immediately preceding Victorian period. Modernist literature also tends to have a more fragmented narrative structure. Its tone is often pervaded by a sense of despair because of a perceived loss of faith in traditional institutions. Its focus on psychological interiority rather than exterior relationships and 'plot' also reflects a sense that it is impossible to know anything for certain, other than one's own thoughts and feelings.

The death and destruction of a generation of young men in the wake of World War I was one of the most significant factors in giving rise to the movement. Freudian psychoanalysis also was influential in disseminating the idea that a character's inner life could be just as potentially significant as a characters' outer life. What goes on in a character's mind might be more exciting than what he or she 'did' on a daily basis, as well as profoundly discordant with the protagonist's placid surface. The rise in scientific literacy gave rise to the cultural questioning of traditional religious and sexual more. Stream-of-consciousness narration, bitter irony and satire, despair at the failure of old institutions, and fairly simple plots (versus the long, epic novels of the Victorians) were all characteristic of Modernism because of cultural as well as historical influences.

It should be noted that, although Modernism was highly focused upon the individual, it was also profoundly anti-heroic in nature. In contrast to the upstanding moral protagonists of many Victorian novels, Modernist heroes and heroines were highly imperfect and riddled with doubt. They also lacked the epic brilliance of Romantic heroes, and tended to be ordinary people who aspired to greatness, to escape the limitations of their daily lives.

Q2. Give examples of Modernism using the following writers:

a) T.S. Eliot: Eliot's fragmented images of the "Wasteland" and their allusions to previous works of literature both satirize and express despair over the Modernist loss of faith. The Bible, Shakespeare, and many images of high and low culture are blended together to suggest that ordinary experience is all that is left of the great epics of the past, like the poetic refrain of "Hurry up please, it's time" to the lower-class women in the bar. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" is an extended stream-of-consciousness narration whereby the placid surface of social life (where women talk of Michelangelo and drink tea) hide the painfully ordinary title character's burning feelings of passion for an unnamed woman.

b) James Joyce: Ulysses is an almost entirely non-linear stream-of-consciousness narration. The novel has no plot and merely portrays a day in Dublin, although it contains literary allusions to Shakespeare and other works in a parodic form, and has a non-believing protagonist in the form of Stephen Daedalus. Joyce's writings were frankly sexual in a way that threatened the sensibilities of many… [read more]


Various Books in Literature Essay

… ¶ … young adult is advantageous.

Historical fiction refers to stories that are set in specific time periods in particular places. The characters are not historical figures, but they may be modeled after them. Settings are as genuine as possible, with detailed references to social, cultural, political, and economic issues. Historical fiction allows young adult readers to understand details that may be excluded from history textbooks, and therefore enhance traditional history lessons. Students are likely to become more engaged in the historical fiction than in the drier factual bits of history that accompany the lesson.

Write a three to five sentence explanation of the history and culture as presented in The Middle Ages as presented in THE MIDWIFE'S APPRENTICE.

Cushman's The Midwife's Apprentice explains the role of the midwife in medieval Europe. The book also explores mundane, everyday life for common people during that time including references to the poor hygiene that characterizes the Middle Ages. Issues related to gender, class, and social stratification are explored as Alyce tries to navigate her place in a complex society. Midwifery was a respectable profession for a female, albeit one of the only ones a woman could perform. The medieval model of labor included relationships like the one between Alyce and Jane, between apprentice and master.

Question 3: Create a Venn diagram comparing the main character in A SINGLE SHARD and THE MIDWIFE'S APPRENTICE. Make sure to include at least three points about each character. You don't have to drawn the Venn diagram, I can put them on a diagram.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce are poor and alone at the start of the story.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce become apprentices, Tree-Ear to a potter and Alyce to a midwife.

Both become determined to succeed at their chosen craft.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce act with ethical integrity, and are faced with difficult moral choices.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce grow up in roughly the same time period, the Middle Ages.

Tree-Ear is a Korean male, whereas Alyce is an English female.

Question 4: Define a Newbery award winning children's book. You may consult a source for your answer, but be sure to give credit to the source, and don't copy information word for word, which I know you wouldn't anyway.

The Newbery Medal is honored each year to an outstanding work of children's literature. Only American authors and books published in the United States are eligible to receive the award. Award winners are selected based on their contributions to their chosen genre within children's literature, as well as to American literature in general. Works of fiction, non-fiction, and poetry are all eligible for the Newbery Medal, although multimedia compositions are not (American Library Association).

