"Literature / Poetry" Essays

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Spirituality of Christopher Okigbo Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Okigbo's Poetry

d) Early Works:

The spiritual underpinnings that helped to gain Okigbo a popular audience among both locals and Westerners stems from his own innate spirituality -- and that of his family and, perhaps, his tribe. The connection the author felt with his grandfather and the latter's spirituality took on decidedly literary tendencies in college (Fraser 22).… [read more]

Victorian Women Literature in 19Th Century Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  6 pages (1,663 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


¶ … social legacy and literary work of Victorian women. In the 19th, many Victorian women are very popular century because of their literary contributions during the era. Typically, Victorian women produced vast number of sensational and sentimental romantic poems and novels throughout the 19th century. While a large number of women had been recognized as writers, some women were… [read more]

Contrasting Ginsberg's Poetry Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (720 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Ginsberg Poems

The two poems by Allen Ginsberg -- "Howl" and "A Supermarket in California" -- are as dramatically different as any two Ginsberg poems. And yet they both have Ginsberg's cryptic tone albeit "Howl" goes far deeper into rage and contrarianism.

Ginsberg is universally known for his raging, angry poem "Howl" -- probably the best known of the beat poets' work. It is fair to say that most people who only casually pay attention to poetry -- and have heard of "Howl" -- have not the slightest idea that Ginsberg also produced a tribute to Walt Whitman in, of all places, a supermarket.

If those familiar with "Howl" would read and study "A Supermarket In California" they would have a radically different view of Ginsberg: "Howl" is like the echo of a hysterical drunken scream in a mental institution and "Supermarket" is like a cuddly mother reading a nursery rhyme before a preschooler's nap.

Howl vs. A Supermarket In California

"Howl" discusses drug and alcohol use in very graphic detail in his poem. He relates to stale beer, marijuana, peyote, Benzedrine, whiskey, insulin, Metrazol, opium, cigarettes, and "Junk-with-drawl" (heroin).

In vivid contrast to "Howl's" imagery using drugs and alcohol, "Supermarket" mentions the following less toxic items: fruit, peaches, avocados, tomatoes, watermelons, meats, pork chops, bananas, and artichokes,

Could any two poems by the same poet be any more dramatically different?

In "Howl," it's not just the mention of drugs and alcohol, it's the context of their usage. For example, "…Who burned cigarette hole in their arms protesting the narcotic tobacco haze of capitalism." And also, he uses graphic and seemingly unrelated items to create a series of crazy images: "who walked all night with their shoes full of blood on the snowbank docs waiting for a door in the East River to open to a room full of steam heat and opium…"

The "Supermarket" poem, which is a tribute to Walk Whitman -- who was well-known as a gay writer, as was Ginsberg -- takes the reader along for the ride. "Aisles full of husbands! Wives in the avocados, babies in the tomatoes!" How lovely and innocent…… [read more]

Victorian Lit Labor Issues the Key Concern A2 Outline Answer

A2 Outline Answer  |  6 pages (1,571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Victorian Lit

Labor Issues

The key concern is with the ethics, rights, and politics of labor and especially with working conditions in factories.

Dawn of Industrial Age

Modernized capitalist system, division of labor

"The Song of the Shirt," Thomas Hood: comments on textile mills and especially on their effect on the women that work in them. From the very first… [read more]

Art Spiegelman's Maus Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (897 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Maus: Subverting the Bilderverbot

In Maus, Art Spiegelman averts the ethics of depicting Holocaust memory by relying on the medium of graphic novel. The graphic novel violates Adorno's bilderverbot in a blatant way. Maus occupies the same zone as poetry: it is a representative literary art form. However, the validity of Adorno's statement that "to write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric" is questionable. Actual documentary evidence alone offers a weak and imperfect picture of suffering. In the same way that statistics often fail to tell the whole story, documentary evidence can lie. Poetry and perception are in many ways more reliable than documents, because they provide case study experiences and not just quantitative data. Poetry and graphic novels are endowed with the emotional content that makes Holocaust narratives meaningful. For this reason, Spiegelman's Maus subverts Adorno's Bilderverbot in a way that simultaneously honors Adorno's core concept of retaining the sacred nature of suffering.

Theodor Adorno despises trivialization. His admonishment of representative literature about the Holocaust is rooted in several assumptions. For one, Adorno believes that creative representations are sacrilegious in that they come too close to representing God's role in the world (Pritchard). Refraining from interpretation theoretically permits a more authentic human discourse to emerge. Second, Adorno believes that artistic representations of the Holocaust serve only to empower the Nazis and their sympathizers, giving these elements more of a voice than they deserve, while stripping away power from the victim. Victims can too easily become commercialized as well as trivialized. Adorno essentially believes there is a sacred nature to history and human suffering. The literary arts sully reality, destroying its purity. Furthermore, Adorno implies that silence has a powerful memorial capacity. When one survivor speaks, that person may inadvertently deny the right of the dead to speak. As potent as Adorno's view may be, silence is only one type of memorial activity. With too much silence, the risk of empowering the holocaust deniers grows (Richardson 5). Adorno may also be willfully ignoring the primary truth that the Holocaust was not a singular event but a culmination of centuries of barely hidden hostility towards the Jews embedded in nearly every pocket of European society. To claim that the Holocaust is uniquely sacred is to deny the relevance of all the pogroms in history.

Spiegelman therefore judiciously subverts every one of Adorno's claims to the validity and ethics of representative art of the Holocaust. Using the graphic novel, Spiegelman creates a postmodern narrative that is poignantly ironic. It is a biography and an autobiography rolled together in one, but it is drawn as a comic. The book teeters on the edge of trivializing the Holocaust, but never quite falls…… [read more]

Road Not Taken Analysis Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (972 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, it is important to realize that the narrator's described choices are not unpleasant ones; both paths look pleasant and he describes wanting to take both of them. Therefore, the yellow wood is not describing choosing between two difficult or unpleasant paths, but between two appealing alternatives.

The mood of the poem is contemplative. The narrator describes the two paths he faced in detail, describing both of them as appealing and making explanations as to why he chose one path over the other. The poem describes the narrator as making a choice to take one path first, not with the desire of abandoning the other path, but, instead, simply saving it for another day. Though the narrator describes that choice, there is also an acknowledgment that making the choice will almost certainly foreclose his other possibilities. In fact, the narrator specifically acknowledges, "Yet knowing how way leads on to way, / I doubted if I should ever come back" (Frost, 1916). Therefore, there is an acknowledgment that, by choosing one path, the narrator also made a choice not to take another path, even if there was no definitive rejection of that other path.

Frost uses a seemingly basic, but actually complex, structure in the poem. The poem is divided into four stanzas with five lines each. Frost uses rhyming in the poem, and his rhyme pattern is that lines one, three, and four all end with rhyming words, as do lines two and five. When read aloud, the poem has a basic iambic structure; it features an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, though there are some variations to the meter in the course of the poem, generally when Frost inserts an anapest in the form of two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable. Furthermore, Frost diverges from the standard iambic pentameter and uses four-beats instead. Therefore, it can be characterized as iambic tetrameter. The meter of the poem helps contribute to the mood when the poem is spoken, because it makes the words sound serious, without making them sound grave.

The narrator of the poem is described sufficiently in the poem to suggest a person who has past the first blush of youth, but is not yet an older person. The narrator relates, "I shall be telling his with a sigh / Somewhere ages and ages hence" (Frost, 2014). This suggests that the narrator expects to live for a significant period of time following the conclusion of the poem. Yet, the narrator has had some time and distance from the decision being discussed in the poem. He describes his choice of road as having "made all the difference," suggesting that there has been sufficient time for the narrator to realize the impact of that choice on his life up until the time of the poem.


Frost, R. (1916). The road not taken. Retrieved…… [read more]

Shared Rhetorical Strategy in 19Th Century British Fiction and Non Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


19th c Prose, Fiction and Non-Fiction

One crucial way in which English fiction and English non-fiction prose in the nineteenth century do inform each other is in the development of the grotesque as a rhetorical mode. Although "grotesque" is a somewhat loose critical category, it is nonetheless common in critical discourse in the period and since, and generally refers to… [read more]

Works of Sir Walter Scott Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,772 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


(Mackenzie, 2009)

Waverley is another piece of Scott's work that demonstrates and establishes his writing style. This is yet another piece of writing that exemplifies Scott's position as a true storyteller. He had a great ability to create and sustain a large cast of characters that were vivid and varied in of themselves. He developed these characters in their own… [read more]

Themes in Howl and Guernica Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This is another way that "Howl" expresses themes of freedom and happiness.

Many people associate the sound of a howl or the act of a howl with a wolf or a dog. Many people imagine a wolf or dog howling at the moon. Other animals besides dogs and wolves howl, such as howler monkeys, jackals, and coyotes. People have been… [read more]

Poetic Elements in Three Spiritual Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Inclusio (209): In Sample Poem 1 an instance of inclusio can be found when Thomas frames the beginning of his poem with images of growth, vitality and youthful vigor, before framing the end with images of death and decay.

Acrostic (2): None of the three sample poems use the structural element of acrostic.

Alliteration (12): An example of alliteration can be found in the last line of the second stanza of Sample Poem 1, when Thomas writes "How at the mountain spring the same mouth sucks." Three of the last five words in this line begin with the letter 's.' The last line of Sample Poem 2 also contains alliteration, as Hopkins writes "World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings," using five words beginning with the letter 'w' in a single line.

Assonance (33): This structural element can be found multiple times in Sample Poem 3 when Hopkins uses the same vowel sound multiple times in a line or stanza. An example of assonance in Sample Poem 3 is the line "And all is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toil;" as the "ear" vowel sound is repeated three times in succession.

Rhetorical Elements

Metaphor (256): Sample Poem 1 is rife with metaphor, as Thomas opens the poem by observing that "The force that through the green fuse drives the flower/Drives my green; that blasts the roots of trees/Is my destroyer./And I am dumb to tell the crooked rose/My youth is bent by the same wintry fever." By stating that his own life is driven by the same forces as the life of a tree, Thomas is using metaphor to draw comparisons between himself and the natural world. In the final line of the third stanza of Sample Poem 1, Thomas employs metaphor to describe the ways in which life comes full circle, writing "How of my clay is made the hangman's lime." By stating that his own clay -- or decomposed body upon burial -- is used to make the lime used by executioners to conceal the stench of death, Thomas is further extending the central metaphor of his poem.

Simile (408): In the second and third lines of Sample Poem 2, Hopkins uses simile to describe the ways in which the natural world is imbued with God's grandeur. The lines "It will flame out, like shining from shook foil;/It gathers to a greatness, like the ooze of oil" both employ simile, as the poet describes flashes of divinity as being like another…… [read more]

Walt Whitman: Death and Immortality Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,390 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Walt Whitman: Death and Immortality in Whitman's Verse

Walt Whitman has long been celebrated as one of America's most optimistic poets. However, like all 19th century authors, the omnipresence of war, death, and sickness in his society forced him to confront death on a regular basis and naturally this affected his poetic development and approach to his subjects. Whitman frequently contrasted the impermanent nature of the material world with the immortality of verse: although all living beings would die as part of the ebb and flows of the natural world, through his poetic gift he could convey immortality to the most ordinary creatures and people by showing how they all represented things larger than what they appeared.

In his poem "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking" Whitman exemplifies why he is so often labeled an American Romantic poet. The poem depicts the author as a child, happy and observing nature, when suddenly he is confronted with the specter of death in the form of the death of a mockingbird. The boy witnesses two birds, one a 'he-bird' the other a 'she-bird' and one day the female fails to return.

