Study "Management / Organizations" Essays 1-55

123. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Quality Management Organizations Essay

… Quality Management Organizations

The two quality management organizations profiled in this analysis are Q-Plus Labs located in Irvine, California and Quality Auditing LLC who has offices located in Los Angeles, California, Minneapolis, MN and New York City. Both can serve local and national markets given their organizational structures. Of the two, Quality Auditing LLC is the closest locally while also having the ability to operate nationally. For purposes of this analysis Q-Plus Labs is defined as the national quality management organization and Quality Auditing LLC as the local one.

Analysis of Quality Management Organizations

Beginning with Quality Auditing LLC, their main business is providing auditing and consulting for improving procedures and requirements definition, to ensure their clients pass quality management audits. The main part of this company's business is audit outsourcing, supply quality auditing, suppler quality management auditing and supply chain analysis. Managing quality at a strategic level is critical to ensure each aspect of suppliers, manufacturing, logistics and fulfillment stay within procedural audit parameters, especially in highly regulated industries including pharmaceutical drugs (Hagan, 1984). Quality Auditing LLC has extensive expertise in the following standards ISO 9001, ISO 13485, ISO 14001, as 9100, 21 CFR 211, 21 CFR 820, NAY-1, 10 and CFR 50. Taken together, these standards indicate the company can equally manage supplier and internal quality process control audits across a variety of industries. The extent to which any organization can attain ISO 9001 certification and consistently retain it is a primary indicator of how effectively they will be able to pass regulatory audits on a periodic basis while attaining the benefits of lean manufacturing as well (Psomas, Fotopoulos, Kafetzopoulos, 2011). What Quality Auditing LLC actively promotes is their ability to transform clients into more lean-based and highly effective platforms for future profitable growth. The combining and orchestration of these services are over time intended to change the culture of… [read more]

Project Management Organizations the Most Prominent Thesis

… Project Management Organizations

The most prominent project management organizations are: International Project Management Association (IPMA), Project Management Institute (PMI), Center for International Project & Program Management (CIPPM), Association of Project Managers (APM), Canadian Project Forum, Performance Management Association of Canada, Project Management Institute of Canada (PMI - Canada).

Another organization of this kind is CompTIA. The Computing Technology Industry Association activates on the global information technology industry. The members of the organization are represented by companies that promote innovation in the it field, and by "professionals responsible for maximizing the benefits organizations receive from their investments in technology" (CompTIA, 2008).

In other words, the organization's members are manufacturers, distributors, resellers, solution providers, ISPs, ASPs, software developers, e-commerce and telecom companies. The organization activates in the field of education, training, public policy, and others.

CompTIA's successful involvement in all areas of activity has determined a series of non-profit and governmental organizations join the association. In exchange, these organizations and all the other members gain access to industry research, networking and partnering opportunities, benefit from best practices, and from developed standards.

The organization's initiatives concern business education, convergence, e-business and software solutions, industry research, it services, it training and education, skills development, and software CEOs. CompTIA's programs are designed to promote industry growth.

Projects in Controlled Environments, or PRINCE2, was established in 1996, and represents the contribution of approximately 150 European organizations.… [read more]

Knowledge Management Organizational Communication Essay

… A knowledge manager should have different backgrounds; for instance Information Technology, Marketing, Management etc. An effective knowledge manager is the one who is an all rounder and knows well about organizational behaviour, marketing, culture, technology etc.

Looking at all above discussion, it can be concluded that organizations must train their employees and make them learn the techniques of communicating effectively. Organizations that want to succeed make sure that they allocate sufficient time and effort for training their employees on effective knowledge management through proper communication and consider this activity as one of the core activities in the organization's time and performance management systems. Organization should make its employees understand that effective communication and learning, which are significant areas of knowledge management (Lehaney, 2004) and always results in proper transfer of knowledge, are not only beneficial for the organization but also benefit employees in the form of increase in salary, career development and getting bonuses.


Cortada, J,. & Woods, J,. ( 2000), The knowledge management yearbook 2000-2001, Butterworth -- Heinemann.

Davenport, T.H. & Laurence, P. (2000). Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know.

Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.

Eisenberg, M., Goodall, L., & Trethewey, A. (2007). Organizational communication: Balancing creativity and constraint, 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Karagiannis, D., Reimer, U.,(2002), Practical aspects of knowledge management, 4 rth International Conference,


Lehaney, B., Clarke, S., Coakes, E., & Jack, G .(2004), Beyond Knowledge Management, Idea group Publishing,


Luthans, F., Welsh, DH B., & Taylor, L.A. (1988). A descriptive model of management effectiveness. Group & Organization Studies, 13(2).

Malhotra, Y. (1997). "Knowledge Management in Inquiring Organizations." Proceedings of 3rd Americas

Conference on Information Systems (Philosophy of Information Systems Mini-track).

Rastogi, P.N. (2000). Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital - The New Virtuous Reality of Competitiveness. Human Systems Management, 19(1), 39-49.… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change From Each Change Perspective Case Study

… Managing Organizational Change

From each change perspective, what are the key issues to understanding the wildcat strike?

The most critical are the employee's needs for having greater autonomy, mastery and purpose in their work. The unilateral decision to institute a tracking system in the form of a swiped card approach to tracking their time is draconian and insulting to every employee working for the airline. The management team might as well just tell them outright they are not trusted, and are merely labour hours to be reshuffled based on demand. BA Management has shown the antithesis of transformational leadership by being authoritarian and lacking in any definition of the program to show how customers will be better served or productivity enhanced. A second key issue is the complete lack of coordination with the unions, a lack of announcement over the program, no input whatsoever from employees or management, and a complete lack of understanding of why employees choose to work for them given the different hours as well. A third aspect of understanding the wildcat strike is that the meaning fo the swiped card program was only relevant and explained within BA management, there had been no announcement or development of an educational program as to why it was important in the first place. For change management to be effective there must be relevance and meaning communicated to employees if the planned changes are to be acted upon and successful (Sargent, Hardy, 2011).

Assume that you have been retained as a change consultant by BA management to advise them on how to avoid such a situation in the future. What lessons emerge from each perspective and what recommendations would you draw from each in constructing your advice to BA management?… [read more]

Management -- Organizational Theory Article Critique

… Management -- Organizational Theory

The article by Chieh-Peng Lin (Modeling Corporate Citizenship, Organizational Trust, and Work Engagement Based on Attachment Theory) is published in the Journal of Business Ethics (2010). This article delves into corporate citizenship and how to develop trust within an organizational environment. Lin posits that if more individuals in an employment environment could embrace a "work engagement" those individuals could avoid "burnout" and "low performance" (Lin, 2010, p. 517). Moreover, employees that embrace a "work engagement" approach would mean that those individuals would be furthering the interests of their organization (Lin, p. 517). Work engagement is defined by Lin as a "positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind" that is characterized by "vigor, dedication, and absorption" including a very strong identification with their efforts on the job and "feelings of enthusiasm, inspiration, pride and challenge" (Lin, p. 517). but, the theme in this article goes deeper: Lin seeks to know how work engagement dovetails with other emerging organizational / management theories.

