"Literature / Poetry" Essays

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Areas of Information and DDC Quiz Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (759 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Literature (d)

Computer science, information, and general works (a)

Technology (e)

Geography and history (c)

Arts and recreation (b)

Title proper: The title as it appears on the title page of a work, not including edition information, statements of patronage, announcements, or other items not grammatically linked to the title, though alternative titles and subtitles suggested by an "or" or a colon (i.e. grammatically linked to the main title) are included).

Tracing: Information containing the legal lineage of the work, from publishers, authors, and any other potential copyright holders, including various editions and years of publication.

ISBD: The International Standard Bibliographic Description was developed by the International federation of Library Associations and Institutions as a method for codifying bibliographic information for ease and consistency in cataloguing across international borders.

Descriptive cataloging: information used in descriptive cataloging pertains to the physical nature and elements of the information object itself, rather than any description of the subject content of the information contained therein -- it is a physical description of the object, not the contents.

5) Call numbers: Call numbers are a series of numbers and letters assigned by libraries that code for information regarding subject,-year of publication, and often an author's initial(s), and also assist in the location of specific volumes as they are used to arrange books in a highly specific order.

Part III


The verso of the title page often contains the statement of responsibility as well as the title proper for the book, locating all of the initial information needed for cataloging conveniently within the first few leaves of the book.


Charles Ammi Cutter wrote "Objects of the Catalog," and made huge leaps forward in library science and cataloging practice through his inclusion of subject material, rudimentary though it may have been.


To mark a particular volume as the revised fourth edition of that particular work, the words "Fourth edition, revised" should appear on the "Edition" line of a catalogue record, under most cataloging schemes. Some abbreviations, such as "ed." Or "rev.," may also be acceptable depending on the system.


Punctuation is highly important in a catalog record because specific punctuation marks have been assigned highly specific meanings, signifying specific and detailed pieces of information and necessitating their use for brevity and…… [read more]

Changes Us. This Is a Simple Thought Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … changes us. This is a simple thought and one with which many would agree but the underlying assertion of this statement is that as we go through life and experience everything, we must realize we will never be the same. Our lives are forever changed by everything, whether we will it or not. We may never stop to consider this through the sometime mundane experiences of our everyday lives but regardless of the experience, we are different. This notion brings us to Louis Gluck's poem, "Gretel in Darkness," which examines the power of experience coupled with the power of the mind. Gretel survives the death the witch planned for her. She not only does so but she kills the witch. She is a heroine but she is lost. Her memory cannot shake the wholeness of what happened to her and Hansel. She is filled with fear, not just for the past but for the future as well. Through Gretel's isolation and endless sense of doom, we discover everything changes us and we can never know how until after the fact.

Gluck was born in New York and attended Columbia University. In 1967, she received the Academy of American Poets Prize. She has been honored with many other writing awards as well. In 2008, Gluck received the Wallace Stevens Award, which happens to be the largest poetry prize in the United States. Gluck's treatment of "gender roles" (Hunter) and female identities receive attention from feminist circles. While some may argue Gluck's poetry tends to focus on the negative, others might say Gluck's work "considers artistic expression and female sexuality to be opposing forces" (Hunter). In addition, others find Gluck's work necessary in a "male-dominated culture" (Hunter). Either way, Gluck applies her experiences to larger contexts, says Hunter. She teaches as a means to earn a living in between writing and publishing poetry.

Gluck's heroines look different from many typical heroines in poetry. Gretel in "Gretel in Darkness" is especially different because she emerges from the fairy tale. Gluck provides a look at the girl after the event. Gretel, alienated from her family, gives readers an opportunity to pause. Readers must ask if they can rely on Gretel for honest observations because like many other females in Gluck's poetry, she expresses fear of men. In this poem, the fear stems from her brother, who cannot seem to acknowledge her or their horrifying experience, according to Robert Miklitsch. Gretel has returned to safety but we are left to ask at what expense. Miklitsch maintains the last stanza in the poem "forces" (Miklitsch) us to believe Gretel's account but there are other issues to address as well. We believe in her struggle in the darkness because of the compelling nature of the poem. Gretel is safe from harm but yet, the last stanza swells with doom. It "problematizes everything that has preceded" (Miklitsch), according to Miklitsch. Nothing can be as straightforward as it appears to be for this girl and, furthermore, everything… [read more]

Interpretation 1 On E. Nesbit's the Story of the Treasure Seekers Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Treasure Seekers

The story of the treasure seekers is a timeless classic tale set in the early nineteenth century, England. The theme of the book revolves around the protagonists of the story, the six Bastable children. They try to regain the lost riches of the Bastable House by hunting for treasure. The children have lost their mother and their father has lost all his money in his business. As a result of this misfortune, the children have to discontinue their school and stay at home on a long holiday. The children are well aware of the deteriorating financial condition of the house, so they decide to win back the lost fortunes of the house through many intriguing ways of pretend playing. The six children come up with six different ideas to restore the fallen fortunes of their house. They decide to be bandits armed with guns and stop people on the highway and take their money, rescue an old man from highway kidnappers hoping that the gentleman would be the Prince of Wales and win a handsome reward from him, use a divining rod to find gold in the ground and then dig for the gold, write poetry and sell it and make lots of money or marry a princess and become rich. They also hope to make money by following an advertisement in the newspaper, which gave instructions on how to earn two pounds a week. Finally, they decide to dig in their own garden to find the lost treasure.

Thus, the author, Edith Nesbits, has used a humorous tone for this book through a first person narrator, who is one of the six children and made the book enjoyable for readers of all ages. This book…… [read more]

Identity Construction in Literary Texts Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  30 pages (9,748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 35


Identity Construction in Literary Texts

Representasie Van Kleurling Identiteit In Geselekteerde Tekste




"If we follow the badge of color from 'African' 'Negro' to 'colored race' to 'black' to 'Afro-American' to 'African-American'

we aren't thus tracing the history not only of a signifier, a label, but also a history of… [read more]

Family of Little Feet by Sandra Cisneros Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,114 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Family of Little Feet" by Sandra Cisneros

"The Family of Little Feet" deals with contemporary concepts at it attempts to show how women are likely to become victims of discrimination in communities which are mainly ran by men. Sandra Cisneros has incorporated her life experiences in "The House on Mango Street," almost considering the book to be a response to the prejudice that she had been treated with across her early years.

When starting to write, Cisneros realized that her position had been somewhat unique, as there had been little to almost no Hispanic-American writers at the time. Her background also contributed to her condition, making it possible for her to transform her memories into literature.

Sandra Cisneros's "The House on Mango Street" is certainly an interesting read relating to the Hispanic community in the U.S. "The Family of Little Feet," from Part VI of the novel, mainly concentrates on the life of Esperanza, and to the problems encountered by a developing Chicana girl. Cisneros is celebrated by critics and fans alike because of her writings and because she is among the first Hispanic-American writers to have attained commercial success. The difficulties that she had encountered growing up in the U.S. And the fact that she had been a Hispanic-American writer in a community dominated by white Americans had materialized in "The House on Mango Street."

In "The Family of Little Feet," Cisneros presents the novel's protagonist, Esperanza, as she has to deal with sexuality in a community that does not welcome the concept. The mother in a family with small feet from Esperanza's neighborhood gives three pairs of high heeled shoes to Esperanza, Rachel, and Lucy. The shoes are a perfect match for the girls, given the fact that the person that gave them had very small feet. Enthusiastic about their new shoes, the girls practice walking in them and are recognized by Mr. Benny, who claims that it is not proper for the girls to be looking like this, since it is dangerous. The girls avoid an altercation as they run away, coming across a boy and a drunk man that are also surprised at their sight. The drunken man even goes as far as wanting to give Lucy a dollar in exchange for a kiss, but the girl is saved by her friends before she gets the chance to consider the opportunity. Cisneros's work is virtually considered to have made it possible for the Hispanic and American societies to coexist in her texts.

In spite of the fact that the U.S. is a country promoting concepts such as equality and diversity, it had not been easy for a Hispanic person to get any attention from U.S. citizens during the second half of the twentieth century. Most Hispanic-American communities live in poverty, either because there are a lot of undocumented immigrants there, or because the white American public tends to discriminate.

Most of Cisneros writings are based on her childhood experiences and address topics like poverty,… [read more]

Chopin, Roethke, and Mark Doty Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,108 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Chopin, Roethke, and Mark Doty

We all know time is important and we all know we have a limited amount of it but these facts do not prevent us from becoming bogged down with the minutiae of life that rarely matters. In our age, we are blessed with fascinating modes of communication but more important that speaking or… [read more]

Romanticism and Modernism Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Emily and Dickinson and Walt Whitman are diverse poets and their work can be seen as offering equal contributions to the Romantic era because they exemplify the ideas the Romantics were reaching toward. Emerson wrote, "The poet is the sayer, the namer, and represents beauty" (Emerson). Dickinson and Whitman were both writing at a time when literature was… [read more]

Shakespeare's Play Othello Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,558 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



The Tragedy of Othello

"James Joyce, in a Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man… defines the material of tragedy as 'whatever is grave and constant in human sufferings'," (Campbell, 1991, p. 50). It is the humanity of tragedy which luridly draws the eye -- a grotesque attraction of intermingled pity, terror, and relief. The early tragedies of… [read more]

Symbolism in Robert Frost Poetry Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Symbolism in Robert Frost's Poetry

Symbolism makes good reading better. It forces readers to slow down and pay attention to what is being said and why. One poet known for his incredible use of figurative language is Robert Frost. Frost utilizes symbolism to encourage thought when writing about every day things. Frost also uses nature references in many of his… [read more]

Plays of Ben Jonson Essay

Essay  |  80 pages (22,973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 40


Ben Jonson

Intertextualities: The Influence of the Classics in Ben Jonson's Volpone

Ben Jonson is a writer who was deeply influenced by earlier novels in both themes and structures. In the opening of the Prologue to Volpone, the play of interest in this paper, Jonson invokes Horace and Aristotle, promising to "mix profit with your pleasure" and to observe the… [read more]

What Is Literature? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … arranged in a pleasing and informative manner, which thus brings us enjoyment. Literature is the representation of a period of time, of a culture, and of tradition. Through prose and poetry, we are transported to different times, new worlds, and new experiences. To read a piece of literature is to go on a journey of the soul -- or souls, our own and the writer's. Our souls are able to become one as we embark on whatever adventure -- sad, lonely, happy or curious -- the author has decided to take us on. We can analyze authors' works, bringing our own special meaning to a text, or we can use more formal paradigms to make sense of a text, which is why there are classes (such as this) devoted to understanding work throughout time. No matter how we come to a text, literature speaks to us in one way or another and is a universal tradition that cannot be replaced and is needed. In this paper, we will look at three writers -- Faulkner, Dickinson, and Shakespeare -- who are able to speak to the universal in all of us and are great examples of writers of great literature.

William Faulkner's short story, a Rose for Emily, is a great example of a piece of literature that speaks the universal concern of Time. We all have our own concerns with time, even if we are not aware of them, for this is something that is universal. Faulkner addresses not only the passing of an era in his short story, and the sweeping in of a new one, but he addresses the way in which time and death are related. We all have a set number of days in this world and we can choose to move with the times or not. Either way, we all must die. Faulkner's story reminds us that time is constantly changing around us and there is nothing that we can do to stop this. It is at once sad and exciting, scary and curious.

I believe that in order for literature to stand the test of time, that is -- become a classic such as Faulkner's a Rose for Emily, it must have an element in it that is of universal importance to the reader. For example, stories such as Faulkner's or works of Twain and Dickens are classics because they speak to all humans who read them; they are able to address a universal concern/question. Without even going back to the texts of Dickens, we know that he addresses very human feelings and problems in life. A Christmas Carol alone is a work that has stood the test of time because of its message about what it means to be a good person, to live a good life and bring good to those around you.

Emily Dickinson is a poet whose work has stood the test of time as well because of the beauty of her poetry, of course, the metaphorical simplicity… [read more]

Shakespeare's Sonnet 73 and 116 Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Love: Shakespeare's Sonnets

Love is the one emotion humans cannot control. It seems to control us even though we fight it and it arrives when we least expect it. William Shakespeare knew enough about people to know a lot about love and the various affects it has on people. He, too, was a victim of love and that often gave him inspiration for the passion we find in his poems and plays. Two sonnets that allow us to see different points-of-view regarding love are "Sonnet 73 and 116." Although Shakespeare's writing is about love most of the time, he expresses different meanings, themes, and the use of metaphors in Sonnet 73 and 116.

