"Literature / Poetry" Essays

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Politics, Literature and the Arts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Structurally, there is a similarity between Camus' play and Kafka's and Lang's films as well. It too is propelled by a transformation, but not by an ordinary worker, but by the tyrannical protagonist and Roman emperor. The transformation in Caligula occurs during the dictator's disappearance after his beloved Drusilla's death, and this transformation transforms the play as society, after Caligula's return and the becomes increasingly oppressive. However, rather than a revelation of truth, Camus shows a man who experiences a transformation of madness, and in a totalitarian world, a transformation of madness in the dictator and protagonist affects the entire world. Caligula's madness affects those who surround him, but in a controlling fashion rather than in a passive fashion as in Gregor. Still, both Camus and Kafka show the dangers of a society that limits human freedom and propels individuals into despair, in one case insect-like paralysis, and even in the ruling classes, a kind of megalomania in the absence of real love. And even Caligula embraces his own assassination, as Lang's thinkers feel alienated from love, and Freder seeks affection in the bowls beneath his supposedly ideal, but really love-destroying totalitarian world.

Works Cited

Camus, Albert. "Caligula." 1936.

Kafka, Franz. "Metamorphosis." Translated by Ian Johnston. Released October 2003. http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/stories/kafka-E.htm

'Metropolis." Directed by Fritz Lang. 1926.… [read more]

Imagery Helps Communicate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The "Reapers" first appeared in a longer work of his, called Cane, a fusion of poetry, prose, song, and various other forms ("Jean Toomer"). During the period of the Harlem Renaissance, which took place approximately during the decades between World War I and World War II, Harlem in New York became a Mecca for African-American writers and other artists. Jean Toomer's experimental novel Cane, like his poem "Reapers," is rich in vivid and often stark poetic imagery ("Jean Toomer").

As Toomer stated, of his origins:

Racially, I seem to have (who knows for sure) seven blood mixtures: French,

Dutch, Welsh, Negro, German, Jewish, and Indian. One half of my family is definitely colored.... And, I alone, as far as I know, have striven for a spiritual fusion analogous to the fact of racial intermingling. ("Photographs of Jean Toomer")

In seeing himself described primarily as a black writer (rather than as merely an American writer, a designation he much preferred) during the Harlem Renaissance, Toomer felt (and resented being) pigeon-holed, since he also believed that that unfairly limited, and categorized him as a writer and a person ("Jean Toomer"). Within "Reapers" itself, similarly, Toomer underscores the constraining power, of images, such as those created by the word "black." The poem "Reapers" is a powerful example of the ability of images made from words to both limit and delimit that which we imagine; perceive; and see.

Works Cited

Gibbons, Justin. "Studying Sounds of Scythes." Retrieved October 19, 2005,

from: .

"Jean Toomer." Wikipedia. Retrieved October 20, 2005, from:

McKay, Nellie. In "On "Reapers." Modern American Poetry. Retrieved October

20, 2005, from: .

North, Michael. In "On "Reapers." Modern American Poetry. Retrieved October

20, 2005, from: .

"Photographs of Jean Toomer." The Jean Toomer Pages. Retrieved October

20, 2004, from:

Toomer, Jean. "Reapers." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. 9th Edition.…… [read more]

Symbolism in "The Origin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It is hard to see this as less than Biblical. After all, Satan's realm is in the deeps of the earth, while God rules from the heavens. This line is reminiscent of the conflict between good and evil, between God and Satan that is all too familiar to churchgoers.

But if we were not sure of the relationship between the Deeps and the Clouds in Steere's poem, there is more. He explains that the Deeps were "Threatening to bring the Land under their power And it Devour" (557, line 10). If we assume that Steere's images are symbols for the conflict between good and evil, then the Deeps of the sea can be equated with Satan, the Clouds with God, and the Land would be the in-between realm in which human beings live. In other words, this line from "On a Sea-Storm nigh the Coast" indicates that the Deeps, aka Satan and his ilk, are threatening to consume the land and bring all of humanity by extension under its power. The role of humanity as pawns in a war between Heaven and Hell is all too apparent in Steere's characterization.

Steere, then, obviously had mixed feelings about the content of this poem. It seems evident that he believed in what he was writing, that these powerful images indicate a deeper religious conflict than is evident from his biographical information. "On a Sea-Storm nigh the Coast" is a symbolic representation of the battle between good and evil in Christian religious tradition. Hwever, lines from the poem also indicate that Steere was not convinced of God's beneficence in the matter. He wrote that it was as if the sea and sky had joined forces against the land. This indicates that Steere probably believed the battle between Heaven and Hell was one in which humanity was caught in the middle and subject only to the whims of the divine combatants.

Works Cited

Lauter, Paul (Ed.).…… [read more]

Robert Hayden Those Winter Sundays Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Robert Hayden's poem "Those Winter Days"

Is the poem lyric, narrative, or dramatic? How do you know?

One of the most intensely personal subjects for any human being, whether the person is a poet or a non-poet, is his or her relationship with their parents. The poem "Those Winter Sundays" by Robert Hayden is a quiet yet forceful lyric poem that depicts the poetic speaker's father during the father's characteristic Sunday winter routine in the morning. Unlike a narrative poem, this poem is not the story of specific day that was an unusual deviation from this weekly winter morning schedule. In weaving the poem's fabric, the speaker is not consciously taking on an alternative persona from the poet, as in a dramatic monologue, in which the poet explicitly creates distance between him or herself and the speaker character assumed in the poem. Instead, the narrator of the poem reflects upon the life of his father in classical lyric form, a lyric that is a personal meditation upon a particular, personal subject.

Denotations and connotations

Denotations of unfamiliar words: (literal meanings)

Splintering: n.

A sharp, slender piece, as of wood, bone, glass, or metal, split or broken off from a main body.

A splinter group.

v. splin tered, splin ter ing, splin ters v. intr.

To split or break into sharp, slender pieces; form splinters.


Severe or stern in disposition or appearance; somber and grave: the austere figure of a Puritan minister.

Strict or severe in discipline; ascetic: a desert nomad's austere life.

Having no adornment or ornamentation; bare: an austere style

Connotations of familiar and unfamiliar significant words in the poem

Blueblack: black and blue like a bruise

Chronic: an ailment that never really goes away, like arthritis

Splintering: painful, like a splinter caught in one's finger

Austere: Very removed, haughty

Offices: religious rituals, like the offices of a mass or working in an office

What is the tone of the poem? Irony?

The overall tone of the poem is mournful, almost like a eulogy, which suggests that the poet's father is dead, although this is not stated in the poem. The poem seems to mourn the relationship that the speaker had -- and never had -- with his father. The lines such as: "No one ever thanked him [the poet's father]," for putting on the fire early Sunday mornings, even though the father did not have to wake up for the "weekday" work that "cracked" his hands" suggests that the speaker wishes he could go back and thank his father for the father's kind and silent gestures. The last line is almost a cry: "What did I know, what did I know/of love's austere and lonely offices?"

The son seems to suggest that now he is mature enough to appreciate that even though people like the poet's father cannot always speak about how much they love someone, such outwardly cold people often show this love in other ways, like making a fire and polishing the young… [read more]

English Literature (Chaucer &amp Shakespeare) the Images Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


English literature (Chaucer & Shakespeare)

The Images of Ideal Faith and Love: A Comparative Analysis of Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales ("Pardoner's Tale") and William Shakespeare's Love Sonnets (Sonnets 18, 116 and 130)

Fifteenth to sixteenth century- English literature is characterized by the expression of radical idealism, whether this idealism pertains to social issues or human emotions. Geoffrey Chaucer, who was well-known for his work "The Canterbury Tales," exemplified the English poet of his period (14th-15th centuries), demonstrating through his famous work his ideals on religion and expression of faith. On a relatively similar vein, English playwright William Shakespeare (16th-17th centuries) reflected the same belief of idealism, this time in the form of expressing human emotions, most popularly evoked in his (love) sonnets (Sonnets 18, 116 and 130).

This paper discusses the theme of idealism reflected in the works of Chaucer and Shakespeare. The discussion and analysis will demonstrate how both their works illustrate the prevalence of each author's ideals: for Chaucer, his ideals on what religion and expression of faith should be like, and for Shakespeare, how love is and should be.

While both poets have the theme of idealism as their dominant feature in their works, each also has his own manner of expressing this theme. That is, while Chaucer demonstrated the theme of idealism through real-life scenarios, via his characters' narratives, Shakespeare showed his 'version' of idealism through effective imagery.

Influenced by the ideology of idealism during his time, Chaucer reflected his ideals of Christianity and its followers through The Pardoner's Tale of "The Canterbury Tales." Like the other tales in "Canterbury," the Pardoner's tale is a satire meant to criticize the society that Chaucer lived in during his period. While in some of the tales, Chaucer did not explicitly expressed his disagreement with and criticism of the rampant corruption and hypocrisy within the Church and among its elements (the clergy and the lay), in the Pardoner's tale, these issues were addressed and made explicit through the persona of the Pardoner.

The Pardoner's role, at first glance, acts as 'bridge' between the Church and the people: as the Pardoner, he helps people be absolved of their sins through payments -- payments that are considered earnings of the Church. What sets him apart from the other pilgrims in "Canterbury" is that he has been honest in showing that despite his being an agent of God, he is not untainted by the culture of corruption and hypocrisy that are already rampant within the Church and the society. His honesty and recognition of his faults as an agent of the Church are explicitly shown in the following lines from the Pardoner's tale:

By this trick have I won, year after year,

An hundred marks since I was pardoner.

A stand like a clerk in my pulpit,

And when the ignorant people are set down, preach as you have heard before And tell a hundred more false tales

My hands and my tongue go so quickly

That it is joy to see… [read more]

William Butler Yeats Poetry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


William Butler Yeats: Poetry of phase 3 and 4

William Butler Yeats: Sailing to Byzantium

In this poem, the speaker is referring to the country that he has recently left. He sees the country as not being a fitting country for old men, because it is full of life and youth. He sees the young people lying within one another's arms, fish in the waters, and birds in the trees. Summer is happening there, and during the summer the young are so caught up in the music and magic of that season that they neglect those that are old. Even though these older people have a great deal of intellect and information that they can offer, the young people are not interested. They want, instead, to ignore the intellect in favor of the joy of being together in summertime, and the fish and birds that are mentioned appear to share this feeling.

Old men are seen to be paltry because they cannot sing and clap and do all of the things that they younger people do. The only way that the soul of a person can truly learn to sing, according to the speaker, is by studying the monuments that have been created by and…… [read more]

William Butler Yeats the Early Poetry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


William Butler Yeats

The Early Poetry of William Butler Yeats

William Butler Yeats is often referred to as the last romantic poet. His ability to manipulate the readers emotions and to present intimate topics that still connect with audiences in the modern age stand testament not only to his ability as a poet, but also to the poignancy and genuineness… [read more]

African-American Poetry Studies: The Expression of Racial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


African-American Poetry Studies: The Expression of Racial Tension in the Work of Hughs, Mccay, Cullen and Brown

The objective of this work is the review the work of four authors, specifically those of:

Langston Hughs - "Democracy";

Claude McKay - "If We Must Die";

Countee Cullen - "Uncle Jim"; and 4) Sterling Brown - "Bitter Fruit of the Tree" and to then discuss how each of these authors expresses within their written work the subject of racism.

Many feelings and emotions are expressed through the art of poetry and this is particularly true of the works of Hughs, McKay, Cullen and Brown in their expressions of racism in the poems studies in this research work.


In 1919 Claude McCay responded to mass riots in which whites assaulted black neighborhoods in approximately '...a dozen..' cities across America. McCay's poem "If We Must Die" states:

If we must die, let it not be like hogs

Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot,

While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,

Making their mock at our accursed lot.

If we must die, O let us nobly die..."

It is clear that McCay is urging the black community to fight back... Or indeed to die for something other than for merely being a member of the black minority race in America as he states:

Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,

Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!"


In the poem entitled: "Democracy" the author Langston Hughs states:

Democracy will not come

Today, this year

Nor ever

Through compromise and fear." (Langston Hughs)

As the poem continues Hughs relates that each individual has the same 'right' as one another in terms of independence and the rights to own their own land.…… [read more]

20th Century British Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … 20th century British literature. Specifically it will use Samuel Beckett's "Waiting for Godot," Graham Green's "The Quiet American," and "Wide Sargasso Sea" by Jean Rhys, and discuss how the 20th century Britain produced an era of fragmentation and uncertainty. Each of these novels conveys the atmosphere of fragmentation and uncertainty in their own way. Each was written at… [read more]

Consider the Influence of Christianity on Medieval Western Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Medieval Literature and Christian Themes

The Influence of Christianity on Literature in Medieval Europe

The influence of Christianity on Western literature in the medieval period of world history is significant enough to warrant review and analysis. This paper will address and put into perspective some of those influences - which are found in several published books and journals.

In fact, when one thinks about influential writings in Medieval Europe, the most popular book in that time period - not just the most popular religious book but also the most popular book per se - according to well-known American artist and author Jan Richardson, was the Book of Hours. This classic book empowered ordinary readers who were Christians to "keep a similar rhythm of prayer" with monks, nuns, and priests while they were loyal to the "liturgy of the hours," according to Richardson, writing in the journal the Other Side (Richardson 2003).

The "liturgy of the hours" reflected the eight different times during each day and evening that a prayer (called "offices") service was held. So, Richardson writes, observing the prayer moments in the same way that clergy observed those same daily prayer moments "helped [citizens] remember the presence of God throughout the day and night." In the Book of Hours there was a section called "Horns of the Virgin," which offered prayers "in honor of Mary." Richardson writes that the "brilliant paintings found in the Book of Hours are more than illustrations"; each illumination provides its own "revelations" and urges readers to "enter the story." scholarly look into the influence of Christianity on literature in Medieval Germany is found in the narrative, "Introduction to Anthropology" on the Notre Dame University Anthropology Web site (www.nd.edu/~gantho/anth1-163/introduction10-12.html).Medieval literature in Germany is usually broken down into several categories, the Introduction reports; the alignment that encompasses the first stages of Medieval Germany is the "Old High German period." According to the Notre Dame narrative, a great majority of the literature in the Old High German period that is still available are "Christian didactic works," relating to the conversion of Germanic Tribes to Christianity, and works "concerning the creed and confessions of sin."

Although the great literary "masterpieces" of Medieval Germany "often lack specific Christian references," the Notre Dame Introduction to Anthropology continues, "the impact of religious values is always present." In the book, the City of God, Christian concepts of "virtue and vice and interlaced with ingredients of a knight's courtly behavior. The Notre Dame narrative admits that there is "controversy among scholars" today as to whether some works which are not "obviously moral or didactic in tone" are expressing "normal medieval" ways of approaching subjects. Still, that having been said, it would be "equally questionable," the narrative asserts, to imagine that any literature, "however secular in conception," could have been written without being permeated by "the prevailing intellectual climate, which was thoroughly Christian."

And precisely what was the popular medieval religious culture - what were the thinkers thinking and how did people behave? -… [read more]

Wordsworth Poetry Has Existed Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,171 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


This connection is beneficial to the reader because enlightenment takes place.