What is the problem that is presented in this scholarly article? The author points out that while "corporate citizenship" or "corporate social responsibility" (CSR) are important initiatives in the community of companies that are competing for consumer attention, there is a lack of data that show how CSR helps build employee trust. And so the problem encountered by Lin is this: what is the relationship between CSR, organizational trust and work engagement? And moreover, Lin wants to know if the "attachment theory" can be used to explain the relationship between the three concepts mentioned in the sentence above. The author seeks to know which "dimensions of perceived corporate citizenship" influence a person's engagement with work and influence the amount of organizational trust the employee experiences (Lin, p. 518).

(the attachment theory, in Lin's definition: like all animals, humans make important and lasting "affectional bonds" (attachments) with "familiar, irreplaceable organizations"; if those bonds… [read more]

Organization Management Organizational Management in the U.S Essay

… Organization Management

Organizational Management in the U.S. Army

One of the most essential functions that management performs in a given business or corporate entity is the organization of that business or entity. This includes such elements as determining and implementing… [read more]

Management Organizational Stakeholders Essay

… ¶ … Management

Organizational stakeholders

Organizational stakeholders can be defined as an organization, group, or a person that may be interested or concerned with the affairs of an organization. The policies, objectives and actions of an organization may have an impact on the stakeholders or the stakeholders to impact on the organization. Some of the examples of those stakeholders who play key roles include unions, suppliers, shareholders, government agencies, employees, directors, creditors and the environment from which the organization gains its resources. The roles of stakeholders may not always be equal. The customers of a company are eligible to trading practices that are fair but the company cannot consider the same way it considers its employees. A good example of a negative effect of the stakeholders is in a scenario where the company is making a decision of lower costs and is planning on a round of layoffs. This affects negatively on the workers' community and later on, on the local economy. Persons who have shares in the company are affected positively in a case where the company launches new products and experiences profit where the stock price rises.

Every organization is inclusive of those stakeholders whose views need to be considered in cases of the organization working out strategic plans or important decisions concerning the organization. The customer is the main stakeholder who may happen to exist as another organization or a private buyer. The major aspects that matter most to the customer are timeless, price and quality of the product or the services that the organization renders. In a case where the organization is a supplier, then they will have to deal with the pressure of meeting this aspect while being considerate the most profitable ways or spending within the restrictions of the organization. The existence of various customers' preferences, the suppliers of goods and service have the chance to offer competition. The competitor is considered a stakeholder in an organization as they experience the impact of an organization's actions that they are in competition with.… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change and Improvement Research Paper

… Managing Organizational Change and Improvement

Globalization is changing the workplace at an incredible pace. This means, that because the competition is more severe, employers must ensure that productivity levels remain high. To achieve this objective requires that all employers address… [read more]

Business Management Organizational Change Essay

… Business Management

Organizational Change

Discuss the role of values in supporting organizational change.

Values are the standards of appeal by which one chooses between alternate behaviors. They often emerge as opinions, ideas, or feelings about a particular subject. A leader's… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change Thesis

… Managing Organizational Change

The impact of change on individuals and organizations can be minimal or substantial. Discuss some of the tools organizations can use to diagnose the most appropriate change. Which do you think would be most effective and why?

In diagnosing change within any organization, there are a multitude of factors that need to be taken into account, many outside the organization and therefore not under the direct control of management. The series of concepts, frameworks and tools including the 7-S Framework (Kaplan, 2005), the Star Model, Congruence Model, Burke-Litwin Model (Moody, Smith, 2004), PESTEL framework (Walsh, 2005), GAP Analysis, Stakeholder Analysis, Force-Field Change and others all have been studied as a means to lessen resistance to change. Each of these concepts, frameworks or tools can also be used for diagnosing which specific strategy for change is the most appreciate for any given organization. In analyzing these concepts, frameworks and tools it is clear that the most adaptable in terms of taking into account both internal and external factors is the 7-S Model (Kaplan, 2005). The logic supporting this specific model is that it… [read more]

Managing Organizational Culture: Definitions Essay

… Managing Organizational Culture

Organizational Culture: Definitions and Characteristics

Whenever people from different backgrounds with different beliefs, values, and norms converge as a group, a new culture is created that gives the group a distinct characteristic and dynamic. What happens, in… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change A) Approaches Article Review

… Managing Organizational Change

a) Approaches to change

Change at DuPont was implemented as a natural process by which the organizational evolved. It was not embraced as a formal phenomenon nor was any emphasis placed on the creation of a context in which the employees and the firm would be prepared for a smooth transition. In other words, organizational development as a framework for change was not widely used.

On the other hand however, the firm focused on the sense-making approach, in the meaning that it was expected of the strategies implemented to be effective and efficient, as well as suitable and able to support the company in reaching its objectives. In a context in which the firm did not implement a specific pre-designed framework for dealing with change, it nevertheless turned to appreciative inquiry -- with the support of the academic community -- and strived to identify the best solution to the specific organizational problem.

b) Compatibility of approaches

At a general level, it could be assumed that the three approaches to change -- organizational development, appreciative inquiry and sense-making -- are incompatible as they each present different means of dealing with change, from a structured approach, to a customized approach. In essence nevertheless, with the real context of an organizational change situation, the three models are not entirely self exclusive.

In other words, in the context of an organizational change situation, the manager will not implement a strict and pre-defined model of change management, but will start from such a model of OD to gradually build on it. In other words, it would customize the solution based on the frameworks available, as well as based on the specifics of the encountered situation (Blecker, 2005),… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change Identify the Key Elements Research Proposal

… Managing Organizational Change

Identify the key elements of the resistance to change described in this situation.

For Perrier the key elements of resistance to change emanate from the once lucrative level of sales they had achieved, only to see their sales levels plummet due to benzene being found in their water. From a very lucrative business that provided the financial means to meet the unions' demands for 35-hour work weeks and average annual salaries of $32,000 a year to near-bankruptcy, the resistance to change began when Perrier senior management began tightening budgets, entertaining take-over talks with Nestle' and also looking to make symbolic statements of how drastic the economic conditions were for the company. The CGT (Confederation general du travail -- General Confederation of Labour) controls the Perrier processing plant with 93% of the plants' 1,650 workers being members. When Perrier management decided to cut 15% of its workforce, there was uproar from CGT. To make matters worse, Perrier management purchased cases of a competitor's latest beverage, Badoit Rouge, and placed it throughout the company cafeterias. Unionized workers saw this as an insult, further galvanizing them against any efforts to share in the financial burdens of Perrier's senior management. All these key elements were in retrospect were autocratic on the part of Perrier and were taken as condescending and arrogant instead of inviting ownership, which would have been a far more effective as a change management strategy (Brown, Cregan, 2008). As the senior management at Perrier continued to focus not on collaboration but more towards dominating unions into approving a 15% reduction in staff, the situation became even more tense (Passariello, 2004). The CGT union leader Jean-Paul Franc decried the lack of consideration and cooperation from Perrier and Nestle senior management, leading to an impasse in the negotiations (Passariello, 2004). Only after the French government intervened did the company and union make progress in reaching an agreement.