Till of a sudden,

May-be kill'd, unknown to her mate,

One forenoon the she-bird crouch'd not on the nest,

Nor return'd that afternoon, nor the next,

Nor ever appear'd again

The male bird, at least in the child's view of the world, is distraught, and Whitman the poet imagines what the bird's torment would sound like if articulated in human speech. "O night! do I not see my love fluttering out among the breakers? / What is that little black thing I see there in the white?" The bird scans the entire world around him -- the sky, the ocean, and the stars, looking for signs of its mate. Of course, Whitman is projecting his own anxieties upon the bird (he cannot truly know what the bird is thinking) and the bird's italicized voice sounds very Whitmanesque, full of cries of 'O,' speaking in free verse, and using personification such as asking the moon "What is that dusky spot in your brown yellow?" The bird is very human and obsessive in his quest to retrieve his lost love. Clearly, for the child Whitman in the poem, this experience is an unsettling reminder of the fact that the arbitrary nature of death is part of the inevitable order of the universe and is something we all must confront. The observation of the bird simultaneously awakens within Whitman a dread of death and also a desire to be a poet, which he both welcomes and fears. "Never again leave me to be the peaceful child I was before what there in the night" he cries. The desire to be immortal through verse is inspired by the bird that cannot actually speak his own obsessive desires, as Whitman channels his own poetic ambitions into the poem itself, using the bird as his muse. With poetry, the birds and the child Whitman become immortal and… [read more]

Social Facilitation, Social Inhibition Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


430) High social cohesion can lead to deterioration in the performance of a group when that group is not aware of how it is actually performing. The illusion of unanimity described as "a collective misconception of reality" may result from "conformism, groupthink, and group polarization." (Rovio, et al., 2009, p. 431)

Group cohesion is such that is reported to "nearly always been considered a positive quality." (Rovio, et al., 2009, p. 432) It is stated as well that there has been a dearth of research that reports that high cohesion among group members is linked to higher levels of performance.

Summary and Conclusion

Groupthink while demonstrating a high level of social cohesion can result in deterioration in the performance of the group in instances where the group is under a false illusion of their performance levels. Social facilitation results in higher levels of performance on the part of members of the group while social inhibition results in lower levels of performance on the part of members of the group. Social loafing is a phenomenon that results in a lessened effort on the part of members of the group since group members tend to rely on their fellow team members to pick up their slack in task performance.

Various individual behaviors can be mitigated within the group and in this study the behavior of social loafing was chosen and the method of mitigating this specific behavior targeted through use of task interdependence among group members. This results in all team members relying on one another however, with each group member being assigned a specific task that is their alone to accomplish. Group cohesion is generally held as positive for the group's performance however, in some cases, the cohesion of a group is counterproductive.

Works Cited

Klehe, UC, Anderson, N., and Hoefnagels, EA (2007) Social Facilitation and Inhibition During Maximum vs. Typical Performance Situations. Human Performance, 20(3), 223-239. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&ved=0CFYQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fpublication%2F228489268_Social_facilitation_and_inhibition_during_maximum_versus_typical_performance_situations%2Ffile%2Fe0b495236dce132488.pdf&ei=Ji9LUtW7DOfi4AP7gYHQDg&usg=AFQjCNEILSkosHlyJ1cqNRKN9h02NlV1Dg&sig2=tfNVahZuqSCqEibjgfDmPw&bvm=bv.53371865,d.dmg

Piezon, S. And Donaldson, RL (n.d.) Online Groups and Social Loafing: Understanding Student-Group Interactions. Retrieved from: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter84/piezon84.htm

Rovio, E. (2009) Can High Group Cohesion Be Harmful? A Case Study of a Junior High Ice-Hockey Team. Sage Publishers.

Social Psychology Week 5: The Virtual Office… [read more]

Oedipus Exemplifies or Refutes Aristotle Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,019 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Oedipus's downfall has been instigated by his own ambition, presumption and pride, and he was a person who via his innocent was put into his present status that changed his life and that of his relations forever. His fate influences the emotions' of the audience. According to Aristotle, a tragic hero is an individual who is not superior in justice and virtue, experiences transition to misfortune not because of wickedness and vice, but because of some mistakes (Bloom 19). Just like a tragic hero, Oedipus had good fortune and great reputation, and he acted in a manner that was suitable for the circumstances and situation. However, a general misconception of the personality of a tragic hero depicted through Aristotle's definition focus on the misunderstanding of the word tragic flaw or hamartia. Oedipus misfortune is because of hubris or too much pride. Hubris refers to total arrogance, pride or self-importance, and it makes an individual to mislay the meaning of reality and instead think that they are more capable and self-sufficient. Oedipus never knew that he had made great errors that eventually triggered his tragedy.


According to Aristotle's theory and definition of a tragic hero, the tragic hero must be of high social standing and noble given that only a noble person can fall deeply (Bloom 19). A very crucial quality of a tragic hero described through admirable traits is tragic flaw. This refers to personal errors that lead to the downfall of an individual. According to Aristotle, the best approach to form a plan of literary work is through developing a complex plot. Such a plot allows the writer to form a practical demonstration of real-life with a perfect tragedy exuding tragic pleasure. Sophocles depicts Oedipus as a virtuous and noble person liked by many people. Aristotle claims that a tragic hero is an essentially good person, but flawed. Similarly, Oedipus is a noble person who is liked by the people of Thebes. He by mistake married his mother and accidentally killed his father. He does not know of his past mistakes initially, but he has a hand in his tragic end following the revelation of his dark past. Oedipus ambition and goals to look and punish Lauis' killers leads him to discovering reality of his parents and he falls into shame after realizing his spousal connection with his own mother. Notwithstanding his nobility and greatness, Oedipus cast himself to exile and gouges out his eyes. Through the complex plot, Oedipus noble characters, moral principles, greatness, and reversal of fortune that instigated Oedipus' tragic end, Sophocles epitomizes Aristotle's definition of a tragic hero

Work Cited

Bloom, Harold. Oedipus Rex. Texas: Infobase Publishing, 2007.

Grene David. Sophocles. Oedipus the king. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010

Kahan Jeffrey . King Lear: New critical essays. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Madden Frank. Exploring literature: Writing and arguing about fiction, poetry, drama and the essay. Pearson Education Canada, 2008

Ormand, Kirk. A companion to Sophocles. London: John Wiley & Sons, Mar 5, 2012.… [read more]

Good Man Is Hard Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The individuals can refrain from becoming evil in case they are informed and educated about the evil behaviors and the impact of such behaviors on themselves and society. The acts of violence are originated through evil and are also mastered by the cruelty. The acts of brutality become behavioral patterns and human beings are least concerned about the impacts of such behaviors on them and other members of society.

The violent characters are also found in fiction and drama throughout medieval age. The French drama and fiction stories are famous for their violent characters. The societies passing through the ages of violence, wars, low moral standards, and lawlessness appear to incorporate their surrounding characters within their drama, theater, and cultural poetry. The acts of cruelty were dramatized and presented in theater. The audiences were also receptive of these arts as it resonated with their culture and society. The fashions literature and rhetoric created by the poets was also through the self-torture where the writer rhetoric both the characters including the aggressor and victim (Enders, and Bevington).

The idea of presenting violence, torture, and cruelty through fiction is a dangerous combination in which the related laws, drama, and poetry cannot present the lighter side of art and culture. The medieval authors presented the sufferings and culture of their societies. The French authors not only harmed their credibility in metaphor but at the same time the audience of these drams and fiction were also taught unethical practices. These included that finding truth through torture and violence. The creativeness within the drama and fiction was also damaged through projecting violence and the phenomenon that physical pain cannot resist language and it has to take a medium to flow out of the creative minds (Enders, and Bevington).


Baumeister, Roy F. Evil: Inside human violence and cruelty. Macmillan, 1999.

Enders, Jody, and David Bevington. "The Medieval Theater of Cruelty: Rhetoric, Memory, Violence." Early Theatre 4 (2001): 154-156.

Williams, Arthur Hyatt. Cruelty, violence, and murder: Understanding the criminal…… [read more]

Explication Poem Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Curse Against Elegies

Beginning with the title, the reader should know that this poem will not be a happy or joyous one. Curses are wishes, words, even spells that others cast upon people so that pain, misfortune, and general negative things will befall them. Elegies are typically poems of lament, of sadness, with a sort of song quality about them. "A Curse Against Elegies" then is a wish for harm to come upon this particular form of poetry.

The poem begins with a question by the author or narrator to the abstraction of love, as if love were a person with whom we could converse physically, but certainly, anyone who has been on the bad side of love has thought or spoken words or questions to love, wondering why or what. "Oh, love, why do we argue like this?" is the first line of this poem. The question implies a poor relationship with love in which there is constant arguing. The narrator does not converse with love, or even debate with love -- the narrator argues with love. The author is tired of love's "pious talk." Pious talk, or to be pious is to be devoted and to be conspicuously religious, including the act of worship. The narrator is sick of this kind of talk from love, but we do not know about what exactly -- about love itself? Is the narrator sick of the pious talk from love and about love? In any case, the narrator is done with the arguing and done with the piety. Perhaps the narrator expresses the need to be done with talk of love and love in general.

Moving on into the first stanza, the narrator claims that she is tired of dead people and tired of love trying to communicate with the dead. She claims that the dead do not listen, or rather refuse to listen, and that love should leave them alone. She urges love to move away from the dead, to get out of the graveyard because the dead are "busy being dead." (Sexton, line 7) The remainder of the stanza implies some of the author's/narrator's thoughts about life and about death. The death, apparently, are just as busy with death as the living are busy with life. In some way, life goes on, even during death, insofar there are things to keep the dead occupied and too busy to pay any attention to or listen to the voice of love; therefore, love's attempts to communicate to the dead or with the dead are futile because they are too busy whatever one does in the afterlife.

The author is telling love what to do, which goes against how many people perceive the nature of love to be like. People perceive love to be something that overwhelms and controls a person, something with which there is no reasoning. Love has a power all its own that people cannot tame or control, yet with these words, the author tries to do… [read more]

Hedda Gabler: Appearance vs. Reality the Foundations Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hedda Gabler: Appearance vs. Reality

The foundations of the poetic work are in correspondence with the destiny of human beings and their social stature. The moods of the poet are also reflected through the work. Hedda Gabler was a publication in Copenhagen in 1980. It is also remarked as the first work of Ibsen's plays that are published in the… [read more]

Human Heart in Conflict With Itself Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Elisa Allen and Neddy Merril. Identification and Realization of the Self

What John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums" and John Cheever's "The swimmer" have in common is their symbolic nature underneath a story that resembles what may appear as representations of typical events in one's life. Underneath that appearance though, there is a layer of internal struggle culminating with self identification of… [read more]

Walt Whitman Grew to Fame Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As such, the reader can consider them emblematic of the residents of the country in general. The first victim is an elderly man, the second is a young boy. This disparity in age is highly important, because it symbolizes all the citizens of the country from children to adults. Also, the repetition of this simple question reinforces the notion that these people could actually be anyone in America, since the author does not know them. This notion, coupled with the fact that these people have been victimized -- more than likely during the time in which the Civil War occurred since Whitman lived through it and was profoundly affected by its outbreak -- is used by the author to demonstrate the theme of the poem, that America and its citizens are hurting.

Finally, it is worth noting that Whitman uses figurative language to emphasize the fact that there are religious implications to the despair that America is facing. The older man who the narrator uncovers represents all of the country's older generation. The young boy who the narrator encounters symbolizes the youth of the country. Both individuals are severely wounded. Yet the third individual is also equally injured, and certainly denotes religious connotations. It is significant to note that the third figure is the only one whom the narrator recognizes, which the subsequent quotation demonstrates. "Young man I think I know you -- I think this face is the face of the / Christ himself, / Dead and divine and brother of all, and here again he lies" (Whitman). The fact that Whitman recognizes the third individual as a divinity explains why he employed copious amounts of anaphora when stating that he did not know the other two figures. The fact that there are three wounded individuals is highly important, because it is a figurative allusion to the trinity which is integral to Christianity. Literally, Christ is not a "brother" to all, but figuratively he is. Therefore, the fact that Christ is depicted in this poem as "dead" symbolizes the fact that America's Christian religion (which is supposed to operate as a brotherhood as well) is as ineffective as though it were dead itself -- especially when the country was sundered during the Civil War and brothers were killing one another and the country itself was figuratively dying.