Each of these sonnets reveals different points-of-view when it comes to love. "Sonnet 73" realizes it is complicated and "Sonnet 116" declares it is beautiful. Dennis Kay maintains that Shakespeare develops a "novel way of representing human consciousness, of an inner life" and his sonnets are "at once the speaker's dramatic self-revelation and self-examination" (Kay 356). Through his experiences, we are able to learn that we are not alone. Thomas Parrott writes that when writing his sonnets, Shakespeare "followed the fashion, but as usual, he followed it in his own way" (Parrott 192). Shakespeare's sonnets are not composed with a conventional sonnet sequence and they are not necessarily addressed to a woman. They do, however, "spring from a personal experience" (192) and they do tell a story and the story with these sonnets happens to be love. "Sonnet 73 and 116" describe the ups and downs of love through metaphor and emotion, providing us with a slice of life.

In "Sonnet 73," the poet is very aware of time and what it does to the object of his affection. Time becomes a major theme in this sonnet. In fact, there is sense of urgency blended with melancholy in this poem because the issue of age cannot be overlooked for very long. It is as if the poet is looking through a prism of time and it colors everything he sees and feels. As a result, everything hints of a sense of urgency and sorrow. Thomas Tyler writes that the poet knows "time's remorseless scythe will level all . . . By and by the gloom will deepen into pessimistic darkness" (Tyler) and the poet will cry out for "restful death" (Tyler). The poet is also acutely aware that his lover realizes the age difference every time he looks at him when he says, "In me thou seest the twilight of such day" (Shakespeare Sonnet 73-5). The structure of the sonnet is important also. Jay Rogoff maintains that line "disorder surely enacts the speaker's resistance to aging" (Rogoff), which certainly goes in line with the direction of the poem. The leaves are falling away, like years and the few ones left remaining "express a vitality and desire to hang onto life as urgent and plaintive as the glowing of the third quatrain" (Rogoff). Sorrow lingers in… [read more]

Role of Experience in Emerson and Whitman Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Emerson Whitman

Emerson and Whitman on Experience in Literature

The 'experience' which is used to inform the composition of literature in general is vulnerable to critical scrutiny primarily because it aspires to state or observe something about the human experience which is universal. This aspiration makes any attempt at offering one's personal experience subject to critical hostility. It is this phenomenon that inclines the essay by Theo Davis, who remarks on the particularly challenging ambition of the transcendental movement to relate something universal about human experience in its writing output while simultaneously arguing that most men are fundamentally disaffected from these real experiences. Davis notes that critics have simultaneously been moved to harshly criticize as indulgent and unrealistic the universal imposition of the transcendental writer's experience or to place these same ambitions on a pedestal for blind admiration. However, Davis argues, it is more accurate to view such work as that by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Walt Whitman as an urging to all men. That is, Davis does not view the transcendental movement as a reflection on universal experiences so much as a literary call to pursue these experiences in whatever individual capacities are possible. I am inclined to agree with Davis that works such as Emerson's Nature and Whitman's Song of Myself romanticize the modes of self-awareness and individuality suitable to the writers themselves, but that the universality extends simply from the idea that each individual must engage life's experiences in such a way as to gain these same insights.


Davis points out that Emerson is verily savaged by many critics who perceive his attempts at individualism as being philosophically misguided. Emerson's emphasis on experiences within the untainted majesty of nature separates his literature from many more accessible examinations of humanity. Davis reiterates before refuting the views of many thinkers who see Emerson's ideologies as distant, academic and irrelevant to the way that the world must be experienced. Much of this hostility is entwined with Emerson's ambition to experience solitude. Accordingly, Emerson would remark, "to go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime." (p. 8)

Where some have referred to this approach at 'experience' as a kind of anonymity rather than individuality, Davis suggests that the literary presentation of experience is of a more symbolic nature. Emerson does not suggest -- as though this would be possible --…… [read more]

Dover Beach by Matthew Arnold Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  4 pages (1,393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Dover Beach" by Matthew Arnold, "We Are Many" by Pablo Neruda, and "Do Not Go Gentle" by Dylan Thomas each explore different understandings of time and aging. Each poem includes a set of observations, of the natural world, of the self, and of various ideas of dying men, respectively, and carefully weaves these observations into an attempt at understanding life and aging. Arnold attempts to understand a generalized notion of life and how to move through it as one gets old, Neruda attempts to understand his own life, and Thomas attempts to understand the life of his father.

Matthew Arnold's free verse poem, "Dover Beach," is often understood as an elegy for the slow wane of unshakable Christian belief in the 19th century. The narrator looks out across the straight of Dover, acutely aware of the interrelated natural rhythms that surround him, including night (as opposed to day), the full tide (as opposed to low tide), the moon, and ocean waves. Though each of these measures of time, that of a wave, that of the tide, that of the night, that of a month, has its own unique periodicity, the narrator understands that they all share a paradoxically quivering slowness.

These natural rhythms are made most present for the reader through the (similarly paradoxical) sonic image of the beach pebbles roaring back to the sea and Arnold's anaphoral repetition of text ideas used to illustrate this sound. The presence of myriad natural rhythms leads the narrator to reflect on the ebb and flow of human misery, as it did also for Sophocles. In this regard, he places himself within an historical rhythm, the longest cycle of time in the poem. Sophocles, at the beginning of this time cycle, noticed the rhythm of the pebbles in the waves, as does the narrator now, at the end of this time cycle. It is perhaps a point of poetic conceit that nobody else was lead to reflect on the ebb and flow of human misery in the interim. Between Sophocles and the narrator was the slow rise and slow decline of Christian faith, which presumably offered a reprieve from the contemplation of misery. Although this is longest time cycle in the poem, Arnold emphasizes its shortness in the face of eternity by describing it as "retreating to the breath of the wind," the shortest time cycle in the poem.

In the final stanza, the narrator proposes to his love that the way to live in the world and to endure the various cycles of their lives is by eschewing the world, including that which seems beautiful and new, and being only true to each other. Only then can they perhaps avoid falling into the armies of humanity, fighting blindly about that which they have no true understanding.

Neruda's "We are many" is written by a man attempting to pin down and understand the nature of himself. He sees as many incarnations of himself as there are situations in which he has… [read more]

Arthur Miller, Toni Morrison, &amp Paul Laurence Dunbar Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Death of a Salesman/Beloved/Ant. Sermon

Miller's Death of a Salesman, Morrison's Beloved, and Dunbar's "Antebellum Sermon" share sacrifice, oppression, and identity loss as common themes. In Beloved, Sethe is forced to make the ultimate sacrifice of killing one of her own children for the sake of its own freedom; in Death of a Salesman, Willy sacrifices his own life to… [read more]

Aboriginal Women's Voices Within Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Abo Fem

Towards Hearing and Understanding the Voice of the Female Aboriginal in Canadian Literature

The Canadian literary tradition often receives less than its deserved attention in school curricula and by many English-language scholars, especially outside of Canada. British and American literary works and authors are generally more well-known on an international basis due to their dominance of world trade… [read more]

Young Voters Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  3 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Role of Two New Measures of Media Use in Political Socialization Responses on Youth" considers various influences on the political awareness and participation of the youth. The author bases the hypotheses and findings upon a thorough literature study. The findings indicate that young people are influenced by a variety of factors, including the interactive media, parental influence, and school communication, have a significant effect upon both the youth's awareness of and participation in political activity.

In order to do this, the introduction of the paper provides background material in terms of the general perception and study of youth participation in politics. Furthermore, the introduction outlines the intention of the paper, to expand upon the Use -- and gratifications theory, which tends to overlook specific features of the media that the youth uses. The study also expands research on the Media Choice Model by means of a nationwide survey of adolescents to examine the role of media features in what the author refers to as "political socialization." The author also states that interactive media tends to predict the "thinking" stages of socialization, while creating interactive media tends to indicate action-oriented, or participative, socialization.

The literature review includes the work of several authors as related to the topic under consideration. The review is thorough and of sufficient length to provide a solid basis for the investigation. Several indications come to light, such as that there is a dominant causal relationship between media exposure and political interest. In this light, it is important to understand that, in addition to politics, the youth today also use interactive media to define their relationships with school, parents, friends, and so on.

Directly related to this is the scholarly differentiation between internal and external efficacy, where the former refers to the belief in one's ability to understand and participate in politics, while the latter refers to the belief in the ability of political participation to truly influence politicians and government. The literature, as expounded by the author, appears to indicate that the news and entertainment media provides positive indications for both internal and external efficacy.

The literature review also provides considerable background information on the Media Choice Model, which concerns the choice of media by people. In the light of this model, the author proposes two primary and five secondary hypotheses. These suggest that the consumption-entertainment feature of media use will negatively predict political elaboration an knowledge. The consumption-news feature of the media, on the other hand, is hypothesized to positively predict political interest, elaboration, knowledge, efficacy, and participation.

The third and fourth hypothesis groups in turn relate to interactive participation not only in the media, but also in interpersonal relationships, such as family and school. These are hypothesized to predict positive participation,…… [read more]

Evolution of Self: Romantic Period to 20th Century Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,436 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Evolution of Self Through British Literature

Literature moves through phases as writers attempt new ways of dissecting life. The evolution of self is an interesting idea to study throughout literature periods because we see how each writer tackles the issue. Poets and novelists alike took time to study their fellow man and themselves in order to capture the nuances that… [read more]

Job Rhetorical Reading of Book Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (4,960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Rhetorical reading of Book of Job 29-31: Social Justice at the centre of the Moral concerns of Job

The questions surrounding the meaning of the Book of Job have been a central focus of debate among scholars, theologians and critics for decades. The literature on the subject points out that there is a strong relationship between social views and… [read more]

Characterization of Chaucer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,812 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Chaucer: The Prioress

The Pious and Contemptuous Prioress

In Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the Prioress tale delves into the piety, propriety and prejudiced of a senior nun. Her tale examines the murder of young and innocent choir boy, who was killed by the town's Jews for singing aloud in praising Mother Mary. Much attention is placed on the words and… [read more]

Things They Carried Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (791 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Things They Carried: Symbolism and Comparative Analysis

One of Tim O'Brien's more popular books is a collection of short stories entitled The Things They Carried. The first short story in the book shares the same name as the books title. The story The Things They Carried involves a Lieutenant Jimmy Cross who is serving in Vietnam as part of the Alpha Company. Cross is in love with a girl from his college in New Jersey named Martha, but she has not given him any indication of a returned love. He carries her letters in his backpack which are all signed "Love, Martha," but Cross takes this as a polite gesture rather than a true confession of her feelings towards him. One day, while the company is in the Than Khe area on a mission to destroy tunnel complexes, Cross imagines the tunnels collapsing on him and Martha. Still daydreaming of Martha, Cross is unfazed when an infantryman, Lavender, is shot on his way back from the bathroom. As the soldiers await the helicopter to remove Lavender's body, they smoke the marijuana he had been carrying and joke and carry on. The next morning, Cross goes into his foxhole and burns Martha's letters and photographs, plans the day's march, and concludes that he will never again fantasize. He then decides that he will call the men together and assume the blame for Lavender's death as it is his job not to be loved, but to lead.

The letters the Jimmy Cross carry from his love Martha, are a symbol not only for love but also for the world separate from war. Martha's letters are Cross' only connection to the outside world. Through reading them and looking at them he gains a sense of hope for life after the war. This sense of hope is completely lost however as soon as he puts the letter down and snaps back into his current situation of blood and violence. Fantasies that stemmed from his reading and obsessing over the letters are what Cross deems as responsible for Lavender's death, as he was not paying attention as he should have. In this way, the letters symbolize the closeness that exists between life and death. Loving is thought to be the pinnacle of living and yet Cross' love was (in his mind) responsible for another man's death. The things…… [read more]

Edgar Allen Poe's Works Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most storied authors in American literature. He is known for his gruesome tales filled with sinister words and imagery that stem from his rough upbringing. This is showcased best in his short stories "The Cask of Amontillado" and "The Tell-Tale Heart," which show that although Poe led a dark life, but it certainly paid off for him down the road.