Construct a change management strategy for dealing with the situation. In… [read more]

Managing Organizational Culture Dissertation

… ¶ … opportunity exists for the company to expand internationally by setting up operations in the emerging economies of China and India. The question to consider is how to build cultural harmony between the facilities operating in three different countries.… [read more]

Human Resources Managing Organisational Culture Dissertation

… d).

Understanding of organisational culture and cultural types also helps the understanding of why managerial reforms may impact differently within and between organisations. An organisation with a predominantly internal process culture, for example, may be more resistant to reforms aimed… [read more]

Organizational Behavior: Motivation and Performance Management Research Paper

… In these networking groups, as Inskeep points out, employees share experiences and single out their individual weak points. This is critical as it is in identifying their individual weak points that employees can strategize on how to eliminate such weaknesses and improve their performance. In the end, the organization benefits by having a more efficient and motivated workforce.

Section 2

Dr. Peter Drucker's Statement: "You cannot motivate employees, employees must motivate themselves."

Meaning of the Statement in Regard to Motivation Theory

When it comes to employee motivation, the best results are achieved not by promising incentives or cracking the whip, but by taking deliberate steps to stimulate self-motivation on the part of employees. Self-motivation promotes not only self-confidence, but also composure and collectedness in employees as they seek to perform their various duties.

Some of the Methods that Could be Used to Promote Self-Motivation in the Workplace

Self-motivation in the workplace could be promoted in a number of ways. These include:

1. Roping-in Employees in Decision Making

Allowing employees to be part of the decision-making process promotes their commitment to organizational goals and enhances their self-esteem. Given that motivation is largely about will, as opposed to the application of specific techniques (i.e. offering of incentives), involving employees makes them feel as part and parcel of the organization -- thereby inspiring and stimulating their drive and enthusiasm.

2. Goal-Setting

The performance of employees is likely to become better when goals are set and objectives clearly defined. Essentially, goal-setting not only spurs involvement, but also ensures that everybody is moving in the same direction. Goal-setting stimulates participation from employees, thus further enhancing their commitment to the achievement of the said goals and objectives.

3. Provision of Opportunities for Growth and Professional Enrichment

Employees who enjoy that which they engage in are likely to be more motivated than those that find tasks challenging or confusing. It is, therefore, important for the organization to not only provide in-house training for employees, but also encourage them to further enhance their professionalism by continuing their education.


Sims, R. (2002).… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change Queensland Leisure Case Study

… Step 4 -- communicate the vision; it is very significant to the change management process what happens to the vision once it has been formed. There is need to communicate the QLG change and the intention frequently and effectively as well as powerfully such that it is part of everything that one does.

Step 5 -- remove obstacles; this is the next logical step once the leader of the vision has achieved the belief and participation of the employees in the new changes that shall have been introduced in QLG. This response, is achieved will be an indicator that they are ready to get the benefits of the changes yet to be implemented in QLG.

Step 6 -- create short-term wins; bearing that success motivates everyone, there is need to make the people feel the benefits of the change by and by rather than waiting till the very end which could take months like the complete change over in technology in QLG will take six months.

Step 7 -- build on change; this comes on the realization that many change initiatives fail due to the declaration of victory and meeting of targets too early in time. Each success in the implementation phase of the newt technology at QLG will act as a platform to build upon the issues that went right as the management identifies areas that can be improved.

Step 8 -- imbibe the changes in corporate culture; it is true that for any change to be long lasting, there is need to imbibe it into the culture of the organization since the corporate culture will more often than not dictate what gets done and what does not get done.


Kotter International (2012). The 8-Step Process for Leading Change. Retrieved February 6, 2014 from

Miranda B., (2013). What Causes Resistance to Change within an Organization. Retrieved February 6, 2014 from… [read more]

Project Management February J. 2014 Research Paper

… (Kerry, 2010). A project manager is an important project leader who communicates a project's vision to the subordinates. A project leader plans a project, measures performances of a project and solves problems that could arise from a project implementation. Common… [read more]

Human Resource Management Comparing Term Paper

… Human Resource Management

Comparing and Contracting Two Change Case Studies; Ajax Minerals and Perrier

Identify two (2) sources of resistance to change in the Ajax Minerals exercise and describe how the organization dealt with each type of resistance.

In any… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Term Paper

… Apart from reason, a heterogeneous organization should also understand the culture and personality of each member of the organization in order to become effective in managing change.

8. The scarcity of resources alone would be ground enough for diagnostic information to be unavailable; thus, it is imperative that members have sufficient resources to work efficiently.

9. Evaluation in OD programs are needed because it takes into account external and internal forces that are vital to the implementation of intervention in the organization. However, it is important to note that OD program evaluations are also difficult to accomplish, simply because it tests an intervention program at its first level; thus, it is also important to create follow-up evaluations to check whether the evaluations are as effective as the interventions as well.

10. I remember resisting change when I first became acquainted with the Internet technology, especially online communications, such as chatting, e-mailing, and joining online groups with people whom I share my interests with. Initially, I resisted this new technology because I believed that the Internet is just hype, in the same way that television is so much hyped during its inception in the commercial market. The criticisms given to TV and other technologies convinced me that the Internet is just a fad just like the other technologies.

Of course, my resistance to this technological change was due to the fact that I have few friends who subsist to Internet technology as well. Thus, the lack influence from my social environment did not convince me to use and subscribe to the Internet. I felt no urgency to conform and use this new fad in computer technology. Apart from the weak social influence of my environment, my perceived compatibility with the Internet had discouraged me to use the Internet, since I simply cannot comprehend the fact that the Internet exists for mere socialization only (of course, these are my biased thoughts about the Internet when I was still skeptical about its usefulness to computer users (and even non-users)). After two years, when I felt it necessary for my work to use the Internet, I began accessing and subscribing to the Internet. My experience illustrates how changes in the social environment encouraged me to adapt to the… [read more]

Safety International Disaster Management Organizations Research Paper

… These organizations have been blind to gender issues in disaster management; this makes it difficult to determine the needs of the differentiated impact on men and women.