Poetry According to John Stuart Mill and Roman Jakobson

John Stuart Mill attempts to provide a definition for poetry in his essay "Thoughts on Poetry and its Varieties." Interestingly enough he begins the essay by statating what poetry is not. He explains that poetry is not limited to just metrical composition. He goes to explain that poetry contains both verse and prose.

As it pertains to the comparison between Wordworths belefs about poetry and Mill's beliefs. Mill explains,

"The object of poetry is confessedly to act upon the emotions;-and therein is poetry sufficiently distinguished from what Wordsworth affirms to be its logical opposite-namely, not prose, but matter of fact, or science. The one addresses itself to the belief; the other, to the feelings. The one does its work by convincing or persuading; the other, by moving. The one acts by presenting a proposition to the understanding; the other, by offering interesting objects of contemplation to the sensibilities (Mills)."

As was mentioned previously in this discussion, Wordsworth believed poetry to be the spontaneous overflow of feelings. Mills asserted that the purpose of poetry is to act upon the emotions. In this respect both Mills and Wordsworth believe that as an expression poetry provides an emotional release for the writer.

Mills goes on to state that But, in this state of society, there is little poetry except ballads, which are mostly narrative,-that is, essentially stories,-and derive their principal interest from the incidents. Considered as poetry, they are of the lowest and most elementary kind: the feelings depicted, or rather indicated, are the simplest our nature has; such joys and griefs as the immediate pressure of some outward event excites in rude minds, which live wholly immersed in outward things, and have never, either from choice or a force they could not resist, turned themselves to the contemplation of the world within.

Like Mills, Jakobson's explanation of what poetry is, starts by expressing what poetry is not. According to Jakobson poetry is not what it used to be. That is the definitnion of poetry has shifted. The author asserts that there was a time when there was very clear subject matter present in poetry. However, poetry no longer has subject matter that cannot or will not be explored. Jakobson further ruminates about what poetry is. He does not seem to have much of a concrete definition. Like Wordsworth, he alludes to the fact that poetry has a great deal to do with human emotions.


The purpose of this discussion was to focus on what poetry, poets, and the lyric mean to William Wordsworth as related in his preface to Lyrical Ballads. Wordsworth had string feeling of what constitutes poetry, poets and lyrics. Wordsworth believed the lyrical ballads should contain simple lyrics that would reflect everyday life of the common people. He believed that simple language was truly philosophical and caused readers to think about wahat was written at a fundamental level.… [read more]

Intersection of History and Literature Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Overlap of History and Literature

World War II and the era which surrounded it would produce momentous and cataclysmic change on a global scale. Whole states expanded, collapsed, emerged and disappeared in the midst of a military conflict which would ultimately engulf all inhabited continents. As these enormous and terrible events impacted the world on a whole, infinite stories of individual struggle also developed. The incredibly fertile body of literary material produced from these individual struggles stands today as one of the lasting collective documents to a time that humanitarian responsibility demands we never forget. Though war is often seen through history's eyes as sweeping, recalibrating political events, the literature produced in its aftermath is often most valuable in evoking some sense of the emotional and psychological toll levied by war. Here, in Elie Wiesel's Night (1960) and Kazuo Ishiguro's an Artist in the Floating World (1986), two writers use the same historical backdrop in order to recount two dramatically different human experiences.

In both is a commonality that is frequently seen in all manner of historically-driven narrative. Namely, in both, we find a character who is largely moved by the events around him rather than the reverse. This is frequently a feature found in the overlap between history and literature and denotes the experience of being made to bend to forces far larger than one's self. In the case of Ishiguro's work, Masuji Ono is an artist who has allowed himself to become a vessel for the propaganda of Japanese fascism. His story, therefore, occurs in to phases, neither of which finds him very much in control of his fate. In the first phase, Ono is an artist of much acclaim, largely by virtue of his commitment to a draconian ruling political and cultural power. The second phase finds Ono, by this same virtue, reviled by a post-war leftist authority. His acclaim and his isolation respectively show the artist as a…… [read more]

Poetry by Knight Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (679 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In terms of this poem's representation of the notion of Groddeck's living and dying tradition, particular emphasis must be placed on the poem's ending. In the previous paragraph, the uselessness of the WASP woman's visit was already elucidated. However, her visit still had a discernible effect upon the protagonist, one which is readily indicated in the following quotation. "Her chatter sparked no resurrection…no shackles were shaken/But after sh had taken her leave, he walked softly,/And for hours used no hot words" (Knight). In this quotation, the author shows the true democratic aspect of this poem, and, frankly, of integration. The woman's visit had a sedating effect on the protagonist, who is more calm, uses no "hot" words or angry language, and is somewhat more docile in response. Such an effect attests to a democracy, although it is not one that appears to be a welcome fulfillment of democratic values or viewed in any positive aspect by the author. In this respect then, the great chasm between the protagonist and his visitor merely attests to what Groddeck would regard as a dying tradition of a division among racial lines.

This poem both references the values of democracy and alludes to the dying tradition of racial separation that Groddeck believes is soon to end. It is clear from the poem's ending and the uselessness of the woman's visit, that the author does not embrace the democratic values that the woman's visit represents. Instead, he utilizes it to point to the sedating effects of integration, which helped to calm down and ultimately pacify a number of African-Americans who, prior to integration, were a lot more combustible, unified, and resentful towards White Anglo Saxon Protestants due to the history of slavery and the ill treatment they received in the decades after it was abolished.

Works Cited

Knight, Etheridge. "A Wasp Woman Visits A Black Junkie in Prison." www.poetryfoundation.org. 1986. Web. http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/181863… [read more]

Poetry, Drama, Aristotle, Sophocles's Oedipus Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,233 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Aristotle's vision of a hero is further foregrounded in Sophocles' play by the fact that Oedipus has not only proven himself worthy of the title because of his nobility, but also because of his sensitivity, intelligence, and the "natural greatness of soul."

But the hero, the man "not pre-eminently virtuous" as Aristotle described him (Part 13), is also blinded by… [read more]

History of Rosicrucian Order Thesis

Thesis  |  21 pages (5,816 words)
Bibliography Sources: 21


History Of the Rosicrucian Order

Despite being one of the oldest esoteric societies, the Rosicrucian Order remains one of the most mysterious and least well-known of the various groups that arose in Europe over the course of the second millennium. Although Rosicrucianism was one of the key influences on the development of Freemasonry, and, as will be discussed in the… [read more]

Nature in American Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (816 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The most poignant feature of transcendentalism is reflected in the belief that God is personally accessible outside the religious congregations, present in each individual and most notably in nature. This particular conviction led to the portrayal of an enthusiastic support for self-reliance and forsaking of traditional authority, Emerson's writings being clearly dominated by the image of man striving to attain personal communion with divinity, a rather bold approach compared to Jonathan Edwards' previous piety. By contrast, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow has a less abstract approach to nature, depicting it as a more tangible, visible phenomenon which has the quality of shaping character, thought and feeling patterns.

Defiance of religious control and social order was endemic among the artists of nineteenth century. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Walt Whitman visibly renounced the conventional in favor of seclusion. It could be interpreted that the initial individualism pervaded a sense of alienation from a society that was becoming more and more rigid and suffused with material preoccupations. In addition, Herman Melville rejects the optimism of transcendentalism, for he perceives nature as a combined mixture of cruelty and beauty. Henry David Thoreau, similarly to Walt Whitman and all the other transcendentalists, celebrates "the simple separate person" (Whicher, 1945), and yet his particularity is excess because he embraces nature to the detriment of his fellow human beings.

Finally, Harriet Ann Jacobs, Harriet Beecher Stowes and Frederick Douglas all offer another view on contemporary self-reliance as opposed to authority, as they deal with the historically charged issue of slavery. In this sense, the abolitionist authors attack the Southern church, condemning slaveholding as a corruption of Christianity and of human souls, with special emphasis on the unfairness of slaves' imposed ignorance -- which deprives human beings of their inherent independent capacities and valuable identities.

To conclude, the American writers from seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth century for the most part linked nature with divinity, and the later works placed a high value on individual experiences unencumbered by religious authority, social hierarchy or any other constraints apart from a person's own conscience.


Barna, Mark. (2001, May) Our Romance with Nature. The World and I, Vol.16, No.5

Webb, J. Echoes of Paine: Tracing the Age of Reason through the Writings of Emerson (2006). ATQ (The American Transcendental Quarterly), Vol. 20, No.3

Whicher, G.F. (1945) Walden Revisited: A…… [read more]

Transformation About Litertura Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Transformations of Literature:

This focus of this article is to provide a discussion on transformations of literature based on William Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's Dream. The literature is a play that is widely believed to have been written between 1590 and 1596 to show the events surrounding the marriage of Hippolyta and Theseus, the Duke of Athens. The description of… [read more]

Deinstitutionalization Literature and Research Sources Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Discussion Question One: What is the importance of a historical literature review?

Literature review, a critical step in research procedure, is a synthesis of what is published concerning a selected topic by accredited researchers and scholars, and it provides an explanation of the literature pertinent to a certain topic or field. Literature review helps in expanding knowledge relating to… [read more]

Poetry During the 17th Century Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A shift in tone occurs in the second stanza as the focus of the poem turns from the narrator's mistress to the narrator himself. While in the first stanza the narrator contends that he would submit to his mistresses wishes of waiting for the appropriate time to take their relationship to the next level, the second stanza allows the narrator to state his selfish desires. The narrator attempts to convince his mistress to give in to his desires by telling her that time is running out. He states, "But at my back I always hear/Time's winged chariot hurrying near;/And yonder all before us lie/Deserts of vast eternity" (lines 21-24). Additionally, the narrator attempts to convince his mistress that she, too, will fall victim to time and that then, "worms shall try/That long preserv'd virginity,/And your quaint honour turn to dust,/And into ashes all my lust," which helps to emphasize the overarching tone of urgency of the poem (lines 27-30). The narrator concludes this stanza by stating, "The grave's a fine and private place/But non-I think do there embrace," which further urges the mistress to give in to the narrator, or be doomed to have spent all her life, and all of eternity, alone (lines 31-32).

In the final stanza of the poem, the narrator assumes he has provided sufficient evidence and arguments to his mistress, and he hopes that she will finally give in to him. He once again appeals to her beauty, and by comparing it to "morning dew," he emphasizes once more the need to act as quickly as possible (line 34). The third stanza uses imagery that aims to convince the narrator's mistress that giving in to their mutual desires is natural. Marvell writes, "Now let us sport us while we may;/And now, like am'rous birds of prey, Rather at once our time devour,/Than languish in this slow-chapp'd power" (lines 37-40). The narrator contends that they should be like these birds and give in to their natural desires, insinuating that it is unnatural for them to continue torturing themselves and that they should "roll all our strength, and all/Our sweetness, up into one ball;/And tear our pleasures with rife strife/Thorough the iron gates of life" because they cannot stop time, or even slow it down, but they have the ability to make the most of the time that they have left, or as Marvell writes, "though we cannot make our sun/Stand still, yet we will make him run" (line 45-46).

Through the use of imagery and metaphors, Marvell attempts to convince his mistress that giving in to their desires and temptations is natural, and while she may long to hold on to her innocence, he maintains that if they do not act now, their love and youth will be wasted and that they will never be able to express their love for each other as it should be expressed. Ultimately, Marvell believes that individuals should take advantage of the time they have and to enjoy life and… [read more]

Beauty &amp Sadness in Japanese Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,970 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In Kokoro, the narrative device used to propel the story forward is the gift received by Train Man after his courageous intervention. A set of intricately designed and expensively priced Hermes tea cups is presented without comment by the woman from the train, and upon receiving this genuine gift of gratitude, the young otaku soon begins to experience an evolution in terms of his own appearance, confidence, and attitude. The role of gifting in Japanese culture is widely considered to be a sacred extension of the traditional way of life, wherein the presentation of a gift from one party to another is laden with symbolic significance and greater meaning. When the young otaku in Train Man first appraises the tea cups he has received, his initial impressions are of a simple thank-you gift, something given to express appreciation for his magnanimous actions. The comments voiced by 2 channel members, however, lead him to examine the gift more closely, and he eventually surmises that the pair of delicate teacups is representative of more than a simple gesture of thankfulness.

Just as the gift of inheritance, which was dishonorably stripped from Sensei in Kokoro provides the foundational basis for the rest of his life's choices, the gift given to Train Man enables him to discover the path on which he belongs. As the first gift he has ever been given by a woman, the simple set of teacups holds a deep level of symbolic import, as the pair indicates that they should be used together by close companions. The young otaku confirms this during a chat session with his fellow 2 channel members, stating cautiously that "I've never been thanked by a woman before, so… I got so nerrrrrrvoussss," before revealing "Damn. I'm getting all feverish. Gotta take a chill pill" (Hitori). By contextualizing the traditional practice of exchanging mutually meaningful gifts within the modern setting of internet chat forums and otaku fandom, Densha Otoko (Train Man) allows for a reexamination of gifting within previous works of cultural expression. When the love stricken J-ji in Naomi observes of traditional Japanese marriage rituals that "if neither side has any objections, an official intermediary is chosen, engagement gifts are exchanged, and the trousseau is carried to the groom's house" (Tanizaki 3), the use of gifts to make a betrothal official is an important aspect of the process. The story presented in Densha Otoko (Train Man) modernizes this exchange, with the woman presenting a gift in hopes of earning her desired man's attention and affection, and the result is an inspiringly recreated version of Japan's classic conception of courtship.

Works Cited

Hitori, Nakano. "Densha otoko (Train Man)." Tokyo: Shinchsha (2004).

Murakami, Haruki. Hard-boiled Wonderland and the End of the World. Vintage, 2010.

Shirane, Haruo. Traditional Japanese literature: an anthology, beginnings to 1600.…… [read more]

Peer Evaluation Writing Poetry Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Furthermore, the writer should stay away from absolutes. For instance, she writes that she "obviously" needed to include Whitman in her poem, however, she does not explain why it is obvious. Instead, I would recommend that instead of using the word "obvious," the sentence be rewritten to start off, "I chose to use Whitman…" because what is obvious to the writer is not obvious to the reader.

The same issues are applicable to the claim about Dickinson's poetry. The writer needs to provide concrete examples the reader can refer to and not assume the reader understands what she is talking about. Dickinson's poems explore a wide variety of Dickenson's thoughts and emotions and it cannot be assumed that all of Dickinson's poems are emotional. Additionally, the last sentence of the explanation is very confusing and not only does it need to be clarified, but it also needs to have concrete examples of what the writer is referring to provided.

As for the poem itself, it allows the reader to begin to understand the conflict the writer must be feeling, however, it sounds somewhat disjointed and does not connect one idea to the next as fluidly as it could have. While the first and second stanzas seem to go together, they are disjointed from the third stanza, which is the most successful stanza of the poem. Overall, I think that the poem was a good attempt and provides insight into the struggles the writer had.… [read more]

Poetry Captures Both the Personal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (655 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Three lines start with the word "Let." These lines are the imploring, to a god or universe, for spiritual salvation.