In summary, Whitman uses three literary conventions or aesthetic elements to support his theme that American and the religion that supported it is in despair. He employs alliteration to symbolize the serpent and denote the sense of foreboding in the narrator's walking, he utilizes anaphora to reinforce the notion that the first harmed two individuals could represent anyone in the country since the narrator does not recognize them, and he figurative language to allude to the death of Jesus and the religious implications of the country's downfall.

Works Cited

Whitman, Walt. "The Necklace." Valleau, Al and Jack Finnbogason, eds. The Nelson Introduction to Literature, 2nd…… [read more]

Keats Dickinson, Keats and Eliot Build Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (921 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Dickinson, Keats and Eliot Build a Bridge

There is a tendency in certain academic disciplines to encamp either on the side of tradition or modernity. In the sciences, the constant thrust toward evolution suggests a certain predilection for modernization. In history, the preservation of tradition is of the utmost importance if we are to appreciate its impact on the present. However, perhaps poetry is a discipline well suited to the argument that such clear lines of distinction need not necessarily be drawn. This may be the best context through which to examine the claim by writer Octavio Paz that "between tradition and modernity there is a bridge."

This is an idea which is well exemplified in well-loved poetic works by Emily Dickinson, T.S. Eliot and John Keats.

For instance, Emily Dickinson's 1862 piece, #303, also sometimes referred to as "The Soul Selects Her Own Society," is a perfect demonstration of how the poet must embrace tradition and modernity at once. In a piece that characterizes love or friendship as something singular, exclusive and, to an extent, even limiting, Dickinson borrows heavily from the rhyming couplet styles that occupy the works of Shakespeare. Known to be one of the poet's great influences, his stamp is on the angular rhyming scheme seen in this particular piece. For instance, in the first stanza, Dickinson writes,

"The soul selects her own society / Then shuts the door; / on her divine majority /

Obtrude no more."

This poetic phrasing could fit inconspicuously into a piece of counsel offered by one of Shakespeare's more morose jesters. In this way, the work fits within a certain classical poetic tradition. Simultaneously though, its theme and its context suggest a piece that is progressive in nature. First and foremost is the very fact that it was produced by a poetess in the middle of the 19th century. Literature being largely dominated by men, Dickinson would have no choice but to straddle a certain line toward modernity even if her work was largely traditional. Add to this equation a slant toward individuality which permeates #303, and Dickinson also betrays a certain inherently American ideological thrust. The concept of individuality which would be quite critical to the reclusive Dickinson, would evolve as an ideal just as America itself moved toward modernization.

Another poem which exhibits this counterbalance, Keats' 1819 Ode to a Nightingale employs one of the most decidedly traditional forms to convey his work. A devastating mediation on the mortality of man, Keats' poem utilizes the classic English template of the Ode to at once extol the virtues of the nightingale's immortal song and to lament that man's lot is not so fortunate.

Keats utilizes the irregular scheme and iambic pacing common to the form and utilizes them…… [read more]

Japanese Literature Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Yoshimoto writes a strange, somewhat surreal story called "Newlywed." Ryu Murakami writes a gritty, but somewhat lyrical story called "Almost Transparent Blue." Yoshimoto's story takes place in a very short span of time. A man married to a woman named Atsuko, gets drunk in a bar and takes the metro/subway home. One the train he encounters what he thinks is a smelly, older homeless man. When the train empties, the homeless man silently and suddenly transforms into an attractive adult woman. They have a pleasant, albeit strange conversation about life and love. Murakami's story begins in a dirty apartment of a young woman, a recreational drug user, or possibly a junkie. It is an odd story with an odd perspective in that the author is one of the characters in the story. The characters, primarily the young woman, speak to Murakami because he is there. He is both in the story and the writer of the story. This is an interesting, albeit strange stylistic choice, for the author of the story to be a main character in the story that he is writing and that the reader is reading. These stories retain some similarities, yet are very clearly distinctive. The paper will perform a comparison and analysis of the stories, including character, story, and text.

"Newlywed" at first, is written in short sentences. The story begins in media res, in the middle of things. The protagonist, the unnamed male, has already gotten drunk on whisky with friends. The protagonist is freshly married to a superficially lovely wife, Atsuko. Despite his new marital bliss, he actively avoids going home. He does not want to be in his home with his wife, which is why is he is on the train in the first place, when the homeless man/beautiful woman enters the train car.

The presence of the homeless struck me instantly. I have had the opportunity to travel to Japan in the past, and though it is unnamed, I presume that this takes place in some major city, such as Tokyo, which upon completing the story, I realized my instinct was correct. Even in the major cities, there is not much homelessness. Furthermore, relative to the homelessness in a country, such as the United States, the homeless in Japan are cleaner and "better off." In fact, in Japan, the homeless are relatively unseen, especially in public places like the subway. The presence of a homeless man on a subway in Japan is fairly strange and rare. The presence of the homeless in this place immediately alerted me that this would be a strange story. Once the other passengers left the train, and the homeless man transformed, my hunch that this story was abnormal solidified.

As "Newlywed," progresses, the sentences get longer. The thoughts become more complex and more poetic. The story seems like maybe a drunken hallucination, but it turns out to be more about the man's emotional state and his desires. The conversation with the woman makes him… [read more]

Poetry Class I Have Experienced Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I eventually learned that poetry is more of a combination of feeling and intention that melds together in a compassionate or moving piece. The use of poetry to express oneself cannot be underestimated as the act itself is liberating and removes fear and doubt in the practice of self-expression and evolution.

I enjoyed spending time with my fellow students during this class. I felt that most of us had the same attitude towards poetry and the class itself making this group a very comfortable and typical selection of students. Reading and analyzing my fellow student poetry definitely gave me more confidence in my own work while at the same time allowing me to enjoy some o of the artistic capabilities of my fellow classmates. Everyone is an artist and everyone who can write poetry. I know this now after taking this course and fell much more aligned with the principles and history of this art.

The class could be improved by introducing more modern poets and crossing over into different realms of literature. The actual lives of the poets should also be included more in these studies as the context behind many of the poems are often more interesting than the poems themselves. I now see poets as any one as I see this art form bleed into other areas of art such as music…… [read more]

Oneself Through Poetry Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


He then reinforces the how Whitman's quote builds upon Hughes' quote. The writer also establishes that Whitman also helped to inspire the rhyme and rhythm scheme, which gives the writer's poem structure.

The third poem the writer chose was Neruda's "We Are Many." He proceeds to explain why this poem was chosen, what difficulties he had with the poet and the poem, and establish how it influenced his poem. I believe that choosing a poet the writer struggled with, he is able to translate his personal struggle of understanding to the subject of the poem, which helps to make it more personal.

One of the most important aspects the writer touched upon in the explanation was his opinion of the effectiveness of the exercise and his opinion on writing poetry. He concludes his explanation by stating that he found that incorporating quotes from other poets was easier than writing a poem from scratch. I found this closing statement interesting and am curious to find out how the writer would have approached creating a poem from scratch and how he thinks a 100% original poem would have differed from the poem he wrote. Would have it been more personal? Would it have been the similar and focused on…… [read more]

Wanna Hear a Poem Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  1 pages (307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It offers students the opportunity to talk about what poetry means to them personally and how they think poetry should exist in its present-day form. How is poetry still relevant? Of course, Coleman's poem is noteworthy for its effective use of repetition and other poetic devices, and can be discussed in the abstract as well as a social product.

Finally, discussing slam poetry raises the question of what are the differences between spoken and written poetry. Once upon a time, all poetry was oral poetry. Now poetry is often seen as something 'written' and thus intended to be deconstructed, unlike the lyrics of a song. Slam seems to bridge the divide between heard lyrics and written poetry. So is it fair or worthwhile to 'read' a slam poem as literature at all? This would be an excellent question to end…… [read more]

Poetry That Grabs Your Attention Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  1 pages (362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Modern poetry does not have to be about epic subjects such as fights between the gods and great men and women: it can be about ordinary people like you and me. It does not even have to be about the natural world, but also about human nature and common aspects of industrialized city life. The poet understands that the humble Laundromat can be like ancient jungle 'watering holes' where everyone crowds in, looking for some sort of a connection with other beings despite their wariness of strangers. She also is very clever in her use of humor, not-so-subtly bringing up that Laundromats are frequently pick-up scenes with her use of Amazon metaphors: "I want to lie down in the dry dung/and dust and twist to scratch my back. I want to / stretch and prowl and grow lazy in the shade," she writes, even though of course, just like everyone else the Laundromat, she is likely to leave unfulfilled, with her clothes clean and little else to show for her adventure in the wilderness of the Laundromat.… [read more]

Ages a Woman Addressing God Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  1 pages (327 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


That is actually what I like so much about poetry. It focuses much more upon the writer's internal emotional state vs. external events like most forms of prose. An internal prayer can become a dramatic incident, in the hands of a skilled poet. A good poet does not need drama worthy of a high-concept special effects Hollywood movie or the drama of a soap opera to hold the reader's attention. I do agree that 'something has to happen' for a poem to be compelling, but as long as the writer makes the subject feel significant with his or her effective use of language, I think it is still possible to write a great poem on an apparently mundane subject. Another question which arises is if Bly's concept of great poetry is gendered: because women, by virtue of their experiences, often have tended to write on domestic subjects, it is arguable that this has caused their poetry to be devalued in comparison to…… [read more]

Adrienne Rich "The One Constant Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Adrienne Rich

"The one constant in Adrienne Rich's poetry has been change and successive self-transformation," (cited by Emmitt 226). Transformation is a work used often when referring to Adrienne Rich's life, perspective, and poetry. Eulogizing Rich formally in "A Tribute to Adrienne Rich," Bialosky writes, "Adrienne demolished the myths and obsessions of gender, race, and class, and recognized poetry's transformative potential" (Bialosky 11). Rich addresses personal and political transformation in light of gender and identity. The corpus of Rich's work changed, transformed, and shifted over time to account for the poet's personal growth and also for the cultural, political, and social changes that provide necessary context. Much of Rich's work is about personal issues related to gender. However, as Clark points out, Rich's later work in the 21st century is "marked by an intensified focus on global suffering that highlights the importance and complexity of ethical questions in her work," (46). Rich did not wait until the 21st century to explore global issues related to gender, though. The concern for global suffering even emerges in Rich's earlier poems and is not in itself something new. All of Rich's poetry is, pun intended, rich with imagery, symbolism, and political import. The more the reader encounters the poetry of Adrienne Rich, the clearer it becomes that the poet remains firmly aligned with the concept of universal human suffering.

Three of Rich's poems that illustrate her concern with universal suffering are "Diving into the Wreck," "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers," and the opening passages of "An Atlas of the Difficult World." These three poems exemplify the fact that the more one encounters Rich's work, the more it becomes apparent that Rich is talking about more than gender issues. Gender issues do, however, remain salient political and personal topics in Rich's poems.

In "Diving into the Wreck," Rich relies heavily on symbolism and imagery to convey central themes related to universal suffering. The poem is literally about diving to a wreck, as the title suggests. Beyond that, though, the poem "reflects her interest in feminism, taking the form of a heroic quest," ("Overview: 'Diving into the Wreck'."). The reference to a "heroic quest" derives directly from the first line of the poem, which reads, "First having read the book of myths." The line alludes to Homer's Odyssey, which evokes tales of quest, loneliness, and identity. In "Diving into the Wreck," the narrator spends some time describing the equipment and the conditions of the dive. Unlike Cousteau and "his assiduous team," the narrator is "here alone," (first stanza). Then, the narrator delves into the deep. Diving is a symbol for going into the human subconscious mind. The inner realms of the human being are as uncharted as the waters of the sea. When the narrator dives, she loses her sense of self and humanity. She becomes one with nature and thus, like an animal. "My flippers cripple me, / I crawl like an insect down the ladder / and there is no one / to tell me… [read more]

Whitman Lens Walt Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The sidewalk finished the job.