Different ethnic groups have different cultures that sometimes require the disaster management teams are conversant with the cultures; these cultures can include beliefs or language, which helps in communication. Organizations treat disasters differently hence inequitable distribution of resources. This is because different disasters attract donor attention according to the effects of a disaster. Survivors are left in the good will of others to survive this cause, discrimination, residential segregation, social inequalities and racial-based stereo types. Due to societal structures, the aftermath of disasters always, leave people with psychological effects, which the organizations have not adequately dealt with. Disasters can be mitigated but it has often become difficult to remove vulnerable people from disaster prone environments.

Variant policies have been developed and established to mitigate disaster effects. Some of the international policies include (UNISDR) for 1999, United Nations international strategy for disaster reduction; this policy ensures that countries implement strategies that aid in disaster reduction. It includes building hospitals and constructions resilient to disasters to strengthen response. UNDRO and IDNDR are policies, which were put in place in the 1990's. These policies ensure that there is reduction in poverty levels, loss of lives and economic disruptions. United Nations UNDP has programs which prevent crisis and help in development. It operates in over one hundred countries and works towards recovery after disasters.


Policy implementation will lead to designing of strategies and practices that will minimize vulnerabilities. These practices will reduce physical hazards and enhance economic and social capacity to adopt. There are different disaster training articles and sources; they are not compatible with disasters faced by different countries. Countries have different types of disasters hence need unique training sources.


Damon, P. (2011). Introduction to International Disaster Management. Atlanata: Elsevier.

Rodriguea, H.E. (2007)(Handbook of Disaster Research). London:… [read more]

Organizational Redesign -- Transferable Skills Managing Term Paper

… Organizational Redesign -- Transferable Skills

Managing organizational change in general and implementing organizational redesign in particular present serious challenges for organizations. Doing so successfully generally requires effective management and specific technical, communication, client relations, and detail-management skills at many different levels. Technical skills must match the needs of the new direction of the organization. Communication skills are crucial from the boardroom to front-line operations and at every level in between. Client relations and customer service skills can make or break a commercial organization largely independent of other important factors. Finally, detail-management skills are also capable of contributing substantially to success or failure at every level of the organization.

Specific Skills and Organizational Redesign

Technical skills are crucial to organizational success but they are not necessarily the highest in importance with specific respect to organizational redesign. That is primarily because issues in relation to technical skills are generally addressed by executive and managerial decisions rather than by decisions or circumstances at the operational level (George & Jones, 2008). Similarly, client-relations skills and detail-management skills are also extremely important in organizational redesign, but issues in those areas also are addressed by executive and managerial decisions. In the case of all three skill areas, organizational leaders may institute changes in specific requirements, policies, procedures, and protocols, but their successful implementation is more a matter of good hiring, effective training (or retraining) programs, and appropriate business-unit and personnel assignments (George & Jones, 2008).

The Comparative Importance of Communication Skills

If one particular area or skill set is most important to organizational success in general and to successful organizational redesign in particular, it would be communications.… [read more]

Change Using Kotter's 8 Steps Research Paper

… This would have helped employees in two ways. First, it would have given employees that intended to stay some additional measure of job security. Second, it would have made it more possible for employees who would eventually be terminated to find alternate employment, by staggering the number of employees to hit the job market.

For McDonald's, the most critical change would have been to have changed the timing. McDonald's failed to observe cultural changes that reflected a desire to have a variety of healthier options at McDonald's. It also ignored the menu changes at competing restaurants. Had it engaged in better timing for its healthier menu, it would have had a much more effective counter campaign to alleviate some of the bad publicity that was inherent when Super Size Me was released. For example, using choices available on its current menu, McDonald's could have seized on an advertising campaign similar to that used by Subway restaurants, and featured a real-life person who ate exclusively at McDonald's and managed to lose weight and gain health. Such a campaign would have been impossible using only McDonald's old menu.


Applebaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting

Kotter's 1996 change model, Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782.

Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.

Parker, D., Verlinden, A., Nussey, R., Ford, M., & Pathak, R.D. (2013). Critical evaluation of project-based performance management: Change intervention integration, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(4), 407-419.

Sato, S., Lucente, S., Meyer, D., & Mrazek, D. (2010).… [read more]

Kotter's and Lewin's Models Essay

… The model is easily understood and continues in use today. Also, force field analysis lends itself to more scientific decision making.

There are also some limitations associated with Lewin's model. The transition or Change phase can be a pleasant trap as people become comfortable in temporary situations where they are not accountable for the hazards of normal work, and where talking about change may substitute for real action. A different problem can occur with the Freeze phase. Organizations sometimes encourage this phase to remain in a state of slushiness where freezing is never really achieved, which in theory makes the next unfreezing easier. The problem with this approach is that people fall into a state of change shock where they work at a low level of efficiency and effectiveness while they await the next change. They come to feel that it is not worth the effort to improve what they do (Straker, 2011).

Further critique of Lewin's model argues that it "is very rational, goal and plan oriented" and that "change looks good on paper, as it makes rational sense, but when implemented the lack of considering human feelings and experiences can have negative consequences" (Kritsonis, 2005, p. 6). There is the danger that individuals become so enthusiastic about a new change that they overlook the "feelings, attitudes, past input or experience" of other employees. As a result they can encounter either resistance or little enthusiasm for the proposed changes (Kritsonis, 2005).

In summary, both Kotter's and Lewin's models offer ways of supporting strategic change. They allow for diagnostic tasks that enable a manager to effectively plan and implement change.

Works Cited

21st Century Leader. (n.d.). Kotter's eight step model of change. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from:

Chapman, A. (2010). Change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from:

DealTime. (2000). Leading change, or changing leaders? [Review of the book Leading Change]. Retrieved from

Faucheux, M. (2009). Negotiating the advantages and disadvantages of change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from:

Kritsonis, A. (2004-2005). Comparison of change theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 8(1), 1-6.

Leadersphere. (2008). Organizational diagnostic models A review & synthesis. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from:

MindTools. (2012). Lewin's change management model Understanding the three stages of change. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from:

Reynolds, L. (2009). Organisational change: Which model should you use? Retrieved January 12, 2012 from:

Straker, D. (2011). Lewin's freeze phases. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: [read more]

Total Awards Research Paper

… Each can be seen as a slice of the overall pie in relation to compensation, development, and most especially retention and position in the marketplace.

The Financial View -- What are the costs associated with compensation? What types of risks… [read more]

Company I Worked for Changed Its Sales Essay

… ¶ … company I worked for changed its sales structure significantly in order to respond to changes in the competitive environment of the marketplace. This change was introduced from the top levels of management, which believed that the company's full… [read more]

on Organizational Behavior and Management Case Study

… Organizational Behavior and Management

Team Building: Organizational Behavior and Management

One of the best ways to manage the behavior of employees in an organization is through team building. There are many ways in which teams can be built, and there… [read more]

Performance Management at the NIM Essay

… The death stage refers to the end stage where organizational performance decline to the extent of inability to maintain its normal productivity and market competitiveness. On the other hand, entrepreneurial stage is characterized by the need for effective leadership, collectivity (delegation), formalization (beginning of organizational decline in productivity) and elaboration stage requires organizational revitalization (Hopkins, Hopkins, & Mallette, 2005).