The three-stanza poem illustrates ways free verse poetry has internal coherence. In "The Lost Baby Poem," the first two stanzas are the mother's words to her unborn child. The final stanza is more of a spiritual tribute, and an act of self-forgiveness. Something has happened in the poem; the speaker has come to a definite realization or epiphany. She has purged herself of the pain of remembering the abortion and has come to a point of forgiveness.

The personal meets the political in "The Lost Baby Poem," in which the mother eulogizes her "almost body" baby. Abortion is a personal and political topic, and yet the poet refrains from any judgment whatsoever. In fact, this poem can be used in a rich discussion of the use of poetry for personal healing. The speaker contemplates what would have been had she carried the child to term and had instead placed it up for adoption; she would be talking to the child about "these and some other things." As it was, the pregnant woman "dropped your almost body down / down to meet the waters under the city." Imagery of water is integral to the poem, as water is a parallel motif of pregnancy and childbirth (when the water breaks) as well as a symbol of emotional intensity (the water of tears). There are also subtle inferences of patriarchy, as when the speaker mentions the difference between "drowning" and "being drowned." The former is an act of nature; the latter is a malicious act.

"The Lost Baby Poem" allow for a rich intellectual groundwork. It permits exploration of poetic devices like imagery, motif, metaphor, and repetition. The poem also offers rich social and political commentary about gender roles, and shows how poetry is an art of spiritual healing.

Work Cited

Clifton, Lucille. "The Lost Baby…… [read more]

Composition Project Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Charles Simic told his elderly mother that he still wrote poetry, he claimed, "she sighed and shook her head, probably thinking to herself this son of mine has always been a little nuts," (Simic, the New York Review of Books). Simic also claims that his motivation for starting to write poetry was frivolous: to meet girls in school.… [read more]

Poetry and Beverage Analysis Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,219 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Poe Poem and Drink

Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven"

Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most well-known American Gothic literature writers of the 19th century. Poe is often identified by his dark and macabre writing style that examines a variety of issues such as the death of a beautiful woman and an individual's descent into madness. These two themes are a focal point of "The Raven" in which an unnamed narrator mourns the loss of his lover, Lenore, and is inexplicably haunted by a raven.

Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 19, 1809, the second of three children born to David and Elizabeth Arnold Poe. Poe's father abandoned his family shortly after his younger sister was born, and Poe's mother died when he was two years old, which may point to the foundation of his obsession with the death of a beautiful woman. Poe's literary career began during his brief enrollment at West Point. After being expelled from West Point, Poe worked as an editor, writer, and literary critic. Poe married Virginia Clemm on May 16, 1836 and although he was deeply committed to her, she fell seriously ill in 1845, which sent Poe into a maddening depression. Virginia died in January 1847, which drove him into further despair. After his wife's death, Poe wrote, "My enemies referred to the insanity…it was the horrible never-ending oscillation between hope and despair which I could not longer have endured with total loss of reason. In the death of what was my life, then, I receive a new but -- oh God! how melancholy an existence" (Poe, 1480). It is this oscillation between hope and despair that pervade "The Raven" and illustrate not only the narrator's descent into grieving madness, but also Poe's.

In "The Raven," an unnamed narrator is mourning the loss of the woman he loves. In the poem, the narrator is trying to lose himself in "a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore" vainly seeking "to borrow/From my books surcease of sorrow -- sorrow for the lost Lenore,/for the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore:/Nameless here for evermore" (lines 2, 9-12). The narrator is attempting to forget his sorrows when he is distracted by a mysterious noise, "As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door" (ln 4). Because of the time of night, "a midnight dreary," and the weather and time of year, "bleak December," the narrator quickly becomes concerned about who might be knocking at his door, and though he tries to assure himself by telling himself, "Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door,/Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door:/This it is and nothing more," he grows to realize that his late night visitor is not there to comfort him, but rather torment him (ln 1,7, 16-18). The longer the narrator attempts to discern the reason for the raven's visit, the deeper into paranoia he falls, and the poem becomes more maddening. It is interesting… [read more]

New World Poetry Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (525 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Your choice to include passages from Martin Espada's poem Blessed Be the Truth-Tellers made perfect sense from this perspective, because Prada's beautiful poem shows how fragile our concept of truth and deceit can truly become. The scene Prada presents in his poem, of a boy fearfully anticipating his scheduled tonsil-removal surgery while being misled by the trusted adults in his life, illustrates how an abstract idea like truth can shift depending on the situation. Just as Whitman believed that the best poets were able to know and speak the truth, Prada's simple man, Jack the Truth-Teller, possesses the soul of a poet, speaking the truth simply because it is all he knows how to say.

After reading your essay I was left to wonder what you think Whitman would say about Prada's poem. Would Whitman consider Prada a representation of his new world poet, somebody who, as you wrote in the essay, "sees everyone equal and know that there is more than one ways?" Personally, I believe that Whitman would be proud to know that poets in later generations embraced his view of poetry as the essence of truth, because during his era it appeared as if the true beauty of nature would be destroyed in the name of industrial progress. Prada's poem could potentially show Whitman that, despite the increasingly industrialized way in which humanity constructs society, the truth of nature's beauty will always be revealed through poetic expression.


Whitman, W. (1965).…… [read more]

Poetry Analysis Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The introduction could have been strengthened as well. The essay is not about the various kinds of formatting in poetry, such as the lengths of the lines. If it were, then the introduction would be fully appropriate. The length is just fine, but the connection to the main theme is not apparent and a bit of a stretch. Perhaps the author can introduce the essay by talking about themes in poetry or movements in American poetry that are connected? Another idea is to talk about poetry's connection to movement, rhythm, and music, since the author comments on the rhythm of Whitman's poetry, and the musical qualities to Hughes' poetry. This would be a more attention grabbing and relevant introduction than the one that is there now.

The author should additionally consider improving the quality of the vocabulary words. There were some problems with subject-verb agreement, too. They did not interfere with understanding the essay, but they were noticeable. This is a strong essay, so fixing the little things will make it even better.

Finally, I enjoyed how the author demonstrated his/her knowledge of jazz. It was very clear that the author understand how jazz fit as part of African-American culture as well as American history. The historical information contextualized the analysis of jazz very well. This was one of the best parts of the essay.


Poem Hunter. (2013). Langston Hughes -- All Poems. Web, Available from: http://www.poemhunter.com/langston-hughes/. 2013 March 12.… [read more]

Lucille Clifton's Poetry Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Turning to the poet herself, I too was struck by the imagery of Lucille Clifton's words finding them vivid and memorable. Yes, I too am drawn right there into the poem feeling that I am alongside the writer leaning against those rails. The sensuality is impacting. The scene is tangible: you can smell it, feel it, almost smell the sweat of those in the poem, feel the woman who "leaned across the front porch/the huge pillow of her breasts/pressing against the rail," maybe even be leaning next to her.

I also see how my peer relishes her tone. I do too. It is fantastic. This feistiness of this phrase, for instance: "I am almost the dead woman's age times two, - is endearing."

The poems, and my peer's description of them, transport me in two places at once. They transport me to the scene of the place in the first instance, and they make me see the poet in the other. I see a wise, mature, compassionate, and powerful woman, one whom I quite likely would have liked to have known and one whom I almost certainly would have found inspiring. It is interesting how not only does author reveal herself in her works, but reader displays her own character in her rendition of the works.… [read more]

Contemplated an Individual's Relationship Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,421 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In the poem, Daphne regrets her hasty call for help and subsequent transformation into a tree. It can be argued that Daphne and Apollo are both victims of Eros, who influenced Apollo to pursue Daphne and subsequently led to Daphne being transformed. While it is unknown as to how Apollo felt about pursuing Daphne or if he was attracted to… [read more]

Natural Sciences and Geometry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


" In the Renaissance, the circle was considered to be the most perfect geometric form, given that every point is equidistant from the center (Uddin 46).

The poem likens the poet and his beloved to the movement of heavenly bodies: "Donne's extensive use of astrological allusions, particularly in reference to the expansive universe, is evident in these two stanzas as a means of representing a macrocosmic understanding of the condition of human love" (Uddin 47). Rather than saying that the poet's love makes 'the earth move,' Donne instead urges quiet acceptance of death: "Moving of th' earth brings harms and fears." For himself and his beloved: "So let us melt, and make no noise. / No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move." Ideal love is beyond the material world, and so death should be meaningless and provoke no strong emotions. This is in contrast to "Dull sublunary lovers' love / -- Whose soul is sense -- cannot admit / Of absence, 'cause it doth remove / The thing which elemented it." Love which is purely physical dies when the body dies. Because Donne and his beloved's passion transcends the physical and is not ultimately relegated to the body, it is immortal like the soul. Through love, Donne gains an understanding of human immortality, as particular as his affection might be for his wife.

Andrew Marvell's poem "The Definition of Love" is even more abstract than Donne's poetic works. Marvell addresses the poem as if to love itself, not a specific beloved, and talks about the unrequired nature of his love as born of abstract entities: " My Love is of a birth as rare / As 'tis for object strange and high: / It was begotten by Despair / Upon Impossibility." Fate is also personified as a physical presence that keeps Marvell away from his beloved: "For Fate with jealous eye does see / Two perfect Loves; nor lets them close: / Their union would her ruin be, / And her tyrannic power depose." In the poem, the actual, physical characteristics of 'Love' are not rendered into a specific woman, and the philosophical concepts of Fate and Despair actually have more of an embodied quality than Marvell's real beloved. The poet and his beloved are conceived of being on separate, magnetic polar opposites, unable to be united by natural laws and forever longing for one another, but never able to touch.

The laws of the natural world, whether the physicality of the flea, the geometry of a circle, or the magnetic polar opposites of the earth thus are all used in Donne and Marvell as ways of conceiving love. Human love is paralleled in the laws of the universe, just as the universe offers a rich treasure-trove of metaphorical possibilities for the poet. The poets are always careful to use these metaphors with scientific and philosophical accuracy, to illustrate the symmetry between nature, humanity, and God. Yet despite the fact that the poets speak in the first-person, it is a first-person voice… [read more]

Post Colonial Literature Historical Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But, the theme of contagion is not just biological- but psychological and sociological as well. This theme is echoed in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown, in which the Puritan belief that humanity exists in a state of depravity and sin, and with similar symbolism in color and shape: "The road grew wilder and drearier….. leaving him in the heart of the dark wilderness, still rushing onward with the instinct that guides mortal man to evil" (Hawthrone, 23). Of course, in Heart of Darkness, it is clear from the start that the trip into the "bowels" of Africa is not one of a positive or optimistic nature. "Mad terror scattered them [the natives], men, women, and children, through the bush, and they had never returned" (Conrad, 21). But it is in the explanation of the nature of Marlow's universe when the boat moves back towards civilization that sets the stage for what the diseased continent has done:

The brown current ran swiftly out of the heart of darkness, bearing us down towards the sea with twice the speed of our upward progress; and Kurtz's life was running swiftly too, ebbing, ebbing out of his heart into the sea of inexorable time (Conrad, 188).

Apocalpyse Now, the film version of Conrad's Heart of Darkness and pieces of Lord Jim, set in Vietnam, continues this theme, particularly evident in the 2001 release of Apocalpyse Now Redux in which there are extended scenses involving a rubber plantation, showing the development of the class system and disruption of the native population that eventually led to the North/South split and the war. Who can forget the powerful scenes of the American helicopters blastinc Wagner's Ride of the Valkyries, with shells and bombs raining down on the countryside civilians and the complete lack of empathy of santifty of life that this process of dehumanization engendered in all who entered the dark realm?


Achebe, C.Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books, 1994, Print.

Conrad, J. Heart of Darkness. Web. Plain Label Books. 2009. Retrieved from: googlebooks.

Hawthorne, N. Young Goodman Brown. Boston, MA: Wildside Press, 2006.

Scott, A. "Apocalypse Now Redux (2001). The New York Times. 2001, Web.

< http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review? res=9404E6D9143CF930A3575 BC0A9679C8B63&scp=11&sq=apocalypse%20now&st=cse>… [read more]

Poetry of Langston Hughes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,436 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


"Democracy" opens with "Democracy will not come/Today, this year/Nor ever/Through compromise and fear." This is very interesting writing. He immediately implies that though America claims to be a democracy, it is not, as evidence by the injustices experienced by those who are not white Americans. He also claims that democracy will not come immediately or during the year, or ever.… [read more]

Fern Hill (Dylan Thomas) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,171 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The imagery of "shining" and "praise" dramatize an older person's is gracious in giving to life.

"And honoured among foxes and pheasants by the gay house / under the new made clouds and happy as the heart was long / in the sun born over and over / I ran my heedless ways / my wishes raced through the house high hay / and nothing I cared, at my sky blue trades, that time allows / in all his tuneful turning so few and such morning songs / before the children green and golden / follow him out of grace…"

Earlier the speaker posited that the sun is just young once, but in this verse the sun is born "over and over" (imagery reflects the near-monotony / redundancy of aging and the passage of time); the speaker characterizes the passage of time (and the confusion brought on by aging) by saying he "ran heedless" (all is not as it should be in this age).

"Nothing I cared, in the lamb white days, that time would take me / up to the swallow thronged loft by the shadow of my hand / up to the moon that is always rising / nor that riding to sleep / I should hear him fly with the high fields / and wake to the farm forever fled from the childless land / Oh as I was young and easy in the mercy of his means / time held me green and dying / though I sang in my chains like the sea…"

"Lamb white days" is exploding with imagery that embraces color, innocence, God and time. The lamb of course is Biblical and illustrates innocence; Jesus was the "lamb of God." In Luke (10:3): "Behold I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves…" (biblemeanings.info). White is a color reflecting purity and suggesting innocence. He has come a long way, the speaker, from the carefree days of innocence, but now at an advancing age he is on his way to the "loft" in the proverbial barn of life. Only the swallows build nests there, but he is on his way (swallow nests are little caves built from the mud along the banks of rivers and streams, earlier images from this poem. The moon always seemed to be rising (this addresses loss of innocence) but time is slowing that motion down.

Throughout the poem readers have encountered meteorically presented rivers and streams and now, as life is nearing an end, those rivers and streams end in the sea (he is "chained" to the reality that time took him from "young and easy" to "green and dying"

Works…… [read more]

Ovid, Giovanni Boccaccio Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (975 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Setting the stage for stories about love and romance, death and war, Ovid asks the reader to interpret these tales through the frame of transformation and change. The author can remain as didactic as he wishes, because he hides behind the framing narrative. Readers can much more easily forgive the presence of the author intruding on the story when the author unself-consciously metamorphoses into the narrator in the frame.

In The Decameron, framing serves an even more direct function than it does in Ovid's Metamorphoses. In Boccaccio's The Decameron, the frame narrative provides a historical context that is much appreciated by modern readers who might not otherwise understand the motives of some of the central characters. More importantly, the frame narrative introduces the narrator unequivocally as a character. Boccaccio is more detached from The Decameron than Ovid is from The Metamorphoses. Being holed up in a farm during the "late mortal pestilence," the seven ladies and three men who weave the tales seek "in some measure to compensate the injustice of Fortune," (Proem 013). Using poignant symbolism, the author is sure to make a reference to the spinning wheel: for spinning tales is akin to spinning yarn. The frame narrative in The Decameron, the title of which refers to the ten tales told by the men and women, heralds the function of storytelling as being a salve for the soul. Therefore, frame narratives inherently celebrate the act of storytelling.