By then he'd survived two wives and a triple bypass. He carried the plastic tubing in his pocket and would show it to you, to anyone.

He'd unbutton his shirt right there on the street to show off the scar.

Bloch was not scared at all to tackle the uglier aspects of life without trying to put any positive spin on them. Whitman by contrast, when having to deal with the dead bodies of the civil war, called each one Christ's who's death would not be in vain as they served a worthy role in the war. For Whitman, the massive slaughter of young soldier-Christs would create for all those who survived the war an obligation to construct a nation worthy of their great sacrifice. The America that Whitman would write of after the Civil War would be a more chastened, less innocent nation, a nation that had gone through its baptism in blood and one that would from now on be tested against the stern measure of this bloodshed[footnoteRef:4]. Therefore, unlike the perspective Bloch paints in some of her poems about just accepting the uglier side of life, Whitman seemed to be more apt to try to find more positive meaning in such events. [4: (Price and Folsom)]

Works Cited

Bloch, C. "The New World." Michigan Quarterly Review (2003). Online.

Dresser, J. "Chana Bloch's "Blood Honey" makes sweetness out of life's harsh moments." 20 November 2009. Examiner. Online. 10 April 2013.

Harris, W. "Whitman's Leaves of Grass and the Writing of a New American Bible." Walt Whitman Quarterly Review (1999): 172-190. Online.

Price, K. And E. Folsom. "About…… [read more]

Othello, the Moor of Venice Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,772 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


These two flaws, when combined with his primary flaw of assigning truth to the words of individuals who are (in some cases) poignantly deriding him with their lies) make it impossible for one to consider Othello a tragic hero.

Othello possess far too many character flaws to be a true Aristotelian tragic hero -- since he is not such a hero, then this work of literature is not a true Aristotelian tragedy. The whole point of a tragic figure is that he or she is someone who possesses rare, desirable qualities which, in combination with fate and one tragic character flaw, succeeds in overtaking his or her life and making everything wrong that was previously right. Othello's triad of faults -- wrathfulness, credulousness, and a physical weakness -- effectively makes it impossible for audiences to sympathize with him since so much of the negative vicissitudes he endures are due to his own flaws. A true tragic hero seemingly does all he or she can to overcome fate and circumstances. In some ways, Othello does all he can to exacerbate his fate and the circumstances dictating it.


Andrews, M.C. (1973). "Honest Othello: the handkerchief once more." Studies in English Literaute, 1500-1900. 13 (2): 273-284.

Aristotle. (2008). The Poetics of Aristotle. Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1974/1974-h/1974-h.htm

Bell, M. (2002). Shakespeare's Tragic Skepticism. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Schwartz, E. (1970). "Stylistic "impurity" and the meaning of Othello." Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. 10 (2): 297-313.

Seamen, J.E. (1968). "Othello's Pearl." Shakespeare Quarterly. 19 (1): 81-85.

Shakespeare, W. (1603). Othello. www.shakespeare.mit.edu. Retrieved from http://shakespeare.mit.edu/othello/full.html… [read more]

Historical Novel in Victorian Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13


¶ … Tale of Two Cities is long-lasting evidence to the best, and an intense analysis of the worst of human nature. Charles Dickens set out to make the French Revolution live in the minds and hearts of the reader. Human suffering is not the only problem that faced the French people in the 18th Century. With all the injustices… [read more]

Native American Poetry Reading: Natalie Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" The poem's tone was a welcome shift from Diaz's. While Diaz's poem was languid and serious, White's poem was humorous and about the subject of writing itself. "But the c stuck between the b and d eats itself and the page will taste how desperate language is. If you peel a sheet of paper, you will find letters who have eaten themselves: the a who chewed itself until it became a dot on paper and the z who ingested itself until it was a tiny line on a page." Even when the poem shifts to a darker tone: "And their bones are scattered like dry grains of ink on a white sheet. / I think of their deaths: the stiff face of a choked letter, the broken jaw of an e, the throat of an f slit open," White's inflections allow him to maintain a delicate balance between wit and describing the poignant difficulty of writing.

Although the poem is about the act of writing on the page, White gives each letter a distinct tone and character. His body language, use of pauses and his evident delight in words allows the listeners to more fully appreciate the irony of the work than they might otherwise, had they merely encountered it in print. Listening to a work of poetry encourages a 'savoring' of each word, both in the voice of the poet and in the ears of the listener. This is why it is so important to hear poetry, not merely read it even if (or perhaps especially) you are convinced that poetry is 'not for you.' These poets of the Native American oral tradition who fuse both their cultural sensibility with contemporary American modern and postmodern poetic techniques are examples of how listening to poetry in the voice of the writer brings out formerly hidden dimensions of…… [read more]

Death in the Poetry Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


" One may interpret this to be safe from the pain that comes with being alive. It is curious that the speaker proclaims the "meek" sleep in their coffins. This could be interpreted to mean the dead have not risen to heaven, thus no resurrection. The last stanza of this poem alludes to the fact that humanity is indifferent to the dead, the dead have no effect on or relationship with the living.

Finally, poem XXXIII which begins "I died for beauty, but was scarce / Adjusted in the tomb / When one who died for truth was lain / In an adjoining room" (Dickinson, p.151, Lines 1-4) is a dialog between two who have "failed" one for beauty and one for truth. The reality of this poem is that despite the ideals these people lived for, in the end they are powerless against the human condition and must ultimately surrender in to inevitability of death. The poem makes one wonder about life's meaning.


The light at the end of the final rotation, of the final revolution, was not as bright as a billion stars.

Not as dark as the black hole.

that embraced the sweet rotting remains of the valiant struggle for naught.

But gray -- like the flannel suit worn by the sky before the inevitable rain.

Dickinson's ambiguity about this subject reflects the way we all feel at times when contemplating the meaning of our lives and great unknown that is our ultimate destination. Her poems are short vignettes invoking a perspective on death that is multidimensional. Each of these perspectives is valid when contemplating the subject as we know little about what actually happens when…… [read more]

Clifton Poetry Response Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  1 pages (309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The second analysis, that of the poem "My Dream of Being White" is also sparse. In fact, it is limited to two sentences and does not provide enough insight into either the poem or the author's analysis of it.

Lastly, the author of this analysis talks about imagery and figurative language. In this, the author is more successful in making convincing arguments. The idea of interpreting the word "mountain" as an indicator of strength is particularly interesting. When the word is used, strength is not the immediate adjective that comes to mind. Within the context of Clifton's poems it does make sense that she would use something large and permanent to represent strength when the dynamics of male and female, and the dynamics of ethnicities are concerned.… [read more]

Lucille Clifton Poetry Response Interestingly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (357 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


From there, the author seems to get more personally involved in the analysis, explaining that as a white male, he does not feel the responsibility or culpability that Clifton seems to be demanding from her words. It becomes rather a scathing indictment of this type of writing, where the oppressed individual in speaking for the rest of their ethnicity takes a stand against the majority population. It is an understandable perspective, but at the same time it perhaps leaves the realm of scholarly discourse and becomes more about personal emotion towards a subject.

The indictments are not given specific examples and I would ask the author of this analysis to clarify exactly where he sees stereotyping and where he sees a call for the white majority to feel guilt. Perhaps explaining these opinions with clear citation of specific source material would help readers understand his perspective and what in Clifton's work he finds…… [read more]

Post and Other Thoughts Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  1 pages (333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This oppression knows no race, is not visible, and is the whip of the one percent of the population that controls 40% of the wealth with the support of the 20% that control 80%.

Just as Knight's loss of his love is an expression of his reaction to the circumstances of his time and his experiences, this post drives me to consider my reaction to the current news from the Middle East, Wall Street, Connecticut, and the streets and highways of our nation and ponder if Knights anger and despair has only morphed. After all if we lose love and hope the only thread left is faith. Given the current circumstances I wonder if this is enough.

Works Cited

Knight, Ethridge. "Feeling Fucked up." From The Essential Etheridge Knight, University of Pittsburg…… [read more]

Edgar Allan Poe -1849) Poem

Poem  |  8 pages (2,918 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Thomas's "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night" is an extended plea to his father to continue battling death and fight to live. In order to achieve his goal, Thomas writes the poem in a villanelle format -- a 19-line poem that relies on repetition. The poem is divided into six stanzas, the first of which introduces the purpose… [read more]

Things Fall Apart Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,069 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


All this is demanded by the goddess of the earth but Okonkwo apparently believes he is above that august goddess's edict because he was "…not the man to stop beating somebody halfway through, not even for fear of a goddess (p. 30).

Moreover, the father of the bride in the Ibo culture is the one who decides the person his daughters will be married to. In fact, Okonkwo becomes negotiator in the matter of a price for his daughter to become a man's bride.

The associate professor of English at Auburn University, Donald Wehrs, reports that Okonkwo beats his second wife "on a slight pretext" and "impulsively shoots at her when she mocks him." The Ibo culture sets the pride of a male well above the safety and sanctity of a female, Wehrs explains. As for Okonkwo, he has too much pride to acknowledge the fact that he actually does love his second wife Ekwefi.

According to Ibo culture, Wehrs points out, the pride of a man has to be incredibly strong and willfully brutal if it needs to be. As to the relationship between Okonkwo and Ekwefi, she was a gorgeous young woman and he wanted her but the problem was he didn't have the resources to pay the price her father was asking. That said, a few years later she walked out on her husband and joined Okonkwo's group of wives (Wehrs).

Did the European colonialists destroy the Igbo culture?

Achebe was asked this question by Chima Anyadike in the journal Philosophia Africana. Achebe answered that the Igbo culture "…was not destroyed by Europe. It was disturbed. I was disturbed very seriously," the author replied. A "healthy culture" will survive this kind of foreign and cultural intervention, he continued, but it will not survive "exactly in the form in which it was met by the invading culture" (Anyadike, 2007, p. 1).

"This is the great thing about culture," he told Anyadike. "If it is alive…the people who own it will ensure that they make adjustments; they drop what can no longer be carried in transition." In the process of flushing out the fact that the author believes the Igbo culture will survive, Anyadike takes time to give Okonkwo "his due," since he rose from what is seen as a "heroic defense of his culture, sacrificing everything he worked so hard for all his life and ultimately throwing that life away in the struggle." Why did he commit suicide? Anyadike believes that Okonkwo had "the courage to make the ultimate sacrifice in defense of his sense of this dignity" (p. 2).

In conclusion, whether or not the Igbo culture was permanently ruined, it is a breath of fresh air to know the colonial powers have gone back to Europe and whatever happens next to African countries -- civil war, tyrants seizing power from the barrel of a gun, or peaceful democratic stability -- it is the African people making those decisions, not intruders from far away.

Works Cited

Achebe,… [read more]

Revenge in the Ancient Greek Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


On the whole, the plot of Antigone is far milder than that of Agamemnon, where there is little sense of the main characters understanding the error of their ways. Whereas Clytaemestra's ambition blinds her to her own mistakes, Creon, the new king of Thebes in Antigone, begins his reign by doing what he believes is necessary to establish his rule. When he is defied by Antigone, however, his drive for justice is so strong that he is blind to all advice to the contrary. As a final outcome, he loses both his wife and son, while he never has the opportunity to repair the damage he has done to the lives of Antigone and Ismene.

In this play, the focus on revenge is far less prominent than a sense of respect for the gods and ancestry. Because Creon would not honor Antigone's wish to honor the body of her brother according to her ancestral customs, he ends the play a broken man, utterly alone in the world. He is still king, but he has nothing left that brought meaning to his kingship. Rather than revenge, the play is therefore a warning against defying the customs established by the ancestry, regardless of the motive behind it.