From the case study, it seems that the case excludes the maturity stage and growth stage. The analysis does not consider the growth stages undergone by the campus. The analysis also does not consider the maturity stage of the organization. This has significant impacts on the performance and the growth of the company. Growth stage provides management of the campus with insights into the nature of its current and future performance. It provides the basis for developing the desired strategies for exploiting the prevailing opportunities. They are also essential in evaluating strategies required when respond to anticipatory challenges that may hinder the growth and development of the campus. On the other hand, the maturity stage enables organizations to evaluate their stability and competitiveness in the marketplace. It provides organizations with theoretical approaches required for understanding and identifying new opportunities prevailing in the marketplace (Hopkins, Hopkins, & Mallette, 2005).

In addition, the stage allows the management team to determine the efficacy of their actions and predict the future outcomes of their strategic plans. The other impact associated with the exclusion stage includes the failure to evaluate its market share and effective market segmentation to allow effective exploitation of the target market. Conclusively, designing a strategic plan in an organization requires active participation of all the stakeholders to ensure its success.


Hopkins, W.E., Hopkins, S.A., & Mallette, P. (2005). Aligning organizational subcultures for competitive advantage: A strategic change approach. New York: Basic Books.

Nambudiri R. & Jayasima J. (2008). Performance Management at the National Institute of Management (Central India… [read more]

Management Principles Management Leadership Model Term Paper

… There is a pre-assumption that the leader's traits existed before leadership and most of them failed to approach the study of personality. Several studies aiming at identifying some of the leadership traits reveal that most of the traits were unimportant… [read more]

Project Management Your Company Planning Essay

… Organizational culture refers to the collective behavior of the employees who form an organization and the different meanings that the employees attach to their actions Valentine, 2011.

An organization's culture will include its values, norms, vision, habits, systems, working language, and beliefs. Organizational culture is taught to new employees through informal trainings like stories, rituals, myths, and shared behavior. It is mostly formed from how an organization is structured, how it uses its resources, the employees in the organization, and how work is completed or the process of completing work in the organization. A good culture is formed when there is balance and harmony with the organization's goals and mission. The elements of a good organizational culture are mission, respect, solid communication, and superior performance.

An organization's culture will affect the success of a project either positively or negatively. If the organization's mission is not clear the employees will not understand why a specific project is being implemented, which might lead to resistance. Having a solid communication culture in an organization will ensure that the project manager is able to communicate to the employees in regards to the project, which will ensure that all employees understand and those who do not can ask questions freely. For a successful project, there should be respect among the employees. This will allow the employees to respect each other during the project implementation and management.

What are some of the key organizational elements that can affect the development and maintenance of a supportive organizational culture? As a consultant, what advice would you give to a functional organization that was seeking to move from an old, adversarial culture, where the various departments actively resisted helping one another, to one that encourages project thinking and cross-functional cooperation?

The key elements that would affect an organization's supportive culture are respect, communication, and clear mission. These three elements will affect how the employees interact and value with each other. In order for an organization to change its culture to one that departments support each other, it will need to clearly define its mission, change its communication methods, and develop a culture of respect amongst the various departments. A clear mission will define what the organization would want to accomplish and how it intends to accomplish it, which will allow the departments to better understand the organization. Open lines of communication from the top managers will ensure that employees can communicate freely with other employees and the different managers irrespective of department. Respect for individuals, will allow the employees to start valuing each department and appreciate its contribution to the organization.

Project management techniques have been used successfully for a wide variety of efforts, including the many NASA space missions, huge construction projects, implementation of major systems like ERP, movie production, the development of new products and services, theatrical productions, and much more. Why not use them for managing the operations function of any business? Please use examples to support your answer. You may use examples from your own… [read more]

Organizational Management -- Concepts and Terminology Essay

… Organizational Management -- Concepts and Terminology

Organizational Culture and Behavior

Organizational culture refers to the collective attitudes and values that characterize business organizations. Organizational behavior refers to the manner in which business organizations implement and manifest the various elements of their organizational culture (Robbins & Judge, 2009). The last organization for which I worked maintained an organizational culture that emphasized equal opportunity, ethical business practices, and the concept of developing leaders from within the organization. That organization also maintained a strong commitment to social welfare and to environmental responsibility. Employees were encouraged to participate in various efforts that benefited the local community and the organization carefully monitored compliance with environmentally conscious policies and practices.


In contemporary American society and business, diversity refers to the differences among individuals comprised by society and business organizations. Generally, diversity includes such differences as gender, race, ethnicity, religion, culture, nationality, sexual orientation, and gender identity (George & Jones, 2008). Diversity is an important aspect of modern business management because statutory law as well as fundamental objective concepts of social responsibility and morality require that all individuals in American society enjoy the same basic rights, opportunities, and benefits.

Certain classifications (such as race, ethnicity, religion, and gender) are recognized and protected by federal law; others (such as sexual orientation and gender identity) are only recognized and protected under the laws of some states and are neither recognized nor protected by the laws of other states (George & Jones, 2008). The most observable aspects of diversity with organizations would be the apparent makeup of their personnel in terms of race, ethnicity, nationality, and gender.


Communications encompasses the various ways that information is transmitted, shared, received, and stored within business organizations (George & Jones, 2008). Within business organizations, business units, hierarchical chains, and individuals must communicate with one another extensively. Likewise, business organizations must be able to communicate externally with other business organizations, customers, suppliers, contractors, customers, and government agencies.

Different forms of business communications typically include electronic messages (i.e. email), written (hard copy) memoranda, telephonic, face-to-face, in addition to other industry-specific or task-specific uses of media such as two-way radios or specialized proprietary software applications (George & Jones,… [read more]

Organization Diversity, Conflict Management and Policies Term Paper

… Organization


Diversity refers to a combination of factors, which gives workforce an identity of its own. In our country, diversity of workforce is grounded in its varied ethnic backgrounds, sexual orientation, gender and age. With workforce composed of such unique factors, there is always an alarming potential for conflicts and discrimination. It is important for a firm to develop HR policies that reflect the changing corporate culture where diversity plays an important role and its management is a critical element in the success of the company.

