Study "Literature / Poetry" Essays 111-165

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Fern Hill (Dylan Thomas) Research Paper

… The imagery of "shining" and "praise" dramatize an older person's is gracious in giving to life.

"And honoured among foxes and pheasants by the gay house / under the new made clouds and happy as the heart was long / in the sun born over and over / I ran my heedless ways / my wishes raced through the house high hay / and nothing I cared, at my sky blue trades, that time allows / in all his tuneful turning so few and such morning songs / before the children green and golden / follow him out of grace…"

Earlier the speaker posited that the sun is just young once, but in this verse the sun is born "over and over" (imagery reflects the near-monotony / redundancy of aging and the passage of time); the speaker characterizes the passage of time (and the confusion brought on by aging) by saying he "ran heedless" (all is not as it should be in this age).

"Nothing I cared, in the lamb white days, that time would take me / up to the swallow thronged loft by the shadow of my hand / up to the moon that is always rising / nor that riding to sleep / I should hear him fly with the high fields / and wake to the farm forever fled from the childless land / Oh as I was young and easy in the mercy of his means / time held me green and dying / though I sang in my chains like the sea…"

"Lamb white days" is exploding with imagery that embraces color, innocence, God and time. The lamb of course is Biblical and illustrates innocence; Jesus was the "lamb of God." In Luke (10:3): "Behold I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves…" (biblemeanings.info). White is a color reflecting purity and suggesting innocence. He has come a long way, the speaker, from the carefree days of innocence, but now at an advancing age he is on his way to the "loft" in the proverbial barn of life. Only the swallows build nests there, but he is on his way (swallow nests are little caves built from the mud along the banks of rivers and streams, earlier images from this poem. The moon always seemed to be rising (this addresses loss of innocence) but time is slowing that motion down.

Throughout the poem readers have encountered meteorically presented rivers and streams and now, as life is nearing an end, those rivers and streams end in the sea (he is "chained" to the reality that time took him from "young and easy" to "green and dying"

Works… [read more]


Ovid, Giovanni Boccaccio Essay

… Setting the stage for stories about love and romance, death and war, Ovid asks the reader to interpret these tales through the frame of transformation and change. The author can remain as didactic as he wishes, because he hides behind the framing narrative. Readers can much more easily forgive the presence of the author intruding on the story when the author unself-consciously metamorphoses into the narrator in the frame.

In The Decameron, framing serves an even more direct function than it does in Ovid's Metamorphoses. In Boccaccio's The Decameron, the frame narrative provides a historical context that is much appreciated by modern readers who might not otherwise understand the motives of some of the central characters. More importantly, the frame narrative introduces the narrator unequivocally as a character. Boccaccio is more detached from The Decameron than Ovid is from The Metamorphoses. Being holed up in a farm during the "late mortal pestilence," the seven ladies and three men who weave the tales seek "in some measure to compensate the injustice of Fortune," (Proem 013). Using poignant symbolism, the author is sure to make a reference to the spinning wheel: for spinning tales is akin to spinning yarn. The frame narrative in The Decameron, the title of which refers to the ten tales told by the men and women, heralds the function of storytelling as being a salve for the soul. Therefore, frame narratives inherently celebrate the act of storytelling.

In One Thousand and One Nights, Persian queen Scheherazade is the narrator presenting the frame for the collection of tales. This is a stark contrast to both Ovid and Boccaccio, who are clearly the respective authors of their work. Authorship is not the issue in One Thousand and One Nights. These are oral narratives collected along trade routes, coalescing in a compilation and united under a Persian framework. Scheherazade, like the narrator in Ovid's Metamorphoses, invokes the divine spirit prior to framing the stories. The tone is established: a sense of wonderment and awe permeates the reading experience. Like the narrators of The Decameron, furthermore, Scheherazade provides necessary historical and cultural context that gives shape to the stories and helps the reader understand them. "The lives of former generations are a lesson to posterity; that a man may review the remarkable events which have happened to others, and be admonished; and may consider the history of people of preceding ages," (Introduction). What is remarkable about One Thousand and One Nights is the fact that the frame narrative permits a strikingly multicultural literary collection, collated under one framework.

Works Cited

From Norton Anthology of World Literature:

Ovid" in Volume A, pp. 1073-1076

"Metamorphoses" in Volume A, pp.1076-1088; pp. 1104-1116

"Giovanni Boccaccio" in Volume B, pp. 605-609

"Decameron, Day 10, Story 10" in Volume B, pp. 649-656

"The Thousand and One Nights" in… [read more]


Poetry and Politics in 1079 Term Paper

… Su Shih was a vocal opponent of the "New Policies" and he submitted writings to the emperor expressing differing opinions than Wang An-shih. A majority of his poems were seen as hostile to various aspects of the "New Policies" or their advocates.

The popularity of Su Shih's verse was another factor that drew attention. The first indictments against him states, "There is nothing he has not slandered or ridiculed. The common people therefore expect that as soon as there is a flood or a famine or an outbreak of banditry, Su Shih will surely be the first to criticize the situation, attributing all blame to the New Policies."

Su Shih drew a distinction between "indirect criticism' and "malicious slander," however at the time no one was able to define that distinction. (This brings to mind a famous quote of Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Potter Stewart about pornography being hard to define "but I know it when I see it."). A government's attempt to suppress the dissemination of ideas and opinions that differ from their own rhetoric is founded in the fear that the differing ideas threaten either the status quo or the agenda being pushed. There is also a fine line between what one sees as freedom of expression and another sees as propaganda. Su Shih was a dangerous poet to those with whom he did not agree and his popularity made him a source of unwanted criticism for the reform party. This type of governmental behavior, restricting the freedom of expression by those who do not support their agenda, is not unique to any political party or type of government.

Works Cited

Hartman, Charles. "Poetry and Politics in 1079: The Crow Terrace Poetry Case of Su Shih." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews, Vol. 12. (December 1990): 15-44. JSTOR. Web. 11 May 2012.

Mitgang, Herbert. Dangerous Dossiers: Exposing the Secret War Against America's Greatest Authors. New… [read more]


Children's Lit Montano Urges Essay

… Tin in the Congo is one of the more overtly racist of childhood classics; such a book would not be published today in any serious publishing house. The book plays up stereotypes of African culture without revealing the diversity of the continent, and generally supports the practices and worldviews of colonialism. Gender issues are also apparent, mainly in the complete absence of any female characters. Similarly, linguicism is evident in the ways African phrases are repeated as if they are only magical incantations. Tin in the Congo certainly deserves to be studied from an adult's standpoint, rather than be read to children as an example of reality.