The play Medea probably offers the most extreme of revenge themes. The play opens with Jason's betrayal of Medea, his wife and mother to his two children by taking another wife. Regardless of all Medea did for him in an attempt to win him the throne, the whole family is exiled for murdering the king. One might regard it as an act of revenge that Jason took a new wife, although this is not the central revenge of the play. After Jason's betrayal, it is Medea that plots revenge, and it is her revenge that also removes everything she cares for from her. After securing her own freedom in the form of protection by Aetreus, and old friend and king, Medea vows to kill not only Jason's new bride and the bride's father, but also her own children. This final extreme action is justified by her wish to wound Jason, but also to protect the children from harm at the hands of her enemies. Of course, the Chorus is completely against this plan and begs her to reconsider. Medea's violent heart, however, is set upon revenge. She succeeds. Jason finds her and her murdered children in a chariot drawn by dragons. She mocks him and they both blame the other for what has happened. There is no remorse on either side.

In contrast to the other plays discussed above, Medea's revenge is solely personal. She makes no attempt to justify it either morally, as Achilles did, or from a divine viewpoint, like Clytaemestra. She is simply angry and this anger drives her towards actions that are the highpoint of extreme. Medea escapes with her life, but with nothing else. As such, her revenge is complete, violent, and brings nobody anything but pain. In terms of… [read more]

Doubt Literature and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Literature and Society: Doubt and the Penn State Scandal

Child molestation is a complex topic, not only because of the far-reaching and unknown effects of the horrific trauma that can be caused but also because of the secrecy in which it takes place and the power politics that often come into play in its discovery and the resulting fallout. John Patrick Shanley's play Doubt and the recent Penn State child-abuse scandal both provide opportunities to explore these and related issues, though they approach the problems in markedly different ways. A comparison of the conflicts explored in Doubt and the supposedly obvious truths arising from the Penn State scandal provide interesting commentary on social views of molestation accusations and on the intersection between literature and the real workings of society.

Doubt centers on the possible molestation of a child (or children) by a priest, with a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the accusation/suspicion. The play asks but does not answer many questions, including how one could possibly investigate such a suspicion without creating the appearance of guilt, what outcomes are worth facing the ills of possible abuse, and how duty or larger obligations ought to affect one's actions in light of suspected abuse. Sister Aloysius has only scant reason to suspect Father Flynn of abusing one of the students, yet she tells the far more open-minded and less judgmental Sister James that, "innocence can only be wisdom in a world without evil. Situations arise and we are confronted with wrongdoing and the need to act" (p. 27). As the play progresses, Sister Aloysius' convictions as to Father Flynn's guilt only become more certain despite no increase in the amount of evidence, and though Father Flynn is never publicly accused or condemned he is essentially forced out of his position and transferred to another parochial school -- even the possibility of guilt in such a scandal is enough to destroy a person, and to create doubt as to their performance…… [read more]

Things Fall Apart and Gilgamesh Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Gilgamesh harnesses his defiant power to overcome the Humbaba, despite the monster's pleas for his life, delivering a lethal blow to the beast's neck and striking him down with finality. This scene bears many similarities to Okonkwo's climactic confrontation with a group of Christian missionaries, who tell him derisively that "the white man whose power you know too well has ordered this meeting to stop" (Achebe 197). face-to-face with the object of his repressed hatred, a living symbol of the invisible force eroding the Umuofian way of life, the formerly fearsome clan leader acts decisively, and "in a flash & #8230; Okonkwo's machete descended twice and the man's head lay beside his uniformed body" (Achebe 197). United by the existential threats to their position within an ancient social structure, and to destruction of the only way of living they have ever known, both Gilgamesh and Okonkwo throw themselves headlong into the fray of a cultural clash, and both are ultimately doomed to be defeated.

Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. London: Heinemann Press, 1958. Print.

Anonymous. The Epic of Gilgamesh: The Babylonian Epic Poem and Other Texts in Akkadian

and Sumerian. Trans. Andrew George. London: Penguin, 1999. Print.

Franklin, Ruth. "After Empire: Chinua Achebe and the great African novel." New Yorker. May 26, 2008: Print.


Kirk, G.S. Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures. Cambridge University Press and California University Press, 1970. Print.

Ziolkowski, Theodore. Gilgamesh Among Us: Modern Encounters With the Ancient Epic.…… [read more]

Shame, I Decided to Write Poetry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (725 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Shame, I decided to write poetry as was instructed. The first quote that I felt told the theme of the book was on page 23. "Maybe my friend should be telling this story, or another one, his own; but he doesn't write poetry any more. So here I am instead, inventing what never happened to me.. Outsider! Trespasser! You have no right to this subject " (23) This shows the way the narrator expresses and conveys information through a "tall tale "esque style. In fact the book itself contains a lot of instances where shame and shamelessness lead to fiction and attempts to cover the truth. As seen by Chunni, Munnee, and Bunny raising Omar and pretending they all gave birth at the same time. Here is a poem to describe shame.


I lay my head amongst the Russians and Afghanistan cradled underneath my chin.

You cannot see the burden placed only but the shallow grin.

Give up on what is scared and scarred, sacred past the elbows muddied from attempts.

I invent then some shallow and false pretenses and words attached to them in order to tell my story albeit scattered and frail.

I'll add to them strength with periods and limited use of commas. Only then will it make sense although not right away.

Tall tales and legends making my Pinocchio nose grow.

They'll never know what really occurred. Only my mouth shut tight will see the light of day.

Let me immerse myself in the night, in the darkness to cover the secrets and lies.

On pages 72-73 the quote used to reintroduce Omar was a good example of the language used within the book. "On my way back to the story, I pass Omar Khayyam, my sidelined hero, who is waiting patiently for me to get to the point at which his future bride, poor Sufiya Zinobia, can enter the narrative, head-first down the birth canal" (72-73). Shame of course is the main theme in the book and how shame leads to violence. Although this quote doesn't necessarily relate to the theme of shame in a clear way, it does relate to it in the…… [read more]

Eugene Onegin the Writing Styles Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


When Raskolnikov gets less than half of the amount he is asking for when he attempts to pawn a watch early on in Dostoevsky's novel, such a failure on his part is treated in all seriousness by the author, who indicates as such by having the young man begrudgingly respond, "Hand it over," he said roughly" (Dostoevsky). The character's terse dialogue and rough delivery informs the reader that this matter is very serious for him. The laconic nature of Raskolnikov's response, underscored by the brief paragraph, is indicative of the grave nature of the most of the events in this book, which are facilitated by the author's prose.

Furthermore, the straightforward nature of Dostoevsky's prose allows for unequivocal interpretation of most of the character's motives and actions. The third person narrative allows for the readers to see what the characters are doing and to understand their thoughts while doing it. Dostoevsky's explanation of the "terrible overstrain" of Raskolnikov's nerves during his journey to the pawn shop is quite clear to the reader. Pushkin's first-person narration of poetry, however, provides a good deal more ambiguities in his work of literature. This is due to the fact that he invokes a lot more literary devices due to the poetic nature of his text, such as his usage of apostrophe in which he convinces the reader that Neva's brink is "where you were born" adds little intrinsic value to the overall comprehension of the plot, and is a mere aside that adds to the teasing sarcasm of this poem. These digressions reduce the author's clarity.

Due to this fact, Crime and Punishment is a much straightforward, understandable read than is Eugene Onegin. Doestoevsky's third person prose is serious and straightforward, whereas Pushkin's poetry digresses due to an invocation of poetic devices and the light-hearted tone that characterizes…… [read more]

Post-Colonialism in Literature (Presentation Paragraph) Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,476 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Jean Paul Sartre was quoted as saying, "The status of 'native' is a nervous condition introduced and maintained by the settler among colonized people with their consent" (McMahon 2). The people who did not stand up to the invading countries were in essence allowing themselves to be marginalized and mistreated. Some of Tambu's earliest memories are of the consolidation of… [read more]

Cathedral by Raymond Carver Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,913 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Raymond Carver's short story "Cathedral" is considered to be one of the writer's best writings and is probably one of the main reasons for which he experienced professional progress. Even with the fact that this particular text ends in a more positive note in comparison to some of his other stories, it is nonetheless filled with elements characteristic to the… [read more]

Authors Communicate Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (950 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


A more thorough literature review might have elucidated this point prior to the study thereby rendering it more efficacious, if the authors had chosen to include review articles or educational reports (which they did not), or perhaps used some other literature review sources other than Pubmed and Cinahl. The relative paucity of articles reviewed for this study helped to offset some of the positive aspects of the review, which indicated that none of the previous studies were randomized clinical trials and that post-operative rehabilitation massage therapy had not been evaluated. The authors did a good job by conducting a study that incorporated both of these aspects, but should have reviewed more articles to find other areas that they could have tested as well.

There are other aspects of this study that are affected by the dearth of literature reviewed in this subject and the scarcity of participants. The hypothesis is a little ambiguous and stated as an "aim" to see what would happen with massage therapy with cerebral palsy children in post-operative rehabilitation -- a true hypothesis would have posited a possible outcome. Other areas reflect the authors' propensity for organization, such as the fact that the research design -- limited by the lack of participants which negatively impacted the design's ability to answer the research question -- utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods. Although the former of these was alluded to earlier in this paper, the latter was a good means of backing up limited statistical information. The context of the study was also well elucidated, with a number of salient references made to preceding research that unequivocally demonstrates the fact that children with cerebral palsy experience pain.

The data collection procedures were fairly clear and reflect the strength of the overall organization that typified this particular study. Had the researchers merely been more prudent in conducting their literature review and more thorough in gathering an increased number of participants, this study could have yielded significant more use. Yet they did well to address ethical concerns with a full disclosure of the procedures to the parents and the children involved, and controlled threats to data validity.


Nilsson, S., Johansson, G., Himmelmann, K. (2011). "Massage Therapy in post-operative rehabilitation in children and adults with cerebral palsy -- a pilot study." Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 17 (3): 127-131. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/science/article/pii/S1744388110000976


O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York:…… [read more]

Stress Another Hazard Article Review

Article Review  |  5 pages (1,785 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Dependant and independent variables have not been defined in this study. No definitions were provided of the variables, neither was any description.

Due to the qualitative nature of the research, no sample was selected for the research. The researcher went over as much of the ISDC literature as possible. No explanation was provided in detail regarding which journals etc. were considered for studying the ISDC literature

During the thorough discussion of results, the researcher links the start of the research to the results. The results were discussed according to the previously stated discourses.

The research was published in 2008 and the most recent reference included was for the year 2007. Most of the references present were from the past decade, making the references fairly recent. All references made in the article are consistent in their format. While the report is written very precisely, the language makes use of technical jargon that makes understanding it difficult as an outside party. The language used in the article is free of biased, gender and otherwise.

List of Articles

Avgerou, C. (2008). Information systems in developing countries: a critical research review. Journal of Information Technology, 133-146.

Havens, A. & Hoagland, H. (2010). Seven Electrical Safety Habits for a Safer Workplace. Retrieved from http://rendermagazine.com/articles/2010-issues/2010-october/2010-10-tech-topics/

Health and Safety Ontario. (2012, September 05). Study: Stress Another Hazard of the Job for Police Officers. Retrieved from http://www.healthandsafetyontario.ca/Resources/Articles/PHSA/Study-Stress-Another-Hazard-of-the-Job-for-Police.aspx

E-hazard. (2008). How to care for flame resistant clothes. Retrieved from http://www.e-hazard.com/docs/How-to-Care-for-Flame-Resistant-Clothes.pdf

Quality Safety. (2012). Organizing patient safety research to identify risks and hazards. Retrieved from http://qualitysafety.bmj.com/content/12/suppl_2/ii2.full.pdf#page=1%26view=FitH… [read more]

German Literature Scholarship on Yade Kara Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


German Literature

Scholarship on Yade Kara and Emine Sevgi Ozdamar

Scholarship on Yade Kara

Scholarship on Yade Kara has repeatedly placed great emphasis on the author's predilection for themes such as identity construction, cultural identity, and historical specificity. The latter is of particular appeal in that it situates Kara's novels as a useful rubric through which to examine German life… [read more]

Self-Reliance and the Road Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In "The Road Not Taken," Frost insinuates that the decision that the narrator is forced to make is not a unique phenomenon, but rather that many individuals have previously been forced to make decisions that will impact them for the rest of their lives. Although the narrator in the poem does not specify how choosing the road less traveled has impacted his life, it is evident that choosing that road lead to a path of revolution and allowed him to accomplish goals that not only make him proud, but that establish precedent and will encourage others to attempt to achieve or surpass similar goals.