Poe was born in Boston on January 19, 1809 to David and Elizabeth Poe (Giordano, "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe"). David abandoned the family in 1810 and Elizabeth died in 1811 when Edgar was two, leaving him to be adopted by Mr. And Mrs. John Allan (Giordano). When he was six, Edgar attended school in England for five years where he learned Latin and French, as well as math and history (Giordano). He later returned to school in America and attended the University of Virginia in 1826 when he was only 17 (Giordano). Edgar was doing well in school but began to drink heavily and eventually had to quit school due to debt, having attended for less than a year (Giordano). With no skills or money, Edgar was shunned by John Allan and decided to go to Boston and join the military in 1827 (Giordano). Mrs. Allan died in 1829 and as a friendly gesture, John signed Edgar's application to Westpoint where Edgar attended in 1830 but did not stay long because John refused to send him any money (Giordano). In 1831, Poe moved to New York City in hopes to have his poetry published (Giordano). He managed this, but all of his short stories were rejected leaving him in deep financial trouble again without help from John who then died in 1834 and did not mention Edgar in his will (Giordano). After fifteen years of failed jobs and suffering the painful loss off of a wife, Poe stayed at the Swan Tavern Hotel in attempts to stop drinking (Giordano). At the end of September, he left from Richmond to New York but was found on October 3 on the ground outside a public house at 44 East Lombard Street (Giordano). He was taken to the hospital where he lapsed in and out of consciousness until he died on October 7, 1849 (Giordano).

There are few poets or authors that have even come close to achieving the same eerie tones and evoking as much fear as Poe did. Perhaps this is because of Poe's upbringing and how greatly it affected him. His short stories and works were clearly his vehicles for self-expression during dark times, which he had many of. The best example of Poe's life creeping into his work would be in the famed narrative poem "The Raven." "The Raven" tells the story of an unnamed male narrator who is interrupted reading a book by a raven who taps on a window (Poe, "The Raven"). The man lets the raven in and…… [read more]

Theme of Suffering in the Weary Blues by Langston Hughes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Suffering in Hughes's "The Weary Blues"

Langston Hughes understood the power of understanding the human condition through experience. He understood experiences shape people and their realties and his poetry seek to express not only those experiences but also delve into a deeper understanding about humanity. Through poetry, Hughes provides a slice of prejudicial life and suffering for the world. His experiences lead him to Harlem, where he saw firsthand what prejudice was and what it did to people. Seeing it firsthand made it important for him to expose and attempt to eradicate oppression. We see this in his poem "The Weary Blues." Prejudice was certainly a part of his life but it did not mean it had to destroy it. Hughes took the pain and shaped it into poetry that would bless millions.

Prejudice shaped Hughes' personality and life because it opened his eyes to the fact that others suffer. Many believe the Harlem experience was critical to Hughes' development as a poet. He was a significant aspect of the Harlem Renaissance and the notion of human suffering allowed poetry to materialize. Paul Lauder writes Hughes was "steadfast in his devotion to human rights" (Lauter 1487). Michael Schmidt aggress with this assertion and adds Hughes' influence earned him the title, "bard of Harlem" (Schmidt 707). Schmidt states Hughes technique of combining art and experience was like a man writing in "two modes, one drawing rhythms from jazz and the blues, a poetry with ironies and radical reversals generally avoids staginess; and poems of racial protest and definition" (Schmidt 708). We see this in "The Weary Blues," with its rhythmic dance. We read:

'Ain't got nobody in all this world,

Ain't got nobody but ma self.

I's gwine to quit ma frownin'

And put ma troubles on the shelf'" (Hughes Weary Blues 17-22)

The tone expressed in the poem is one of desperation…… [read more]

War Is War in Tim O'Brien Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … War is War

In Tim O'Brien's the Things They Carried and the stand-alone chapter, the Man I Killed, the main character is a noble soldier who is disillusioned by the harsh realities of war. In Brian Turner's poems, Here, Bullet and Sadiq the same theme is prevalent. While O'Brien's novel take place during the Vietnam War and Turner's… [read more]

Deliberate Ambivalence of Robert Frost's "Design Poem

Poem  |  4 pages (1,865 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Deliberate Ambivalence of Robert Frost's "Design"

Robert Frost's poem, "Design," is a meditation on some fundamental questions about whether the natural world is governed by a moral order and, if it is, about whether that moral order is beneficent. Written in the first two decades of the 20th century, the poem refers to a contemporary debate about whether… [read more]

Gabriel Garcia Marquez the Genre Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Gabriel Garcia Marquez

The Genre- One of the most interesting trends in modern literature is the combination of literary realism and the postmodern tradition. Literary realism, of course, focuses on the everyday cultural experience of everyday people who may, within their banal experience, do extraordinary things. The Postmodern movement, as a reaction to a number of 20th century trends, tends… [read more]

Poetry International and National Poets Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Imagery in the Poetry of Levine and Amichai

Philip Levine, "The Survivor"

Philip Levine's poem "The Survivor" (Gillam 48) establishes from the first line a haunting tension between presence and absence, substance and emptiness, transience and eternity. Through his use of contrasting word choice and imagery, Levine suspends the reader at a midpoint between these opposing states.

The tension arises before the poem even begins. The title, "The Survivor," and the dedication, "In Memory of my Cousin, David Ber Prishkulnick," stand in ironic opposition to one another. By giving what appears to be an elegy the title "The Survivor," Levine introduces instability into the reader's mind: on the one hand, the dedicatee is clearly dead, but on the other, there is some element of him that defies death.

The opposition continues through Levine's use of substantial and insubstantial imagery. In the first stanza, the poet remembers the cousin saying that "Home is here…" (2) while reaching out and "touch[ing] nothing" (4). The vagueness of the gesture contrasts sharply with the specificity of the word "here." In the second stanza, the cousin as a young man has fled for his life, "sleeping nowhere, eating nothing" (19-20) and yet in the next instance he is concretely present, with "feet…swinging/…holding a sack of warm rolls" (24-27). The reader has hardly processed the feeling of the cousin's empty stomach before he is presented with the heat and weight of the warm rolls.

The final stanza presents the most poignant opposition, the simultaneous presence and absence of the cousin in death. The stanza starts with solid, tangible elements: "Gray suit, woolen vest, / collar, tie" (29-30). Immediately, this concrete presence, like the cousin himself, dissolves into "atoms / of gasoline and air" (31-32). The reader is left with a literal sense of haunting, of an existence that does not quite exist and a presence that, like the "home" of the first stanza, cannot quite be pinpointed.

Yehuda Amichai, "Huleikat -- the Third Poem About Dicky"

Like Levine, Yehuda Amichai uses word choice and imagery to establish…… [read more]

Poetry International and National Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … David Hernandez and Pablo Neruda capitalize on poetic devices in their poetry. Each uses distinct devices to convey specific messages, too, making the form of the poetry parallel their meaning, mood, and theme. David Hernandez deftly plays with graphic format in both "Armitage Street" and "Welcome." Lines begin in different places, lending visual and audible rhythm to the poem. In "Welcome," for example," the lines undulate on the page in a wave form. The speaker reminisces about his childhood when he was "little and brown," and the placement of the verses on the page parallels the childlike mind he is trying to invoke. The poet uses staccato rhythm as a young boy would proudly describe his "White shirt / Blue socks / White shoes" that made him feel "True Puerto / Rican proud." The unexpected line break between "Puerto" and "Rico" echoes the tone of voice he might have used as a young boy. After relaying the memory, the form and tone of the poem both change. Whereas the unconventional indent signals the boy's "Puerto / Rican" pride, the sober ending of the poem is written with left-justification on the page. He was "confused," and symbolically "shivered / When the December / Chicago wind / Slapped my face." Although the literal meaning is not lost given that Hernandez does write about Chicago, the coldness the speaker refers to also symbolizes growing pains.

In "Armitage Street," Hernandez also makes use of the space on the page, using graphic format to convey meaning in the free verse. Each of the distinctly indented sections stands alone as discreet memories of the speaker's childhood on the titular street. One line is repeated for emphasis: "And to think. It seems like just yesterday on Armitage Street." In the first instance, the line appears immediately after a short first stanza. The speaker has just begun reminiscing. When he repeats the line, it appears in a slightly different form as the last three lines of the poem: "And to think / it seems just like yesterday /…… [read more]

American Literature Nineteenth Century Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,453 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


American Literature

Nineteenth century American literature is filled with both idealism and cynicism. The freedoms and liberties promised in the Constitution only applied to white males, which is why many authors during the nineteenth century used literature to critique social injustice. Slave narratives like Frederick Douglasses' are of the most notable genres of literature to address racial injustice. Nathaniel Hawthorne… [read more]

Anne Bradstreet's Devotion to Her Family as a Puritan Woman Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (950 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Anne Bradstreet: Puritan Poet

Born in Northampton, England in 1612, Anne Bradstreet and her family would become significant citizens of Massachusetts Bay colony. Bradstreet's family was well-educated and from distinguished heritage. Anne's father Thomas Dudley helped educate his daughter in history, several languages and literature ("Anne Bradstreet Biography"). Anne's mother Dorothy Yorke was also a well-educated woman. When she was sixteen, Anne Dudley married Simon Bradstreet. In 1630, Anne Bradstreet and her family undertook the trans-Atlantic journey to help settle the New England colonies. The Dudleys and the Bradstreets arrived on the Arabella, one of the first ships dedicated to bringing Puritans to the colonies ("Anne Bradstreet Biography"). Thomas Dudley became the Deputy-Governor of the Boston settlement, and Simon Bradstreet became its Chief-Administrator ("Anne Bradstreet Biography"). The Bradstreets were "among the richest of the settlers," (131). However, her husband's work obligations kept him away from home for long lengths of time. During her time alone, Anne would read and develop her penchant for poetry. Bradstreet's poetry reveals what life was like in the early colonies, especially for women.

Anne would bear eight children, and she served in the traditional role of housewife and mother. Moreover, Bradstreet remained a pious woman throughout her life. Puritanical gender norms prevented Anne from openly pursuing her passion for poetry because "it was frowned upon for women to pursue intellectual enlightenment, let alone create and air their views and opinions," ("Anne Bradstreet Biography"). Anne Bradstreet's poetry does not directly criticize Puritanical gender roles. In fact, Bradstreet writes about misogyny without a trace of irony. For example, Bradstreet believed "the pain of child labor is God's corrective tool." (Gordon 137). As Gordon notes, "according to Puritan theology, each woman's suffering was her personal retribution for Eve's original trespass and was a kind of purification process," (137). However, the very act of her writing poetry challenged the stifling restrictions on women's personal and intellectual development.

Serving God through her husband and children was a Puritan woman's responsibility. Anne Bradstreet upheld that responsibility by penning many verses about God. "Bradstreet often intended that her spiritual meditations might serve not only to reconcile herself to God but also to testify to her family about God's work in her life." (Nichols 55). For a Puritan woman, motherhood was "the most important way to serve God," because "if she could help raise a new flock of the faithful, Anne would help ensure the future of the New England Puritan dream," (142).

Anne also wrote extensively about love and many of her poems were directly addressed to her husband. Bradstreet expressed her longing for her husband when he was away from the colony: "My head, my heart, mine eyes, my life, nay more, My joy, my Magazine of earthly store, if two be one, as surely though and I, How stayest thou there, whilst I at Ipswich…… [read more]

Various Independent Readings Between 1865-1910 Expanding Frontiers Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (723 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Independent Readings Between 1865-1910: Expanding Frontiers

"Outcasts of Poker Flat" Outline

Exposition/Introduction: Poker Flat is a town that has suffered financially due to gambling and immorality and they lay the blame on gambler John Oakhurst. In lieu of hanging him, the town government decides to expel him and three other immoral characters from their midst, including the Duchess, Mother Shipton, and Uncle Billy.

Rising Action: The four characters are escorted out of town and reluctantly set out to live in Sandy Bar, which is a difficult journey away. They meet up with a pair of runaway lovers, Tom and Piney, and retreat to an abandoned cabin, where their mules are stolen by Uncle Billy and there is an extended snowstorm which traps them.

Climax: Mother Shipton passes away and John sets out through the snow to get help.

Falling Action: Because they are stuck alone in the cabin with few resources and John and Tom have not returned, the Duchess and Piney die.

Resolution: The body of John Oakhurst is found by the Poker Flat law, dead by his own hand, run out of luck.