3. Riorden, Rick. The Titan's Curse. 2007

Part of the Percy Jackson and the Olympians series, The Titan's Curse is the third installment. The series builds on themes extant in Greek mythology, enhancing those themes with modern scenarios and characters. Although the book is about a standard European mythos, Riorden's series does not bear any sign of racial or ethnic superiority. It is not as if the author is suggesting that Greek mythology is the only mythology worth studying, as it has been presented in many school curricula. Rather, the author is writing what he knows best and it comes across as being ironically multicultural. The series could even become a stepping stone for discussing the role and impact of Greek mythology on the development of Western cultural identity. Furthermore, there are several half-breed characters that draw attention to the relevance of bi-racialism in the United States. The novels have strong female characters, rendering them relatively free of gender-bias. Even though the main characters are male, the female characters do not fall pray to stereotypes. Generally, Riorden's series show that it is not enough to include non-European cultural references in a reading curricula and that even books on traditional European subjects can be enlightening for young readers.

4. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. 2003.

J.K. Rowling seems consciously aware of gender, race, and linguistic bias; writing to shatter each of them. Her title character is a studious type, as gender neutral as some of the other characters in the book. In, fact, some of the antagonistic male characters in Harry Potter series are depicted as "jock" types. The author makes a strong statement against gender stereotype and bias. In The Order of the Phoenix, Potter and his friends encounter many of the same types of challenges that are presented in the other installments in the series. Race, gender, and language issues are not central to the book, which can be enjoyed without being picked apart too eagerly. Rowling makes sure to include students at the school that are non-white, in approximately the proportion they might be encountered in modern English boarding schools. Yet herein is a problem: Rowling does not necessarily want to address socio-economic class issues plaguing England, or the race-class interface that should not be ignored in novels that are aimed at older readers. Because Rowling… [read more]


Rime of Ancient Mariner Samuel Term Paper

… This transformation results into his urge to tell his story to everyone and he repents throughout the rest of his life. Hence, the Mariner comes to the conclusion that the better world can be achieved if one sees the values of the petty things in life.

This poem has also been considered an allegory of the man's relation with the spiritual and the metaphysical world. The killing of the albatross results in the punishment of the Mariner by the spiritual world with the help of the natural world. The sun, water, wind, crew members and the ghosts all carry some sort of supernatural element. They all become a cause of suffering for the Mariner. The spiritual world as weaved by the Coleridge has also been balanced between the religious and the fantasy. It also shows that societal pleasures can distance man away from the spirituality and he abandons the reverence of the natural world.

This poem is also the story of retribution since in the poem; the Ancient Mariner spends the remaining part of his life paying for the killing of Albatross. The natural world avenges Mariner for the death and sends physical as well and the psychological devastation on the Ancient Mariner and his crew members. (Keach, 2004) They all suffer from the torments of the nature such as thirst and death. The punishment of the Mariner also gets extended when the punishment of Life-in Death is reserved for the Mariner. He must endure the everlasting grief of death of crew members and he is kept alive to warn others about the consequences of foolishness of man and disgracing of the natural world.

Many critics have also emphasized on the Christian interpretation of this poem. The poem has been attributed to touch the theme of closeness to God through the act of prayer and the importance of showing love and respect to nature and the creations of God. The Ancient Mariner also highlights the joy that one gets when one joins others in prayers when he mentions that "walk together to the Kirk, / And all together pray." (Keach, 2004) He also praises the hermit who has excluded himself from the worldly pleasures and does nothing but to pray to God and to love God's creations. The killing of the Albatross can also be compared to the sin of Adam and Eve and the betrayal of Judas with Christ. Just like Adam and Eve, the Ancient Mariner challenges the God's rule of nature and tries to understand things that are out of his reach. He becomes a sinner and he is driven into the limbo-like state. Also, this poem can be linked with the salvation of Christ and the betrayal of Judas. Like Judas, the Mariner kills the soul who brought the good fortune for the crew members and who could help him in his salvation and understanding of the Divine. Many critics have also compared the Albatross with the Jesus Christ. (Fulmer, 1969) In the end, the Ancient… [read more]


Poetry About Struggle: The African-American Essay

… " The poem famously opens with a rhetorical question: "What happens to a dream deferred?" Then it lists various possibilities for the deferred dream. Although it is not specifically stated that the poem is about the African-American experience in the text of the poem, the title of the poem makes it clear.

Various striking images are used to characterize African-American's deferred dreams in the Hughes poem. "Does it dry up/like a raisin in the sun?" Implicit in the image of the dried, beaten-down raisin in the sun is that of a slave working in the cotton fields, drying up. The slave metaphor is further reinforced by the question. "Or [Does it] fester like a sore -- / And then run?" This refers to the attempts of slaves to run away North (and possibly black men and women who migrated Northward after the end of slavery to cities like Chicago in search of greater opportunities).

The reference to covering over the misery of oppression with sweetness is referred to in the question: "Does it stink like rotten meat? / Or crust and sugar over -- / like a syrupy sweet? " The masking behavior referred to by Dunbar would seem to be a kind of 'crusting over' like a syrupy sweet. Finally, the poem raises the specter of angry violence after so many years of being beaten down and forced to smile. "Maybe it just sags / like a heavy load. / Or does it explode?" Hughes' reference to exploding could sound potentially threatening, but because it is expressed in a metaphor, it sounds more poignant. Also, by pairing it against the heavy load that metaphorically suggests how African-Americans are forced to bear so much literal and metaphorical weight in their servile occupations, Hughes explains why and how the explosion is likely to occur.

Rita Dove's poem "Persephone, Falling" uses metaphors like Hughes, but Dove deploys a long, extended metaphor in her work to illustrate how women, specifically African-American women are judged harshly because of their sexuality. Any fall from grace is read as utterly ruining the woman, just like the mythical Persephone's life was destroyed by a single action -- her abduction and eating six pomegranate seeds in the underworld. And it is read as the fallen woman's fault. "No one heard her. / No one! She had strayed from the herd," Dove writes of Persephone, as the woman is pulled down.

Dove's poem sounds more like a conventional use of Greek mythology, in contrast to the more explicit use of images to speak about political situations in the earlier poet's works. However, when a speaker uses the example of Persephone to try to limit the actions of women in a scolding fashion: "Don't answer to strangers. Stick / with your playmates. Keep your eyes down," the reader senses a reference to something outside of the realm of pure myth. There are clear parallels with the cautions given to women to keep them in line, particularly nonwhite women whose sexuality… [read more]


Intersection of History and Literature Essay

… ¶ … Overlap of History and Literature

World War II and the era which surrounded it would produce momentous and cataclysmic change on a global scale. Whole states expanded, collapsed, emerged and disappeared in the midst of a military conflict which would ultimately engulf all inhabited continents. As these enormous and terrible events impacted the world on a whole, infinite stories of individual struggle also developed. The incredibly fertile body of literary material produced from these individual struggles stands today as one of the lasting collective documents to a time that humanitarian responsibility demands we never forget. Though war is often seen through history's eyes as sweeping, recalibrating political events, the literature produced in its aftermath is often most valuable in evoking some sense of the emotional and psychological toll levied by war. Here, in Elie Wiesel's Night (1960) and Kazuo Ishiguro's an Artist in the Floating World (1986), two writers use the same historical backdrop in order to recount two dramatically different human experiences.