Organizational policies should reflect a company's desire to treat diverse workforce with due respect and to address its grievances properly. In this connection, it needs to train its human resource management to handle diversity effectively while minimizing the risk of potential conflicts. Everything including recruitment, screening, interviewing and performance appraisal procedures can hinder smooth management of diversity if they do not reflect the diverse needs and aptitude of a highly diverse workforce. Human Resource managers today play a key role in the success of any organization because they help in minimizing risks of conflict and discrimination that arise due to diversity in the workplace. For this reason, it is the responsibility of the organization to provide adequate training to the HR staff, which is assigned the tasks of addressing grievances, facilitating communication and managing change in the organization. Diversity management has thus come to occupy an important place in organizational policies.

Bendick et al. (2001) write:

Starting in the mid-1980s and accelerating throughout the 1990s, many of these efforts have evolved into more ambitious undertakings with a different label -- diversity training -- and a more strategic role in human resource management... For example, a 1995 survey of the 50 largest U.S. industrial firms found that 70% had a formal diversity management program, typically including training, and an additional 8% were developing one... In a 1994 survey of members of the Society for Human Resource Management, 33% reported that their employers provided training on workforce diversity, making it about as common as training in sales techniques (35%) or clerical skills (3-1%)....And in a 1995 survey, 50% of members of the American Management Association reported having formal programs for managing diversity, with training a usual component; this figure had risen from 46% in 1992."

Diversity training is seen as a high effective strategy for elimination of discriminatory practices and risks of conflict in an organization. Apart from providing adequate training to the HR people, such programs also try to educate employees about the changing face of American workforce in order to help them develop tolerance for different viewpoints. Diversity management also helps a company tackle legal challenges that arise from discriminatory practices. With more women and older people entering the workforce, there is increasing risk of discrimination,… [read more]

Formation Organizations Factors Influencing Essay

… All the cases and procedures are studied, measured, and quantified according to the confirmations of the technique used. Besides, the usability of the design item, and the longevity of the system in order to have a genuine organization formation process… [read more]

Human Resource Management for Employee Term Paper

… They also promote and reward current employees for assisting in the recruitment of friends and acquaintances, largely because they realize that the friends of existing employees are more likely to share the same values and mindsets of employees who are… [read more]

Organizational Behavior and Management Concepts Essay

… Organizational Behavior and Management Concepts

Organizational Behavior Defined

Generally, organizational behavior refers to the study of behavior patterns within professional business (and other) organizations (George & Jones, 2008; NAU, 2010; Robbins & Judge, 2009). It consists of three principal areas of analysis: the study of individual behavior, the study of individual behavior within a group, and the study of interrelations between and among different groups of individuals (NAU, 2010). Despite the substantial differences in the specific focus of each of those areas, all aspects of the study of organizational behavior serves the same essential purpose: to apply the knowledge gained to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability of professional business (and other) organizations (NAU, 2010). Additionally, the understanding of organizational behavior principles and practices can also be applied for the benefit of the individuals within the organizations (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009).

Components of Organizational Behavior

There are major distinctions within the study of organizational behavior, such as those pertaining to the respective realms of organizational effectiveness, process efficiency, personnel performance, and human motivation (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009). The roots of modern concepts of organizational effectiveness date back to the work of early industrial organization theorists such as Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Taylor, in particular, is considered the father of scientific business management because of the way he applied quantitative analyses to business processes. That approach involved, for one example, determining the optimal makeup of working groups and the ideal size of shovels for the most productive possible output… [read more]

Hight Performance Management Term Paper

… High Performance Management

Accomplishing Organizational Goals according Total Quality Management

Given the importance of effective management in any type of organization today, the recent attention paid to management initiatives such as the ISO 9000 series and the total quality movement… [read more]

Management Agree With the Statement "Organizations Term Paper

… Management agree with the statement "organizations will not learn effectively until they recognize and confront the implications of the three occupational cultures." There are several reasons for agreeing with the statements. First according to Schein, organizational learning failures are caused not by resistance to change or human nature but the inability of people of different cultures to come together and communicate through the shared language. The people belonging to the three cultures have different understanding of the same subject that often creates the probability of the failure of organizational culture.

As Schein argues that, the first kind of culture-- the operational culture-- is the culture of every day activities that is carried by the line managers. These managers deal with day to-day routine activities in the organization and their main job is get products and services out in the markets, purchase supplies, process supplies and pack the products for the delivery.

This kind of culture involves operational people who like to work in teams and solve complex analytical problems in the organization. These people try to work collaboratively as a team; however, all of the members of their teams are of the similar outlooks, professions, and understanding. They tend to believe and trust each other for compensating the flaws in technology.

The second kind of culture belongs to executives, who Deal with capital, resources, and other vital means of production. People at these level control most of the organizational resources and they support learning and human potential, their main responsibility, however, lies looking at the bottom line of the organization for its survival.

The people belonging to the executive culture remain far from the operational people and… [read more]

Managing the Total Quality Management Term Paper

… As the rate of transformation in the business environment goes faster, suppleness, feasible all the way through CIM, turns out to be an important element for a triumphant venture.

Operational Problem

Existing Operational Problem:

major problem is the organization today is the lack of quality and experience on the part of the employees.


This problem basically crops up because the necessary topics vital to supervise people are not resolved by the leadership management. These topics are empowerment, conflict resolution, team building, etc.

Recommendations a) Recruitment of part-time employees to enhance inward competition.

A b) Upgrading of employees at Company's Coaching Centre.

A c) Develop effective communication with the employees.

A d) Constant Orientation from the part of the management.

Business Proposal and Recommendation

Managers of TQM should possess competent and true professional management skills. The management should engage in written and verbal communications in such a manner that institutes them as experts in the industry; as well as, they should present themselves on a level that anyone of any status should be able to understand and interpret. They should recognize that each and every client and individual allied with our business is equal in substance and is worthy of the same level of importance and service regardless of how great or small the project might be.

It should be especially pointed out that the management should believe in quality and not quantity, therefore they should be very comprehensive with their approach. Furthermore, they should possess workforce with excellent personalized skills. Furthermore, the management should always be truthful, and present the facts for what they really are. It should avoid stretching the truth at all cost. It should follow sound ethical and moral guiding principles in managing all cycles of business, and present itself with a level of integrity that is second to none.


Aly, Nael A. (March 1989). A Survey on the Use of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing In Food Processing Companies, Food Technology: 82-87.

Blest, John P., (Spring 1992). Raymond G. Hunt and Carolyn C. Shadle, Action Teams in the Total Quality Process: Experience in a Job Shop, National Productivity Review: 195-202.

Camp, Robert C., (1989). Competitive Bench Marking: Xerox's Powerful Quality tool is making Total Quality Happen, Research Report, The Conference Board. 35-42.

Chang, Tien-Chien and Richard A. Wysk, (1985). An Introduction to Automated Process Planning System, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

DeMeyer, Arnoud, (1990). How to Arrive at a Computer Integrated Manufacturing: a 3-year Survey, European Journal of Operational Research, 47. 239-247.