In One Thousand and One Nights, Persian queen Scheherazade is the narrator presenting the frame for the collection of tales. This is a stark contrast to both Ovid and Boccaccio, who are clearly the respective authors of their work. Authorship is not the issue in One Thousand and One Nights. These are oral narratives collected along trade routes, coalescing in a compilation and united under a Persian framework. Scheherazade, like the narrator in Ovid's Metamorphoses, invokes the divine spirit prior to framing the stories. The tone is established: a sense of wonderment and awe permeates the reading experience. Like the narrators of The Decameron, furthermore, Scheherazade provides necessary historical and cultural context that gives shape to the stories and helps the reader understand them. "The lives of former generations are a lesson to posterity; that a man may review the remarkable events which have happened to others, and be admonished; and may consider the history of people of preceding ages," (Introduction). What is remarkable about One Thousand and One Nights is the fact that the frame narrative permits a strikingly multicultural literary collection, collated under one framework.

Works Cited

From Norton Anthology of World Literature:

Ovid" in Volume A, pp. 1073-1076

"Metamorphoses" in Volume A, pp.1076-1088; pp. 1104-1116

"Giovanni Boccaccio" in Volume B, pp. 605-609

"Decameron, Day 10, Story 10" in Volume B, pp. 649-656

"The Thousand and One Nights" in…… [read more]

Poetry and Politics in 1079 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Su Shih was a vocal opponent of the "New Policies" and he submitted writings to the emperor expressing differing opinions than Wang An-shih. A majority of his poems were seen as hostile to various aspects of the "New Policies" or their advocates.

The popularity of Su Shih's verse was another factor that drew attention. The first indictments against him states, "There is nothing he has not slandered or ridiculed. The common people therefore expect that as soon as there is a flood or a famine or an outbreak of banditry, Su Shih will surely be the first to criticize the situation, attributing all blame to the New Policies."

Su Shih drew a distinction between "indirect criticism' and "malicious slander," however at the time no one was able to define that distinction. (This brings to mind a famous quote of Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Potter Stewart about pornography being hard to define "but I know it when I see it."). A government's attempt to suppress the dissemination of ideas and opinions that differ from their own rhetoric is founded in the fear that the differing ideas threaten either the status quo or the agenda being pushed. There is also a fine line between what one sees as freedom of expression and another sees as propaganda. Su Shih was a dangerous poet to those with whom he did not agree and his popularity made him a source of unwanted criticism for the reform party. This type of governmental behavior, restricting the freedom of expression by those who do not support their agenda, is not unique to any political party or type of government.

Works Cited

Hartman, Charles. "Poetry and Politics in 1079: The Crow Terrace Poetry Case of Su Shih." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews, Vol. 12. (December 1990): 15-44. JSTOR. Web. 11 May 2012.

Mitgang, Herbert. Dangerous Dossiers: Exposing the Secret War Against America's Greatest Authors. New…… [read more]

Children's Lit Montano Urges Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Tin in the Congo is one of the more overtly racist of childhood classics; such a book would not be published today in any serious publishing house. The book plays up stereotypes of African culture without revealing the diversity of the continent, and generally supports the practices and worldviews of colonialism. Gender issues are also apparent, mainly in the complete absence of any female characters. Similarly, linguicism is evident in the ways African phrases are repeated as if they are only magical incantations. Tin in the Congo certainly deserves to be studied from an adult's standpoint, rather than be read to children as an example of reality.

3. Riorden, Rick. The Titan's Curse. 2007

Part of the Percy Jackson and the Olympians series, The Titan's Curse is the third installment. The series builds on themes extant in Greek mythology, enhancing those themes with modern scenarios and characters. Although the book is about a standard European mythos, Riorden's series does not bear any sign of racial or ethnic superiority. It is not as if the author is suggesting that Greek mythology is the only mythology worth studying, as it has been presented in many school curricula. Rather, the author is writing what he knows best and it comes across as being ironically multicultural. The series could even become a stepping stone for discussing the role and impact of Greek mythology on the development of Western cultural identity. Furthermore, there are several half-breed characters that draw attention to the relevance of bi-racialism in the United States. The novels have strong female characters, rendering them relatively free of gender-bias. Even though the main characters are male, the female characters do not fall pray to stereotypes. Generally, Riorden's series show that it is not enough to include non-European cultural references in a reading curricula and that even books on traditional European subjects can be enlightening for young readers.

4. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. 2003.

J.K. Rowling seems consciously aware of gender, race, and linguistic bias; writing to shatter each of them. Her title character is a studious type, as gender neutral as some of the other characters in the book. In, fact, some of the antagonistic male characters in Harry Potter series are depicted as "jock" types. The author makes a strong statement against gender stereotype and bias. In The Order of the Phoenix, Potter and his friends encounter many of the same types of challenges that are presented in the other installments in the series. Race, gender, and language issues are not central to the book, which can be enjoyed without being picked apart too eagerly. Rowling makes sure to include students at the school that are non-white, in approximately the proportion they might be encountered in modern English boarding schools. Yet herein is a problem: Rowling does not necessarily want to address socio-economic class issues plaguing England, or the race-class interface that should not be ignored in novels that are aimed at older readers. Because Rowling… [read more]

Rime of Ancient Mariner Samuel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,173 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This transformation results into his urge to tell his story to everyone and he repents throughout the rest of his life. Hence, the Mariner comes to the conclusion that the better world can be achieved if one sees the values of the petty things in life.

This poem has also been considered an allegory of the man's relation with the spiritual and the metaphysical world. The killing of the albatross results in the punishment of the Mariner by the spiritual world with the help of the natural world. The sun, water, wind, crew members and the ghosts all carry some sort of supernatural element. They all become a cause of suffering for the Mariner. The spiritual world as weaved by the Coleridge has also been balanced between the religious and the fantasy. It also shows that societal pleasures can distance man away from the spirituality and he abandons the reverence of the natural world.

This poem is also the story of retribution since in the poem; the Ancient Mariner spends the remaining part of his life paying for the killing of Albatross. The natural world avenges Mariner for the death and sends physical as well and the psychological devastation on the Ancient Mariner and his crew members. (Keach, 2004) They all suffer from the torments of the nature such as thirst and death. The punishment of the Mariner also gets extended when the punishment of Life-in Death is reserved for the Mariner. He must endure the everlasting grief of death of crew members and he is kept alive to warn others about the consequences of foolishness of man and disgracing of the natural world.

Many critics have also emphasized on the Christian interpretation of this poem. The poem has been attributed to touch the theme of closeness to God through the act of prayer and the importance of showing love and respect to nature and the creations of God. The Ancient Mariner also highlights the joy that one gets when one joins others in prayers when he mentions that "walk together to the Kirk, / And all together pray." (Keach, 2004) He also praises the hermit who has excluded himself from the worldly pleasures and does nothing but to pray to God and to love God's creations. The killing of the Albatross can also be compared to the sin of Adam and Eve and the betrayal of Judas with Christ. Just like Adam and Eve, the Ancient Mariner challenges the God's rule of nature and tries to understand things that are out of his reach. He becomes a sinner and he is driven into the limbo-like state. Also, this poem can be linked with the salvation of Christ and the betrayal of Judas. Like Judas, the Mariner kills the soul who brought the good fortune for the crew members and who could help him in his salvation and understanding of the Divine. Many critics have also compared the Albatross with the Jesus Christ. (Fulmer, 1969) In the end, the Ancient… [read more]

Poetry About Struggle: The African-American Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


" The poem famously opens with a rhetorical question: "What happens to a dream deferred?" Then it lists various possibilities for the deferred dream. Although it is not specifically stated that the poem is about the African-American experience in the text of the poem, the title of the poem makes it clear.

Various striking images are used to characterize African-American's deferred dreams in the Hughes poem. "Does it dry up/like a raisin in the sun?" Implicit in the image of the dried, beaten-down raisin in the sun is that of a slave working in the cotton fields, drying up. The slave metaphor is further reinforced by the question. "Or [Does it] fester like a sore -- / And then run?" This refers to the attempts of slaves to run away North (and possibly black men and women who migrated Northward after the end of slavery to cities like Chicago in search of greater opportunities).

The reference to covering over the misery of oppression with sweetness is referred to in the question: "Does it stink like rotten meat? / Or crust and sugar over -- / like a syrupy sweet? " The masking behavior referred to by Dunbar would seem to be a kind of 'crusting over' like a syrupy sweet. Finally, the poem raises the specter of angry violence after so many years of being beaten down and forced to smile. "Maybe it just sags / like a heavy load. / Or does it explode?" Hughes' reference to exploding could sound potentially threatening, but because it is expressed in a metaphor, it sounds more poignant. Also, by pairing it against the heavy load that metaphorically suggests how African-Americans are forced to bear so much literal and metaphorical weight in their servile occupations, Hughes explains why and how the explosion is likely to occur.

Rita Dove's poem "Persephone, Falling" uses metaphors like Hughes, but Dove deploys a long, extended metaphor in her work to illustrate how women, specifically African-American women are judged harshly because of their sexuality. Any fall from grace is read as utterly ruining the woman, just like the mythical Persephone's life was destroyed by a single action -- her abduction and eating six pomegranate seeds in the underworld. And it is read as the fallen woman's fault. "No one heard her. / No one! She had strayed from the herd," Dove writes of Persephone, as the woman is pulled down.

Dove's poem sounds more like a conventional use of Greek mythology, in contrast to the more explicit use of images to speak about political situations in the earlier poet's works. However, when a speaker uses the example of Persephone to try to limit the actions of women in a scolding fashion: "Don't answer to strangers. Stick / with your playmates. Keep your eyes down," the reader senses a reference to something outside of the realm of pure myth. There are clear parallels with the cautions given to women to keep them in line, particularly nonwhite women whose sexuality… [read more]

Daughters in Literature Requires Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The act of getting on one knee resembles a marriage proposal; there is a great deal of subtext embedded in the relationship between Cordelia and Lear to suggest that the Oedipal complex is at play. Cordelia's character is, moreover, completely defined by her relationship with men. Her relationship with her father, and his subsequent scorn, are what prompt her to marry and move to France. Her death is due directly to the actions of other Lear daughters, who are likewise defined by their relationship with men as well as their nefarious natures.

The relationship between Lear and Cordelia also highlights a common thread throughout literature: that the relationship between father than daughter is similar to the relationship between daughter and her husband. In King Lear, the similarity between the relationships is spelled out symbolically when Lear tells Cordelia that he will get on one knee for her, and that they will live as two birds in a cage together. In Pride and Prejudice, the connection is less overt but still apparent in the ways the five daughters pursue their relationships with men. In Crime and Punishment, the relationship between father and daughter is also problematic and exploitative. Daughters serve first their parents, and then their husbands. Women do not have a right to self-determination or self-love. Only Woolf suggests that complete independence from male bondage is possible; the relationships between the daughters Cam, Nancy, Rose, and Prue are explored much more through Mrs. Ramsay than with her husband. Woolf offers an alternative vision of family that flattens gender roles and enables a more egalitarian society. This is why Lily's presence as a painter becomes especially meaningful: her creativity and self-empowerment serve as role models for the Ramsay girls. Lily remains committed to extricating herself from patriarchy, which is why she is not even portrayed as a daughter at all. To do so would negate the fact that women are not defined by their relationships to men, but by what they choose to do with their own time.

Works Cited

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Edited by James Kinsley. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated and annotated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

Shakespeare. William. King Lear. Edited…… [read more]

Rime of the Ancient Mariner Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,871 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


He had, as a result, what pop-psychology would call a nervous breakdown. The stress was too great, and his brain disengaged; he fell victim to PTSD, but he saw it as visions (Ribkoff & Inglis). Because he survived the trauma, he has self-imposed the therapy of needing to "absolve" himself through the continual telling of the tale. Interestingly, this is the opposite of one of the results of PTSD. Normally the sufferer will become very stoic and unable to tell what happened (Ribkoff & Inglis).


The tale of the ancient mariner is difficult to fully understand because it is so disjointed and chaotic. The mariner jumps from one reality to another and his rime is so fantastical that it cannot be believed. But it is easy to see the aesthetic, philosophical and psychological elements that are hidden within Coleridge's poem. The beauty may be couched in the horror, the philosophy in religion, and the psychology in stress, but he is able to distinguish all of these points and more in the way he tells the tale. It may be difficult to distinguish truth from reality at times, but it is probably just as difficult for the person who has experienced a traumatic event to do this either. It seems that the rime is more a psychological tale, given what is now known, than a metaphysical one. PTSD could very easily send someone down the strange trails the mariner experiences in his journey.

Works Cited

Curran, Stuart. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Web.

Hiller, Russell M. "Coleridge's Dilemma and the Method of "Sacred Sympathy": Atonement as Problem and Solution in Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Papers on Language & Literature 45.1 (2009): 8-21. Web.

Howson, Chris. "Rime of the Ancient Mariner Summarized." Valley City State University, 1999. Web.

Rearick, T. "Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Mount Vernon Nazarene University, 1998. Web.

Ribkoff, Fred, and Karen Inglis. "Post-Traumatic Parataxis and the Search for a 'Survivor by Proxy' in Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." PSYART. Web.

Stokes, Christopher. "My Soul in Agony": Irrationality and Christianity in the rime of the Ancient Mariner." Studies in Romanticism 50.1 (2011): 3-19. Web.…… [read more]

Analysis of Poets War Poetry Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Gentle images such as the "flowers to love" and the glorious picture of the English countryside, including the "rivers" and the "suns of home," emphasize the peaceful tone. The sestet gives an sanguine tone of idyllic peace as well, with phrases such as "dreams as happy as her day," "laughter," and "an English heaven." The last line especially explains the… [read more]

Langston Hughes Poetry Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The narrator also understands that the discrimination that he is subjected to is temporary and believes "Tomorrow/I'll be at the table/When company comes" (8-10). The narrator recognizes that change is inevitable, yet he continues to hope that change is more rapid and does not take too long to be put into place. He hopes that the people and institutions that have discriminated against him are able to see the wrong that they have done and hopes that they are "ashamed" for what they have done. The most poignant lines of the poem help to relay the narrator's aspirations.

While "Mother to Son" and "I, Too" show how one's hard work and dedication pay off, even if one's actions and behaviors go unrecognized, Hughes's "Dream Deferred" posits the possibility that one's dreams and ambitions may go unfulfilled. This poem, unlike the previous, is very simple in nature and explores the mortality, so to speak, of an idea. Despite the fact that the narrators in "Mother to Son" and "I, Too" are able to accomplish their goals and fulfill their dreams through hard work and dedication, "Dream Deferred" explores the possibility of failure. Because Hughes is not able to definitively describe what happens to a dream that fails, it can be argued that a dream never really dies, but instead transforms into a different dream with the original intent still intact.

Hughes's poetry draws upon the American experience as was seen from an African-American perspective. By drawing upon these experiences, Hughes brings to light the conflicts and obstacles that have had to be overcome in order for African-Americans to succeed. In each poem, Hughes's narrators encourage others to pursue their dreams, not only for themselves, but to demonstrate to others that they are a part of society and not a marginalized culture. Hughes demonstrates that while not all dreams can be fulfilled, they cannot be killed either.