"Woman's Right to the Suffrage" Summary

In her speech, Susan B. Anthony argues that women are citizens in the same way that men are and are thus entitled to vote according to the Constitution of the United States. She says that if states fail to recognize women as citizens, it is akin to saying that liberty is only a privilege that the ruling class (i.e. The rich, white males) is given. If this is practiced, she further says, then the United States cannot call itself a democracy. The intended audience for the speech was clearly the educated, male ruling class. She uses logic to appeal to them, by saying that if citizens are just people of the United States and citizens are allowed to vote, and women are people, then they should be allowed to vote. The speech was chosen for a high school literature book because it uses a variety of literary techniques, including rhetorical language.

"Booker T. And W.E.B." Summary

This poem deals with the differences in philosophy between the characters Booker…… [read more]

Maya Angelou Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Maya Angelou

Summary of Five Articles on Maya Angelou

Danahay (1991) takes on one of the most important topics in Angelou's writings -- but a topic that is probably even more central to the teaching of Angelou's writings -- the concept of resistance and accommodation. He makes the point -- as does she, although she does so in more understated… [read more]

Explication of Poem Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … wrath as something belonging to someone else. We want to think of ourselves as a people capable of controlling our emotions because we are human. William Blake forces us to look at the truth of this supposition, however, in the poem "A Poison Tree." With this poem, we see how easy it is to become attached to our negative motions, such as anger and wrath. He points out how we become hypocrites because we allow ourselves to feed these kinds of emotions. The sad truth about the heart of man emerges in Blke's poem.

In the poem, the speaker uses anger as a tool to express the power of human emotion. The speaker's anger is fed and nurtured like a gardener would nurture a fruit tree. The comparison is realistic, due to the speaker's use of imagery. We see the speaker watering the soil and we see the tree growing "both day and night" (Blake 9). It bears a bright, shiny apple to tempt the enemy. The most disturbing image is of the enemy "outstretched beneath the tree" (16). The imagery allows the reader to see how anger grows out of control.

In "A Poison Tree," the tree is also a symbol of hypocrisy we find with mankind. Many of the things we find beautiful are not good for us, as the speaker's foe demonstrates. The tree is also like the speaker's anger in that it grows and grows. When we think of tress, we think of large plants towering over us. This indicates how anger can become bigger than we are. Sometimes, it…… [read more]

Terror in "The Tell-Tale Heart" in "Preface Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Terror in "The Tell-Tale Heart"

In "Preface to Lyrical Ballads," William Wordsworth focuses on truth exposed through poetry. He alleges "all good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth Preface 19). From this, he illustrates an association between experience and manifestation of that experience. In this case, poetry is the manifestation of the experience and Wordsworth believes the overlfow of powerful emotions is evident through encounters with nature. A wonderful example of this is Wordsworth's poem, "Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey." This poem reveals the scope of how emotions can overwhelm. The relationship between man, nature, and poetry becomes significant seen through a very different set of eyes belonging to the same man.

In "Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey," Wordsworth draws upon a similar form of acknowledgment. In this poem, the poet contemplates the past and compares it to the present. The waters "rolling from their mountain-springs/With a soft inland murmur" (3-4) elicit his memories. The poem comes about not simply by his present experience but an emotional response to the evidence of change. He sees the hills as an escape "from something that he dreads, than one / who sought the thing he loved" Lines (67-8). As a young boy, he fled to the mountains and experienced their fullness; as an older man, he sees the same mountains and their "deep and gloomy wood, / Their colours and their forms, were then to me/an appetite; a feeling and a love" (78-80). Here, the poet realizes that he is a different person. While the change is not negative, it brings him a touch of sorrow.

The passing of time cannot be slowed or stopped. The poet acknowledges "time has past, / and all its aching joys are now no more" (83-4). Here the poet realizes he is not the same person and the things that once made him happy do not seem to do so now. He realizes the loss of innocence and this change occurs about nature and about him at the same time. He states he has "learned / to look on nature, not as in the hour / of thoughtless youth; but hearing oftentimes / the still, sad music of humanity" (89-91). A disturbing presence fills him with the "joy of elated thoughts; a sense sublime / of something far more deeply interfused" (94-6). In this scene, we see how he associates thoughts to his senses; he is also experiencing nature past and present. He remembers his joy but he is not like the joyful young boy he was before. This place in nature comes to mean more to him…… [read more]

Ambiguity in American Literature Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,158 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Ambiguity in American Literature

Ambiguity in literature after World War II reflects explores issues of self and society. These two ideas often work against each other instead of coexisting to form a struggle-free existence J.D. Salinger, Ralph Ellison, Sylvia Plath, and Richard Heller illustrate this struggle with their works. These authors explore ambiguity through different characters that experience the world in different ways. Identity, while it is an easy concept, it can be difficult to attain. These authors seek out ambiguity with the human experience, coming to different conclusions. Ambiguity becomes a vehicle through which we can attempt to define humanity J.D. Salinger's novel, Catcher in the Rye, Ralph Ellison's novel, Invisible Man, Sylvia Plath's novel, The Ball Jar, and Richard Heller's novel, Catch 22 explore ambiguity experienced through an attempt to find self. Each experience is unique, incapable of fitting a generic mold created by society.

J.D. Salinger's novel, Catcher in the Rye explores the ambiguity of the adult world Holden must eventually learn to accept. Throughout the novel, Holden resist the society grownups represent, coloring his childlike dreams with innocence and naivety. He only wants to protect those he loves but he cannot do it the way he desires. As he watches Phoebe on the carousel, he begins to understand certain aspects of truth. He writes:

I felt so damn happy all of a sudden, the way old Phoebe kept going around and around, I was damn near bawling, I felt so damn happy, if you want to know the truth. I don't know why. It was just that she looked so damn nice, the way she kept going around and around, in her blue coat and all. God, I wish you could have been there" (Salinger 213).

Holden realizes he must come to terms with how the world operates. He comes to appreciate the value of relationships but he still lives with ambiguity. At the end of the novel, we find Holden's future is still ambiguous, as are Holden's thoughts. He thinks he will apply himself but he wavers even as he thinks the words. Holden will probably always be a cynic but his realizations about the world remove any doubt about what the world is like.

In Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison explores ambiguity experienced through the r. His life as an African-American in a white man's world leaves him with a sense of feeling less than real. When forced to answer who he is, the narrator claims finding the answer was like "trying to identify one particular cell that coursed through the torpid veins of my body" (Ellison 210). He struggles with discovering self because he has no clear definition of who he should be. At the end of the novel, he understands he "always tried to go in everyone's way but my own. I have also been called one thing and then another while no one really wished to hear what I called myself" (496). While he feels invisible, he is not; he realizes he… [read more]

Pamuk's Snow and Gordimer's July's People Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,242 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … real-time moments when it is being made, can seem plodding and pedantic as easily as it can seem earth-shatteringly significant. Because the functioning of the body, the ruminations of the mind, and interactions with people both significant and insignificant can later come to have weighty import, however, it is important that we are aware of how we move through historical events. Literature often serves the purpose of helping to illuminate the meaning of those quiet moments in times of large events even better than a straightforward recounting of actual events. In its imaginative retelling of stories both large and small, literature helps us to find the kernel of truth in daily life that, though merely imagined, can be applied to our actual existence in powerful new ways.

Nadine Gordimer's July's People and Orhan Pamuk's Snow are two novels which imagine quiet moments that occur to people in the midst of large-scale changes in order to provide new lenses for viewing the world and the people around us. In this paper, the two novels will be summarized and analyzed in order to draw out meanings about the times and locales the novels address, in an effort to make sense of the historical events that would otherwise have been relegated to a dry account in a historical text.

July's People is about the interactions of a wealthy white architect and his wife, Maureen, and their (now, former) black servant named July during a time of chaotic upheaval in which revolution is occurring in the streets of apartheid South Africa. The imagined revolution is entirely fictional, but the relationships between the three main characters and the rethinking they each do around their former relationship, when the power distance between them was much different -- including an ongoing internal and external struggle over the control of an auto which serves as the white couple's only means of escape from the violence in the street -- seem real, indeed. In their new situation, one in which the white couple owe their safety to the protection of their former servant, small objects and common interactions which occur in present time, as well as remembrances of things that have occurred in the past take on new meanings. For example, the control over the keys to the car passes to July, who we find (as the novel opens) has taken the couple to his childhood home for hiding. When it comes out that in their previous lives together, July was only allowed to return to that home once every two years, the injustice of the relationship between servant and master begins to make a small appearance. Now that July has both control of and responsibility for the couple's safety, both his thinking about such power and the couples' thinking is challenged. The story is told largely from the perspective of Maureen who, while not an especially evil member of the white ruling class, was still a member of a class of people who profited from other… [read more]

International Management Research Methods the Literature Review Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,557 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


International Management Research Methods

The literature review for Wan, Hui & Tsang's article "Factors affecting Singaporeans' acceptance of international postings" contributes to the study in several key ways. It sets the framework for the discussion, provides insight into previous research on the subject, gives international context and it also determines the importance and relevance of the study by illustrating where… [read more]

Ben Johnson and Thomas Nashe Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,233 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Ben Jonson & Thomas Nashe

Death and Reflections on Death: A Comparative Analysis of the Poetry of Ben Jonson and Thomas Nashe

The history of humanity has consistently shown how death is defined and described as a direct contrast to life -- how, in the joy of giving birth to life, humans also grieve and express sorrow in death. Indeed, death has been painted symbolically in art and literature as darkness, a mystery that cannot be understood and discerned. The enigma that is death continues to haunt humanity, and the dread people feel when there is impending death reflects humanity's pursuit for enlightenment and understanding of death.

It is not surprising, then, that the theme of death became a common ground for Ben Jonson and Thomas Nashe's poetry. In the poems, On my first son and On my first daughter by Ben Jonson, and A Litany in Time of Plague by Thomas Nashe, both authors discussed the theme of death, although approached this theme using different points-of-view. Jonson's poems about the death talk about the death from the point-of-view of a parent, who bears the sorrow of experiencing the untimely death of a son or a daughter. Similarly, Nashe talks about death in Litany, but he used this theme by assuming the voice of a man nearing death because of the plague. In the discussions that follow, the authors' similarity in discussing the theme of death by using different approaches will be explored intensively. This comparative analysis posits that Jonson and Nashe's poems talksabout the mystery of and surprising revelations about death, discussed from the points-of-view of a father bemoaning the death of a son/daughter, and that of a dying man reflecting on his life and eventual death.

Jonson highlights the theme of death in the poems Onmy first son and On my first daughter. In On my first son, the father in the poem expressed sorrow, relief, and eventually, acceptance, in bemoaning the death of his son. These emotions were reflected progressively in the poem, wherein after every two (2) stanzas, a change in the father's mood and emotion occurs.

The first mood shown is sorrow, as the father finally said goodbye to his son, whose death happened exactly on the son's seventh year. Sorrow became apparent when the father lamented, "My sin was too much hope of thee, lov'd boy," in effect confessing that he is also to blame for his son's death, hoping too much for his son's recovery. Too much hope eventually led to too much sorrow, when the father's hope failed to save his son from dying.

One painful truth revealed in the poem was the inevitability of death, which the father is both sorrowful about and thankful for. The idea of an inevitable death is further reinforced in the third and fourth stanzas of the poem, wherein the father expressed his gratitude that his son did not live long enough to experience the suffering that he (the son) would also inevitably encounter in life… [read more]

Family Loyalty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (745 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


They are loyal to Grandpa, even though he has a drug addiction, and they are loyal to Frank, even though he is a suicide risk. The point is, they are a true family, despite all their problems, because they love each other and are loyal to each other, and that is an important lesson for Olive to learn.

Barbie and Ken fill the poems in "Kinky," and in the title poem, Duhamel shows they are loyal to each other in their own way, too. She writes, "But after a round / of pretend-tears, Barbie and Ken vowed to try / to make their relationship work. With their good memories / as sustaining as good food, they listened to late-night radio / talk shows, one featuring Doctor Ruth. When all else fails, / just hold each other, the small sex therapist crooned" (Duhamel 30). In the absence of a loyal family to support them, they have to rely on each other, and that is another lesson from the film. No matter how dysfunctional, some family is better than no family, because without a family, there can be no emotional support, and that leads to an empty and unsatisfying life, kind of like the empty lives of the imaginary Ken and Barbie dolls in Duhamel's poetry.