Question 5: Define non-fiction, and explain how it can be useful in disciplines like science and social studies.

Non-fiction is factual prose. Any narrative element in a work of non-fiction must be based on true stories such as biographies of historical figures or…… [read more]


Thematic Bridges in English Literature: Frost Essay

… Thematic Bridges in English Literature: Frost's "After Apple-picking" and Shakespeare's the Tempest

The passage of time, especially from the perspective of a human life, is one of the most universally resounding and consistent themes in the literature and poetry of any age. Given the symbolism and imagery in many examples of this theme throughout world literature, it is safe to assume that the correlation of other observed changes in nature -- the passing of the seasons and the seasons themselves, especially -- with human mortality is a natural and almost automatic human sentiment. Two very different yet remarkably similar examples of this theme, and the purpose of illuminating the transience of human life, are Robert Frost's poem "After Apple Picking," and the epilogue spoken by Prospero in Shakespeare's The Tempest.

Prospero speaks more directly on the theme of mortality and the changes wrought by the passage of time on an individual's life and identity. He approaches the topic from a more pessimistic view then does Frost, as well, seeing in his old age and arguably even in his own mortality a certain sense of freedom and release. His repeated use of words like "confined," "pardon'd," "release," "relieved," and "mercy" all indicate the freedom from earthly troubles that Prospero is seeking. This figurative message of a freedom from imprisonment is also an implicit reference to the literal freedom from the prison of this world, and the salvation found in the next, as evidenced by the use of the words "prayers" and "indulgences later in the poem. The purpose of this epilogue, then, is an instruction to the viewer/reader on what truly matters, which is not so much the passing of the joys of this life, but rather the passing of the ills, the limitations, and the…… [read more]


Wordsworth Poetry Has Existed Research Paper

… This connection is beneficial to the reader because enlightenment takes place.

Poetry According to John Stuart Mill and Roman Jakobson

John Stuart Mill attempts to provide a definition for poetry in his essay "Thoughts on Poetry and its Varieties." Interestingly enough he begins the essay by statating what poetry is not. He explains that poetry is not limited to just metrical composition. He goes to explain that poetry contains both verse and prose.

As it pertains to the comparison between Wordworths belefs about poetry and Mill's beliefs. Mill explains,

"The object of poetry is confessedly to act upon the emotions;-and therein is poetry sufficiently distinguished from what Wordsworth affirms to be its logical opposite-namely, not prose, but matter of fact, or science. The one addresses itself to the belief; the other, to the feelings. The one does its work by convincing or persuading; the other, by moving. The one acts by presenting a proposition to the understanding; the other, by offering interesting objects of contemplation to the sensibilities (Mills)."

As was mentioned previously in this discussion, Wordsworth believed poetry to be the spontaneous overflow of feelings. Mills asserted that the purpose of poetry is to act upon the emotions. In this respect both Mills and Wordsworth believe that as an expression poetry provides an emotional release for the writer.

Mills goes on to state that But, in this state of society, there is little poetry except ballads, which are mostly narrative,-that is, essentially stories,-and derive their principal interest from the incidents. Considered as poetry, they are of the lowest and most elementary kind: the feelings depicted, or rather indicated, are the simplest our nature has; such joys and griefs as the immediate pressure of some outward event excites in rude minds, which live wholly immersed in outward things, and have never, either from choice or a force they could not resist, turned themselves to the contemplation of the world within.

Like Mills, Jakobson's explanation of what poetry is, starts by expressing what poetry is not. According to Jakobson poetry is not what it used to be. That is the definitnion of poetry has shifted. The author asserts that there was a time when there was very clear subject matter present in poetry. However, poetry no longer has subject matter that cannot or will not be explored. Jakobson further ruminates about what poetry is. He does not seem to have much of a concrete definition. Like Wordsworth, he alludes to the fact that poetry has a great deal to do with human emotions.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to focus on what poetry, poets, and the lyric mean to William Wordsworth as related in his preface to Lyrical Ballads. Wordsworth had string feeling of what constitutes poetry, poets and lyrics. Wordsworth believed the lyrical ballads should contain simple lyrics that would reflect everyday life of the common people. He believed that simple language was truly philosophical and caused readers to think about wahat was written at a fundamental level.… [read more]