In both is a commonality that is frequently seen in all manner of historically-driven narrative. Namely, in both, we find a character who is largely moved by the events around him rather than the reverse. This is frequently a feature found in the overlap between history and literature and denotes the experience of being made to bend to forces far larger than one's self. In the case of Ishiguro's work, Masuji Ono is an artist who has allowed himself to become a vessel for the propaganda of Japanese fascism. His story, therefore, occurs in to phases, neither of which finds him very much in control of his fate. In the first phase, Ono is an artist of much acclaim, largely by virtue of his commitment to a draconian ruling political and cultural power. The second phase finds Ono, by this same virtue, reviled by a post-war leftist authority. His acclaim and his isolation respectively show the artist as a… [read more]


Stability of Wing Tip Vortex Over Rough Literature Review

… Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of the stability of wing tip vortex over rough wing.The work of Beninati and Marshall (2005) for instance was an experiment which was dedicated to the study of the effects of the… [read more]


Don Quixote in Literature Essay

… And, other times, people let literature empower them to live better lives. For example, in the article, "Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication," it discusses that people mistakenly believe their loved ones understand them better than anyone else. In truth,… [read more]


Daughters in Literature Requires Essay

… The act of getting on one knee resembles a marriage proposal; there is a great deal of subtext embedded in the relationship between Cordelia and Lear to suggest that the Oedipal complex is at play. Cordelia's character is, moreover, completely defined by her relationship with men. Her relationship with her father, and his subsequent scorn, are what prompt her to marry and move to France. Her death is due directly to the actions of other Lear daughters, who are likewise defined by their relationship with men as well as their nefarious natures.

The relationship between Lear and Cordelia also highlights a common thread throughout literature: that the relationship between father than daughter is similar to the relationship between daughter and her husband. In King Lear, the similarity between the relationships is spelled out symbolically when Lear tells Cordelia that he will get on one knee for her, and that they will live as two birds in a cage together. In Pride and Prejudice, the connection is less overt but still apparent in the ways the five daughters pursue their relationships with men. In Crime and Punishment, the relationship between father and daughter is also problematic and exploitative. Daughters serve first their parents, and then their husbands. Women do not have a right to self-determination or self-love. Only Woolf suggests that complete independence from male bondage is possible; the relationships between the daughters Cam, Nancy, Rose, and Prue are explored much more through Mrs. Ramsay than with her husband. Woolf offers an alternative vision of family that flattens gender roles and enables a more egalitarian society. This is why Lily's presence as a painter becomes especially meaningful: her creativity and self-empowerment serve as role models for the Ramsay girls. Lily remains committed to extricating herself from patriarchy, which is why she is not even portrayed as a daughter at all. To do so would negate the fact that women are not defined by their relationships to men, but by what they choose to do with their own time.

Works Cited

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Edited by James Kinsley. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated and annotated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

Shakespeare. William. King Lear. Edited… [read more]


Contemporary Irish Literature Essay

… Post-Modernist Features of Contemporary Irish Literature

The Irish have always had a strong sense of itself as a nation and as a way of thinking. Although Ireland has often been associated and defined by its political activity, the core beliefs… [read more]


Rime of the Ancient Mariner Essay

… He had, as a result, what pop-psychology would call a nervous breakdown. The stress was too great, and his brain disengaged; he fell victim to PTSD, but he saw it as visions (Ribkoff & Inglis). Because he survived the trauma, he has self-imposed the therapy of needing to "absolve" himself through the continual telling of the tale. Interestingly, this is the opposite of one of the results of PTSD. Normally the sufferer will become very stoic and unable to tell what happened (Ribkoff & Inglis).

Conclusion

The tale of the ancient mariner is difficult to fully understand because it is so disjointed and chaotic. The mariner jumps from one reality to another and his rime is so fantastical that it cannot be believed. But it is easy to see the aesthetic, philosophical and psychological elements that are hidden within Coleridge's poem. The beauty may be couched in the horror, the philosophy in religion, and the psychology in stress, but he is able to distinguish all of these points and more in the way he tells the tale. It may be difficult to distinguish truth from reality at times, but it is probably just as difficult for the person who has experienced a traumatic event to do this either. It seems that the rime is more a psychological tale, given what is now known, than a metaphysical one. PTSD could very easily send someone down the strange trails the mariner experiences in his journey.

Works Cited

Curran, Stuart. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Web.

Hiller, Russell M. "Coleridge's Dilemma and the Method of "Sacred Sympathy": Atonement as Problem and Solution in Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Papers on Language & Literature 45.1 (2009): 8-21. Web.

Howson, Chris. "Rime of the Ancient Mariner Summarized." Valley City State University, 1999. Web.

Rearick, T. "Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Mount Vernon Nazarene University, 1998. Web.

Ribkoff, Fred, and Karen Inglis. "Post-Traumatic Parataxis and the Search for a 'Survivor by Proxy' in Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." PSYART. Web.

Stokes, Christopher. "My Soul in Agony": Irrationality and Christianity in the rime of the Ancient Mariner." Studies in Romanticism 50.1 (2011): 3-19. Web.… [read more]


Analysis of Poets War Poetry Essay

… Gentle images such as the "flowers to love" and the glorious picture of the English countryside, including the "rivers" and the "suns of home," emphasize the peaceful tone. The sestet gives an sanguine tone of idyllic peace as well, with… [read more]


Langston Hughes Poetry Essay

… The narrator also understands that the discrimination that he is subjected to is temporary and believes "Tomorrow/I'll be at the table/When company comes" (8-10). The narrator recognizes that change is inevitable, yet he continues to hope that change is more rapid and does not take too long to be put into place. He hopes that the people and institutions that have discriminated against him are able to see the wrong that they have done and hopes that they are "ashamed" for what they have done. The most poignant lines of the poem help to relay the narrator's aspirations.

While "Mother to Son" and "I, Too" show how one's hard work and dedication pay off, even if one's actions and behaviors go unrecognized, Hughes's "Dream Deferred" posits the possibility that one's dreams and ambitions may go unfulfilled. This poem, unlike the previous, is very simple in nature and explores the mortality, so to speak, of an idea. Despite the fact that the narrators in "Mother to Son" and "I, Too" are able to accomplish their goals and fulfill their dreams through hard work and dedication, "Dream Deferred" explores the possibility of failure. Because Hughes is not able to definitively describe what happens to a dream that fails, it can be argued that a dream never really dies, but instead transforms into a different dream with the original intent still intact.

Hughes's poetry draws upon the American experience as was seen from an African-American perspective. By drawing upon these experiences, Hughes brings to light the conflicts and obstacles that have had to be overcome in order for African-Americans to succeed. In each poem, Hughes's narrators encourage others to pursue their dreams, not only for themselves, but to demonstrate to others that they are a part of society and not a marginalized culture. Hughes demonstrates that while not all dreams can be fulfilled, they cannot be killed either.

Works Cited

Hughes, Langston. "Dream Deferred." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.

-. "I, Too." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012.

-. "Mother to Son." Web. Accessed 28 March 2012. [read more]


Irish Literature Ireland Essay

… The narrator does use the word "you," indicating that he or she is discussing the content of the poem with a specific readership. Additionally, both of the poems use the metaphor that is comparing the process of writing and publishing of literature with the violence of their country's history, both past and recent.