In conclusion, both of these works illustrate the importance of family. Family love and loyalty is one of the most important things in life, even though it might not seem like it at the time. At first glance, the Hoovers look like a bunch of outlandish losers, but in reality, they are a real family, no matter how weird they are. They support Olive's dreams, so much so that they undertake a trip they really can't afford to make, just to try to make her dreams come true. When they don't, they stand behind her and sustain her, in a show of unity and love. They may be losers, but they are lovable losers, which makes them a true family.


Duhamel, Denise. Kinky. Alexandria, Virginia: Orchises Press, 1997.

Little Miss Sunshine. Dir. Jonathan Dayton, Valerie Faris.…… [read more]

How to Read Literature Like a Professor and Huckleberry Finn Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Huckleberry Finn and How to Read Literature like a Professor

Four aspects of geography in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Physical aspects of the land, economics, politics, and history (Foster 163-175)

Reading a book can be taking a journey, or embarking upon a vacation of the mind. Or reading can be a means of seeking an escape route from one's current, confining reality, as in this case of the world of the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The reader enters the antebellum South and chafes at its rules and restraints, as well as glories in the freedom of life on a raft, floating in the Mississippi. Twain's St. Petersburg is a fictional place, but the most significant aspects of its geography, like the ever-present wilderness that enables Huck's Pap to hide from the law and drink moonshine, and the mobility and cover the river's darkness provides for the fleeing Huck and Jim, is actually rooted in many of the real qualities of the area. While any boy can travel down a river, the particularity of the Mississippi River makes the novel's plot possible and thus unique in annals of literature (Foster 165). The two characters are forced to go even deeper South as they travel, making Jim even more threatened. The specific qualities of the Mississippi create the threats of the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as well as provide the potential for liberation.

However, the physical aspects of the Mississippi alone do not make the…… [read more]

Huckleberry Finn and How to Read Literature Like a Professor Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (339 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Huckleberry Finn and How to Read Literature like a Professor

Four aspects of the Quest: Mark Twain's the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

The quester: Huckleberry Finn must escape a stultifying life at the Widow Douglas's and the wrath of his drunken father Pap. Huckleberry is joined by the runaway slave Jim, who is also trying to escape being sold 'down South' by Miss Watson, the Widow Douglas' sister.

A place to go: The two questers must head up the Mississippi, to the North (Jim states he wants to go to Illinois) where Huckleberry can be free of civilizing influences and Jim can be a free man.

A stated reason to go there: If Huck does not escape then Huck will remain under the thumb of the Widow and Jim will be sold to cruel masters in the deep South.

Challenges and trials: Huckleberry and Jim must survive the risks posed by getting involved with the warring clans of the Grangerfords and the Shepherdsons, the pursuit of the lawmen who…… [read more]

Short Stories and Poems Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,980 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Power of Imagery:

Chopin, Komunyakaa, and Akhmadulina Explored

Imagery allows authors to convey certain feelings for readers to experience. Three pieces of literature that illustrate the power of imagery are Kate Chopin's short story, "The Story of an Hour," Yusef Komunyakaa's poem, "Facing it," and Bella Akhmadulina's poem, "The Bride." While each of thee pieces explores a different… [read more]

Postmodernism Literature Crying of Lot 49 and Slaughter House Five Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,783 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Postmodernism Literature

Both Thomas Pynchon's "The Crying of Lot 49" and Kurt Vonnegut's "Slaughter-House Five" are representative works of the Postmodern movement in literature, because of several common characteristics. First of all, the two writers belong to the post war generations of the 50s and 60s and, as such, are challenged by similar modern anguishes, such as the lack of… [read more]

Postmodernism Literature Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (833 words)
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Postmodernism Literature

The novel "Crash" by J.G. Ballard is one of the postmodernist literary works that manages to put together a wide array of notions and feelings that the postmodern society breeds, such as alienation, technological dependency (and all deriving from this), grotesque fetishes and the overall feeling of loneliness that derives that the perception that the lack of moral coordinates permits you to experiment anything.

The story analyzes a car-crash sexual fetishism that the main characters practice and which involves being aroused (as well as connected sexual acts) when real car crashes occur. For the category of individuals that become involved in this fetishism group, the sexual satisfaction comes only when technology is involved and, at the same time, when the injuries that accidents result in new sexual fantasies.

Apparently, the plot of the book indicates only a gruesome account that includes scenes such as a sexual intercourse where the penetration is done in a wound that the woman had received during an accident. However, beyond these experimentations that the writer likes to use in order to vividly shock his readers and, as such, attract the attention the artist desires, there are some interesting ideas worth analyzing, based on some of the general motifs identified in the first paragraph here.

The interesting recurrent motive is that of the role of modern technology in present-day society. At the end of the book, the writer rhetorically asks himself why society has become so dependent on technology. On the surface, technology causes death, in different forms, not only physical death. Technology causes spiritual death through excessive dependency which leads the individual to alienate himself from other humans. It is also partially a creative death, because much of the activities involving human creativity are now transferred to technological instruments.

Certainly, technology also has many positive aspects (in the case of cars, the capacity to get you from one place to another much quicker), but these aspects are not of concern for the writer: he is set to writing a bleak novel in which he condemns the technological interference in our lives. Tacitly, he implies that even a basic biological activity, such as sexual intercourse, will eventually depend on technology, in this case in the form of technology fetishism.

On the other hand, another important theme is violence as a distinct and omnipresent element in modern culture. The book dates from 1973, when this phenomenon is only beginning to be felt, but it would be very relevant today, where violence…… [read more]

Dudley Randall: A Poet Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,569 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Dudley Randall: A Poet's Poet

Dudley Randall demonstrates what it means to be a poet with a cause. His poems reveal a passion about many things, always returning to the notion that without love, humanity is doomed. "Ballad of Birmingham," "A Poet is Not a Jukebox," and "The Profile on the Pillow" are three poems that demonstrate Randall's style and… [read more]

John Donne and or John Milton's Writings Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (951 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


John Donne, writing poetry during the early modern period, often combined his imagery and subject matter to focus on devotion in terms of eroticism and divine love. This is indicative of the way in which he considered the metaphysical connection between the spiritual and the physical. Although some poetry focuses more upon erotic, romantic love affairs, the ideal of the divine and the perfect is often also prevalent. These connections are often established by means of the symbolism known as the metaphysical conceit.

The metaphysical conceit is an element of poetry that uses unusual symbolism to demonstrate the depth of the poet's or speaker's feeling or drive within the context of the poem. Good examples of the metaphysical deceit occur in many of Donne's poems, including "Bait" and "A Valediction Forbidding Mourning."


"Bait" is a poem written in response to "The Shepherd to his Love" by Marlowe, and also Sir Walter Raleigh's work based upon this, "The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd." The latter is much less idealistic that the romanticism posed by Marlow. In his version of the poem, Donne takes matters a step further by means of the metaphysical conceit.

Donne compares the speaker of the poem to fish, with the lady being addressed represented by a fisherwoman. This entirely removes both any references to pastoral imagery and any pretence at romanticism. The images are sharp and clear, including the "silken lines and silver hooks" mentioned in line 4. This is very clear fishing imagery, and hardly aesthetic, although Donne does manage to sketch some sense of aesthetics into the work.

The poem's opening lines place the reader into the context of the poem right away. The image of the fish and catchers are then unmistakably a metaphysical conceit in order to demonstrate the hunting and snaring relationships inspired by courtship. For the speaker, however, the hunt is over; he had been caught, and willingly so. The image of the woman herself being "bait" is a very strong metaphysical deceit. Through this highly unusual metaphor, Donne makes it clear that the lady who caught the speaker's attention need only be herself to catch whichever fish she pleases. She does not need to play any games of deceit or cruelty to win men's hearts, but does so with ease.

While "Bait" addresses the theme of romantic love from the vantage point of its beginning, "A Valediction Forbidding Mourning" does so from the perspective of an established relationship. The characters within the poem are so strong in their relationship, that they do not need to be deterred by a temporary parting.

A Valediction Forbidding Mourning

Like "Bait," this poem also makes use of strong and unusual metaphysical conceit. The poet for example begins by comparing the parting to death. In the comparison, the speaker encourages his love to quietly accept his departure, like the…… [read more]

Song of Songs Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,184 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Song of Songs

"While the Song insists that we are embodied beings and that the human body is beautiful, it also asserts that we are more than our bodies"

Song of Songs, one of the shortest books in the Bible, consisting of eight chapters, reflects a wealth of insight into the relationship of love, literally and figuratively. Some, like Lawrence S. Cunningham (2005), a John A. O'Brien Professor of Theology at the University of Notre Dame, assert that although few other than the lovers of literature read this book, it constitutes a text vital for Christian spirituality to develop. "Ascribed to King Solomon, it is the third wisdom book (after Proverbs and Ecclesiastes) which bears his name. & #8230;The early church fathers… argued that Songs should be read after learning the life of virtue from Proverbs and gaining illumination from Ecclesiastes" (Cunningham, ¶ 1). Origen, one major Biblical commentary, who asserts that purgation, illumination, and union reflect three paths of the spiritual life, presents Song of Songs to dramatically reflect the concept of "union."

The concept of "union" impresses the researcher the most about Song of Songs. In the figurative sense, according to Aakanksha J. Virkar (2007), in the journal publication "Gerard Manley Hopkins and the Song of Songs," the "Song famously portrays what has been read as an allegory of Christ's relationship with the Church…." This appears apparent in the words: "He brought me to the banqueting house, and his banner over me [was] love" (Sgs 2:4). This message confirms the fact the Song of Songs fits the Bible and this it was rightly incorporated into it.

In the review of the book, Song of Songs, by Robert W. Jenson, Tod Linafelt (2007), Georgetown University, argues that although Jenson is an accomplished theologian; he presents an ill-conceived interpretation of the Song of Songs that neither convinces of helps the reader. Linafelt responded to Jenson's criticism of the Song of Songs with the following response:

The problem is that there is no "story." That is, we are not dealing here with narrative (or story), where one expects characters, action, and plot, but rather with lyric poetry, the building blocks of which are line-structure, wordplay, soundplay, metaphor, imagery, productive ambiguity, and the like. The Song of Songs arguably represents one of the very highest achievements of ancient Israelite poetry, and to ignore how it works as poetry is to ignore precisely what is most fundamental and most compelling about it (Linafelt, ¶ 3).

The researcher concurs with Linafelt and notes that one particular section that stresses the value of love simultaneously confirms the significance of Song, along with its universal appeal: "Set me as a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine arm: for love [is] strong as death; jealousy [is] cruel as the grave: the coals thereof [are] coals of fire, [which hath a] most vehement flame. Many waters cannot quench love, neither can the floods drown it: if [a] man would give all the substance of his… [read more]

Feminist Lit the Changing Views Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,596 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Feminist Lit

The Changing Views of the Feminine in Early Twentieth Century American Literature

The history of Western civilization -- and Eastern, for that matter -- can be seen by one perspective as the history of patriarchal dominance and the subjugation and objectification of women. The vast majority of recognized historical figures, from governmental and military leaders to artists, scientists,… [read more]

Poem Comparison Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Imagery in William Blake's Poetry

William Blake displays his versatility as a poet in his poems, "The Chimney Sweeper" and "London." Each poem represents a perspective that is very different but informative about life and how we perceive it. "The Chimney Sweeper" emphasizes a certain amount of innocence while "London" is more focused on the innocence that has been lost throughout the ages. These poems illustrate the poet's ability to express his perspective through powerful imagery.

In "The Chimney Sweeper," the poet focuses on positive imagery to show his appreciation for the innocence of life. A lamb is associated with innocence as well as an angel. The angel performs a heroic act when she opens "the coffin and set[s] them all free" (Blake The Chimney Sweeper 13-4). The angel also tells Tom if "He'd be a good boy, / He'd have God for his father and never want joy" (19-20). The poet provides another positive image is that of the chimneysweepers in jovial moods. They are sing and laughing despite what their station in life. Tom is associated with a positive image because he is "happy and warm" (23-4). Hope is significant to the poem when the children are released and "sport in the wind" (18). This poem's overall message is that innocence is more of a state of mind than a station in life. These children are innocent and they believe in the goodness of life and experiencing the good things.