Works Cited

Hughes, Langston. "Dream Deferred." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.

-. "I, Too." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.

-. "Mother to Son." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.… [read more]

Irish Literature Ireland Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,094 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


The narrator does use the word "you," indicating that he or she is discussing the content of the poem with a specific readership. Additionally, both of the poems use the metaphor that is comparing the process of writing and publishing of literature with the violence of their country's history, both past and recent.

The themes of both "Belfast Confetti" and "The Ulster Way" appear to be the ways in which the violent history of Ireland can be both explained and celebrated without necessarily having to approve of the methods of either side of the equation. "Belfast Confetti" begins with the narrator explaining that the present of the piece is a violent upheaval, a riot of some kind. Among the debris of the violent actions are exclamation marks as well as building materials and car keys. It is a comingling of propaganda, the foundation of society, and the necessities of an everyday life that comprise existence in Ireland. After the stanza break, the narrator's tone seems to change so that instead of more observational he instead becomes paranoid and panicked so that he feels that he is being cornered by the world in which he lives. The narrator appears to be someone in the literary field who does not know how to express himself in this world because the events of Ireland's history have become so palpable to him that he can no longer write about it without including himself emotionally. For Gillis, the narrator also is witness to a world around him that is dying in the wake of constant violence. Even the plants and trees, symbols of the natural world, are becoming violent and inhumane after witnessing so many atrocities. At the heart of this piece is not an uncertain writer, but instead deals with an individual who is trying to cope with his own place in Ireland's national identity. The culmination is in the final line of the poem when the narrator claims that the person to whom it is talking is all that matters in the world and the reasoning for this is that either the person to whom the narrator speaks is uncertain or the narrator is speaking to himself and trying to fortify himself with the knowledge that no matter what the rest of the nation may be doing or how, the self is all that matters.

Both Ciaran Carson and Allan Gillis are Irish writers of the modern period. Given their national identity and the history of their culture, it is not surprising that this national identification makes its way into their poetry. In "Belfast Confetti," a young Irish writer tries to understand the violence of his homeland and still try to understand his individual identity. "The Ulster Way" deals with an observer who cannot help but feel that everything has been negatively impacted by Ireland's violent past. Trying to understand that past and his own unique identity, the narrator comes to the conclusion that the only thing that matters is the self. Both… [read more]

Experimental Research Methods in Business Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  16 pages (4,846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


123). The research approaches to which the authors refer in their definition include, for example, data collection and analysis, inference techniques, qualitative perspectives, and quantitative perspectives. When placing a mixed methods approach in the research -- as a type of research -- the authors suggest research employing mixed methods "would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program… [read more]

Tell-Tale Heart: A Descent Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Unable to shake the ringing in his ears, the narrator finally breaks down and confesses his crimes. It may be argued that the ringing that the narrator heard was not the old man's heart, which he believed was still beating under the floorboards, but rather his own beating heart which he paid more attention to because of his heightened senses. The inability to distinguish between his own beating heart and the dead man's heart is an effect of his increased anxiety and the unease that was created due to the presence of the policemen in the room.

Poe is able to successfully explore the dangers of mental instability through the characterization of the narrator in "The Tell-Tale Heart." Poe brought attention to an unknown and often undiagnosed disease and presented the dangers of not seeking or obtaining treatment. While the narrator maintains that he is sane, he does not deny his guilt, freely recounting the meticulous details of his diabolical plan. In the process of denying his insanity, the narrator is able to provide evidence to support that he is indeed suffering from a mental disorder.

Works Cited

"Dorothea Dix Begins Her Crusade." Mass Moments. Web. Accessed 14 October 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Paranoid Schizophrenia." Mayo Clinic. 16 December 2010. Web.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart." Literature: An Introduction…… [read more]

Lotus-Eaters: From Literature to Television Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


One of the things that she notices in this alternate world is how enchanted the people appear to be. She also notices that they have been enchanted fruit from the trees in the alternate dimension. It is also during this time that she spots her grandfather who mysteriously disappeared more than twenty years prior. When they are reunited, her grandfather realizes that though he feels as though he has only been there a few minutes, he has, in reality, been trapped in the alternate dimension for more than twenty years. By eating the fruit in this alternate world, the people that have been taken there by fairies have forgotten about their lives on Earth and do not realize how long they have been gone from their homes ("She's Not There"). Moreover, the myth of the lotus-eaters is combined with the rape of Persephone. Though Sookie refuses to eat any of the fruit offered to her, as she noticed the fruit's intoxicating effect on others, she is informed that anyone that has eaten the fruit cannot return to Earth and that they are doomed to spend the rest of their lives in the fairy world. Soon after Sookie reveals to her grandfather her suspicions regarding the fruit and the fairies that appear to be guarding all the people that ate the fruit, her life is endangered and she must escape. Because she has not eaten any of the fruit, Sookie can safely return to Earth, whereas her grandfather, who helps her escape, dies soon after he returns to Earth.

Greek mythology was a major inspiration in Romantic and Victorian poetry, and continues to inspire literature and entertainment to this day. From popular literature, and their major motion picture adaptations such as Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief, to popular television programs such as True Blood, which has adapted other Greek myths into its story line, audiences spanning several generations are continuously being reintroduced to Greek mythology in educational and entertaining formats.

Works Cited

"She's Not There." True Blood. HBO. 26 June 2011. Television.

Tennyson, Alfred. "The Lotos-Eaters." Poet's Graves: Serious about Poets and Poetry. Web.

Accessed 11 July 2011, from http://www.poetsgraves.co.uk/Classic%20Poems/Tennyson/song_of_the_lotos-eaters.htm… [read more]

Walt Whitman's Poetry Is Unique Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


It begins with the narrator nearly begging the deceased to rise up from his grave to witness how he has been missed and to see through this act of national mourning, the effect he had on the world. Whitman lists the various ways that the citizens are expressing their grief, such as with the American flag, "ribbon'd wreaths," and ringing bells. Every eye is on the funeral procession just like every mind is focused on the culmination of the Civil War. It is as if the narrator, and by extension Whitman, is trying to reach his dead captain from the land of the living.

In the third and final stanza of the poem, Whitman and the rest of the nation through this continued metaphor express their despondence when the knowledge of Lincoln's assassination finally sinks in and the people have no choice but to accept that their leader is now gone. The narrator chronicles all the physical and emotional signs make the knowledge and comprehension of the president's demise unable to be ignored. He lists the physical signs of lack of life, such as being without a pulse. In the end however, the death of Lincoln functions as a sign of impending destruction. In death, Lincoln unites everyone, shown by the fact that the narrator call him "father." Lincoln was not only the president during the Civil War, he was the founder of the modern United States as it icurrently known and understood.

Works Cited:

Whitman, Walt. "O Captain! My Captain!" The American Tradition in Literature. New York:

McGraw-Hill,…… [read more]

Earl of Rochester / Aphra Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (4,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Within this rhetorical inversion, I think it possible that "cunt" is a term of great praise. It follows from the rhetorical inversion that Rochester's presentation of Corinna will be a whore who can speak in the lofty terms of abstract concepts when speaking about the poet's inability to achieve erection a second time after premature ejaculation:

When, with a thousand… [read more]

Patriotic Themes in American Literature Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The second view, pessimism, is demonstrated in Robert Lowell's depiction of America's future in his poem "For the Union Dead." Lowell foretells the deterioration of American ideals through detailed imagery. The poem begins with a gloomy depiction of the Old South Boston Aquarium boarded up and standing abandoned "in a Sahara of snow" (line 2). The author contrasts this present gloom with the romanticized childhood memory where his "hand tingle to burst the bubbles" created by the fish (lines 6-7). The forsaken aquarium represents Lowell's belief that American's principles are all but lost. Digging deeper, beyond the abandonment of past ideals, Lowell believes that the country has adopted new inspirations that are not lofty or innocent. He speaks of a photograph that shows a Mosler safe, called "the Rock of Ages" (line 57), that remarkably survives the atomic bomb at Hiroshima. For Lowell, the safe represents America's captivation with wealth and power. In a final play on words, Lowell reiterates America's fall from grace with the image of "Giant finned cars" that have "nose forward like fish" (line 66). The Aquarium, and the innocence of childhood, is gone. They have been replaced.

Somewhere between an over-the-top idealistic view of the past and a bleak pessimistic view of the future lays the stability of the realistic view which recognizes that virtue exists in the present and will exist in the future just as much as vice existed in the past. Contemporary patriotism seems to have found this balance. American columnist, Marilyn vos Savant sums it up asking, "What is the essence of America? Finding and maintaining that perfect, delicate balance between freedom 'to' and freedom 'from'"(Parade magazine). Countrymen must have the freedom to express their love, their hopes, their fears, and their disappointments. Their words (whether pessimistic, optimistic, or realistic) stir the heart and promote the patriotic bond.… [read more]

Caribbean Literature Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,167 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Cesaire's work is regarded as filled with humanism, and is done so in the spirit of simplicity.

George Lamming is highly regarded for his literary works concerned with the decolonization as well as the reconstruction of the Caribbean (Odhiambo, 1994). His writings are commended for their nationalistic spirit through his poetic prose and style. Lamming's works are seen as more positive as compared to Cesaire, they focus on finding a new political and social identity, instead of dwelling on their lost ones. He also writes about the long-effects of colonialism in the minds of the Caribbean people. Lamming is said to dramatize the situation of the people during colonial rule (Odhiambo, 1994). He makes use of allegory and metaphor to give his poems deeper political meaning in his stories of his people being freed from oppression. Lamming's style can be regarded as experimental, his plot structures are circular and abrupt shifts in narrative can be seen. This has gotten mixed critical receptions; some state that it is because of Lamming's lack of coherence why his writings are not organized. However, some have noted that these shifts are forms of allegory for the confusion in the lives of the people under oppression during colonial rule (Odhiambo, 1994). He has an inventive style of writing and has been known to be a groundbreaking writer who has a positive influence on younger Caribbean authors. Lamming has confronted the negative definitions of his region through imaginative possibilities, and encourages new visions as well as meanings of experience.

Derek Walcott has been regarded as a major modern poet and has also developed into a respected playwright (Cabrera, 1992). His works reflect the voice of the West Indian culture and thought. He has received numerous awards for his poems, and has been awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for his literature. His themes are the same as Cesair's and Lamming's; they are of the search of identity for the Caribbean islands, and a search for identity within. Walcott's work reflects loyalty in his background: English and African. This, however, provides tension in his work because his language is split between literary in English poems and island themes in his plays (Cabrera, 1992). However, throughout his writing, these two styles have merged in the sense that they came to use natural speech and rhythm patterns; this was seen as a more direct and open mode of expression for the writer. Walcott makes use of the same metaphors to create political and social issues resound in his work; this can be seen also in the works of Lamming.

The three writers all reflect on the decolonization of the Caribbean in their work, however their approaches are different (Jonnasaint, 2007). Cesaire beings about negativity and resentment in his works, this can be seen in his language and use of rhythm in his poetry. Lamming has been commented to be confused in his writing with abrupt shifts in narrative; however, he makes good use of metaphors and connecting them with political… [read more]

French Literature? (Pick Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Which of the following could be considered Romantic authors?


Samuel Beckett, author of "Waiting for Godot"


Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who wrote that all people are created equal but everywhere we see them prisoners of society's conventions


Alexandre Dumas, author of many historical novels including "The Three Musketeers" and "The Man in the Iron Mask"

Question 7

Realism and Naturalism followed on the heels and in some ways overlapped with the emergence of Romanticism. Writers of realist novels and plays like Balzac or Zola paid attention to which aspects of life in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? (Pick out as many as you think are important to them)


The King and his court


Industrialization and its effects on people's daily lives


Social and class issues


How characters' social environment (poverty, difficult jobs, poor housing or the contrary) shape who they are and how they act.


Epic stories of knights and ladies of the long ago past

Question 8

Two of the most important and influential poets of the nineteenth century, who are still exerting their influence today. They are Arthur Rimbaud and Charles Baudelaire. Both died young, but led wild and exciting lives. Match the poet to the description of his life.

This man was a brilliant poet in his early life, this fellow was friends with Paul Verlaine, a giant of symbolist poetry. Having renounced poetry, he left Europe and travelled in Africa, where he ran guns to rebels. He is still celebrated today by rebellious cultural movements - such as punk.


Charles Baudelaire


Arthur Rimbaud

Question 9

Two of the most important and influential poets… [read more]

Pasolini's Final Interviews Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (743 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Salo incorporates a minimum of four physical layers: the year it was made (1975); the span of the final year of the Italian Fascist stooge government beneath Mussolini in Salo, on Lago di Garda, in Northern Italy; the novel The 120 Days of Sodom by the Marquis de Sade in 1785; and the narrative Divine Comedy of Dante. Pasolini presents these temporalities analytically as well as metaphorically, at the center of which is his distaste for modern society, modified and consumerist, as it appeared to him, up to the final fortress of defiance and liberty as it pertained to language, sexuality, and the body.

The domain of the libertines as depicted in Salo is one of forced structure, restraint, laws, and responsibilities. It is a domain of sheer uniformity gone demented and destructive, where any divergence, any infraction of rule, is banned and penalized. It is a domain of dissolution, because it is a domain of monotony. It is bestowed, however, by process of a mixture of various references, spaces, languages, and outlandish images, an extreme of majorities that go further than accepted and the traditional.

It would be unjust to curb Pasolini's work to a single immovable viewpoint or implication. The expression of his images creates a depressing reality, at the same time restores it. Pasolini was exceedingly creative and over a broad range of avenues: one of contemporary Italy's most notable poets, a principal filmmaker, a significant essayist and theorist of language and the arts.

Title for this essay can be: Pasolini, an artist beyond film


Pasolini, The Cinema of Poetry. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/17576940/Pasolini-The-Cinema-of-Poetry… [read more]

Poetry of Robert Frost Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It might also imply the poet's recognition that individuation will mean treading on others (Robert Frost, Challenge of Darwin).

Carl Sandburg - "The Road and The End"

Unlike the individualized thinking of Frost, and the reflection of his viewpoints on life, Sandburg carries the spirit of the people in his writings. As was appreciated for being the voice of the Americans, Carl Sandburg emphasizes the voice of the nation in his writings. Unlike giving answers to one's personal questions that arise within, Sandburg responds to the thoughts that live in every person's life and mind. If Robert Frost can be said to be digging into his own experiences in his poetry, Sandburg can be called to be analyzing the experiences of his fellow countrymen, and responding to them with his poems, with him as a countrymen or the unified spirit of the nation, in most of them.

Works Cited

Carl Sandburg


Frost: A Literary Life Reconsidered. William Pritchard. 1984

Frost in Columbia Literary History of the United States. Ed. Emory Elliott

Frost, Robert. The Road Not Taken. Robert Frost's Lesser Known Poems;

Lentricchia, Frank. Modernist Quartet Cambridge. (71-74) Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Niven, Penelope. Carl Sandburg: A Biography. NY: Macmillan, 1991.