The themes of both "Belfast Confetti" and "The Ulster Way" appear to be the ways in which the violent history of Ireland can be both explained and celebrated without necessarily having to approve of the methods of either side of the equation. "Belfast Confetti" begins with the narrator explaining that the present of the piece is a violent upheaval, a riot of some kind. Among the debris of the violent actions are exclamation marks as well as building materials and car keys. It is a comingling of propaganda, the foundation of society, and the necessities of an everyday life that comprise existence in Ireland. After the stanza break, the narrator's tone seems to change so that instead of more observational he instead becomes paranoid and panicked so that he feels that he is being cornered by the world in which he lives. The narrator appears to be someone in the literary field who does not know how to express himself in this world because the events of Ireland's history have become so palpable to him that he can no longer write about it without including himself emotionally. For Gillis, the narrator also is witness to a world around him that is dying in the wake of constant violence. Even the plants and trees, symbols of the natural world, are becoming violent and inhumane after witnessing so many atrocities. At the heart of this piece is not an uncertain writer, but instead deals with an individual who is trying to cope with his own place in Ireland's national identity. The culmination is in the final line of the poem when the narrator claims that the person to whom it is talking is all that matters in the world and the reasoning for this is that either the person to whom the narrator speaks is uncertain or the narrator is speaking to himself and trying to fortify himself with the knowledge that no matter what the rest of the nation may be doing or how, the self is all that matters.

Both Ciaran Carson and Allan Gillis are Irish writers of the modern period. Given their national identity and the history of their culture, it is not surprising that this national identification makes its way into their poetry. In "Belfast Confetti," a young Irish writer tries to understand the violence of his homeland and still try to understand his individual identity. "The Ulster Way" deals with an observer who cannot help but feel that everything has been negatively impacted by Ireland's violent past. Trying to understand that past and his own unique identity, the narrator comes to the conclusion that the only thing that matters is the self. Both… [read more]


Human Commonalities in Literature in the Preface Essay

… Human Commonalities in Literature

In the preface to his edition of Shakespeare's works, the 18th century scholar and author Samuel Johnson asked why Shakespeare's plays were still popular among common people so long after his death. He then answered his… [read more]


Modest Proposal Literature Is a Window Essay

… Modest Proposal

Literature is a window into the society of Jonathon Swift's time in which created he created "A Modest Proposal." It mirrors English society and addresses the concerns of the day with regard to the social problems of poverty,… [read more]


Frankenstein and Romanticism Essay

… Frankenstein and Romanticism

Having long been viewed as peripheral to the study of Romanticism, Frankenstein has been moved to the center. Critics originally tried to assimilate Mary Shelley's novel to patterns already familiar from Romantic poetry. But more recent studies… [read more]


American and European Literature Research Paper

… Attempting to identify the differences between American and European literature is actually more difficult than it may appear at first, because while there are distinct differences between American and European culture in general, one must first confront the fact that nearly all American culture can trace its roots back to Europe and the first white settlers which came to the region. This is because any indigenous culture is generally not regarded as part of the American identity, due to a concerted effort to erase that culture through violence and political disenfranchisement. However, recognizing this fact does allow one to begin a productive discussion of the differences between American and European literature, because it reveals how the notion of a distinct American literature is dependent upon the creation of an American identity that claims a prehistory for itself that does not exist, as evidenced in the emergence of American folk traditions over a relatively short period of time.

Mark Twain both records and embodies these traditions, as his work emerged in a time of cultural and political crisis, and served to cement the notion of a preexisting American identity free from the particular political rivalries of the day. Oscar Wilde's work reveals this fact even more explicitly by contrasting the image of the European literary tradition against the American identity in his short story "The Canterville Ghost," which uses the character of the new American minister in order to represent the kind of manufactured identity which confronts and disarms the traditional European ghost. Thus, while one may note a number of differences between American and European literature in general, one cannot escape the fact that these myriad differences are inextricably linked to the development of the American political and social identity, a development which was explicitly oriented against traditional European notions of propriety, culture, and political organization.

Works Cited

Guillory, John. Cultural capital: the problem of literary canon formation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Kronick, Joseph. "Writing American: Between Canon and Literature." CR: The New Centennial

Review. 1.3 (2001): 37-66. Print.

Messent, Peter, and Louis Budd. A companion to Mark Twain. Malden: Blackwell, 2005.

Wilde,… [read more]


Literary Terms Booklet Essay

… ¶ … unifies and permeates an entire literary work. The theme can be a brief and meaningful insight or a comprehensive vision of life; it may be a single idea. The theme may be also a more complicated paradigm. A… [read more]


African-American Literature Term Paper

… What it does not tell you, is that it will show the reader (from vantage point of slave) how this practice is wrong.

The Confession of Nate Turner

In The Confession of Nate Turner, Thomas Gray is speaking for Nate… [read more]


Experimental Research Methods in Business Literature Review

… 123). The research approaches to which the authors refer in their definition include, for example, data collection and analysis, inference techniques, qualitative perspectives, and quantitative perspectives. When placing a mixed methods approach in the research -- as a type of… [read more]


Tell-Tale Heart: A Descent Essay

… Unable to shake the ringing in his ears, the narrator finally breaks down and confesses his crimes. It may be argued that the ringing that the narrator heard was not the old man's heart, which he believed was still beating under the floorboards, but rather his own beating heart which he paid more attention to because of his heightened senses. The inability to distinguish between his own beating heart and the dead man's heart is an effect of his increased anxiety and the unease that was created due to the presence of the policemen in the room.

Poe is able to successfully explore the dangers of mental instability through the characterization of the narrator in "The Tell-Tale Heart." Poe brought attention to an unknown and often undiagnosed disease and presented the dangers of not seeking or obtaining treatment. While the narrator maintains that he is sane, he does not deny his guilt, freely recounting the meticulous details of his diabolical plan. In the process of denying his insanity, the narrator is able to provide evidence to support that he is indeed suffering from a mental disorder.

Works Cited

"Dorothea Dix Begins Her Crusade." Mass Moments. Web. Accessed 14 October 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Paranoid Schizophrenia." Mayo Clinic. 16 December 2010. Web.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart." Literature: An Introduction… [read more]


Play? We're Heading Down to the Lake Essay

… ¶ … play? We're heading down to the lake."

"Nah."

"Are you the new boy?"

"I guess so."

"Don't talk much, do you?" The dark-skinned young boy sitting on the step warily regarded the white and the black child on… [read more]


American Literature What Elements of Free Verse Essay

… American Literature

What elements of free verse do you find in Aboard at a Ship's Helm? Identify three elements of free verse used by Whitman. Give an example of each from the poem.