In "London," we see another side of the world as the poet looks at a city that seems to have changed before his eyes. He describes to us a scene that is associated with negative images. The poet sees "marks of weakness, marks of woe" (Blake London 4)…… [read more]

American Jazz in Jack Kerouac Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,262 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … American Jazz in


As perhaps the only true American musical artform, jazz was created mainly by African-Americans in the early years of the 20th century through an amalgamation of elements drawn from European-American and tribal African musical forms. As Barry Kernfeld so acutely points out, jazz "has had a profound effect on American culture, not only through its considerable popularity but also through the important role it has played" in shaping the numerous forms of American popular music that developed around it and out of it (580). This role can also be applied to other forms of artistic expression, particularly in the field of American literature in categories like poetry, the short story, and the novel. One pivotal literary work in which the elements of jazz serves as a sort of rhythmic foundation is Jack Kerouac's 1951 opus On The Road, inspired by "the drug-fueled cross-country car rides that Kerouac made with Neal Cassady" and narrated in a "headlong style. . . based on beauty, alcohol, sex, drugs, mysticism" and of course jazz music (Liukkonen, "Jack Kerouac," Internet).

Not surprisingly, Kerouac's life-long penchant for American jazz also shows up in a number of his other works written in the 1950's when Hollywood actor James Dean symbolized the true American "bad boy" and stood as the penultimate American rebel. One of these is Visions of Cody, written between 1951 and 1952, which "Beat poet" Allen Ginsberg, serving as the novel's unofficial editor, "considered as a "holy mess" yet did not change its "rambling style and discontinuous structure" because of its improvisational quality reminiscent of jazz music (Luikkonen, "Jack Kerouac," Internet). As added support, Kerouac as a member of the "Beat

Generation" personally identified with jazz and recognized it as "a fundamental part of the Beat sub-culture" while also viewing jazz musicians as "heroes and sages," figures like Charlie Parker and Thelonious Monk, appreciated by Kerouac as "true American geniuses, heroes and rebels" in protest against traditional white American, middle-class values ("The Influences of the Beat Generation,' Internet).

Certainly, Kerouac's deep understanding and appreciation of American jazz served as his foundation for the syncopation found within the pages of On The Road. In this respect, syncopation in musical terms can be described as "an effect of rhythmic displacement created by articulating weaker beats or metrical positions" (Kernfeld, 1178), but in the case of On The Road, these rhythmic displacements and articulations were accomplished via the use of certain words and phrases, a form of "confessional, jazz-like prose" ("Influences of the Beat Generation,' Internet) which takes the reader on a strange, musical trip, much like listening to a jazz band while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Thus, Kerouac's approach to utilizing the elements of American jazz inspired him to insert poetical, jazz-like assonance and alliteration into the text in order to give it rhythm and colorization, much like one would find in a composition by Charlie Parker under the cognomen of "Bebob deluxe."

Exactly… [read more]

Motion/Moviento by Octavio Paz Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,093 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Motion/Moviento by Octavio Paz. Specifically, it will discuss the poem and what it implies about life. Octavio Paz is a Nobel Prize winning Latin American author who wrote poetry, fiction, and worked as a diplomat, as well. Paz's poem "Motion" is a study in opposites, creating a feeling of motion and movement in the poem that is hard to ignore. The poem uses language to convey movement, something that is not easy to do, and it conveys the complexities of life, as well.

This complex poem is a series of thirteen lines that seem in direct opposition to one another. The opening lines are "If you are the amber mare / I am the road of blood" (Paz). The first line suggests the natural world and serenity, while the second suggests violence and struggle, and these are two polar opposites, but they describe the complexities of life, which can be tranquil and serene one minute, and violent and full of strife the next. This theme continues throughout the poem, creating a poignant look into what sets a poem apart and makes it special. This poem is beautifully lyrical, but strident too, another way that it conveys the complexities of life and opposition from one part of life to another.

The poem conveys motion, (the title of course), too with the opposing lines. A literary critic writes, "The movement seeks to undo temporality by insisting on relationships, or analogies, where the second part of the proposition provides the ground for the first, in a perfectly reversible operation" (Quiroga 120). The lines feed off each other, but they provide a fluidity of motion that carries the poem from first lines to last, and conclude the poem back where it started, creating the illusion of motion with a full circle closing itself at the end.

Many of the opposite images are violent and a bit disturbing. For example, the poet writes, "If you are the forest of the clouds / I am the axe that parts it" (Paz). As the literary critic notes, each of these images is totally reversible, so the lines are almost mirror images of themselves, traveling in either direction up or down the length of the poem. Paz seems to be saying that people can be mirror images of each other, with a "good" side and a "bad" side, just as the poem creates opposition and examines the complexities of life. There are always to sides to every person, two sides to every story, and two sides to life, one tranquil and the other filled with strife. This poem represents those two sides that exist in everything, and shows that they can blend to create something complex and exhilarating at the same time.

Paz was a firm believer in rereading. Another critic notes, "When Octavio Paz visited Robert Frost in his home, he told him that people were reading too many books, too many different books. 'I like rereading books. . . .I don't trust folk who… [read more]

Puritan Poetry Puritanism as Seen Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,238 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Puritan Poetry

Puritanism as Seen in the Poetry of Anne Bradstreet and Michael Wigglesworth's "The Day of Doom"

The Puritans, for all of their iconic status as religious stuffed shirts with buckles on their hats and a penchant for punishment, are not an especially well understood group of people today. The mental image many have of a tough and even bitter group of people who were devout to the point of hypocrisy is partially true, and there are some extreme individual examples that have given rise to this conception, but for the most part they were simply a group of pioneers trying to make their way in a new and uncultivated land, as human as any of the rest of us. This is not to suggest that religion did not play an important role in Puritan ideals and their way of life; their faith was, indeed, the impetus for their emigration and without a doubt the definitive factor in the organization of their society. This does not mean that the Puritans had a single vision of religion or the specifics of its governance over human expression, however.

On easy way to illustrate this is by examining the works of two Puritan poets, both of whom have found their way into the canon of American poetry for their exemplification of this earliest period of the genre, if not for the unique qualities of their talents and poetic voices. Anne Bradstreet wrote many short poems reflecting on her life and love, all of which show the pervasiveness of religious thought in Puritan society through constant allusion, direct references, and comparison to scripture and Puritan doctrine. For all of this, though, Bradstreet still manages to strike a light tone when suitable. Michael Wigglesworth's epic "The Day of Doom," however, is strident and incredibly dark. An examination of tone and style in these two poets' work reveals that full expression of Puritan ideals required a true enjoyment of religion and the world.

The first and most obvious issue that shows the differences in spirit with which these two writers undertook their creation of poetry is their choice of subject matter. Anne Bradstreet wrote on a variety of subjects, and true to the Elizabethan tradition that she can clearly seen as a part of her titles are incredibly descriptive, allowing just the mention of several of these to become and adequate illustration of Bradstreet's topical breadth: "The Author to her Book," "In Reference to Her Children," "Upon Some Distemper of Body," and "The Vanity of All Worldly Things" illustrate the poet's thoughts on a multitude of subjects that pertained to Puritan life. She has poems that warn, though she always stops short of outright condemnation; poems that contain the overflows of joy and love; poems that are meant to instruct, or lament, and every other human emotional response that typically finds expression in poetry.

Wigglesworth's "The Day of Doom," however, is a book-length poem on one very serious, very dark, and very depressing topic. To… [read more]

Math and Poetry Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,925 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … people working out math constitutes a scientific exercise. Racking their brains on theorems, axioms, lemmas and propositions, math is means to an end, a set of procedures which can be used to make an analysis of the events happening in the natural world. Therefore math is viewed as a practical discipline, interesting to the point of its usefulness.… [read more]

Sylvia Plath Anne Sexton Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Deserving Poets: Anne Sexton and Sylvia Plath

There can be no doubt that Anne Sexton and Sylvia Plath have provided literature with staples that represent fine contemporary poetry. While the notion that they would not be as popular had they not committed suicide is unfounded because both poets were able to touch upon issues that connected with readers on a… [read more]

Vanity, Vanity -- All Is Satire Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,265 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Vanity, vanity -- all is satire in Johnson and Pope

Despite their status as two of the 'great men' of neoclassical English literature, Samuel Johnson and Alexander Pope were born under relatively poor circumstances. Johnson's father was a bookseller who left his family in debt -- Johnson was unable to continue his university education, and labored for awhile as a schoolmaster, then wrote extensively for the Tory periodical The Rambler. He became famous as the publisher of the first comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language; his short essays entitled the Lives of the Poets, as well as his own poetry ("Samuel Johnson," Books and Writers, 2009). One of Johnson's Lives was on Alexander Pope, who was hunched-backed and deformed but penned some of the most famous epigrams in English literature, such as his poetic An Essay on Criticism, which contains the phrase: "A little learning is a dangerous thing." Both men wrote in an era where knowledge of the classics was an essential part of being a public intellectual, and where intellect and wit were synonymous with poetry. Pope wrote one of the most famous (although supposedly inaccurate) translations of The Odyssey and The Iliad in a series of couplets -- hence the term 'heroic couplet' for paired, rhymed couplets ("Alexander Pope," Books and Writers, 2009). But both used satire in different ways: Johnson uses satire in an explicit way to attack the vanity of his enemies and elevate his intellectual reputation, Pope used satire in an ironic and subtle way to do the same for his vain, social 'betters.' [Thesis]

However, the terrible historical circumstances that had torn England apart in the decades before both men wrote, including the beheading of Charles I, the reinstatement of the monarchy with Charles II, and a series of squabbles between Parliament and the King had caused these authors to view history and aristocratic society with a highly satirical point-of-view. Both used classical allusions to attack those people whom they disliked or disapproved of in their social world. Johnson's The Vanity of Human Wishes uses an explicitly satirical Roman form, Juvenalian satire, to attack his contemporaries, adapting Roman satire to modern England and showing how the vain leaders and people of England are lacking in virtue. Pope, in contrast, uses satire in a much more subtle way. He retells the story of a young, vain woman name Belinda who has a lock of her hair removed (hence The Rape of the Lock) as if he is recounting the epic tale of Achilles and Hector. By using this epic language, he makes Belinda's concerns seem even smaller and pettier.

Juvenalian satire was a kind of direct form of harsh satire used by the Roman poet Juvenal to bitterly attack political enemies. Johnson makes use of this technique by openly and ironically turning his rage against political and literary leaders in The Vanity of Human Wishes. He begins by calling upon the great Greek Classical orator Democritius as his muse to help him show the… [read more]

Sophocles: Oedipus the King Fate, Free Will Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,459 words)
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Sophocles: Oedipus the King

Fate, Free Will, and Pride in Oedipus the King

Biographical Sketch

A noted Greek playwright, Sophocles is the author of over 100 plays who was both recognized in his time and appreciated centuries later, Sophocles is the writer of notable dramas such as Oedipus the King, Antigone, and The Woman of Trachis. In addition to play… [read more]

Theorizing Ideology Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,359 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Theorizing Ideology

Literature as a Successful Universal Ideology

"Literature, in the meaning of the word we have inherited, is an ideology. It has the most intimate relation to questions of social power;" many understand literature as a universal ideology (Eagleton "The Rise of The English" 2243). This rests based on its intimate relationship with language, the common feature shared throughout… [read more]

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,626 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

By addressing the relationship between the black Jim and the white Huck in the book, in addition to discussing Twain's use of the term "nigger," one can conclude that parties on both sides of this argument can use the work as a tool to discuss the effects of racism on society and the use of literature… [read more]

Poetry Analsys Analysis of Poetry Grass Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,198 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Poetry Analsys

Analysis of poetry


In the poem Grass by Carl Sandburg, the poet uses a simple but effective image and metaphor to convey the futility and uselessness of war. Wars result in needless human death and the grass represents the process of nature that relentlessly covers the fallen corpses over time. The grass can be interpreted as a metaphor for the process of death.

The poet also uses images and specific words and phrases to suggest the tone and intention of the poem. The second line of the poem states; "Shovel them under and let me work- -." The word Shovel is harsh and suggests the carelessness with which the dead are buried after a battle. There is also an almost sinister tone to the refrain "let me work." This suggests that nature is relentless in its disposal of the dead -- which in turn reflects on the mindlessness and waste of human life as a result of battles and wars.

The poem does not have a fixed rhyme scheme but is does have a certain rhythm. The rhythm is insistent and sharp and supported by the repetitive effect of words like "work" and the refrain. Repetition is also part of the rhythmic structure of the poem and it is used to good effect in bringing out the meaning of the poem. This can be seen in the repetition of the phrase "pile them high" ( Lines 4 and 5), which harshly and nonchalantly refers to the large number of dead bodies.