Through their respective works, "Self-Reliance" and "The Road Not Taken," Emerson and Frost promote Transcendental values of individualism and self-reliance and help to further develop both the Transcendental movement and American Romantic literature. Both Emerson and Frost believe that the individual has the power to create his or her destiny through self-realization and promote the practice of learning about one's self through his or her environment, in the case of early American literature, through the exploration of the unknown -- Nature.

Works Cited

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. "Self-Reliance." Emerson Central. Web. 7 August 2012.

Frost, Robert. "The Road Not Taken." Mountain Interval. Web. 7 August 2012.

"Romanticism." Brooklyn College. Web. 7 August 2012.

Reuben, Paul P. "Chapter 4: American Transcendentalism (AT): A Brief Introduction." PAL:

Perspectives in American Literature- A Research and Reference Guide. Web. 7 August 2012.

Strickland, Brad. "American Romanticism Overview." University…… [read more]

Social Criticism of Luce's De Bohemia of Valle Incln Essay

Essay  |  20 pages (6,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Social Criticism of "Luces de Bohemia" or "Bohemian Lights" by Ramon Maria del Valle-Inclan

A number of influential Spanish playwrights were active during the early part of the 20th century, including Ramon Maria del Valle-Inclan who invented a new dramatic device that he termed "esperpento" in his play, "Luces de Bohemia" or "Bohemian Lights." Originally published in 1920, this play… [read more]

Philosophies Embodied in the Heteronyms of Fernando Pessoa Identity Crisis or a Great Philosopher Essay

Essay  |  20 pages (6,419 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20



"The Philosophies embodied in the Heteronyms of Fernando Pessoa. Identity Crisis or a great Philosopher?"


The Philosophies embodied in the Heteronyms of Fernando Pessoa. Identity Crisis or a great Philosopher?

The Philosophies embodied in the Heteronyms of Fernando Pessoa. Identity Crisis or a great Philosopher?

Introduction of Fernando Pessoa; his Life, Work and Background

Fernando Pessoa (1888 --… [read more]

Duality of Character in Nathaniel Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Another example is the contrast between Goodman Brown as he sets off into the dark, and the appearance of his wife as she lets "the wind play with the pink ribbons of her cap" at the beginning of the story (Hawthorne, p. 93).

Coming to Poe's story, we encounter Roderick Usher, who lives in the House of Usher, the family home that gives the story its name. The narrator who tells the story has been summoned by Usher to come to the family home to assist him in his time of need. As the narrator approaches, he describes a surreal, dreamlike feeling: "Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream, I scanned more narrowly the real aspect of the building" (Poe, ¶5.). As in Hawthorne's story a sense of foreshadowing is present (Harmon & Holman, 235-236). As the reader soon sees, the events that unfold are equally eerie and dreamlike in nature. When the character of Roderick enters the story, we also find that he has a twin sister, Madeline. Not only is she Usher's literal twin, she may also represent the duality of his character. She, too, inspires a dreamlike quality in the narrator, who comments that "a sensation of stupor oppressed me as my eyes followed her retreating steps" (Poe, ¶13). This sense of a dreamlike quality pervades the story, causing the reader to wonder about the events that transpire: are they real, or a dream? Or are they perhaps the outcome of a hallucination or a supernatural event?

Thus in both of these stories, Hawthorne and Poe introduce characters who represent the possible duality that exists in each of us. The concepts of good and evil are present in both stories, and the omnipresent atmosphere of dreamlike occurrences add to the suspense of each story.

Works Cited

Harmon, William, and Holman, Hugh. A Handbook to Literature, Eleventh Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: 2009. Print.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown." In Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry,

Drama, and the Essay, Second Edition, ed. Robert DiYanni. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990. 93-102. Print.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The House of Usher." Retrieved electronically on July 23, 2012 from . Web.… [read more]

Road Not Taken by Robert Frost Natural Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,290 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Road Not Taken by Robert Frost

Natural Realism in the Road Not Taken by Robert Frost

As an important cultural artifact of human society, literature -- particularly poetry -- serves both a functional and aesthetic purpose: it demonstrates a mastery of language and self-expression, while at the same time providing a message and/or insight about human life from the point-of-view of the poet. Oftentimes, the insight or message is 'symbolically' expressed; other times, the poet shares his/her insight with the honesty of his/her words, unveiled by symbols and directly expressed as the poet feels it. However, it is a challenge if a poet achieves to utilize both symbolism and direct expression of his/her thoughts and feelings in one poem. While the poem remains literary and poetic, it is realistically expressed in that there is no 'air of pretentiousness' in the usage of words and sentences.

This balance between symbolism and realistic, humble expression of one's thoughts and feelings is emulated in the poem The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost. Frost, an American poet who gained popularity and literary influence because of his poems in the early to middle 20th century, developed this delicate balance and succeeded in demonstrating the theme of natural realism in this particular poem. This paper discusses how Frost's work reflected natural realism, which is described to be the "denial of the necessity for and the explanatory value of positing 'internal representations' in thought and perception" (Macarthur, 2004:170). The discussion that follows provides in detail evidence of natural realism in the poem The Road Not Taken, positing that the poem is a symbolic depiction of one's reflection about his life choices, while at the same time, the poem also assumes a realistic, unassuming and down-to-earth view of life and the decisions that people make in their lives.

To further understand this representation of natural realism in The Road Not Taken, it is necessary to develop an understanding of natural realism itself as a philosophical approach. Natural realism, as defined earlier, is the "denial of the need to explain or create "internal representations" of thought and perception." Further, this philosophical approach considers that a reality exists outside of an individual's thoughts and perceptions, a reality that is dependent on things -- living and non-living -- and have relationships among each other. Indeed, natural realism is the belief that life is based on experiences that can be proven and not simply based on one's thoughts or perceptions without any basis or evidence.

This is the context in which Frost positions himself as a poet. In an interview by Poirier of The Paris Review in 1960, the poet claimed that he "haven't led a literary life" and never internalized his role as a poet. He agreed that as a poet and literary figure, he is not "difficult," and his poetry is something that he simply creates but "don't work at it" unlike other literary fellows who dedicate or define themselves based on their creative works. From this interview alone,… [read more]

Thompson "Disenchantment or Default? Article Review

Article Review  |  5 pages (1,565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


While a colony of England, the empire nation tried to force its colony into become more British and less attached to its traditional cultural forms. Yet, the interesting thing is that they did not try to get the Indians interested in what most British were reading, but instead the English wanted the people of India to read what the government considered more proper examples of English literature.

Joshi is ultimately most interested in why the English novel became so popular in India when nothing like that had ever been in the nation before. Following its introduction and popularity, people within India began writing and producing their own novels, influence both by the form and the function of the English work of fiction. "Despite its colonial legacy, when the Indian novel emerged, it did so in forms that successfully subverted earlier colonial policies and radically reversed the priorities of Englishness and empire within the once foreign form of the novel" (Joshi 8). He asserts that although the Indian novel was obviously heavily influence by the British novel, it was also a form of rebellion or subversion against the oppression empirical regime. By becoming interested in a literary format that the British elite tolerated but did not promote, the Indian population were identifying themselves whether intentionally or not with the lower class members of British society; thus the novel serves as a unifier for all those oppressed by the British government wherever it…… [read more]

Sensibility and Paul De Man Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,993 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Willoughby, who Marianne believed to be the love her life, betrays her and marries a wealthier woman. He never intended to court Marianne, and if she had made sure Willoughby was courting her without sucking him into the Romantic love story she had planned for them, he would not have gotten trapped and had to betray her later. After mourning the loss of her beloved, inconstant Willoughby to the point of making herself ill, Marianne falls in love with Colonel Brandon, an older, self-sacrificing, sensible man who stood on the sidelines while Marianne willingly gave her heart to his competitor Marianne's experience and the influence of Colonel Brandon transform her into a pragmatic, sensible woman who still has an appreciation for the Romantic, but learns where to separate art from reality.

Allegory in sense and sensibility

It might have contented itself with allegory, and played out a contrast between its two Dash wood sisters, Elinor and the younger Marianne in such a way that Sense would finally enjoy a triumphant vindication in happy marriage. But in this book, as the late, great critic Tony Tanner wrote, "no very simple verdicts are being invited - in the give-and-take between these two divergent but intriguingly related siblings and qualities all sorts of negotiations are taking place" (Watt, Ian 67)

The passionate Marianne's frankness and spontaneous indignation at society's meanness's are seen as courageous - yet also self-indulgent, self-destructive, occasionally hurtful to others. Austen's sympathies evidently lean to Elinor's more prudent, responsible, self-repressing side of the balance; but mainly because Elinor feels nearly everything Marianne feels, and simply thinks before she speaks.

As Tanner wisely says, Austen "knew that a world in which everyone was totally sincere, telling always the truth for the sake of their own feelings and never any lies for the feelings of others, would be simply anarchy." Emma Thompson read English at Cambridge when Tanner was still teaching there: her Oscar-winning screenplay for Ang Lee's wonderfully nuanced film, in which she plays Elinor to Kate Winslet's Marianne, reflects his insights into the book. (O'Farrell, Mary Ann 98)

The script, a labor of love, is lively and inventive at devising action and dialogue for scenes which Austen only gives in omniscient summary - but, despite an occasional feminist nudge, always sticks close to the original's spirit and detail.


Moore, Lisa L. Dangerous Intimacies: History of the British Novel. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2000.

O'Farrell, Mary Ann. The Nineteenth-Century English

Novel and the Blush. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1995.

Stoval, Bruce. The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen. 4th Ed.

New York: Cambridge UP, 1997.

Sutherland, John. Great Puzzles in Nineteenth-

Century Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Troost, Linda, and Sayre Greenfield, Jane Austen in Hollywood. Lexington:

UP of Kentucky, 1998.

Watt, Ian. Criticism of Austen's Sense and Sensibility. Berkeley: U. Of California…… [read more]

Pierre Bourdieu Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The recurring theme, then, seems to be that ' culture' per se depends on the particulars of a certain era rather than on any inherent characteristics. In that case, one wonders how to distinguish trite and insignificant work from something that is lofty and elevated, and whether there is a piece of work that is lofty and elevated, or whether that definition rests on biased and subjective measurement.

The Romantic culture, for instance, that glorified an ideal realm at the price of denying the body and material nature no longer exists. Much of that work is seen as overly sentimental and superficial. Today's age prefers realism. 'Culture' has changed. There is a new emphasis on the body and on the embodiment of mind that likely reflects our current occupation with neurosicence and the various medical domains of the body in both holistic and conventional medicine. We live in a more hedonistic, technical age, and it is largely the age that defines our definitions and constructions of 'culture'. To that end, it is a philosophical question as to whether or not a transcendental representation of culture does…… [read more]

Evolution of the Female Figure in Arthurian Research Paper

Research Paper  |  17 pages (5,757 words)
Bibliography Sources: 17


Evolution of the female figure in Arthurian literature is characterized foremost by stagnancy and a narrowness of personage. While Arthurian authors are gifted at describing many of the female characters in vivid, memorable terms that make many of them seem like ethereal goddesses; a one dimensionality persists in their character, regardless of whether they are considered morally good or morally… [read more]

Crashaw Passivity as Active and the Publicly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (4,120 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13



Passivity as Active and the Publicly Private in the poetry of Richard Crashaw: Two Tellings of Teresa's Tale

Richard Crashaw's place in the canon of English poetry has been problematic either since his poetry was first published, in one view, or only since the early twentieth century when his work was reexamined with renewed interest and respect (Perry, 1;… [read more]

Conversations With Goethe the German Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Simultaneously he had also been manager of the ducal court theater. So he was a busy man obviously.