Importance of a Theme in Works of Literature Essay

… Alienation in "A Rose for Emily" and "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"

Alienation is a curious thing. While we would like to think that alienation is something that happens to people against their will, that is often not… [read more]


Poetry Explications of Emily Dickinson's Poem I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died Essay

… ¶ … Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died

Life meets death in Emily Dickinson's poem, "I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died." This poem explores the notion of what happens after death, a topic for endless conversation. Dickinson's poem explores death and remains in doubt that there is an afterlife for to we can look forward. This poem is striking because it does not bring us the typical ideas associated with death. Instead, the poet brings us face-to-face with the worst-case scenario of death, which is that nothing happens, nothing awaits us, and all is black and still. This poem forces us to think about death from a darker perspective that does not bring solace. This perspective is disturbing and that is what gives the poem its strength.

The first stanzas in the poem tell a story of the early moments of the poet's death. While many think of death as a frightening experience, the poet treats the matter with a nonchalant attitude. The poet is aware that she has dies but expresses no real emotions about that are positive or negative. Instead, the experience is something that simply is. The poet is also aware of loved ones that are grieving her death. The second stanza opens with the poet seeing those she loved dividing her belongings. She is aware that there is mourning for her death for eyes were "wrung" (5) dry. These people were anxiously awaiting "when the King / Be witnessed" (7-8) but the dead poet does not. The most significant aspect of death is the fly because it is the thing that distracts the poet and it appears to be the only thing that the poet experiences on the other side of life. The last stanza takes us into the experience of the…… [read more]


Romantic Movement Explored in the Poetry Thesis

… ¶ … Romantic Movement Explored

in the Poetry of Keats and Shelley

At the heart of Romantic literature is the desire to experience life fully without restraint. Emotion and imagination hold hands in an effort to capture the most subtle essence of being alive and the poets during this literary movement illustrate how significant emotion and imagination are to being alive. When Charles Baudelaire suggests that the word Romanticism is directly linked to modern art because it explores "intimacy, spirituality, color, aspiration towards the infinite, expressed by every means available to the arts," he is correct to aim his comment at the Romantics because they were about so much more than simply writing. In fact, it could be said that the writing was the result of the experience for many of the Romantic poets. Their goal was to experience life completely and writing allows them to not only do this but share their experience with others as well. Two writers that exemplify the Romantic writers are John Keats and Percy Shelley. These poets became intimate with their life experiences and it was their experiences that caused them to see life from another perspective. It did not matter that these experiences seemed trivial. Two poems that represent this notion are Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind" and Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale." Each poem delves into the experience of being alive with an intimacy that represents the poets' desire to enhance the very aspect of being alive.

In Keats' poem, "Ode to a Nightingale," we see the poet experimenting with his sensibilities. The poem relies upon the experience to propel the reader into the poet's mind. Sight and hearing become invaluable tools for the poet as he attempts to be understood through the simple process of witnessing a birdsong. Imagination plays heavily in poem as the poet allows himself to fall hypnotized by the song. The song prompts the poet to consider his life and his identity and it leads him down a path that is not of this earth. The song causes his heart to ache and hit wits to become numbed. The song is leading him to sublime surroundings while he contemplates the beauty of nature. He states, "In some melodious plot/Of beechen green, and shadows numberless, / Singest of summer in full-throated ease" (Keats 8-10), indicating the power of the song to cause him to fall into a dream-like condition. Part of the poet's experience includes the ache that is accompanied with the notion that he is just a man. This thought brings a sense of pain and loss as he realizes that men cannot duplicate this type of song and the best they can do is sit beneath the trees and "hear each other moan" (24). Recognizing that the simplest of things, such as a bird singing, is significant because it is contrast to the busy action of the world. The poet even considers how his imagination could "cheat" (73) him while he listens to the song.… [read more]


Listening to Poetry Essay

… Listening to Poetry

Differences in Reading and Listening to William Blake's "London"

Although poetry often contains both visual and audible elements, a poem is not a poem if it cannot be read out loud and if that reading does not evoke some sense of melody, some musical reminiscence. After all, poetry is, simply, set to verse. Many poems, when read aloud, give the listener a far different experience than when they are simply read, silently, to one's self. William Blake's classic poem "London" is no different. A silent reading of the poem, compared an audible hearing of the poem as it is read by John Stallworthy makes a great difference in the understanding of both the poem's cadence and its meaning.