Free verse gives a poet practically freedom… [read more]


Why Christians to Study Secular Literature Essay

… Christians and Secular Literature

Both secular and Christian literature benefit society in disparate ways. Christian literature encourages discernment in what people read; that is -- encouraging Christians to read faith-based literature can help them explore their faith and look at different theories related to Christianity. At the same time, secular literature can be educational as well because it can challenge individuals to find a Christian message within the scope of the secular world. Not only can secular literature do the aforementioned, but, of course, secular literature has beauty to be appreciated and it can encourage individuals to help explore different perspectives and worldviews. In this sense, both secular and Christian literature can benefit society.

An important way in which secular literature can benefit individuals in society is by helping individuals relate to specific material with acumen. As human beings, we are constantly growing and stretching ourselves as individuals. Life is a constant process of growth and secular… [read more]


Lotus-Eaters: From Literature to Television Essay

… One of the things that she notices in this alternate world is how enchanted the people appear to be. She also notices that they have been enchanted fruit from the trees in the alternate dimension. It is also during this time that she spots her grandfather who mysteriously disappeared more than twenty years prior. When they are reunited, her grandfather realizes that though he feels as though he has only been there a few minutes, he has, in reality, been trapped in the alternate dimension for more than twenty years. By eating the fruit in this alternate world, the people that have been taken there by fairies have forgotten about their lives on Earth and do not realize how long they have been gone from their homes ("She's Not There"). Moreover, the myth of the lotus-eaters is combined with the rape of Persephone. Though Sookie refuses to eat any of the fruit offered to her, as she noticed the fruit's intoxicating effect on others, she is informed that anyone that has eaten the fruit cannot return to Earth and that they are doomed to spend the rest of their lives in the fairy world. Soon after Sookie reveals to her grandfather her suspicions regarding the fruit and the fairies that appear to be guarding all the people that ate the fruit, her life is endangered and she must escape. Because she has not eaten any of the fruit, Sookie can safely return to Earth, whereas her grandfather, who helps her escape, dies soon after he returns to Earth.

Greek mythology was a major inspiration in Romantic and Victorian poetry, and continues to inspire literature and entertainment to this day. From popular literature, and their major motion picture adaptations such as Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief, to popular television programs such as True Blood, which has adapted other Greek myths into its story line, audiences spanning several generations are continuously being reintroduced to Greek mythology in educational and entertaining formats.

Works Cited

"She's Not There." True Blood. HBO. 26 June 2011. Television.

Tennyson, Alfred. "The Lotos-Eaters." Poet's Graves: Serious about Poets and Poetry. Web.

Accessed 11 July 2011, from http://www.poetsgraves.co.uk/Classic%20Poems/Tennyson/song_of_the_lotos-eaters.htm [read more]


Walt Whitman's Poetry Is Unique Term Paper

… It begins with the narrator nearly begging the deceased to rise up from his grave to witness how he has been missed and to see through this act of national mourning, the effect he had on the world. Whitman lists the various ways that the citizens are expressing their grief, such as with the American flag, "ribbon'd wreaths," and ringing bells. Every eye is on the funeral procession just like every mind is focused on the culmination of the Civil War. It is as if the narrator, and by extension Whitman, is trying to reach his dead captain from the land of the living.

In the third and final stanza of the poem, Whitman and the rest of the nation through this continued metaphor express their despondence when the knowledge of Lincoln's assassination finally sinks in and the people have no choice but to accept that their leader is now gone. The narrator chronicles all the physical and emotional signs make the knowledge and comprehension of the president's demise unable to be ignored. He lists the physical signs of lack of life, such as being without a pulse. In the end however, the death of Lincoln functions as a sign of impending destruction. In death, Lincoln unites everyone, shown by the fact that the narrator call him "father." Lincoln was not only the president during the Civil War, he was the founder of the modern United States as it icurrently known and understood.

Works Cited:

Whitman, Walt. "O Captain! My Captain!" The American Tradition in Literature. New York:

McGraw-Hill,… [read more]


Beowulf as a Hero Lesson 1 Journal Journal

… Beowulf as a Hero

Lesson 1 Journal Entry #

Journal Exercise 1.3A: What makes a hero?

Beowulf is a hero who possesses strength, courage and loyalty; these are the elements that make up a hero during his time. There is… [read more]


Earl of Rochester / Aphra Essay

… Within this rhetorical inversion, I think it possible that "cunt" is a term of great praise. It follows from the rhetorical inversion that Rochester's presentation of Corinna will be a whore who can speak in the lofty terms of abstract… [read more]


Patriotic Themes in American Literature Essay

… The second view, pessimism, is demonstrated in Robert Lowell's depiction of America's future in his poem "For the Union Dead." Lowell foretells the deterioration of American ideals through detailed imagery. The poem begins with a gloomy depiction of the Old South Boston Aquarium boarded up and standing abandoned "in a Sahara of snow" (line 2). The author contrasts this present gloom with the romanticized childhood memory where his "hand tingle to burst the bubbles" created by the fish (lines 6-7). The forsaken aquarium represents Lowell's belief that American's principles are all but lost. Digging deeper, beyond the abandonment of past ideals, Lowell believes that the country has adopted new inspirations that are not lofty or innocent. He speaks of a photograph that shows a Mosler safe, called "the Rock of Ages" (line 57), that remarkably survives the atomic bomb at Hiroshima. For Lowell, the safe represents America's captivation with wealth and power. In a final play on words, Lowell reiterates America's fall from grace with the image of "Giant finned cars" that have "nose forward like fish" (line 66). The Aquarium, and the innocence of childhood, is gone. They have been replaced.

Somewhere between an over-the-top idealistic view of the past and a bleak pessimistic view of the future lays the stability of the realistic view which recognizes that virtue exists in the present and will exist in the future just as much as vice existed in the past. Contemporary patriotism seems to have found this balance. American columnist, Marilyn vos Savant sums it up asking, "What is the essence of America? Finding and maintaining that perfect, delicate balance between freedom 'to' and freedom 'from'"(Parade magazine). Countrymen must have the freedom to express their love, their hopes, their fears, and their disappointments. Their words (whether pessimistic, optimistic, or realistic) stir the heart and promote the patriotic bond. [read more]


Caribbean Literature Essay

… Cesaire's work is regarded as filled with humanism, and is done so in the spirit of simplicity.

George Lamming is highly regarded for his literary works concerned with the decolonization as well as the reconstruction of the Caribbean (Odhiambo, 1994). His writings are commended for their nationalistic spirit through his poetic prose and style. Lamming's works are seen as more positive as compared to Cesaire, they focus on finding a new political and social identity, instead of dwelling on their lost ones. He also writes about the long-effects of colonialism in the minds of the Caribbean people. Lamming is said to dramatize the situation of the people during colonial rule (Odhiambo, 1994). He makes use of allegory and metaphor to give his poems deeper political meaning in his stories of his people being freed from oppression. Lamming's style can be regarded as experimental, his plot structures are circular and abrupt shifts in narrative can be seen. This has gotten mixed critical receptions; some state that it is because of Lamming's lack of coherence why his writings are not organized. However, some have noted that these shifts are forms of allegory for the confusion in the lives of the people under oppression during colonial rule (Odhiambo, 1994). He has an inventive style of writing and has been known to be a groundbreaking writer who has a positive influence on younger Caribbean authors. Lamming has confronted the negative definitions of his region through imaginative possibilities, and encourages new visions as well as meanings of experience.