The poem also emphasizes that the wars and battles are ongoing and relentless reality in human history. This fact is highlighted by the question; "What place is this? / Where are we now?" ( Lines 9-10). This again serves to stress the main theme of the poem; namely, that human history is also a history of war and battles that result in a seemingly endless number of casualties.

2. What is Frosts message in the Road Not Taken?

The central message that Frost conveys in the Poem the Road Not Taken is that individual choices have to be made in life and that unusual "roads" or directions in life sometimes have to be taken in order to be true to oneself. In essence, the theme of the poem can be related to the question of individual freedom and the courage needed to make choices in life that may go against or contradict the conformist norms and views of others. In other words, the poem is about the need to be an individual and not just be part of the group. We have to make our own decisions in life and not just follow the opinions of others.

This message is conveyed through a number of different poetic techniques. The most obvious of these is the use of metaphor. The road is a metaphor for the search for meaning and individual freedom in life. The road can also be interpreted as a symbol of life's journey.

An… [read more]

Langston Hughes: Poet of Experience and Education Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,196 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Langston Hughes: Poet of Experience and Education

Experience often shapes the individual in more ways than we realize. The most successful people take their experiences and turn them into something that is positive. Langston Hughes demonstrates how an individual can do this through literature. His poems explore the self that Hughes became but only after suffering at the hand of… [read more]

Human Behavior Explored Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,087 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Human Behavior Explored in the Works of John Milton

The English poet John Milton was born on December 9, 1608 in London, near St. Paul's Cathedral. This remarkable birthplace serves to be prophetic as Milton becomes one of the most outspoken voices f his time regarding human behavior and one's relationship with God. Milton was one of three children born… [read more]

Short Fiction Point-Of-View Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (882 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Greasy Lake

Point-of-view is everything. This is especially true in the short story, "greasy Lake," by T.C. Boyle. In this story, the first-person narration becomes significant because it allows the reader to understand the narrator's point-of-view and how he has changed over the course of the story. In this story, our narrator begins as a self-proclaimed bad guy that runs into a chance encounter that reduces him to a little less bad that he thought he could ever be. His honesty make this story real to readers and without the first-person narration, it would lose some of its appeal. In short, the story would lose its power if not told through the narrator's personal experience.

The narrative is important because of how the narrator sees himself. In the beginning of the story, the narrator admits that the and all of his friends were "dangerous characters then' (112). They "wore torn-up leather jackets, slouched around with toothpicks in our mouths, sniffed glue and ether and what somebody claimed was cocaine' (112). When he describes his friends, he calls them "dangerous characters" (112). This image of toughness is important because the narrator believes it. He and his friends are bad and dangerous. This attitude quickly changes when the narrator and his friends encounter a more dangerous looking character, that was "clearly a man of action" (113) wearing steel-toe boots. Here, the challenge to all of his former toughness is beginning to be challenged. The incident that sends the narrator into the lake continues this realization for the narrator and the encounter with the dead body suddenly causes the narrator to change his point-of-view about practically everything.

Considering death has a way of making us realize our mortality. In this story, a brush with a murky dead body is just what the doctor ordered to help our narrator grow up. In addition, we cannot overlook how important it is that the narrator wants to be bad and attempts to be on this fateful night. He wants to be tough and he hits his friend and then almost rapes his girlfriend. In all of his toughness, however, he finds himself escaping into the greasy lake for safety. This is just the opposite thing a tough guy would do. The encounter with the dead body only releases the fear and lack of courage the boy has. His idea that the incident with the body is "one of those nasty little epiphanies" (116) emphasizes how the narrator's thoughts have shifted from pulling a prank to feeling as if one is being pulled on you - except this one is real.

He might think it a…… [read more]

African-American Literature Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,757 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


African-American Literature

Early black literature was often viewed by white society as anomalous representations of limited scope that proved only the ability of the individual who attested to writing the work but did only limited work to forward a change in the pervasive opinion of black intellectual ability, or lack there of. To receive any publishable option in the U.S.,… [read more]

Art as Sanctuary in W.B. Yeats' Poetry Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (340 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Art as Sanctuary in W.B. Yeats' Poetry

Art proves to be a sanctuary in the poetry of William Butler Yeats through the celebration of life and experience. "Friends" and "The Lake Isle of Innisfree" demonstrate how the poet discovers sanctuary through either his experience or his emotions. Yeats' poetry illustrates how art can serve as a safe haven for the human soul.

In "Friends," the poet finds sanctuary in his relationships. Things might not always mean everything is good all the time but he considers that aspect of friendship as part of the joy of having good friends. While remembering, he writes, "While up from my heart's root / So great a sweetness flows / I shake from head to foot. (Yeats Friends 23-5). Here we see how the poet expresses sincere emotions toward his friend and from this, he finds a place of comfort. In "The Lake Isle of Innisfree," the poet finds sanctuary in a place. He provides vivid imagery to illustrate what he discovers there. The small…… [read more]

Road Novel Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,127 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Mccarthy Auster

The Human Experience in the Road and the Invention of Solitude

Cormac McCarthy has an unmistakable prose style. What do you see as the most distinctive features of that style? How is the writing in the Road in some ways more like poetry than narrative prose?

McCarthy's prose in the Road is spare and moody. And indeed, the reader is bound to read this almost as a form of poetry in the halting manner and streaming flow of sentence fragments which paint this bleak portrait. Even from the opening moments of the story, there is an impending sense of doom which permeates the sentiments of our protagonist and which envelopes he and his son.

McCarthy describes the man and his son in their struggle for survival, telling of "nights dark beyond darkness and the days more gray each one that what had gone before. Like the onset of some cold glaucoma dimming away the world. His hand rose and fell softly with each precious breath." (McCarthy, 3) Here, the most distinctive feature of his writing is bluntly concise way that the author delivers a sense of the utter desolation and despair in this world. Its eschewing of traditional sentence structure in favor of something that reads more like stanzas helps to reinforce the certainty in the language, that life is fleeting and bitter. And the horrifying nightmarish apparition that appears to the protagonist in a dream drives home the purpose of this writing style, to reinforce the monstrous tension of always present danger.

2. Why do you think McCarthy has chosen not to give his characters names? How do the generic labels of "the man" and "the boy" affect the way in which readers relate to them?

McCarthy's decision to refrain from naming the two characters in his novel suggests not an interest in disassociating the reader emotionally, as we may at first suspect. Indeed, the story and the relationship between father and son are significant to drive the reader to a sense of terrified empathy. However, the absence of names suggests instead a larger force of destruction at play. Here, it is the crumbling of society that has removed the demand for their names.

The names by which they might have been known -- the father in the time before the unmentioned apocalyptic event and the son if he had perhaps been born in a different time -- are of little use to them where relationships rarely extend outside of their dyad.

And perhaps even of greater importance is the sense that survival is of far more importance than such attachments as those which symbolize a relationship to a lost civilization. Indeed, survival or the evasion of suffering capture every waking moment, compelling us with the understanding that both father and son could soon be dead. With this weight on the minds of readers, it seems only appropriate that the father and son embody the concept of human survival most simply and unadorned by conceptions of individuality.… [read more]

Child's Eyes: The Poetry of Ann Taylor Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,600 words)
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¶ … Child's Eyes:

The Poetry of Ann Taylor

Children's lives and behaviors are explored and celebrated in the poetry of Ann Taylor. Taylor's poetry is didactic and musical in its attempt to teach children and celebrate being a child. Rhymes are the best way to convey knowledge to children because it is pleasing to hear and duplicate and children… [read more]

Art in Poetry: "The Archaic Torso Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Art in poetry: "The Archaic Torso of Apollo" and "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"

In Rainer Maria Rilke's "Archaic Torso of Apollo," the poet gazes upon a ruin of the ancient world, and projects himself into the image from antiquity. He does not begin by describing the torso itself, but instead imagines the head and eyes that the statue would have had when it was whole, and sees a kind of smile in what is left of the statue's legs. The statement about art is not just that the poet must change his life as the poem proclaims at the end, but that the poet sees in the art what he wants to see, reflecting his feeling that he needs to change. The work of art is just a torso, a ruin, but in seeing this ruin the poet projects an image of the past onto the statue and resolves to change, when before he was only wandering around in an art museum. The poem is silent as to whether resolve to change comes because of the sight of beauty he has witnessed, because of a strange communion with the spirit of the god and the artist that is still alive in the statue, the greatness of the art and the ability…… [read more]

Stopping by Woods on Summer's Day: Frost Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
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Stopping by Woods on Summer's Day": Frost's Use Of The Literal And Metaphysical In Making Great Literature

During the booming 1920s filled with roaring music, culture, and civil rights movements, one poet literally took time to smell the roses. Most think of Frost in association with his most famous poem, "The Road Not Taken" which combines the literal and psychological situation incurred by a man who is faced with a choice. But "The Road Not Taken" is not the only Frost poem in which the poet uses nature as the vehicle of emotional and psychological truths. In fact, another of Frost's more famous works, "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" uses the same setting, a woods, to imply the importance of personal reflection. Once again, Frost combines both a literal and metaphysical situation in this poem, creating a spectacular peace of literature both for its literary value and for its universal implication.

In the poem, Frost's description of the narrator stopping by the woods to watch the falling snow paints a beautiful portrait of an ordinary event. Using the poetic techniques if imagery and end rhyme, the poem allows readers to imagine the snow piling up in a lonely woods as if they were really experiencing the event. This is most evident in the lines referring to the narrator's horse. Frost writes:

My little horse must think it queer / to stop without a farmhouse near / Between the woods and frozen lake / the darkest evening of the year / He gives his harness bells a shake / to ask if there is some mistake / the only other sound's the sweep / of easy wind and downy flake" (Frost 5-12).

While the end rhyme moves the reader speedily along these lines, the intricate description of the horse as he "gives his harness bells a shake" allow the reader to…… [read more]

Chopin Twain Etc Change in America Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Chopin Twain Etc

Change in America Through Turn of the Century Literature

The America which entered into the 20th century would be one in constant flux. In the century since its birth, the nation had established itself as an independent body with progressive dreams and deep cultural rifts. These would unfold into the Civil War and its attendant implications regarding… [read more]

Life and Death Explored in Emily Dickinson Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,207 words)
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Life and Death Explored in Emily Dickinson's Poetry

Emily Dickinson is a woman that knew her own mind. In a world that is constantly changing, it is refreshing to look at a poet that lived over a century ago and see strength in character and self-confidence. Dickinson was also not afraid to express herself. Even with a Puritan upbringing, she… [read more]

Abraham Lincoln's the Suicide Soliloquy vs. Sylvia Plath's Edge Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (901 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Sylvia Plath and Abraham Lincoln wrote about suicide, and therefore both undoubtedly contemplated the act. Plath did end her own life, though, whereas Lincoln's life ended by his homicide at the hands of John Wilkes Booth. Suicide and its accompanying emotional components are not novel topics for poets. Poetry is defined by its emotionality and hyperbole. Suicide is, however, a taboo topic in American culture because of the ingrained optimism that is a part of the country's worldview. Manifest Destiny and the American Dream preclude morbid thinking and so suicidal ideation is not widely expressed in American literature. Therefore, Plath's and Lincoln's poetry both bear the mark of taboo American literature given the frank nature of their discussions of self-annihilation. Written over one hundred years apart, Plath's "Edge" and Lincoln's "Suicide's Soliloquy" each offer unique perspectives on death and suicide. The differences between Plath's and Lincoln's poems can not necessarily be attributed to different social norms, as suicide was as taboo in the nineteenth as the twentieth century. Rather, Plath and Lincoln both write about suicide using the literary conventions typical of their generation. Plath relies on the unconventional meter and subtle allusions common to modern free verse whereas Lincoln wrote with strong poetic structure and more straightforward references to the core subject matter. Even though Lincoln uses poetic language and literary devices that are outmoded, his writing is equally as accessible as Plath's.

During the nineteenth century, the Romantic Movement swept across the Western world. Poetry and prose contained melodramatic elements including hyperbole, allusions to ancient Greek, Roman, or Egyptian civilizations, and extended metaphors. The twentieth century's two world wars gave rise to a much greater literary cynicism. By the time Plath wrote her verses, the conventions of poetry Lincoln still ascribed to including formal rhyme schemes had all but vanished. Plath's "Edge" is wholly without a rhythm or rhyme scheme. A free verse poem, "Edge" is also highly personal. However, Lincoln's "Suicide's Soliloquy" reveals as much personal information about the poet's state of mind as Plath's. In both "Edge" and "Suicide Soliloquy," the narrators directly address the taboo topic of death.