Doll, William J., Mark A. (June, 1987). Vonderembske, Forging a Partnership to Achieve Competitive Advantage: The CIM Challenge, MIS Quarterly. 205-220.

Evans, James R. And William M. Lindsay, (1992). The Management and Control of Quality, 2nd ed., West Publishing Co., St. Paul, Minnesota.

Francett, Barbara, (August, 1988). CIM Recipe: Get Set, Then Go, Computer Decisions. 27-28.

Gaylord, John, (1987). Factory Information Systems: Design and Implementation for CIM Management and Control, Marcel Decker, Inc., New York.

Goldhar D. Joel, and Mariann Jelinek, (May, 1985).… [read more]

Management: Organizational Change Essay

… Finally, the manager has to maintain constant communication with his/her employees throughout the change process so as to reduce the extent of employees' resistance to change. he/she needs to communicate with their employees on, among other things, why the change is necessary, and how they (employees) and the greater organization stand to benefit from the same (Hornstein, 2008). Human beings are naturally resistant to change, and processes of change are likely to bring about feelings of uncertainty, fear, and insecurity amongst employees. The manager has to use communication to calm their employees down. They particularly need to pay attention to upward communication because then, they will be able to respond to the questions, concerns, and suggestions posed by employees - thereby minimizing the risk of resistance.

A Situation where Clinicians and Coders are Unable to Enter the Proper Codes Following a Software Change Process

This could be an indication of inadequate training on the part of clinicians and coders. The manager needs to identify the actual training needs and determine who exactly needs training -- there is the likelihood that only the coding part of training may have been done inadequately; and further, that not all clinicians and coders may be having problems with the same. Once this need has been identified, the manager tries to identify the possible causes of the same. he/she then formulates the specific objectives he/she intends the additional training to achieve, based on the identified need; and develops a training program for addressing the specific needs. In-house training, where everyone learns at their own pace, would, for instance, be appropriate if it is established that the initial training may have been inadequate as a result of the trainer not taking into account the learning differences of employees (Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment -- New Zealand, 2014).


Hornstein, H. (2008). Using a Change Management Approach to Implement IT Programs. Ivey Business Journal. Retrieved 27 September 2014 from

Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment -- New Zealand. (2014). Developing a Training Plan for Your Employees. The Government of New Zealand. Retrieved 27 September 2014 from… [read more]

Management: Organizational Politics and Its Impact on Leadership PhD Model Answer

… Ii) Going around the boss -- hierarchical organizations still value protocol. Bypassing your boss could be hazardous and career-threatening. Iii) Badmouthing seniors in public forums -- the adage, 'praise in public, and criticize in private' is still significant; blurting out things that embarrass or criticize your boss in public places could damage your career and limit your recourses.

Combating Retrogressive Politics

If not properly checked, organizational politics can be a source of retrogressive power struggles, parochial politics, and bureaucratic infighting, all of which impede on organizational performance, morale, innovation, and initiative. Leaders should move to combat politics when it is dysfunctional or excessive. The strategies outlined below can guide a leader towards effectively accomplishing this (adopted and modified from Valle & Witt, 2001; Sonaike, 2013; Ogungbamila, 2013).

The very first step is identifying instances of politics, and establishing its causes and techniques. For instance, when an opportunity for promotion arises, the CEO can be alert for backstabbing or transparent impression management instances among potential candidates.

Open communication is a valuable tool in constraining office politics. The leader can, for instance, use open communication to make known to all members the strategies of resource allocation. This reduces political maneuvering, and makes it difficult for individuals to gain or assume control of data deemed vital, and make use of the grapevine as a tool of war for political gain.

Leaders should avoid favoritism. If members believe that good performance is more important than impression management in obtaining rewards, they will most likely work towards impressing the boss through exemplary job performance.

Leaders should set positive examples by being non-political in the execution of their duties. The intensity and frequency of organizational politics at the lower levels could be minimized if the people at the top subtly demonstrate that politicking is not welcome.

Leaders ought to ensure that the goals of individual workers are in congruence with those of the organization. They could, for instance, organize forums, in which members are taught the importance and significance of goal congruence to both personal and organizational development. Workers who value goal congruence are less likely to engage in devious office politics.

Discussing questionable information publicly could also go a long way in constraining office politics. People who play devious politics usually prefer to operate privately and secretly; they are often ready to make derogatory statements, or drop innuendos and hints about someone else, as long as they remain unidentified. Offering to discuss such issues in a public forum could go a long way in minimizing the discrediting of others.


It is evident that there is need to reevaluate the myth of a non-political, objective, and highly rational organization, not only because it is irrational, but also because it disregards the idea that an organization is a network of cooperation as much as it is a network of competition. This myth leads us to construct an organization that blatantly disregards the concept of diversity of interests. I conclude that in order for a leader to… [read more]

Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample Research Paper

… These core concepts are often prerequisites of innovation. Finally my strategy would increase the ability of people to think creatively and use that creativity to produce innovation in their area of responsibility.

Strategy to help reduce bureaucracy

I would first want to identify the type of authority model within the organization. Charismatic authority, traditional authority and rational-legal authority are three types of authority that can arise in a bureaucracy. Charismatic authority is marked by leadership given to an individual due to his exceptional qualities. Traditional authority comes from factors like birth, custom or precedent. Rational-legal authority is acquired from rules and procedures, such as an individual's authority derived from his official job function. This is authority is what is occurring in many of the military organizations mentioned thought-out this document. The ability to reduce bureaucratic control will depend, in part, on the type of authority models used within the military organization. After that, I would want to modify bureaucratic structures through projects. Here, I would have the organization develop and lend resources to temporary project units to achieve specific objectives. Projects allow organizations to perform special tasks or solve specific problems under a project manager through ad hoc groups comprising select personnel with specialized knowledge and experience. Project structures can generally cut through bureaucratic systems better than functional departments within an organization (Kalinda, 2001). This would ultimately reduce the extensive layering and inefficient fighting that characterize bureaucracy. Finally, I would eliminate some excessive bureaucracy by reducing the hierarchy of the organizational structure. An organization with a number of layers between top management and front-line employees can slow communications and the flow of information. The flat organization structure is less encumbered by authority, with fewer managers required to review work.


1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1

2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203.

3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and… [read more]

Management of Work-Related Stress Term Paper

… It is also the aforementioned departments that have the resources and knowhow to develop and implement the most appropriate stress management policies and measures, embrace management standards that are likely to minimize work-related stress, etc. Essentially, the organization should also acquaint itself with workers' non-work-related sources of stress. This is more so the case given that "an employer's awareness of the employee's non-work-related stressors and problems facilitates good management" (Hawkins, 2003, p. 216).