Robert Frost and the Challenge of Darwin. 1997

The Academy of American Poets - http://www.poets.org/

The Carl Sandburg State Historic Site: http://www.misslink.net/misslink/carlsand.htm

The CMU Poetry Index of Canonical Verse


University of Illinois - Department of English http://www.english.uiuc.edu/

Frost & Sandburg… [read more]

Imagist Poetry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (878 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Six poets were identified as "official" members of the Imagist movement -- Richard Aldington, H.D., John Gould Fletcher, F.S. Flint, DH Lawrence, and Amy Lowell. Ezra Pound is omitted because by 1914 he had moved on to other poetic ideas. The influence of these central figures is apparent in later works by followers and adapters of the movement, such as William Carlos Williams and e.e. cummings.

Ezra Pound stands as a major creative force in the twentieth century, a poet who influenced many poetic movements and many of the major poets of the era. Works like "The Tree" and "L'Art, 1910" show the Imagist tendencies of Pound, in the first centering on the image of himself as a tree, in the second on a clear image of a smeared table cloth.

Amy Lowell's poems such as "A Lover" or "Meditation" are spare, these two poems shaped around the image of a firefly. Lowell remains a highly controversial poet who is supported by some critics and dismissed by others as too facile to be taken seriously. Clearly, though, she has to be seen as important for her role in creating and transmitting the Imagist movement.

Richard Aldington's poem "Lesbia" shows the Greek influence that shaped much of his poetry. John Gould Fletcher was another Briton who also wrote criticism and biography, and his poem "London Excursion: Station" is representative of his poetry reflecting on life in his home city and doing so using concrete images gathered from direct observation. DH Lawrence, the third Briton in the group, is best known as a novelist, but he contributed a number of poems to Imagist anthologies, including "Nothing to Save."

F.S. Flint is perhaps the least known of the original group, and indeed his poems were known in the United States only because they were included in the Imagist anthologies. He was a modest man whose one true voice was heard in his poetry, in affecting works like "Beggar."

William Carlos Williams and e.e. cummings were followers of the Imagist movement who show many of the same tendencies in their work toward concision and brevity. Williams with "El Hombre" offers what seems like a fragment of thought from which the reader may capture an image, while cummings in poems like "Impression V" seems to impart concrete moments from a stream-of-consciousness-like reaction to the poem's subject.

These poems only hint at the range of work produced under the Imagist banner and at the depth of influence the Imagists have had on later poetry. This anthology is a good beginning toward a…… [read more]

Paul Valery Was a French Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,201 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They were well versed in many areas and combined talents to create fabulous works. Yet unlike Rushdie, who had gone into hiding and knew and appreciated the power of words, Valery and Breton saw these as a means to an end.

Haroun and the Sea of Stories is really about censorship and Rushdie espouses creativity and writing as the most significant tool for salvaging history, religion and cultures. In contrast, in Paul Valery's Tel Quel: "Literature is thronged with people who don't really know what to say but feel a compelling urge to write" ("Odds and Ends" 130). A sentence stating a rather harsh, but not exclusively negative, truth, since the "urge to write without knowing what" is presented for what it is: a power. An empty power, but one that, paradoxically, contributes to and perhaps suffices to "fill" literature. And Valery will say about some of the most beautiful verses that they work on us without telling us very much, or that tell us, perhaps, that they have "nothing to tell us" ("Poetry and Abstract Thought" 74-75). Such is literature, "reduced to the essentials of its active principle" ("Odds and Ends" 97).

So what could possibly tie these men together? They certainly had different viewpoints about the meaning of literature and true creativity and yet, they all created literary works that were considered profound for their era. In Introduction de la Methode de Leonard da Vinci (1894) he stated that "all criticism is the cause of the work as in the eyes of the law the criminal is the cause of the crime. Far rather are they both the effects."

Marguerite Yourcenar was a French novelist, essayist, and short story writer, who gained international fame with her metaphysical historical novels. In these works Yourcenar drew psychologically penetrating portraits of people from the distant past, but she also dealt with modern issues such as homosexuality and deviance. Yourcenar studied the artist's role in the world and the central figures of Yourcenar's fiction are men torn between society's demands and their passions, focusing on key moments of history.

Her works are defined by their realism and use of words to bring characters to life. Unlike Valery, her work is the final product of her efforts.

For Valery, with the exception of the Introduction and Monsieur Teste, the major portion of his work follows, as if by a perpetual breach, from a very serious and definitive decision not to write any more. It is literally a post-scriptum, a long codicil, wholly enlightened by a feeling of its complete uselessness, and even its total nonexistence as anything other than a pure exercise. Valery strongly suspected many pages of literature of having this for their whole significance: 'I am a page of literature'; we often find in him, implicitly or insistently, this inverse affirmation: 'I have nothing more to do with literature: here is proof of it.' His literary destiny was therefore this rather rare experience, one perhaps rich in its apparent sterility: to… [read more]

Rousseau, Douglass, Both Prose Writers Term Paper

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He is the arbiter of the diverse and he is the key. He is the equalizer of his age and land... If peace is the routine, and of him speaks the spirit of peace, large, rich... he encourages the study of man, the soul, immortality... his thoughts are the hymns of praise of the things - in the talk on the soul and eternity - God off of his equal place - he is silent - he sees eternity in men and women.

What makes Whitman different - his free choice of subject and his desire to follow his whims and his personal desires. He brings these into his writing - never mind if he violates the sensibilities of his readers.

William Wordsworth - Poet of Nature

Hornstein, Lillian

Wordsworth has produced some of the finest poetry on nature. He also assumed the leadership for the early part of the English Romantic Movement. He became involved in the French Revolution but as he grew older his ardor for the French Revolution and his liberalism cooled and he devoted the rest of his days to writing poetry.

Wordsworth is more famous for his nature poems for which he had a sensuous animal passion - there a moral influence and finally a mystical communion - Michael is a study in simple strength of character and which boasted of the healing power of nature. There are also his popular Lucy poems but perhaps his most famous poem is Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood.

Wordsworth is one of England's greatest lyric poets. He has also greatly influenced modern attitudes and sensibilities. It is Wordsworth who has conditioned our belief in the natural goodness of childhood, the moral value of the simple life, and inspiring and healing powers of Nature.

Basically what would identify Wordsworth with the other four writers would be his belief in the natural goodness of childhood - his admonition is to take care of the children for they are the future citizens of our country.

The factor which distinguishes Wordsworth from the rest of the writers is this deep intense love for nature which in itself is admirable - it is in nature by which we live - it nurtures us, it provides for our needs - we cannot isolate ourselves from nature.

Alfred Lord Tennyson

Poems were exquisitely melodious, but they reveal the defects of much of Tennyson's Poetry, superficial thinking and excessive artificially of style. His later works - Morte D' Arthur expressed the sentimental optimism of the era. Another poem Ulysses symbolized the Victorian conception of the ideal heroic spirit. This volume symbolized just what the period wanted: a moral poet-teacher, no social rebel but a meticulous artist. When his friend Arthur Hallam died,

Tennyson wrote that in his poems, the voice of the human race was speaking through him. It was certainly the voice of Victorian England speaking through him.

His poem Locksley Hall - lessened his reputation among the modern critics… [read more]

Australian Literature: An Anthology Term Paper

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" The town has found its American Dream, but as with most dreams, they tarnish when they come true.

Carey shows graphically the folly of wishing for something you do not have, and the folly of trying to be something you are not. Australia is not the United States, and never will be. The people of Australia, rather than wishing for something they do not have, should learn to take joy in what it is they do have - the beauty of the magnificent land around them.

It seems as if the Australians feel like they are backward somehow, and should have more things that "all Americans" have, like full refrigerators, big fancy cars, and color television sets. What this small town in Australia has discovered the hard way is what Carey wants all Australians to discover - these things do not bring you happiness. The people of the small town are weary of their American Dream, but now they are stuck with it, as they derive much of their income from the insensitive American tourists. The townspeople are not happy, and understand that their Dream has become a bit of a nightmare. Perhaps Gleason really did not like them after all, and this is his legacy, to show them the folly of their dreams.

In conclusion, Carey's story illustrates how the people of his country need to learn to be happy with what they have, rather than wishing for something that seems shinier and brighter. "Having paid the money they are worried about being cheated" (Edelson 176). The Americans show their true side, and the Australians need to recognize what they have, a beautiful land filled with magnificent scenery, stupendous animals, and friendly people, is really one of the finest spots on Earth.


Edelson, Phyllis Fahrie. Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land…… [read more]

Flannery O'connor's Literature Term Paper

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Thus, Mary balances the liter and symbolic interpretations of reality.

Another popular short story that exemplifies her skillful style is "A Good Man is Hard to Find," which disrupts the mundane with satire and toughness. More than any of O'Connor's short stories, "A Good Man is Hard to Find" evokes powerful reactions from its readers -- it is funny but also horrifying. (Lauter 1936)

O'Connor was adamant that her stories be stories. She grew impatient when people tried to dissect her stories in order to find out some deeper meaning. She wanted the meanings of her stories to lie within the stories themselves -- she wanted them to be an experience, not an abstraction. In an essay, she e once wrote that "a story is a way to say something that can't be said any other way, and it takes every word in the story to say what the meaning is" (Lauter 1937). In "A Reasonable Use of the Unreasonable," she speaks of her quest as a storyteller:

often ask myself what makes a story work, and what makes it hold up as a story, and I have decided that it is probably some action, some gesture of a character that is unlike any other in the story, one which indicated where the real heart of the story lies. This would have to be an action or a gesture which was both totally right and totally unexpected; it would have to be one that was both in character and beyond character, it would have to suggest both the world and eternity. The action or gesture I'm talking about would have to be on the anagogical level, that is, the level which has to do with the Divine life and our participation in it. It would be a gesture that would transcend and neat allegory that might have been intended or any pat moral categories a reader could make. It wold be a gesture which somehow made contact with reality. (Lauter 1937)

Clearly it is possible to see how Christianity, the eternal realm of God, and the temporal realm of humanity are linked. To O'Connor, this is almost an unfathomable mystery and it is by that mystery that she wrote her stories. She describes belief "as the engine which makes perception operate" (Lauter 1937).

O'Connor had an eye for the unusual and she was very capable of selecting very descriptive details to create characters and situations that worked.

Her stories demonstrated several themes, including disfigurement, shallowness, pettiness and sometimes ugliness, badness, and meanness which she planted inside a dark comedy. It was sometimes through a shocking or violent act that her protagonists are forced to face some ugly realities. It was this powerful action that was to prompt the reader into thinking.

Flannery O'Connor was successful writer who was able to remove the reader from his or her situation and pull them into her stories. Her stories are distinct and they invite the reader to step beyond their world into hers.… [read more]

Poetry of John Keats Inspires Term Paper

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" The physical senses can only behold transitory beauty, while the spiritual senses perceive true, lasting beauty. "She cannot fade." Spiritual beauty is eternal, like the "happy, happy boughs" that "cannot shed" their leaves. Here, Keats also blends imagery from the natural world to convey a sense of beauty and timelessness.

Beauty is also associated with youth throughout "Ode on a Grecian Urn." Keats refers to the "fair youth" beneath the tree; in Keats' time, "fair" meant pretty. The eternal spring the poet alludes to in the third stanza symbolizes eternal youth, which translates to eternal beauty, "forever young." Because Keats' ode is on a Grecian urn, he is probably seeing pictures of young men and women frolicking. The images on the urn correspond with the symbolism of youth and beauty.

When old age shall this generation waste, thou shall remain," writes Keats in the fourth and final stanza of "Ode on a Grecian Urn." In other words, the passage of time will not destroy beauty. The poem ends by associating beauty with truth, which is eternal. "Beauty is truth, truth beauty." Beauty is not transitory like the objects in the physical universe, and beauty does not age. Beauty transcends time because it is a spiritual quality, like truth itself.

Keats ties together the concepts of timelessness and beauty throughout his works. However, Keats is not always optimistic about the ability of beauty to transcend time. In his poem, "Ode to a Nightingale," Keats describes aging as a loss of physical beauty. In the third stanza, Keats mediates on the physical condition of aging: "where men sit and hear each other groan; / Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last gray hairs, / Where youth grows pale, and specter-thin, and dies." This is a more somber view of beauty than that in "Ode on a Grecian Urn." Keats speaks to the Nightingale, whose song is beautiful to the ear. He also refers repeatedly to flowers and also to wine, which induces a state of consciousness that allows Keats to appreciate mundane beauty.

Ode to a Nightingale," because it contains references to death throughout the poem, shows beauty as a victim of time. The beauty of the Grecian urn transcended time, as the urn itself symbolized eternity. Moreover, the pictures on the urn depict beautiful creatures like the Greek gods who themselves represent beauty and immortality. However, the nightingale symbolizes death, and death represents the end of beauty. Keats uses the nightingale to evoke images of sadness and "forlorn" feelings, which contrast with beauty. Death is where "Beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes." While Keats connects beauty and timelessness with "Ode on a Grecian Urn," the poet connects beauty with finiteness in "Ode to a Nightingale." In both these works, John Keats depicts the theme of beauty with sensual imagery connected…… [read more]

Pearl Poet's Sir Gawain Term Paper

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This errant theorist was named Guest and was a historian of English rhythms. He claimed that Huchoun of the Awle Ryale was the poet responsible for Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. His primary argument was that in a blank space in the original manuscript of Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight, a hand of the fifteenth century has scribbled… [read more]

African-American Literature the Implications Term Paper

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These African-Americans write to not only to express themselves, but to express feelings and thoughts that seem to collectively belong to a group of people, tied together by struggles in the past and in ethnicity that they are still working to overcome, even in present-day society. But the works of literature that have been produced by African-Americans indicate that, at… [read more]

Symbolism in Poetry Ruba Symbols Term Paper

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While this is the main theme and message in his poem, Baudelaire uses symbolism to keep the content of his poem 'alive' and interesting to the reader. The poem's body seems to be direct in its message in the initial part of the poem; however, as the reader reaches the last part of Baudelaire's poem, symbolism becomes evident. In discussing the evils of man and his sinfulness, Baudelaire uses imagery and symbolism in order to extend this message: "Like a poor prisoner who kisses and consumes / The tortured breast of an ancient whore." Through these lines and use of imagery, Baudelaire represents man's sinfulness as the 'consummation' (doing the act of sinfulness) of the 'breast of an ancient whore' (man's original sin, as referenced in the Bible). Another symbol used is the representation of Boredom as a 'delicate monster' that kills man greater than committing a sin or evil action. Lastly, Baudelaire uses 'the reader' of the poem as a symbol for his own self, which he described in the last line of the poem as "my likeness, -my brother!"