When comparing a silent reading of the poem with an audible hearing of it, a few key differences can be noticed immediately. First, the connections between images that Blake makes become emboldened through the hearing of the poem. When one first reads the poem without listening to it being read, one is doubtlessly aware of the many images that Blake presents. Of course, the beginning of the poem involves a narrator who is walking through the streets of London "mark[ing] every face [he] meets" (Blake). Some of those faces that Blake sees include an infant's, a soldier's, a chimneysweeper's, and more. While this is information that can be quite easily gleaned from the written version of the poem, it is not until the audible reading that one becomes aware of their connection. When looking at the poem on the page, the reader certainly identifies the images of "every cry of man," and "ever infant's cry of fear" as important, but in the audible version of the poem, speaker John Stallworthy recites each of these lines with the same tone and inflection, allowing the listener to understand that they are equal in Blake's eyes. Each of the images is connected to the other because each is a different kind of "[mark] of woe" (Blake). It is only through Stallworthy's treatment of these images that the listener can understand how they are connected, which is the very essence of the poem. Second, listeners have an easier time understanding the very essence of the poem when hearing it read simply because of the way in which John Stallworthy reads it. Reciting in the tone of the mournful observer, and speaking in a British accent, listeners could almost believe John Stallworthy was Blake telling them about the deplorable conditions in his London. Thus, an audible reading of the poem allows readers to feel more connected with its contents; it inspires emotional connection and understanding of the culture in which the poem was written.

In addition to these most obvious differences between the spoken and the written poem, the spoken poem also allows listeners to grasp much more easily the musical cadences of the work. For instance, the spoken poem emphasizes the use of meter and rhyme, allowing the reader to comprehend its musical… [read more]


Children's Literature Thesis

… ¶ … children's literature to dispel the popular premise that a diametric difference separate good literature and good multicultural literature, as it asserts that children's literature may promote interracial respect, yet lack bias and still possess exceptional literary qualities.

Contemporary… [read more]


Paul's Case by Willa Cather Essay

… ¶ … Paul's Case

Faust -- In his book Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing Kennedy tells us only that it is a "tragic grand opera." (Quote: "Faust: tragic grand opera (1859) by French composer Charles Gounod.")Expand on his note. What is Faust noted for? In what other forms does the story appear?

Faustus is a great scholar who sells his soul to the devil for power and a vision of Helen of Troy, in Marlowe's dramatic version of the tale, and for the love of a beautiful peasant girl in Goethe's epic dramatic poem Faust. Although Faust has a great mind and is frustrated by what he perceives as the limits of his existence as a human being, ultimately Faust becomes distracted by petty, earthly, and sensual cares and sells his soul to the devil. He loses his chance at eternal life, the chance every person has to live if they are good and faithful and instead becomes obsessed with transient things. He is also very arrogant and thinks himself smarter than most mortals. Paul is a kind of modern-day Faust, although Paul has very little reason to think that he is superior to other people. However, Paul gives up everything for a few days in a fancy hotel in New York City, where he can drink champagne and gaze at socialites.

"Cordelia Street" (mentioned in paragraphs 19, 22, 24, 27, 51, 55, 57) --Who was Cordelia? What does her sad life symbolize that might be important in Cather's story?

Shakespeare's King Lear had three daughters. When dividing his kingdom amongst them after he grew too old to administer it himself, two of them (Goneril, the eldest, and Reagan, the middle child) praised him lavishly when he staged a competition amongst them for their birthrights. His youngest daughter Cordelia refused to praise him, and said she loved him according to her bond -- in other words, she was honest, and had no more nor no less to give him than her affection as his daughter. Lear was angry, and as a result, gave Cordelia nothing in return. However, Goneril and Reagan cast Lear out of their homes after they got their land -- Cordelia and her father tried to win the kingdom back, but Cordelia was killed after she is taken prisoner.

This story shows the importance of simple, homespun truth without added 'glitter' or false praise -- something that Paul never learns, even though he loves the stage where Shakespeare's plays are still performed.

"He had no mind for the cash boy stage" (paragraph 25) --Hint: Look up Horatio Alger.

Unlike a Horatio…… [read more]

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