Undoubtedly, all that fitted to the past at the time when Eclcermann industrialized into Goethe's assistant. Nonetheless the concrete experience of a long and creative life helped to supplement. He was a man that had lived through many tragedies, con-icts, and crises. To the very end he was a man that appeared to keep his confidence in life in nature, and in man. This is the reason why Nietzsche really looked at Goethe as this great man, for Nietzsche was living at a time of premonitions of the impending age- in which many had perceived life was starting to lose a lot of its meaning.

In conclusion, it is clear that this book really did a good job displaying a remarkable man that had an impact on history. Even though his writing is very significant, Goethe made a mark furthermore through his philosophy and life. Goethe has been named "the Olympian" for his widespread viewpoint. This book is a document of chats Goethe actually had in his lifetime. The most well-known of these discussions is his with Eckermann, Goethe's secretary during the course of his later, mature years.

Works Cited

Eckermann, J.P. (1998). Conversations of Goethe with Johann Peter Eckermann. New York:…… [read more]

Ernest Hemingway Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Though she ultimately rejected his favors, he learned from her at a young age what it really meant to fall in love. He was also to use his experiences with Agnes as a fountain of material for his works.

His heart and courage often won him accolades and rewards, and many of his experiences (in war and in love) provided background and material for his writing. The novel The Sun Also Rises, and a book of short stories Men Without Women are excellent examples of his use of the written word to expound upon life's tragic stories of love(s) lost and wars won (or lost).

Hemingway was a prolific story teller and novelist. Many of his works focused on how men react to the loneliness of war, oftentimes with either drink, women or death. His father was also a primary influence in his life -- and his death. Both men ended their own lives, each with a gun. His father wanted for Ernest to be the rugged individualist, a hunter of beasts, and a fisher of fish.

His mother also presented her own subtle influences by ensuring that Ernest attended concerts and operas and that he visited art galleries and museums on a regular basis. As Hulse states, "both parents were strong and each had a total conviction and enthusiasm to teach Ernest their own ideals (and) of course, he and his five brothers and sisters were brought up in an intensely religious atmosphere" (2006).

Hemingway's works reflect his own efforts to become the type of character that both his mother and his father would have been proud of. The ensuing confusion was likely a result of his attempts to present the best of both worlds, and may have been a contributing factor to Hemingway's lifelong sense of loneliness and despair that ultimately led to his suicide. The Old Man and the Sea, a story of a many day's struggle between an old man and a fish of the sea, could be used as an excellent example of how Hemingway viewed his own struggles throughout life.

His crowning achievement could be listed as when he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954. According to the website for the Nobel Prize Hemingway "his straightforward prose, his spare dialogue, and his predilection for understatement are particularly effective in his short stories, some of which are collected in Men Without Women (1927) and The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories (1938)" (Ernest, 2012). Though his life ended tragically, his words will carry on forever.

Works Cited

"Ernest Hemingway - Biography." Nobelprize.org., electronic, 23 May 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1954/hemingway-bio.html

Hulse, C., "Ernest Hemingway," Ernest Hemingway Reporter, 1999 -- 2006, electronic, 23 May, 2012, http://www.ernest.hemingway.com/conclusion.htm… [read more]

Virginia Woolf's View on Women Research Paper

Research Paper  |  19 pages (6,146 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Virginia Woolf's View of Women in a Room of One's Own and its relevance today"

The issue of women in literature dates back to the earliest written word. Perspectives change over time and across cultures. Literature and the roles of women are no different. There are many challenges that have faced women throughout our existence, but perhaps more so in… [read more]

African-American Art Creative African-American Literature Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The vast majority of X's autobiography, of course, spanned more than his life, it detailed the history of oppression of African-Americans at the hands of America, which the following quotation proves. "One hundred million of us Black people! Your grandparents! Mine! Murdered by this white man! To get 15 million of us here to make us his slaves, on the way he murdered one hundred million! (Haley, 1965, p. 216)." This quotation is indicative of the incendiary language and graphic representation of facets of slavery that X employed to recruit African-Americans to resist their American oppressors. This aspect of The Autobiography of Malcom X is a central component of the literature of African-American artists in the 20th century.

In summary then, it is quite plain that the works of creation, both fiction and nonfiction, poetic and prose, are imbuedwith the perception of African-Americans as having a greater value and higher sense of purpose than the works of art of other peoples. The social climate that largely shaped the experience of these people in the United States plays an integral role in dictating the form, structure, subject matter, and even the style of a number of works of such authors. An examination into the literature produced by LeRoi Jones, Nikki Giovanni, Langston Hughes and Malcolm X demonstrates the validity of this statement.


Baraka, Amiri. (1999). The LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka Reader. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press.

Giovanni, Nikki. (2003). The Collected Poetry of Nikki Giovanni. New York: William Morrow.

Haley, Alex. (1965). The Autobiography of Malcolm X New York: Ballantine.

Hughes, Langston. (1959). Selected Poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Vintage Classics.

Jones, LeRoi. (1967). Home. New York:…… [read more]

Literal Language in Literature Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,086 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These are the dreaded expressions which have been so overused that they no longer provide surprises for the reader (Sullivan 1947). Examples of cliches are "a dark and stormy night" a "wicked stepmother" or an "evil twin." These are contrivances which are boring, dull, and wholly unoriginal.

Amphiboly occurs when the grammatical structure of a sentence is too confusing and the meaning becomes ambiguous. Take for example the following sentence: "I didn't say she stole my money." The sentence varies with whichever word is the most stressed in the pronunciation. Therefore the meaning that the author intended is unlikely to be understood by the reader. In some situations the ambiguity is intentional because the author wants the reader to instill their own meaning into the text, as is often the case in poetry. However, more often than not the ambiguity is an unintentional result of poor writing.

Flame words are those which are placed in a sentence in order to inflame the reader, often with the intention of adding emphasis or emotion. For example, if a character decides that they are frustrated with another character, they have the option of saying, "I don't want to hear about your day." Adding the flame word "damn" changes the sentence to "I don't want to hear about your damn day." It adds emphasis and changes the tone from frustration to antagonism.

One of the more egregious errors in literature is the use of hyperbole. This is exaggeration which is used to create a strong impression and can sometimes have the secondary effect of undermining the veracity of the writing. Take for example the character Ebeneezer Scrooge in A Christmas Carol. This man is an exaggeration because he is meant to represent the stingiest most frugal kind of man. However, if a man say spends $50 on a new suit instead of $100 and the writer states that he is the cheapest man who ever lived, that is hyperbolic. Surely this man is not as penny-pinching as the aforementioned Scrooge. Following this error, nothing the author says can be taken at its word.

Finally, there is the euphemism. Now this can be a very useful technique when discussing a topic which can be sensitive or controversial. There are euphemisms for death, such as when a parent promises that a family member has "gone to Heaven." It is a kinder way of expressing a potentially unpleasant idea. Like all literary devices, euphemisms must be written carefully because if the wrong expression is used then it can again provide a meaning that was not intended by the writer.

All of the above literary devices have one thing in common: if used incorrectly, they can take an otherwise intelligent and thought-provoking piece of writing and turn it into something of far less value. When writing, it is the responsibility of the author to ensure that their intended meaning is always clear. In order to accomplish this, the author must be aware of some of the tools of… [read more]

Strangeness of Nature Three American Poets Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (4,117 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … American Poets -- the Strangeness of Nature

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening -- Robert Frost

Robert Frost's poem -- an iconic and very well-known poem -- can be misunderstood, and is misunderstood in many instances. This is because there is a seeming innocence about the poem. What could be confusing about a poem that seems so… [read more]

Ride Richard Wilbur's Poem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The narrator's mystical journey comes to an end as the "weave of the storm grew thin,/With a threading of cedar-smoke,/And the ice-blind pane of an inn,/Shimmered" (lines 17-20) at which point the narrator is awoken from the dream, or spell, that has been cast over him.

The tone of the poem is established through the narrator's trust of the horse; in the first stanza the narrator says, "Through the horror of snow I dreamed,/And so I had no fear,//Nor was chilled to death/By the wind's white shudders/Thanks to the veils of his patient breath/And the mist of sweat from his flanks" (lines 3-8). This is especially significant because while the narrator has established complete trust in the animal, at the end of the poem, the narrator does not trust himself and does not know if the journey he dreamed was real or not. The tone of uncertainty helps to further question the validity of the narrator's experiences. At the end of the journey, the narrator finds that he has to rush to thank the horse for getting him to the inn and must do so "before I think/That there was no horse at all" (lines 25-26).

Through his description of the horse and the journey, the narrator is able to establish that there was a supernatural connection between himself and the horse, as well as between the horse and nature. The mystical qualities that permeate the poem allow the reader to investigate how the psyche has the ability to influence what is perceived and how, at times, feelings of doubt may overtake an individual. Wilbur's poetry has been described as "being suffused with an astonishing verbal music and a compacted thoughtfulness that invite sustained reflection" (Richard Wilbur, n.d.), which holds true after taking a closer look at "The Ride."


Richard Wilbur. (n.d.). Poets.org. Accessed 29 April 2012, from http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/202

Wilbur, R. (2005). The Ride. Collected Poems 1943-2004. Baltimore: Waywiser Press.… [read more]

Racine's Phaedra -- Compared Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,486 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


I feel as you do for him. And for myself -- revulsion. Shame. And rage." Vere's sentiments are identifiable in Phaedra: she does not desire to destroy -- but in a way is helpless to help herself.

But is Phaedra innocent? The speaker in Blake's poem expands upon the theme of origin, enlarging its scope, essentially telling the child that… [read more]

Classroom, Regardless of the Age Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Using literature in this manner allows for a renaissance, and even Montessori-like hands on approach. One certainly has robust readings; but could bring in other disciplines as well:

Science -- use of technology, disparate technologies (primitive labels), boat construction, navigation, gunpowder

Georgraphy -- continent's location, the seas, distance, topography, land mass

Politics -- competition between European leaders, why colonies mattered… [read more]

Hero Has the Ability to Face Adverse Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (4,555 words)
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Hero has the ability to face adverse situations without any fear. They put the well-being of others before their own well-being. They do not necessarily have to be physically strong or have muscles that are able to life entire buildings at once; they just have to have a strong character. Although in modern society, it can be rare to find… [read more]

Imagery Help Evoke Emotion in This Poem? Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … imagery help evoke emotion in this poem? Choose three images from the poem and describe the emotions that the images evoke. Explain how the images are connected to the emotions.

The imagery is illustrating a range of emotions that a person is feeling. The way that this is depicted is through the use of three examples in the… [read more]

Symbols of Hot Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,299 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


The image of coldness then foreshadows the tragedy that is to come, and the loss of life -- or the loss of heat. The weather is a key element to this foreshadowing, for "the wind bore a new deathly chill" (Hall 1). This image of the weather is then intensified with the coldness of the water, which eventually took their… [read more]

Wordsworth Returning to Nature Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,264 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The Speaker in this poem declares "Little we see in Nature that is ours; / We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!" What he means is that people do not see much utility in nature (utility as in a place for emotional and spiritual catharsis). Instead, we have given our hearts away to materialistic pursuits. As a result we have grown vapid and vain, "we are out of tune," the speaker says. This implies that people are off balance for not sharing the speaker's zealotry for nature.