The last poem, "My Familiar Dream" by Paul Verlaine is a vague poem about a woman that the author often dreams of, which Verlaine describes as someone he loves and seem to know well. At the end of the poem, the readers will realize that the woman he often sees in his dreams are the 'voices of the dead' residing inside the woman he dreams of, or more precisely, residing in his individuality. Verlaine's poem is interesting in that he uses symbolism blatantly, although readers will never realize the significance of the symbolism used until the end of the poem. In the initial part of the poem, Verlaine describes the women in his dreams as someone "whom I love, who loves me," and understand him well. It is later in the poem that Verlaine reveals the importance of the woman in his dreams. Instead of a woman, what Verlaine had actually dreamt about is not the woman herself, but the "tone of dear voices, of those who have died." It becomes evident now that the woman is actually a symbol of the loved-ones of Verlaine who have died, that is why he describes the woman as someone who knows him too well, and someone he loves. It now becomes clear that he refers to his loved-ones who have dies, whom he had loved and understood him well, and whose memory still lives in his…… [read more]

Human Suffering Term Paper

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The poem ends with uncertainty, and implies the continuous subjection of the speaker to his father's abuse, bringing once again the uncertainty that the speaker felt at the initial part of the story: "You beat time on my head

With a palm caked hard by dirt / Then waltzed me off to bed..." Evidently, human suffering through physical abuse is effectively illustrated in "My Papa's Waltz" through imagery and symbolism.

Lastly, the play "Hamlet" by William Shakespeare is an effective narrative of the life of Prince Hamlet as he experiences emotional turmoil because of his father's death. The play displays human suffering because Shakespeare uses Hamlet's character as torn between avenging for his father's murder and implicating his mother and stepfather, his immediate family, in plotting against his father's murder. The play proceeds to show how Hamlet used the technique of posing himself as an insane man, in order to discover for himself whether his father's ghost had told him the truth about his death (a murder or not). Hamlet's emotional turmoil and suffering is depicted in his famous soliloquy, quoted as follows: "To be, or not to be: that is the question / Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer... Or to take arms against a sea of troubles / And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep / No more..." Hamlet's indecision, as was later found out in the play, resulted to his eventual death although he was able to avenge his father's murder with her mother and stepfather's death. Hamlet's tragedy and portrayal as a tragic hero shows how even the greatest of men cannot endure the pains of human suffering, as was shown in his death in the play, "Hamlet."


Faulkner, W. E-text of "A Rose for Emily." Available at: http://www.online-library.org/fictions/emily.html.

Plath, S. E-text of "Daddy." Available at: http://www.poets.org/poems/poems.cfm?prmID=1062.

Roethke, T. E-text of "My Papa's Waltz." Available at: http://gawow.com/roethke/poems/43.html.

Shakespeare, W. E-text of "Hamlet." Available at: http://the-tech.mit.edu/Shakespeare/hamlet/full.html.… [read more]

Death in Poetry Ruba Term Paper

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.. I am sorry, but I quite forgot / It was your resting-place."

A.E. Housman's depiction of death in "Eight O' Clock" shows a man's countdown to death, using the title "Eight O'clock" as the dreaded time of the man who was "Strapped, noosed, nighing his hour," illustrating his position as a prisoner condemned to death. The last line saying "... The clock collected in the tower / Its strength, and struck," shows the power of time in determining a person's death, thereby establishing the relationship of time as one crucial element in the determination of death.

Philip Larkin's "Next, Please" illustrates the nature and effect of death upon the people in the society. Larkin treats death as a process wherein people will all go through, and instead of giving death immense significance and meaning to people, he instead characterizes it as a phase in people's lives with no causal effect to other people at all ("Yet still they leave us holding wretched stalks / Of disappointment...").

Lastly, Dylan Thomas's poem entitled, "Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night" once again demonstrates the power of time in relation to death, similar to Housman's "Eight O'clock." Thomas provides advice to his readers about how to live our lives, wherein we should grab every good opportunity that we can have in our lives, for death is uncertain. Living people's lives properly and correctly will help prevent the problem of letting go of life reluctantly because of 'unfinished businesses that people might have. Thus, Thomas' poem provides an insight of how life should be lived in order…… [read more]

English Literature the Medieval Period Term Paper

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Shakespeare also exploited most human emotions that run deep such as patriotism, love, and envy. The sonnets are Shakespeare's "contribution to popular vogue," says Abrams. The poems are of importance, say Abrams because the "vocabulary is simple and the metaphorical style of the sonnets is rich." (Abrams 867).

The Reformation has been described as a return to "pure Christianity" (Abrams 416). However, in England, the movement did not necessarily begin with ideological differences. An important aspect of sixteenth century poetry was the sonnet. Within this style of poetry, there many variations of the lyric including the love sonnet, tragic modes, mythical-erotic modes, and the heroic mode. Plays also experienced rejuvenation after the fifteenth century and in the Elizabethan era, the sub-genre of "revenge" and "tragic" tragedies surfaced. Christopher Marlowe was an important playwright of this movement, as well as Shakespeare. Shakespeare has been considered the greatest writer of English literature, who was able to "combine a keen appreciation of the exhilarating freedom of the Renaissance with a profound intuition of the spiritual needs and potentialities of man" (Britannica).

The Restoration movement is what Abrams calls "varied and vigorous" (Abrams 1777). The Restoration did retain the same appreciation of the "heroic poem," as did the Renaissance writers. The Restoration movement was distinct in its treatment of drama.

Writers of this era "excelled in representing -- and critically evaluating -- the social behavior of the fashionable upper classes of the town (1778). This was a time of political unrest and literature often reflected what would be come known as man's inner conflict. An example of this kind of literature is Absalom and Achitophel by John Dryden. Absalom and Achitophel is a reaction to the religious and political turmoil of that era. This poem illustrates Dryden's ability to combine the heroic and the satirical along with decorum. Another example of a writer who reflected the events that were happening around him was Daniel Defoe. Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe, which was a series of tales that has remained popular for centuries. In this series, Defoe was able to recount a situation vividly, using specific detail and a very relaxed prose. Dryden, Defoe, and others were taking the literary movement to a new, more realistic realm. The Restoration was clearly an indication of the direction where literature would be moving.

The Modernist movement in English literature begins with the nineteenth century. One characteristic of the modernist movement was a "rise in pessimism and stoicism" (1728) And example of this kind of pessimism can be found in Thomas Hardy's work. The modern movement is also characterized by an anti-Victorian sentiment. In fact, Edward VII and the Edwardian England was "very conscious of being no longer Victorian" (1729). Abrams even states that Edward "stamped his extrovert and self-indulgent character on the decade in which he reigned" (A 1729). World War I then produced some "major shifts in attitudes" (1729). James Joyce, DH Lawrence and Virginia Woolf were major contributors to the modern movement. These novelists wrote about… [read more]

Ralph Waldo Emerson's Influence Term Paper

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The theme of transcendentalism is evident in one of Emerson's poems, entitled, "The Amulet." In this particular poem, Emerson expresses his belief in immaterial concepts and ideas, as contradicted by the physical belief that the amulet elicits from the individual or its owner. The poet first establishes the "powers" that amulets can give to people before contradicting and illustrating the futility that humans get out of these amulets. In describing it, Emerson describes that the amulet "keeps intelligence with you / Red when you love... And when you love not, pale and blue." However, the strong power that the amulet possesses is contradicted in the last stanza of the poem. The poet develops his thought fully in the last part of the poem, where he finally states that: "... love / Died in its last expression." By saying this, Emerson shows how, despite the metaphysical powers of amulets have over forcing someone to love another, it sacrifices one important thing needed in loving, which is precisely love itself.

Whitman and Dickinson follows suit in illustrating the theme of transcendentalism in their poetry. In Whitman's "When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer," the poet expresses his dismay at the seemingly scientific and technical way of looking at Nature, one of the extraordinary wonders of the world. Dickinson, on the other hand, illustrates in her poem, "A Word is Dead," how a linguistic symbol like a word can possess 'human-like' characteristics. This point is illustrated when Dickinson expressed in her poem, "I say it just / Begins to live / That day." These two examples of poems show Emerson's influence in placing priority in humanity and…… [read more]

Rhyming in Poetry Ruba Term Paper

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Lines 5-8 are interchangeable among each other, where lines 5 and 7 supplement each other in the same manner lines 6 and 8 do. The line "... after the sunset fadeth in the west" is synonymous to the line "Death's second self" and "rest" in line 8. It is noticeable that Shakespeare assumes a remorseful tone in his poem, although he ends his poem in a loving and more positive note, using the rhyming words "strong" and "long" in the last two lines of the poem to suggest how he and his lover's love for each other will remain "strong" and eternal in spite of death.

Edgar Allan Poe's "Annabel Lee," meanwhile, assumes a defiant tone against the elements of nature, who have taken his lover Annabel Lee away from him through death. Unlike Shakespeare who assumes a remorseful persona in his poem, Poe remains strong by declaring his love to Annabel Lee. His strength and confidence of his and Annabel Lee's love for each other is illustrated in the line "Than to love and be loved by me." Poe makes it a point to rhyme Annabel Lee's name with lines that illustrate his eternal love for her, such as "Coveted her and me," "And bore her away from me," and "In her sepulchre there by the sea / In her tomb by the side of the sea." Through these rhyming lines found in each stanzas of the poem (consecutively), Poe achieves the main idea he wants to convey to his audience and attaining a continuous narrative flow despite the shifts in his poem from declaration of love to death and eventual reunification after both lovers' deaths.


Poe, Edgar Allan. "Annabel Lee." Available at http://bau2.uibk.ac.at/sg/poe/works/poetry/annabel.html.

Rhyme." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shakespeare, William. "Sonnet 73." Available at http://stellar-one.com/poems/shakespeare_william_-sonnet_73.html.… [read more]

Poetry Term Paper

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He instead moved around all of the emotional possibilities but was always sure to write in a way that made his readers FEEL.

III. Style

A. The style of Robert Frost was well-known both then and now (Riley pg). It was simple, it was clean and it was easily understood. He was never one to complicate the poetry with such fanciful words that they had to be re-evaluated constantly to be understood. Instead he used a direct approach and style to his work.

B. Whether he was speaking of warm sunny days, or cold snowy nights Frost always used a style that was rhythmic. He was said once to take a jab at Carl Sandburg by saying he would rather play tennis without a net then to try and write free form poetry. Frost had a confidence about his style that also illustrated the fact that he did not have a tragic and misunderstood life.

C. One of the styles that have frequently been studied is the fact that his work often asked a question.

1. In A Road Less Traveled he leaves the reader trying to answer the question about what would happen had he chosen the road less traveled, or the road that was easily used. It is something that Frost frequently used to get his reader actively involved in his work.

IV. Works





1. The Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening is a light hearted and peaceful prose about the beauty and calm of a snowy evening. It is one of the works he is most well-known for because of the emotion it evokes in those who read it (http://www.robertfrost.org/poem1.html).

2. He provides a light touch to the poem as he ponders what his horse must think about stopping where there is no farmhouse and the reader can visually imagine the beauty and calmness of the woods covered with a layer of unbroken snow, lit by the moonlight.


A. The audience of Robert Frost seems to know no boundaries. Because of the many various topics he wrote about he was able to reach young and old alike. His varied topics including apple picking and roads less traveled allow readers from all walks of life to relate to and enjoy the emotions that his poems tug to release.

B. In addition his work has no historic expiration date. Because of the wide range of generational years the poems cover his work will be enjoyed for many years to come by many different audiences.

VI. Accomplishments

A. Robert Frost had many accomplishments in during his lifetime. He received four Pulitzer Prizes for poetry-1924, 1931, 1937, and 1943(Frost (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~atakah/project.html).

B. Frost was the first poet that was ever asked to speak at the presidential inauguration. He read The Gift Outright (Frost (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~atakah/project.html).


Robert Frost was arguably one of the most wide reaching poets in history.… [read more]

African-American Literature -- Alice Walker Term Paper

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.. inadequacies which might tell heavily against another novel seem relatively insignificant in view of the one great challenge which Alice Walker has triumphantly met ... I find it impossible to imagine Celie apart from her language; through it, not only a memorable and infinitely touching character but a whole submerged world is vividly called into being. Miss Walker knows how to avoid the excesses of literal transcription while remaining faithful to the spirit and rhythms of Black English" (Bloom, 1994:201).

Significant themes and effective character portrayals in the novel also provide readers with a new emerging literary genre, wherein Walker's story centers on an individual's journey to self-discovery. This is shown in Celie's transition from being an abused victim to being an empowered woman; this occurrence within the novel is termed "bildungsroman." This term refers to the "genre that focuses primarily on the gradual growth and development of a "self" from childhood to adulthood" (McDowell, 1995:36). This genre is evident in Walker's writings, as illustrated in the following illustrations / descriptions of Celie in the novel: " ... Celie's introduction to sexuality is rape, as her narrative unfolds, she ... discovers how vital healthy sexual experiences are to the development of her self-esteem and her creative powers ... " (42).

The combination of critical issues about African-American women and the theme of self-discovery in Walker's novel led to the emergence of the genre of Womanism. Womanism is defined as a literary genre wherein "African-American women support each other and relate to the world" (Microsft Encarta 2002). According to Abel (1997), the genre of Womanism is a primary characteristic of African-American literature, where women's needs are expressed, subjective meanings to their social realities are constructed, and free market of ideas (intellectual discourse) that relate to the politics, economics, and culture of Womanism occur (30). In effect, Walker has achieved, through her literature, in breaking the 'barrier' that divides African-Americans and white Americans, males and females, and most importantly, women against their selves. Alice Walker is indeed the bastion of African-American literature, liberating women black American females by depicting "the 'truth'" in her works and making them realize their commonality, and share these "common experiences" with each other to celebrate their womanhood and essentially, individuality.


Abel, E. (1997). Female Subjects in Black and White: Race, Psychoanalysis, and Feminism. CA: University of California Press.

Bloom, H. (1994). Black American Women Fiction Writers. NY: Chelsea House Publishers.

McDowell, D. (1995). "The Changing Same":…… [read more]

Jealous Woman in Asian Literature Term Paper

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On the contrary, it is symptomatic of the transformation in female inheritance rights that dispossessed and disenfranchised women during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods. According to Brown's micropolitical interpretation, Aoi spiritual possession is caused by Rokuj?'s anger and resentment at her economic dispossession. Given that the play effectively demonizes Rokuj?, Brown claims that Aoi no Ue is a performance that both confronts and excuses patriarchal guilt:

Without reducing the plot to demonize Rokuj? To a full-blown conspiracy, I would argue that the staging of jealousy in Aoi no Ue [ ... ] was also an exorcism of the contingencies associated with the reversal of female inheritance rights, which played an important role in the further consolidation of Ashikaga shogunal authority and its differentiation from imperial authority.

(Brown 87)

The third section of Theatricalities of Power, 'Performativities of Power', continues its exploration of the 'micropolitics' of Noh Theater by showing how plays such as Ominanmeshi and Tomoe use the tropes of female suicide and female-to-male cross-dressing to consolidate and reproduce male supremacy in Japan. In these chapters, performance is conceived as a way of structuring and producing the real: it creates new identities and knowledge. Noh theater's productive role is emphasized in the final chapter of the book, 'The Hegemon as Actor', when Brown describes how the shogun, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, trained as a Noh performer and acted in self-commissioned plays that rhetorically displayed and cemented his prestige and authority:

The Taik? Noh plays written for Hideyoshi are [ ... ] unique in the history of world drama by virtue of the unprecedented role played by Hideyoshi in his own self-staging, thus blurring the boundaries between theatricality and politics to a degree unimaginable even on the Shakespearean stage.