Derek Walcott has been regarded as a major modern poet and has also developed into a respected playwright (Cabrera, 1992). His works reflect the voice of the West Indian culture and thought. He has received numerous awards for his poems, and has been awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for his literature. His themes are the same as Cesair's and Lamming's; they are of the search of identity for the Caribbean islands, and a search for identity within. Walcott's work reflects loyalty in his background: English and African. This, however, provides tension in his work because his language is split between literary in English poems and island themes in his plays (Cabrera, 1992). However, throughout his writing, these two styles have merged in the sense that they came to use natural speech and rhythm patterns; this was seen as a more direct and open mode of expression for the writer. Walcott makes use of the same metaphors to create political and social issues resound in his work; this can be seen also in the works of Lamming.

The three writers all reflect on the decolonization of the Caribbean in their work, however their approaches are different (Jonnasaint, 2007). Cesaire beings about negativity and resentment in his works, this can be seen in his language and use of rhythm in his poetry. Lamming has been commented to be confused in his writing with abrupt shifts in narrative; however, he makes good use of metaphors and connecting them with political… [read more]


American Literature Which Can Be Viewed Term Paper

… ¶ … American literature which can be viewed as groundbreaking for the era they were created as well as for the subjects they dealt with. The 70s and the 80s represented a very important period in the history of the… [read more]


Poetry Often Use Imagery Essay

… ¶ … poetry often use imagery as a way to connect the reader to the work. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate this specific use of imagery by analyzing the four following poems: Bogland by Seamus Heaney, The lake of Innisfree, by WB Yeats, Dylan Thomas "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" and Seamus Heaney uses strong visual images in order to construct the landscape of his country Ireland. The images however have a powerful metaphorical and symbolical dimension. The space which is open towards infinity "we have no prairies/To slice a big sun at evening" (Heaney, 1-2) is actually a metaphor for the free spirit of its inhabitants and the infinite possibilities of development they are provided with. The island therefore becomes a symbol of freedom, associated with perpetual creation. "Butter sunk under / More than a hundred years/Was recovered salty and white. / The ground itself is kind, black butter" (Heaney, 13-16) where butter suggests the root of life in the island is strong and fertile, thus allowing for a constant recreation of the country and its spirit.

The image of the soil's fertility is translated into a concept of the life's fertility and ultimately into spiritual fertility. The readers are brought into the poet's vision through a strong imagery connected not only to landscapes, but also to mindscapes. Innisfree on the other hand, still a symbol of freedom, is the place where the poet can escape. The imagery depicts an almost paradisaical island set in the middle of lake waters in clear opposition with the civilized world where the poet feels oppressed. The grey pavement creates not only a sad and gloomy image, but also communicates an inner stare. From an imagery which depicts reality, Yeats passes to one depicting the spiritual reality: "And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,/Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;" (Yeats, 5-6).

The use of imagery is somewhat different in "Do not go gentle into that good night." Here the metaphorical… [read more]


History of Modern Medicine Taj Mahal Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Modern Medicine

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is India's most famous architectural structure. It is actually a beautifully preserved tomb whose name is translated as "Crown Palace." It dates back to the Seventeenth Century and the… [read more]


"Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?": Word Choice, Tone, and Point-Of-View Essay

… Shakespeare Poem

Shakespeare on Love and Death

William Shakespeare is largely held in such high esteem by writers, scholars and historians because of the breadth and depth of his work as a playwright. It may be said that the universality… [read more]


Charge of the Light Brigade -- History Essay

… Charge of the Light Brigade -- History and Literature

What is the relationship between history and literature? Is one subordinate to the other? What can we learn, for example, from the stories you read (be specific)? Does knowledge of history make a story more powerful, more "real?" Does history create literature and, in turn, literature creates history?

The discipline of history is both an art and science, designed to uncover the knowledge of culture, society and motivations of past civilizations. In such, it is beyond the idea of rote memorization of names, dates, and places and focuses more on the establishment of a verifiable past based on appropriate documents, interpretation, and an overall understand of the society in question and its relationship to other societies and future trends. The study includes who wrote what and in what time frame, bias, preconceptions, and audience (Bently, 1994). Literature, on the other hand, is also a process of artistically utilizing the written word in several genres (e.g. nonfiction, fiction, poetry, etc.), but with less stringent research requirements and greater allowances for opinion, fantasy, and speculation. To say that both are interrelated, though, is an understatement. Both not only chronicaol events but give the reader a greater insight into actual individual implications, feedback, and the way grand events impact individuals on a day-to-day basis (Frisina., 1999).

Literature is a medium which allows the witer to take events, be they maco or micro-events, and place them into the human context -- or living history. While individual reactions may or may not be indicative of the broad base of society, literature has the power to make one "feel" events as opposed to reading "about" them. One example might be Boris Pasternak's Dr. Zhivago. Certainly there is historical fact within the novel, the Russian Revolution, Civil War, and disasterous entry into World War I. However, instead of a broad societal picture, Pasternak's novel uses a familial grouping to allow the audience to "feel" the events, the pain, the anguish, and hopelessness, and the way that overt, political events impacted the individual (Rosenberg, 1995).

The paradigm of literature creating history or history creating literature is akin to the chicken and the egg maxim. In some cases, historical events are a basis for literature: poems such as The Charge of the Light Brigade, novels like Doctor Zhivago and Gone with the Wind. However, other novels and pieces of literature have the power to incite, to critically analyze what is happening in society, and to influence historical events; (e.g. Candide or Uncle Tom's Cabin). One must be cautious, however, since it is the victor that often writes the history of an event, and certain aspects of literature tend to glorify and magnify events into almost mythical proportions.

Why does Acton… [read more]


Love Theme of Langston Hughes Essay

… ¶ … Langston Hughes' poetry appears to this author to center around mother and son. Due to the bad relationship with his father, he was particularly close to his mother. This was vital relationship and by extension may have reflect… [read more]


Poetry Has Been Used to Evoke Essay

… Poetry has been used to evoke a variety of emotions and life experiences. The epic poems of history transformed into structured sonnets and the form continues to evolve. In recent time there emerged a new type of poetry that resisted strict structure in preference of a sort of stream of consciousness. Charles Bukowski's "Are you drinking?" is an example of subverting a genre by taking a short conversational story, ultimately a prose poem, and adding emphasis with line breaks.

Reading this poem evokes every moment that I've felt exhausted -- either by life, or work. Regardless of the obvious differences between my life experiences and those of Bukowski's, his working-man tone effectively conjures up an overall exhaustion that works for anyone of any class. The image of washed up yellow notebook takes on more meaning by adding a hyphen in washed-up. Already from the first word there is an image evoked of a tired and washed up person and then the words that follow take that impression and apply it to a tattered notebook that Bukowski writes in. This lived in and aged feeling implies that writing is what makes Bukowski who he is, but it is not a glamorous endeavor and is, in fact, just a facet of who he is without any sort of fanfare.