This becomes clear when the speaker cusses in the poem, "Great God!" he yells. Here is frustration boils over and he claims he rather be a "Pagan" (which could be considered to be the equivalent of a godless heathen) so that he might at least be among a culture that values nature or sees the world in a different way. This is a very dramatic statement, especially during a time when extreme religious piety (Christian piety) was highly valued.

So, in looking at the broader picture Wordsworth returns to nature time and time again in his poetry because it is a source of inspiration for him. It's a muse. He is connected to it. And through the speaker's in his poetry he voices his awe and reverence for nature (Cronon 73). But perhaps, more importantly, he instructs the reader on how to appreciate it and share in it as well. In a sense, he's asking all readers to return to nature.

One can argue he does this in two ways (1) through vivid and belletristic language, which is to say the beauty of his poetry and (2) through actual instructions. Examples of the first can be seen in lines like this, "This Sea that bares her bosom to the moon" or "the hazels rose / Tall and erect, with milk-white clusters hung. / A virgin scene!" Or "And with my cheek on one of those green stones / That, fleeced with moss, beneath the shady trees." All of the aforementioned create a stunning, visually arresting image of nature. By writing in such a way, the personification of the sea, the eye-catching details, "milk-white clusters," the "green stones" that are "fleeced with moss" he forces the reader to envision nature the way he does so that he/she may enjoy its beauty as well. In a way he is like a preacher proselytizing his faith, and each word he spouts is attempt to bring the reader closer to god.

The actual instructions on how to return to nature or establish a communion with nature are found in the following line, "Then, dearest Maiden! move along these shades /

In gentleness of heart; with gentle hand / Touch, - for there is a spirit in the woods." To return to nature or to establish a communion with nature, one must have a gentle heart and a gentle hand. he/she must not abuse and/or ravage nature because he/she risk fracturing the bond with the spirit… [read more]

African-American Literature: A Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In the first version, it seems as the author almost strives to speak about various aspects of Whitefield's life, including his background, and his mission to help African-Americans. Yet in the second poem, the account is more objective, even if the same language is utilized. This is an interesting note, for the structure here can clearly prove that the two poems were quite different, even if they were typographically the same, as they were presented, printed, and read for and by two very different audiences.


Understanding African-American literature in terms of authorship is fantastic, for this can tell a reader a lot about the setting of the author's writing, and can contribute to the general feelings that the reader obtains. However, the structure or printing of a poem is also important. Thus, elements such as ornamentations, paratexts, and typography show to matter as well in how an audience perceives the poem as well as gives hints to what audience to poem was written. Thus, close attention to this kind of detailed work adds upon understanding of African-American culture, and enriches the unique cultures of African-Americans today, and also that of this country.

Works Cited (MLA format)

1. Brooks, Joanna. "The Early American Public Sphere and the Emergence of a Black Print Counterpublic." The William and Mary Quarterly 62.1 (2005): 67-92. Print.

2. Brooks, Joanna. "Our Phillis, Ourselves." American Literature 82.1 (2010): 1-28. Print.

3. Wheatley, Phillis. "An Elegiac Poem: George Whitefield." (Source sent by customer).

4. Wheatley, Phillis. "Phillis' Poem on the Death…… [read more]

Allen Ginseng Was a Popular Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Allen Ginseng's poems inspired many to think of their own accord, and to think for themselves, rather than believing all what the government promised blindly. Moreover, this 'howl' is meant to be a cry for sanity in the madness or for insanity as it is considered in traditional terms. The 'howl' is meant to wake up people to the hypocrisy of their government, which promised freedom, but instead puts their own people in confines, subjugating them to cruelty, and making the lives of those who were different miserable. (Carter)

The Beat movement was a precursor to intellectual non-conformist thought that defined common thought. Even today some of the things that have been mentioned in the poem resonate true. (McChesney)The American government is still propagating freedom of rights among its own people, but is subjugating the rest of the world to poverty, through its own 'ingenuity' and is sacrificing lives of thousands in its want for endless oil and stones. It still promises freedom of life, and yet its own people are protesting against the capitalism that perpetrates poverty and inequality in its wake.

'Howl' to date rings true, and this is a tribute to a visionary who chose to write against conventional wisdom and conformity nearly half a century ago, while his word and his concerns still hold weight.

Works Cited

Carter, David. Allen Ginsberg: Spontaneous Mind. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.

Ginsberg, Allen. Howl . 1956.

McChesney, John. "After 50 Years, Ginsberg's 'Howl' Still Resonates. 10 November 2009. 28 January…… [read more]

Frankenstein &amp Romanticism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,998 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


This piece of writing focuses more upon the methods of romanticism and the characteristics of romantic writers as people and not as abstractions.

This writer describes the lifestyle and cultural practices of romantic writers. This is another way for the reader to understand and draw out romantic themes in the novel.

With these quotations, the reader can see that romanticism reflected the world in general at the time, and it also reflected the specific group of writers and artists who called themselves romantic. Whereas other pieces offered a macrocosm of romanticism, this article offers a microcosmic view of romanticism; the focus is much narrower.

These quotes elaborate upon the characteristics of romantic writing, romantic thinking, romantics (the actual people), as well as romantic literature.

This article furthermore deconstructs and analyses Frankenstein as an individual piece of work within a movement and not just an example of the period.

Research Paper Outline

Thesis statement: Frankenstein is a novel that demonstrates numerous qualities of the Romantic period and these qualities operate on multiple levels (semiotics).

I. Frankenstein -- an overview

A. concisely summarize the narrative

B. concisely describe Mary Shelley

C. brief description of main themes, symbols, patterns, etc.

II. Romanticism & the 19th century

A. describe the greater movements and historical events in the time period

B. how do these events pertain to romanticism

C. what came before and after romanticism

D. how does the world at large relate to a specific movement in art and literature

III. Romanticism -- the movement

A. who were some primary figures

B. what are the primary characteristics

C. what was the culture of the romantics

D. what is the writing style or standard of romanticism

IV. How is Frankenstein an example of Romanticism

A. who was Mary Shelley in real life

B. characters, symbols, environment, language

C. how the characters behave

D. how the characters feel

E. what the characters want

F. The overall narrative arc of the story as reflective of the period

Conclusion: Frankenstein epitomizes romanticism and endures as a literary reflection of the person, the movement, and the world at the time.


Abdelwahed, Said J. "The Gothic, Frankenstein, and the Romantics." Al-Azhar University, Gaza, 1997.

Brown, Marshall (ed). The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism: Volume 5 -- Romanticism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, 2000.

Fulford, Tim & Peter J. Kitson. Romanticism and Colonialism: Writing and Empire, 1780 -- 1830. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, 1998.

Lynch, Jack. "Eighteenth Century Resources -- Literature." Rutgers University, Newark, 2006. Web. Available from < http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/18th/lit.html> 2012 January 24.

No listed author. "The Literary Gothic." Southern Illinois University, 2011. Web. Available from < http://www.litgothic.com/Authors/title.html> 2012 January 25.

Richardson, Alan. "British Romanticism and the Science of the Mind." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, 2001.

Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus. Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor & Jones, United Kingdom, 1818.

Smith, Nicole. "Elements of Romanticism…… [read more]

Othello Aristotle's Poetics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,410 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Aristotle wrote in the Poetics that the tragic hero's downfall didn't occur because of vice or depravity but, rather, by an error in judgment (76). That is to say, Aristotle would deny that Othello was just a suspicious or jealous person who deserved to go down because he had some bad characteristics (e.g. suspicion, jealousy). But the argument of an… [read more]

Tom Shulich ("Coltishhum") a Comparative Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  20 pages (9,196 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20



Thus, from the perspective of the bottom rung of Indian society, it is Lapierre's contention that the self/other dichotomy if not fully eradicated, at least becomes practically irrelevant. Lapierre's slum dwellers refuse to entertain invidious distinctions between self and other. The familiar as well as the stranger, the healthy and the diseased, the old and the young -- all… [read more]

Pablo Neruda's Search for Identity Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The imagery suggested in the stone, just like a quiet person, can seem powerful if it is regarded in the right way.

Our 'naming' is due to the fact that we are locked in social constructs. "When I sleep every night, / what am I called or not called? / And when I wake, who am I / if I was not while I slept?" Naming is about ego and division, the sort of artificial barriers discussed in Tolle which the mystic says keep us from living in the present moment. What is important to Neruda is his immediate state -- of sleep or wakefulness, not what is name is, not his nationality, his skin tone, or any other social properties connected to his character. The metaphor of 'sleep' and 'wakefulness' has a clear religious resonance in this stanza of the poem. The idea of being awakened is what is important, versus asleep to the goodness of the world is. It is not important that it is 'Pablo' who is said to be sleeping.

Social constructs only confuse us. Neruda creates a powerful, bullet-pointed list, using repetition and parallelism so the catalogue will remain indelibly in the mind of the listener: "let us not fill our mouths/with so many faltering names, / with so many sad formalities, / with so many pompous letters,/with so much of yours and mine, with so much of signing of papers." While most readers (including myself) might nod and laugh and the meaningless nature of bureaucracy, Neruda links irritating red tape and the meaningless legalese that almost everyone despises with the act of being named itself. Being born and being named as a singular, enclosed ego is just as absurd as denoting that a piece of property belongs to someone, or having to read a letter from an arrogant politician.

Through the paradox of creating confusion, states Neruda, we find Enlightenment: "I have a mind to confuse things, / unite them, bring them to birth." In the moment of birth, where there is an utter lack of division between the world and ego, there is truth. We think that names cause confusion to ebb away, but they only distort our perceptions. Neruda writes that he strives to 'undress' these false notions of names, "until the light of the world/has the oneness of the ocean." When we stare out in nature, and look beyond our egos as Tolle exhorts us to do, we can learn, for we see that the sun and the ocean seem to be one. We too are also one with nature: "a generous, vast wholeness, / a crepitant fragrance."

I have always strived, in my own life, to live "for today," and to treat people as if there were no real meaningful divisions in terms of nationalities or nations. This simple idea, as sung of in "Imagine," is given additional resonance for me when I read Neruda's poem. Neruda takes the idea of non-division of all human selves and transposes it to… [read more]

English Literature Danglars Is the Villain Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


English Literature

Danglars is the villain in The Count of Monte Cristo as he is the one frames the kind Dantes. Danglars desires wealth and power and he will do anything to get those things, which involves sacrificing others -- including his family. While we often read about characters in literature who will do just about anything to gain personal fortune, they aren't always as ruthless as Danglars, a man who even tries to sell his daughter for money. Danglars passion is money and power and there is really nothing that is worthy in his character. He has no moral obligations -- except to himself. He is a character who doesn't seem to learn anything in the twenty years that the novel spans. The only thing that separates Danglars from his money is when he is faced with death. He decides he would rather stay alive and pays to do so. It is when Danglars has lost everything that he finally asks Dantes for forgiveness. This shows that Danglars is a truly despicable man, despite the fact that Dantes does excuse his actions. Dumas was making a statement with Danglars, which was that man can take things for himself, like Danglars does, but there is a higher power over him that can take it all away.

Danglars is a truly unsympathetic character, the complete opposite of Dantes, which Dumas does on purpose to show the very distinct sides of good and bad. At one point in the novel, Dantes says that there isn't happiness or misery in the world, but only the comparison of one state with another -- and the problem for Danglars is that he is always comparing his state to others who have more than him and thus he wants more too. It seems like the more wealth and power Danglars attains, the greedier he becomes. It is like his appetite can never be satisfied.

Dumas makes a very important point about people in the character of Danglars: the bad-at-heart oftentimes only focus on what they don't have. Danglars is an unprincipled capitalist and perhaps Dumas was also making him representative of what they world would soon care most about.

Albert de Morcerf is the son of the Count de Morcerf (Fernand) and…… [read more]