(Brown 126-7)

A Connection

The triumph of Buddhist law and saving of Lady Aoi contrasts with The Tale of Genji; in the novel, Lady Aoi "dies giving birth to Genji's son" (Morris 31).

Heian / Kamakura Literature and The Tale of Genji

Medieval Japan reached its collateral's highest point with the flowering of the Heian period. During this period, Lady Murasaki Shikibu, a lady-in-waiting to the empress, wrote the classic love story called, The Tale of Genji (Kodansha 2). This literary work describes the elegant and refined society of the Heian period. Genteel's love affairs are the dominant theme in the Tale of Genji, which focused on Genji's romances. The story of Genji is essentially about Prince Genji, the young handsome son of an emperor. The Prince possessed all the virtues including "beauty, grace, talent, and sensitivity" (Puette 53).

In order to understand Genji's enchantment and femininely character, we must consider the background of Lady Murasaki Shikibu, and Genji's relationships with his women. According to conjecture, Lady Murasaki was born after C.E. 937. During that period her father was a famous poet and scholar (Dalby 10). Furthermore, many of Murasaki's ancestors were sufficient to be called men of letters, or poets. Therefore it is clear that Lady Murasaki Shikibu had a strong literary influence… [read more]

English Literature Death in Venice Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,207 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Reader-Response Criticism of Thomas Mann's narrator in Death in Venice should most assuredly take into account, as Furst writes, the "further repercussions" of the "narrator's outbursts against Aschenbach." The skepticism a reader may - and should - feel towards the narrator only begins to grow, Furst writes (168), when juxtaposing the beginning - where the narrator "shows an understanding empathy for Aschenbach" - to the end, when the narrator's description of Aschenbach "is transformed into scoffing criticism."

Meantime, a look at this suspicious and dramatic changing of his tune by the narrator - through the prism of Cultural Criticism (CC) - may be helpful in terms of defining CC. The way the narrator changes his attitude towards Aschenbach could be seen as analogous to how a character in a film can be transformed (through film direction and script manipulation) from a good guy at the beginning, to an evil character towards the end. And that analogy with Aschenbach would remain true to the viewers in the theaters only if the character's changed appearance were without obvious cause - that somehow, a movie-goer could not detect anything untoward about the character throughout most of the movie. The question for the viewer at the end is why was there such a dramatic change in that character, when no scenes were presented that even hinted at such a transformation.

Another look at a situation in the book where Cultural Criticism (the non-elitist view) comes into play is presented in The Explicator (Bergenholtz, 1997). The writer of this article asks the simple question as to whether or not Aschenbach is a "tragic character," and then presents several conflicting views regarding the proper answer to the question. Bergenholtz points out that critic Erich Heller believes Aschenbach is indeed a tragic figure: "[He] describes the novella as the 'tragic story of Aschenbach's disillusion and downfall'." However, juxtaposed to that criticism, Bergenholtz continues, is critic Martin Travers, who "insists that 'it is not on a note of exaltation that Aschenbach is granted his exit, but rather on one of banality..." Travers believes that "It is not the noble genre of tragedy but that hybrid form of doubtful status, tragi-comedy, that provides the medium for his valediction."

And taking into account those opposing views of the character Aschenbach, Bergenholtz insists that "Aschenbach is not a romantic artist-hero but a parody of one." Bergenholtz takes this position because the novella focuses on his downward slippage rather than his rise to "artistic renewal."

Another critical look at the Thomas Mann book and its ramifications is offered in Symposium (Hirschbach, 2001). In critiquing Death in Venice: Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism, Hirschbach says that Lilian Furst "dwells on the deceptive abyss" between Aschenbach's life and his work "and accuses Aschenbach of misreading Plato and engaging in self-deception." This is a very good example of how the Reader-Response Criticism can be most effective; Hirschbach says Furst "challenges" the reader to notice details "of Mann's narrative strategy and combine them into a cohesive… [read more]

Dylan's "The Times Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The lyrics to Bob Dylan's song, "The Times they are a Changing," again present a fundamentally different view of human goals and desires than do the poems of either Hughes or Auden. To many people, Dylan's music, and this song in particular, represents the rebellion of the youth of the 1960s against the conformity of American society, and are a clear protest against the Vietnam War. Energetic and defiant, Dylan's lyrics declare that "The order is rapidly fading" and that "The line, it is drawn, the curse, it is cast." Here, Dylan is clearly suggesting that America's old ways of doing things are about to change, and that a new age of equality and opportunity are upon the nation. Dylan's lyrics reveal a theme of hope about the future where equality and opportunity and imply that this future will provide people with the ability to pursue their dreams and goals. Dylan's hopeful theme is a profound contrast against Auden's view of a future society as one where individuality has been crushed, and hopes and dreams have been sacrificed to conformity. Dylan's view of the future, where "the loser will be later to win" provides a hope for the fulfillment of the deferred dreams of Hughes' poem. Further, the waters that have grown, and the wheel that is "still in spin" likely represent social change that has been brought about in part by those whose dreams have been stifled, resulting in this frustration "exploding" in social change, as noted in Hughes' poem.

In conclusion, through their different treatment of the theme of deferred dreams, Dylan, Hughes and Auden reveal different implications for society. In Hughes' "Harlem: A Dream Deferred," he investigates the destructive impact of deferring dreams, while Auden's "The Unknown Citizen" looks at the impact of conformity on the loss of human dreams. In contrast, Dylan's "The Times they are a Changing" is a hopeful and defiant look at how social change can bring about the realization of opportunities and dreams.

Works Cited

Auden, W.H. The Unknown Citizen. In: Kennedy, X.J. And Gioia, Dana. 2001. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama (8th Edition). Pearson Longman.

Dylan, Thomas. The Times they are a Changing. In: Kennedy, X.J. And Gioia, Dana. 2001. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama (8th Edition). Pearson Longman.

Hughes, Langston. Harlem: A Dream Deferred. In: Kennedy, X.J. And Gioia, Dana. 2001. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama (8th Edition). Pearson Longman.… [read more]

Robinson, Whitman, and Wordsworth Poems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, the line lengths are long and they force us to read the poem smoothly, so we may pay attention to what the poet is saying. Sine these poems are about the death of an individual, the poet wants to pay close attention to their words. In Wordsworth's poem, the line lengths are shorter, which makes us read the poem quicker. This fits with the poems less serious subject matter.

We can see how each poet uses literary devices such as imagery, symbolism, and irony. In "Richard Cory," we see an example of imagery when we are told that Mr. Cory "glittered when he walked." (8). In "Oh Captain! My Captain," the poet describes "the bleeding drops of red,/Where on the deck my Captain lies (6-7). In "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud," the daffodils are "tossing their heads in sprightly dance" (12). Each of these images helps us see what the poet is talking about. We can also see irony in "Richard Cory." This is clear when we read the last line of the poem and we discover that despite his wealth, he was still unhappy enough to kill himself. In "Oh Captain! My Captain," the poet writes each stanza with a powerful and victorious beginning. These lines make us think that the poem will continue in this manner. However, the last lines of each stanza become sorrowful as the poet describes the dead captain. These devices help us understand the meaning of each poem.

In conclusion, we can see how each poet is reflecting on a personal issue and expressing his feelings in a way for the world to understand. Edwin Arlington Robinson, Walt Whitman, and William Wordsworth utilize the themes and tone of their poems to help with their expressions. They also employ other literary devices that allow us to envision their topics.

Works Cited

Robinson, Edwin Arlington. "Richard Cory." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Kennedy, X.J., et al., eds. New York: Longman Publishers. 2002.

Whitman, Walt. "Oh Captain! My Captain." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Kennedy, X.J., et al., eds. New York: Longman Publishers. 2002.

Wordsworth, William. "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Kennedy, X.J., et al., eds. New York: Longman Publishers. 2002.… [read more]

Gender Criticism of Poetry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Book ended by the two Biblical allusions, which together signify the beginning and end of Judeo-Christian history, the speaker locates their romance within the timeline of this spiritual history."

Rossetti's poem is equally of a faith tradition, but lacks the highfalutin references of Marvell's work. The poem denies the fascination of women with male adoration, in his very beginning, "when I am dead, my dearest, / Sing no sad songs for me," although the fact that Rossetti calls her poem a song may be some yielding, cheeky reference to the fact that she, even as a dead, female speaker, does have a right to sing even after death, even after she has yielded her childbearing female body to the ground where it can make no more men, only green grass.

But ultimately, Rossetti's poem stands as a female acceptance to the natural rhymes of nature, and even in its religious resonance it refers to nature, rather than theological events. Rossetti stresses from her female perspective, that male monuments to women, either in the form of children or of gravestones do not last, nor do any human attempts at immortality. Even the sighs of a lover are absent from the ears of the poet:

shall not see the shadows,

I shall not feel the rain;

I shall not hear the nightingale

Sing on, as if in pain:

And dreaming through the twilight

That doth not rise nor set,

Haply I may remember,

And haply may forget.

Thus both Andrew Marvell and Christina Rossetti end their poems about the relationship of human sexuality and desire to mortality with a reference to the ultimate forgetting, that of death. But the female poet and speaker of Rossetti's poem does so haply, for she knows death is inevitable, and that human monuments are transient, no matter how permanent they may feel. In contrast, Marvell attempts to run with his mistress from this truth, although if the coy mistress of his address resembled Rossetti's speaker in her ideology, perhaps she was more apt to run from him than to seek out a refuge from the grave in his arms, however poetic.

Works Cited

Ephraim, Michelle. Andrew Marvell's "To His Coy Mistress": A Feminist Reading


Marvell, Andrew. "To His Coy Mistress" http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/mistress_elements.html

Marsh, Jan. Christina Rossetti: A Writer's Life, 1995.

Rossetti, Christina. "Song: When I am Dead my Dearest." (1830-1894)

http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/crossetti/bl-crossetti-wheni.htm… [read more]

Psychoanalysis and Literature Narrative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,404 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


She explores ideas including love and death, and examines cultural impacts on self-discovery. There are many feminist aspects prevalent in her works. The extent to which she utilizes a confessional technique, where she seeks to analyze the drives and needs that motivate characters by having them tell personal stories and confess strong feelings in which the characters sometimes aspire to… [read more]

Romanticism and Romantic Poetry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the works of Blake and Wordsworth there is a conflict in their views of imagination and nature on one level and congruence on another more subtle level. On the one hand, William Blake radically rejected nature as part of the temporal and 'fallen' world and viewed nature as intrinsically inferior to the immutable and eternal forms of the imagination; while on the other hand, Wordsworth viewed nature as a conduit of the imagination; a means by which we can apprehend the eternal forms and power of the imagination.

William Blake's was vehemently opposed to the rationalistic and scientific empiricism of his time that was expounded in the views of Bacon, Locke and Newton. The mechanization and scientific understanding of reality was, according to Blake, a perversion of the 'holy energies of the imagination'. The vision of the imagination that Blake suggested was radical in that it was a total vision of reality through artistic imagination, without any mediation from nature or other sources. For Blake the power of the imagination enabled us

To see the World in a Grain of Sand

And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,

Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand

And Eternity in an Hour www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=71281007" (Keynes 431)

While symbols of nature are used in the above extract, Blake was strongly opposed to any veneration of nature or the natural; as he saw this as counter to the appreciation of imagination in itself.

In Songs of Experience, however, Blake is close to Wordsworth's perception of the developing industrial world and its view of reality. This is symbolized for Blake by the Image of the city.

In Songs of Experience he clearly states his perception of the modern city as representative of a world that has lost the essence of life and imagination. In London Blake views the pathos and tragedy of a city oppressed by laws and regulations that reduce its inhabitants to mere cogs in a machine:

wander through each chartered street

Near where the chartered Thames does flow,

And mark in every face I meet

Marks of weakness, marks of woe.

Songs of Experience)

One way of understanding the differences between the two poets is to view Blake's understanding of the imagination as being more 'active', while Wordsworth had a more 'passive' notion of the imagination. For Blake, imagination was the primary activity of the artist and he viewed imagination as a tool to shape and construct the world of our perception. Wordsworth's comprehension of imagination on the other hand is more receptive rather than aggressive and allows the images and forms from nature to shape the poetic flow and content. Both poets produced their work from a combination of outer and inner influences.


Keynes, Geoffrey, Ed. The Complete Writings, with Variant Readings. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.


AFTER THE PUBLICATION OF LYRICAL BALLADS. Jul 14, 2004. http://facta.junis.ni.ac.yu/facta/lal/lal97/lal97-02.pdf.

Songs of Experience. Litencyc.com. July 14, 2004. http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=2004

Wordsworth's "Michael." July 14, 2004 http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/%7Edeberle/ModGenre.htm

Wordsworth, William.… [read more]

Ancient the Egyptian Love Songs/Poetry Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The juxtaposition of objects to the body or parts of the body express the longing and near obsession of the authors for the objects of their desires. All of these elements combined put the reader in close proximity to both the author and the person desired (lover). It puts the reader close to the author in terms of the author's thoughts, feelings, and daydreams. It puts the reader close to the lover that is described because of the clarity and intensity of the feelings the author has. The love songs are very personal; by the time a person has reader has gone through all of the poems, he/she might almost feel as if he/she knows the people the poems are about and the people who wrote the poems in the first place.

A surprisingly theme in the poems (surprising to this reader) is the lack of possession in the love poetry. In western poetry from the distance past and even the present, there is often mention of "I'm yours" or "You're mine" and similar language. There is a distinct lack of possession and subsequent jealous as a result of feelings of possession. There is mention of feelings of belonging, yearning, desiring, happiness, pain, and other emotions, yet at no point is there some kind of threat. There is no threat of "if I can't have you, no one can" or "if I can't have you I'll commit suicide," which is fairly typical of poetry that is typically taught as part of the western canon of literature. It was a pleasant and somewhat startling surprise, for the lack of possessive feelings makes the Egyptian love songs unique, and enjoyable in an abnormal way. There is certainly an urgency, intensity, and passion expressed, but without fear, anxiety, or just plain scary feelings that people who are madly in love often feel for those they do love.… [read more]

Human Memory Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  25 pages (7,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Another intriguing aspect of Conway & Pleydell-Pearce's research about human memory and autobiographical memories is not just that autobiographical memories exist, but how they believe them to function. They contend that autobiographical memories are constantly present, yet are "activated" by events or occurrences in our present lives that trigger these memories, as well as their influence.

A fundamental premise of… [read more]

Sylvia Plath: Use of Dramatic Monologue as Confessional Poetry Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


" In this poem, the speaker is not the male Lazarus of the Bible but a woman who has made coming back from the grave her carnival-like 'trick.' There is obvious, implied reference to Plath's own, highly public suicide attempt when she was still an undergraduate at Smith College, from which she recovered.

Lady Lazarus, the resurrected woman, simultaneously mocks… [read more]

Element in Literature Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Recurring Literary Theme of Ascent and Descent

The old adage "what goes up must come down" is a common theme in literary works by Daniel Keyes, Dylan Thomas, John Berryman and Henrik Ibsen. Keyes masterfully integrates the theme of ascent and descent into his 1966 novel Flowers for Algernon. For both Dylan Thomas and John Berryman, images relating… [read more]

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