Meeting with his doctor, Bukowski predicts their conversation and it takes on a rote quality laced with the overall weariness that was one his themes. The various injuries and illnesses are catalogued and emphasized by more inventive line breaks. Within the lines "are you drinking?" he will ask/"are you getting your/exercise, your/vitamins?" The line breaks following your makes the emphasis personal not only to the author, but for the reader. As I read that passage aloud I start to think about my own aches and pain- not only the physical, but also the mental fatigues that flare up every once in a while as a result of nothing so much as life.

Even Bukowski thinks his pains are nothing special, but just the result of life and all of its "fluctuating/factors." The alliteration between the two words brought emphasis out for me and… [read more]


Poetry Amiri Baraka Essay

… ¶ … Black Poem:

The Convergence of Culture, Art, and Identity

in the Works of Amiri Baraka

It is difficult to characterize Amiri Baraka's legacy in American literature and pop culture. He is deeply respected by some, deeply reviled by… [read more]


African and African-American Poetry Essay

… African/African-American Poetry

Poetry Analysis of Baraka and Soyinka

Amiri Baraka and Wole Soyinka are both voices of the black experience, but their differences in background, philosophy, and motive highlight the extreme separation of the black experience in the United States and in Africa. Baraka's poetry is punctuated, both in content and in style, by the angry forcefulness of someone who participated in the difficult birth of civil rights in America, while Soyinka's poetry is pervaded by the sadness and quiet patience of someone who has watched his country turn upon itself with deadly consequences.

In Baraka's poem "Fresh Zombies," the sharpness and bitterness for which he is known comes through not only in the content, but in his edgy use of syncopated rhythms, alliterative word play, and aggressive diction. His disgust with the younger generation is introduced with a litany of strong verbs that land like punches on the psyche of the reader: "Stink… Lie… Betray… Assassinate" (1-3). This is followed by an indictment in the form of a series of complicated double-entendres and near-homophones: "Not old toms / but New Toms, Double Toms / a Tom Macoute" (3-5). In addition to bringing in connotations of Uncle Tom ("New Toms") and the notorious death squads of Papa Doc in Haiti ("Tom Macoute"), the passage reiterates the rapid, punching rhythm with which the poem started. The stark violence of this rhythm is reinforced with the repetition of the passage at the end of the poem.

In contrast, Soyinka's "In the Small Hours" uses repetitive rhythms, diction, and alliteration to create an entrancing atmosphere that melts around the edges and never quite becomes concrete. Like "Fresh Zombies," "In the Small Hours" contains a series of verbs in its first few lines, but unlike Baraka's brutal strikes, these verbs land softly and fade: "Mutes…wreathes…Dims" (3-4). Soyinka's use of sibilant syllables intensifies this mesmerizing effect. In the second stanza, he describes "Applause…steeped in lassitude, / Tangled in webs of lovers' whispers" (12-13). In these lines, the shifting sibilance of the words, the sticky metaphor of the web, and the image of applause drenched in languidness combine to evoke the stupor of the bar and its patrons. Where Baraka used poetic… [read more]


Nature in Robert Frost's Poetry Research Paper

… Nature

Poetry is how some authors express their feelings about a subject or attitude that is occurring around them. The poems by Robert Frost that have been studied all discuss how man and nature are separate from one another. He… [read more]


Russian Literature -- Journal Entry Book Report

… Russian Literature -- Journal

Entry #1 -- Bezhin Meadows -- Ivan Turgenev -- "I finally reached the corner of the woods… but there was no road there at all…an empty field was visible."

What an absolutely perfect representation of the… [read more]


Russian Literature and Vladimir Sorokin Essay

… Russian Literature and Vladimir Sorokin: What Is the Goal and Is the Soviet Response Reasonable

The plots in the two novels by Vladimir Sorokin are sharply different, however the author's approach appears to be relatively similar. The use of extreme… [read more]


Poison Tree Essay

… William Blake's poem, "A Poison Tree," examines anger from the perspective of one controlled by anger. This poem is compelling because while it takes place within the speaker's mind, it divulges the levels of contempt of which we are all capable. Things occur because the speaker allows them to occur. He understands his culpability but, in the end can only acknowledge that he is only human and, as a result, hypocritical. The truth of the human spirit is that it can be tricky and plat many poison trees.

The scene of the poem takes place in the speaker's imagination, where the speaker realizes the dangers of the human mind. In short, he does not have to go anywhere to see how cruel people can be to one another. Neil Heims notes the poem states the "correspondence between the spiritual and natural worlds that is effected by the mind" (Heims) and the tree "grows in the human brain, not in nature. Taken from the imagination, the tree is planted in culture" (Heims). The speaker, an unidentified man, speaks honestly about how the anger grew for his foe grew.

The plot in "A Poison Tree" unfolds as the speaker allows his anger to fester. Because he did not speak his grievance, it did not leave him. Instead, it grew. It fell to the ground like a seed and it grew because the speaker continued to feed it. Neil Heims writes the central image of the poem is the tree, which is a metaphor representing "wrath" (Heims). The tree began from a single thought, just a seed, and not only grew but also bore dangerous fruit. In addition, it was lovely and tempting. Furthermore, the speaker allows his foe to eat the fruit.

The speaker… [read more]


Modernism, Factors That Led to the Rise Research Proposal

… ¶ … Modernism, factors that led to the rise of Modernism and the characteristics of the period.

Modernist literature is notable for its far more subjective and unreliable narrators, in contrast to the protagonists of the immediately preceding Victorian period.… [read more]


Various Books in Literature Essay

… ¶ … young adult is advantageous.

Historical fiction refers to stories that are set in specific time periods in particular places. The characters are not historical figures, but they may be modeled after them. Settings are as genuine as possible, with detailed references to social, cultural, political, and economic issues. Historical fiction allows young adult readers to understand details that may be excluded from history textbooks, and therefore enhance traditional history lessons. Students are likely to become more engaged in the historical fiction than in the drier factual bits of history that accompany the lesson.

Write a three to five sentence explanation of the history and culture as presented in The Middle Ages as presented in THE MIDWIFE'S APPRENTICE.

Cushman's The Midwife's Apprentice explains the role of the midwife in medieval Europe. The book also explores mundane, everyday life for common people during that time including references to the poor hygiene that characterizes the Middle Ages. Issues related to gender, class, and social stratification are explored as Alyce tries to navigate her place in a complex society. Midwifery was a respectable profession for a female, albeit one of the only ones a woman could perform. The medieval model of labor included relationships like the one between Alyce and Jane, between apprentice and master.

Question 3: Create a Venn diagram comparing the main character in A SINGLE SHARD and THE MIDWIFE'S APPRENTICE. Make sure to include at least three points about each character. You don't have to drawn the Venn diagram, I can put them on a diagram.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce are poor and alone at the start of the story.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce become apprentices, Tree-Ear to a potter and Alyce to a midwife.

Both become determined to succeed at their chosen craft.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce act with ethical integrity, and are faced with difficult moral choices.