Lincoln's poem is far more direct and more straightforwardly about suicide than Plath's is. The title of Lincoln's poem reveals the main subject matter immediately. Plath's poem offers a metaphor for being on the "edge" of sanity and also of being close to death. Her poem is also written in third person, whereas Lincoln's is told in first person perspective. Therefore, Lincoln's poem seems more personal and intimate because the poet and his narrator establish a close relationship with the reader. Plath's unnamed narrator and the unnamed woman she describes lend an air of mystery…… [read more]

Two Books to Film Comparison Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,110 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Tie Us Together:

Ethnic Literature and Film in America

Comparison of Two Novels to M. Night Shyamalan's "The Sixth Sense"

The history of ethnic writers in the United States of America is both abundant and diverse. Because of the United States' rich melting pot culture, authors such as Frederick Douglass and Harriett Beecher Stowe have flavored even our… [read more]

Nonfiction Is a Particularly Fertile Genre Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,721 words)
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Nonfiction is a particularly fertile genre of prose for the writer. Not only is copious material available for the focus of such stories, but the author is also free to choose from a great variety of approaches, which is not often the case with genre such as fiction or poetry. Indeed, the author can choose to take a creative, emotional… [read more]

Emily Dickenson Notoriously Reclusive, Even Anti-Social Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,224 words)
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Emily Dickenson

Notoriously reclusive, even anti-social, Emily Dickinson left behind a canon of nearly two thousand poems. The few that were published during her lifetime were done so anonymously, and so Dickinson's poetry remained as shrouded in secrecy as the poet herself. Dickinson's poetry reflects some of the prevailing literary themes in nineteenth century America including transcendentalism and romanticism. Nature and religion play predominant roles in the poetry of Dickinson, which is infused with flowery diction and lofty rhythm. Undoubtedly fascinated by the interface between the spiritual and natural worlds, Dickinson frequently uses nature as a metaphor. Transformation, the passage of time, life, and death are themes visible in the natural world and echoed in the journey of the human soul. Because Emily Dickinson locked herself up at home and thus lived a sort of monastic existence, her approach to religion is deeply personal and resembles the transcendentalist vision. Her religious perspectives also mirror the revivalist spirit moving through the United States during the time Dickinson wrote most of her poetry. Christianity and especially her personal relationship with Jesus Christ became major themes in Dickinson's poetry. Dickinson deftly weaves nature imagery with religious motifs in her poetry to address themes of transcendence, spiritual transformation, and religious awakening.

Natural and religious imagery in the poems of Emily Dickinson frequently focus on the passage of time. Dickinson's perspective on the passage of time is apparently impacted by her lifestyle choice: her decision to live in self-imposed solitary seclusion. Without the distractions of the mundane world, Dickinson could devote her energy and time to writing poetry and so her verses are replete with themes related to patience and the passage of time. The poet uses nature to convey the subjectivity of time, too. In "my nosegays are for captives," the poet refers to " Dim, long-expectant eyes" that are "Patient till paradise," (lines 2; 4).

Some of Dickinson's nature poetry explicitly uses time as a motif. For example, in "At half-past three a single bird" the poet starts each of three verses with a time stamp. At half-past three the "single bird...sings a cautious melody," (lines 1; 4). The narrator then describes what occurred at "At half-past four" and then "At half-past seven," (lines 5; 9). Likewise, Dickinson mentions clock time in "The day came slow, till five o'clock, / Then sprang before the hills," (lines 1-2). The contrast between the "slow" approach of day in line one and the sudden springing forth of life add complex depth and nuance to Dickinson's poetry, showing how the passage of time is integral to her worldview. Inserting clock time into her poems also reflects the paradox: nature does not keep a time-clock. To emphasize the difference between the passage of time in the natural world and the human world, Dickinson peppers her nature poetry with references to the stages of each day. Morning signifies the dawn of ideas, of awakening and enlightenment. Nighttime, as in "Nature, the gentlest mother," is a time for sleep, dreaming,… [read more]

Lucy Maude Montgomery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,382 words)
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Lucy Maude Montgomery

The Life and Works of Lucy Maud Montgomery

Since the publication of Lucy Maud Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables in 1908, millions and millions of young readers around the world have been transported to the author's idyllic childhood home of Prince Edward Island where she lived much of her life. The popularity of this first book resulted in several sequels and other books, but Montgomery was also a prolific contributor to other publications as well. This paper provides a review of the peer-reviewed, scholarly and popular literature to develop a biography of the author, an overview of her major works, and what influence she has had on modern Canadian literature. A summary of the research and salient findings are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Lucy Maud Montgomery (born November 30, 1874, died 1942), was a Canadian author who is most popularly known as the author of Anne of Green Gables (1908) (Bloom, 1998; Merriman, 2007). According to this biographer, "Montgomery was born into a long line of Scots-Canadian ancestors who first settled in Prince Edward Island [PEI] in the late 1770s. Among their numbers were successful farmers, businessmen, and politicians. Lucy Maud was born on 30 November 1874 in the village of Clifton (now New London), Prince Edward Island, Canada (Merriman). Her birthplace is now preserved as it was in her time" (Merriman, p. 2). "Maud," as she was called by her friends, was the only daughter of Hugh John Montgomery (1841-1900) and Clara 'Tillie' Woolner Macneill (1853-1876); her mother died of tuberculosis before Maud turned 2 years old (Merriman) and her father traveled west in search of better opportunities (Bloom). These were formative experiences in the author's life and these early years would be influenced primarily by her maternal grandparents. According to Merriman, "The newly orphaned Maud subsequently lived with her maternal grandparents Alexander Marquis Macneill (1820-1898) and Lucy Ann Woolner Macneill (1824-1911), staunch Presbyterians who maintained the Post Office for Cavendish, on PEI's north shore. Their rambling farm was the inspiration for 'Green Gables,' now part of the Prince Edward Island Provincial Park, established in 1937" (Merriman, p. 3).

By contrast, according to Bloom (1998), Montgomery was raised on the small seaside settlement of Cavendish on Prince Edward Island. This biographer agrees that when she was less than two years old, her mother, Clara MacNeill Montgomery, died of tuberculosis and notes that her father, previously a shopkeeper, left Maud in the care of her maternal grandparents and "went west" (p. 82). According to this biographer, "Lucy and Alexander MacNeill were of old Scotts stock, severe in their Presbyterian beliefs, and Lucy Maud's sensitive, artistic temperament was antithetical to the ethos of her grandparents and their farming community. The natural beauty that surrounded her, however, and her pleasure in keeping a journal provided solace in her otherwise isolated childhood" (Bloom, p. 82). As Vaughan (1998) points out, this setting was indeed inspirational: "In this tranquil setting, Lucy Maude Montgomery invented Anne of Green Gables,… [read more]

Donne's "Sonnet Xix" God's Love and Mercy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,489 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Donne's "Sonnet XIX"

God's love and mercy often conjure up many different types of images and emotions. John Donne attempted to capture some of these images and emotions in his "Holy Sonnets." These sonnets cover the gamut of human emotions associated with experiencing God's love and redemption. "Sonnet XIX" represents this exploration of human emotions, ranging from one… [read more]

Washington Irving's the Legend of Sleepy Hollow Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,669 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Washington Irvings "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"

In "Legend of Sleepy Hollow," the narrator subjects the reader to turns and twists of a subtle nature, in which our narrator only teasingly reveals the exploits of each covert storyteller wishes to disclose. Essentially, the work weaves a story within a story, a tale so complex that any argument, if focused on… [read more]

Madame Bovary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,083 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


Fate in Madame Bovary

Fate may be the same thing as destiny but with heavily negative connotations. For some reason even though fate can be positive too, in literature it has mostly been used as an evil naturalistic force that is cruel and doesn't help the characters involved. The word fate is frequently used in Gustave Flaubert's masterpiece, Madame Bovary. The novel is a classic with few known works to match its stature but it is as much influenced by the times in which it was written as any other.

Fate had probably been considered a very heavy influence because that is what we see in many novels of the Romantic age. Fate is considered cruel force which is out there to attack and hurt others. The truth however may be very different for someone who reads the work today. It can be clearly seen that Emma's inability to stay satisfied with her husband and her need for affairs were the cause of her downfall. Why did she have to blame fate and likewise why would everyone else blame fate when clearly their own actions have been anything but commendable. Fate is actually used as an easy scapegoat to hold responsible for one's own selfish actions.

This is clearly indicated by the scene when Rodolphe plans to leave Emma for he is not as committed to her as she would want him to be. He knows there are many women out there and he doesn't want to settle down just yet. In a selfishly written letter, Rodolphe blames fate for why their separation. It is clear how easily Rodolphe has dumped everything on fate as if ridiculing the very force:

shall not forget you, oh believe it; and I shall ever have a profound devotion for you; but some day, sooner or later, this ardour (such is the fate of human things) would have grown less, no doubt. Lassitude would have come to us, and who knows if I should not even have had the atrocious pain of witnessing your remorse, of sharing it myself, since I should have been its cause? The mere idea of the grief that would come to you tortures me, Emma. Forget me! Why did I ever know you? Why were you so beautiful? Is it my fault? O. my God! No, no! Accuse only fate."

Interestingly there are some strange ways in which Fate has appeared in the Madame Bovary. At times it may almost seem comical. For instance when Emma goes to theatre to watch Edgar, she is completely absorbed by everything surrounding this man. She is totally in love with him and blames fate for them never meeting:

All her small fault-findings faded before the poetry of the part that absorbed her; and, drawn towards this man by the illusion of the character, she tried to imagine to herself his life -- that life resonant, extraordinary, splendid, and that might have been hers if fate had willed it. They would have known… [read more]

Love We Hear Footsteps by Galway Kinnell Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,422 words)
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¶ … Love We Hear Footsteps by Galway Kinnell

The beauty of a good poem and the technique of a good poet, is the ability to capture a moment in time. A snapshot of a moment, but not just the visual explanation in words of what occurred, but the feelings and tones that were present so that the reader can… [read more]

Blake William Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,123 words)
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¶ … Tyger" and "The Lamb"

Different points-of-view come into consideration when we read William Blake's poetry. His poems of experience and innocence demonstrate this technique. Two examples of the poet expressing two points-of-view is seen in "The Tyger" and "The Lamb." These poems are excellent to compare and contrast because of their striking differences. Both poems see the subject's creator in different ways. In "The Tyger," the creator is presented as a powerful force that should be feared while in "The Lamb," the subject's creator is presented as good and kind force. In addition, the poet delves into the notions of experience and innocence creatively in these poems. While "The Tyger" is a poem about an aggressive creature, we see hints of innocence throughout it. Similarly, "The Lamb" is a poem an innocent creature but we see a tone of experience in it.

Both poems ask questions about a divine creator. "The Tyger," is a much more powerful poem than "The Lamb," asking questions in a more but the poet asks the same type of questions as he does in "The Lamb," but with a more daunting tone. For instance, the poet asks:

I, what distant deeps or skies

Burnt the fire of thine eyes?

On what wings dare he aspire?

What the hand dare seize the fire? (Tyger 5-8)

Here the poet presents us with an image of fire when questioning its creator, which is a striking contrast to the gentle images presented in "The Lamb." In "The Lamb," the poet presents us with a meek figure regarding its creator.

He is called by thy name,

For he calls himself a lamb;

He is meek and he is mild,

He became a little child; child and thou a lamb. (Lamb 13-17)

This image is one that can be considered as the opposite of the one we just examined. Here the creator is much more gentle in nature. It is also interesting to note how the poet interjects images of Jesus with his mention of meekness in regards to the lamb. One creator is fierce while the other meek. The poet must reconcile these two distinct impressions to ease his mind.

In "The Tyger," the creature is far from gentle; it is ferocious. We should note, however, that the poet is acknowledging that the tiger has the same creator that the lamb does when he writes:

When that stars threw down their spears

And water'd heaven with their tears,

Did he smile his work to see?

Did he who made the Lamb make thee? (Tyger 17-20)

Here the poet acknowledges the malevolence in the world. This contrast is significant because the poet knows that the same force that created the gentle lamb created the fierce tiger. The poet cannot easily answer the question about how the creator could create such opposite creatures but instead accepts it as part of the wonder of the creator. Even in its danger, the tiger is beautiful and that is where the poet finds… [read more]