Both Tree-Ear and Alyce grow up in roughly the same time period, the Middle Ages.

Tree-Ear is a Korean male, whereas Alyce is an English female.

Question 4: Define a Newbery award winning children's book. You may consult a source for your answer, but be sure to give credit to the source, and don't copy information word for word, which I know you wouldn't anyway.

The Newbery Medal is honored each year to an outstanding work of children's literature. Only American authors and books published in the United States are eligible to receive the award. Award winners are selected based on their contributions to their chosen genre within children's literature, as well as to American literature in general. Works of fiction, non-fiction, and poetry are all eligible for the Newbery Medal, although multimedia compositions are not (American Library Association).

Question 5: Define non-fiction, and explain how it can be useful in disciplines like science and social studies.

Non-fiction is factual prose. Any narrative element in a work of non-fiction must be based on true stories such as biographies of historical figures or… [read more]


Thematic Bridges in English Literature: Frost Essay

… Thematic Bridges in English Literature: Frost's "After Apple-picking" and Shakespeare's the Tempest

The passage of time, especially from the perspective of a human life, is one of the most universally resounding and consistent themes in the literature and poetry of any age. Given the symbolism and imagery in many examples of this theme throughout world literature, it is safe to assume that the correlation of other observed changes in nature -- the passing of the seasons and the seasons themselves, especially -- with human mortality is a natural and almost automatic human sentiment. Two very different yet remarkably similar examples of this theme, and the purpose of illuminating the transience of human life, are Robert Frost's poem "After Apple Picking," and the epilogue spoken by Prospero in Shakespeare's The Tempest.

Prospero speaks more directly on the theme of mortality and the changes wrought by the passage of time on an individual's life and identity. He approaches the topic from a more pessimistic view then does Frost, as well, seeing in his old age and arguably even in his own mortality a certain sense of freedom and release. His repeated use of words like "confined," "pardon'd," "release," "relieved," and "mercy" all indicate the freedom from earthly troubles that Prospero is seeking. This figurative message of a freedom from imprisonment is also an implicit reference to the literal freedom from the prison of this world, and the salvation found in the next, as evidenced by the use of the words "prayers" and "indulgences later in the poem. The purpose of this epilogue, then, is an instruction to the viewer/reader on what truly matters, which is not so much the passing of the joys of this life, but rather the passing of the ills, the limitations, and the… [read more]


Wordsworth Poetry Has Existed Research Paper

… This connection is beneficial to the reader because enlightenment takes place.

Poetry According to John Stuart Mill and Roman Jakobson

John Stuart Mill attempts to provide a definition for poetry in his essay "Thoughts on Poetry and its Varieties." Interestingly… [read more]


Importance of a Theme in Works of Literature Essay

… Alienation in "A Rose for Emily" and "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"

Alienation is a curious thing. While we would like to think that alienation is something that happens to people against their will, that is often not… [read more]


Poetry Explications of Emily Dickinson's Poem I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died Essay

… ¶ … Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died

Life meets death in Emily Dickinson's poem, "I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died." This poem explores the notion of what happens after death, a topic for endless conversation. Dickinson's poem explores death and remains in doubt that there is an afterlife for to we can look forward. This poem is striking because it does not bring us the typical ideas associated with death. Instead, the poet brings us face-to-face with the worst-case scenario of death, which is that nothing happens, nothing awaits us, and all is black and still. This poem forces us to think about death from a darker perspective that does not bring solace. This perspective is disturbing and that is what gives the poem its strength.

The first stanzas in the poem tell a story of the early moments of the poet's death. While many think of death as a frightening experience, the poet treats the matter with a nonchalant attitude. The poet is aware that she has dies but expresses no real emotions about that are positive or negative. Instead, the experience is something that simply is. The poet is also aware of loved ones that are grieving her death. The second stanza opens with the poet seeing those she loved dividing her belongings. She is aware that there is mourning for her death for eyes were "wrung" (5) dry. These people were anxiously awaiting "when the King / Be witnessed" (7-8) but the dead poet does not. The most significant aspect of death is the fly because it is the thing that distracts the poet and it appears to be the only thing that the poet experiences on the other side of life. The last stanza takes us into the experience of the… [read more]


Romantic Movement Explored in the Poetry Thesis

… ¶ … Romantic Movement Explored

in the Poetry of Keats and Shelley

At the heart of Romantic literature is the desire to experience life fully without restraint. Emotion and imagination hold hands in an effort to capture the most subtle… [read more]


Listening to Poetry Essay

… Listening to Poetry

Differences in Reading and Listening to William Blake's "London"

Although poetry often contains both visual and audible elements, a poem is not a poem if it cannot be read out loud and if that reading does not… [read more]


Children's Literature Thesis

… ¶ … children's literature to dispel the popular premise that a diametric difference separate good literature and good multicultural literature, as it asserts that children's literature may promote interracial respect, yet lack bias and still possess exceptional literary qualities.

Contemporary… [read more]


Paul's Case by Willa Cather Essay

… ¶ … Paul's Case

Faust -- In his book Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing Kennedy tells us only that it is a "tragic grand opera." (Quote: "Faust: tragic grand opera (1859) by French composer Charles Gounod.")Expand on his note. What is Faust noted for? In what other forms does the story appear?

Faustus is a great scholar who sells his soul to the devil for power and a vision of Helen of Troy, in Marlowe's dramatic version of the tale, and for the love of a beautiful peasant girl in Goethe's epic dramatic poem Faust. Although Faust has a great mind and is frustrated by what he perceives as the limits of his existence as a human being, ultimately Faust becomes distracted by petty, earthly, and sensual cares and sells his soul to the devil. He loses his chance at eternal life, the chance every person has to live if they are good and faithful and instead becomes obsessed with transient things. He is also very arrogant and thinks himself smarter than most mortals. Paul is a kind of modern-day Faust, although Paul has very little reason to think that he is superior to other people. However, Paul gives up everything for a few days in a fancy hotel in New York City, where he can drink champagne and gaze at socialites.

"Cordelia Street" (mentioned in paragraphs 19, 22, 24, 27, 51, 55, 57) --Who was Cordelia? What does her sad life symbolize that might be important in Cather's story?

Shakespeare's King Lear had three daughters. When dividing his kingdom amongst them after he grew too old to administer it himself, two of them (Goneril, the eldest, and Reagan, the middle child) praised him lavishly when he staged a competition amongst them for their birthrights. His youngest daughter Cordelia refused to praise him, and said she loved him according to her bond -- in other words, she was honest, and had no more nor no less to give him than her affection as his daughter. Lear was angry, and as a result, gave Cordelia nothing in return. However, Goneril and Reagan cast Lear out of their homes after they got their land -- Cordelia and her father tried to win the kingdom back, but Cordelia was killed after she is taken prisoner.

This story shows the importance of simple, homespun truth without added 'glitter' or false praise -- something that Paul never learns, even though he loves the stage where Shakespeare's plays are still performed.

"He had no mind for the cash boy stage" (paragraph 25) --Hint: Look up Horatio Alger.

Unlike a Horatio… [read more]


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