As I have already pointed out elsewhere in this text, employees also have a role to play, albeit a secondary one, in the management of work-related stress. In that regard, employees must ensure that they are actively involved in organizational initiatives whose key goal is stress management. The said employees must also ensure that stressful situations/sources of stress at work are reported to the relevant departments. It should be noted that the organization cannot take any action if it is not aware of a specific source of stress. With that in mind, the move by employees to report possible sources of stress could come in handy in the identification of underlying problems and the subsequent formulation of the most appropriate strategies to tackle the problem. The relevance of being supportive of fellow employees undergoing stressful situations cannot also be overstated. As George & Jones (2010) observe, social support most particularly from friends and family is an important means of coping with stress.


To ensure that work-related stress is contained, the organization (via its various departments) should not only develop stress management policies but also closely monitor the said policies and procedures. This way, deviations from desired objectives can be identified and addressed promptly.


George, J.M. & Jones, G.R. (2010). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior (6th ed.). New York: PH Professional Business.

Hawkins, L. (Ed.). (2003). Tolley's Guide to Managing Employee… [read more]

Environmental and Organizational Environmental Pressure Term Paper

… It is one of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies with health care sales of more than $21.4 billion and leading positions in sales of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, oncology and neuroscience products. Besides the pressures to maintain this large and profitable profile, my personal finances are also involved in the application of these different pressures. A constant discussion about my own personal well being and finance permeates every professional behavior I indulge and admittedly dictates my future as well. Finances are very important from both the environmental and organizational standpoint.

Personal Perspective

For me, my life is personal and I don't give into pressures easily. This is common throughout the workplace as Angell (1999) agreed. She wrote ." Environmental management typically has not held priority-status within corporate-level strategy. As a result, the field of operations management has traditionally treated environmental issues primarily as a series of decision constraints." To me organizational management does not have a personal impact yet impacts the organization as a whole. This approach of removing oneself from the bigger picture is necessary for me to do, otherwise, I lose a sense of personal importance and dignity. I cannot picture myself as a cog of a giant wheel, even though others may routinely do such a thing.

Organizational Reactions

Organizations need to always be reacting and staying in a state of flux. The economic and industrial landscapes change at such a rapid pace, that expecting change is a good strategy. Remaining attached to outdated policies and practices puts the organization at risk to lose competitive advantage that was earned through successful implementation of change. A line of research, rooted in institutional sociology, proposes that firms respond to institutional pressures. The institutional sociology framework emphasizes the importance of regulatory, normative and cognitive factors that affect firms' decisions to adopt a specific organization practice, above and beyond the technical efficiency of the practice. Institutional theory places particular emphasis on legitimating processes and the tendency for institutionalized organizational structures and procedures to be taken for granted, regardless of their efficiency implications.

Strategies for Change

There is great risk for not welcoming organizational change and strategies need to be built around this inescapable fact of business and economics. Donovan (2013) remarked how organizational pressures are sometime too great. He offered rules to help develop a smart strategy that can help alleviate these problems. He suggested that "do not delegate large-scale organizational change to middle management; actively solicit feedback from employees before change occurs; do not let organizational culture dictate the intensity and breadth of change; and clearly communicate the change strategy and the reason behind the change." Any of these guidelines will be helpful in reducing environmental pressures or organizational pressures that have begun to affect the system in a negative and harmful way.


Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from

Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business… [read more]

Parks Recreation and Tourism Essay

… Parks, Recreation and Tourism

LA fitness Organization is an American-based health club with a number of branches across the United States and Canada. It was established back in 1984 in California. Lewis Welch and Chin Yol founded the organization. In… [read more]

Dell Total Quality Management Questions Essay

… Dell Total Quality Management

Questions on Dell's Total Quality Management Strategy

What is TQM? Why it is important to your company?

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a foundational platform of enterprise- corporate-wide processes, procedures and programs designed to continually improve… [read more]

National Incident Management System Theoretical Term Paper

… Generally, the incident command systems are the most common sets of command structures and terminologies, which are used on various incident scenes. They are important in providing efficient management of the resources that are involved during an incident resolution process.… [read more]

Managing Information Systems Introduction in the Contemporary Case Study

… Managing Information Systems Introduction

In the contemporary business environment, IS (information systems) have become the strategy weapons that organizations employ to achieve competitive advantages. With stiff competitions that organizations are now facing within the competitive business environment, many organizations have… [read more]

Network-Centric Approach to Disaster Management Research Paper

… The network centric approach provides a free uninterrupted flow of information which is accessible to all layers of the network and its components. It also encourages real time operation awareness and reduces the heavy handed influence of distant command centers on the tactical situation on the ground as indicated by von Lubitz et al., (2006).

However on the other hand it may be argued that the functionalities offered by network centric approach are either of no or very limited impacts during small well contained local adverse events for instant floods, this is also explicit as many incidents show that local response to a disaster becomes part of a larger national effort. The process of mobilization at the national and international level may also add further confusion and disarray. At times subsequent confusion may be instigated by inter-agency frictions, political power plays and a lot of bureaucracy.

Therefore, it is imperative to state that with its cardinal components of effective management and leadership in times of crisis international organizations should implement it.


Jeroen M.M. Neuvel & Henk J. Scholten & Adri van den Brink, (2010). From Spatial Data to Synchronized Actions: The Network-centric Organization of Spatial Decision Support for Risk and Emergency Management. Retrieved July 31, 2012 from

von Lubitz, Beakley, Patircelli:( 2006). All hazards approach to network-centric disaster management: the role of information and knowledge management, and boyd's ooda loop in disaster leadership. Retrieved July 31, 2012 from [read more]

Faith Baptist Church in Manchester Research Proposal

… The perception of the employees about the same will be assessed from the replies to the questionnaires from which it would be possible to derive the level of feeling among the employees about the fairness of the systems and procedures. The views of the employees regarding the impact of the systems and procedures on their motivation will also be assessed through the questionnaires. It is then possible to estimate the impact of organizational justice on the motivation of the employees.

Protection of Human Subjects

Voluntary Participation

Before administering the questionnaire, the person selected for administering the questionnaire will be informed of our choice and asked whether he is willing to participate in the process of the survey through the questionnaire. Only after the person agrees, the questionnaire will be sent to him/her, thereby ensuring that the participation is voluntary (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2012a).

No Harm to Participants

The questionnaire and interviews relate to the perceptions of the employees about some systems and procedures relating to their organization. There is no enquiry in the questionnaire about any outsider or outside agency and there is nothing offensive to anybody. So there is minimal possibility of any harm to participants (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2012a).

Informed Consent

Informed consent of the participant will be obtained after [read more]

Safety Towards Telecommunications and Technology Research Paper

… The other DSS include knowledge driven, document driven and model driven. Model driven use the available types of models in manipulation of data. Knowledge driven DSS is a system that uses expertise to solve problems. Document driven uses analysis, summary and retrieving of data; it provides as a summary of the documents relevance hence used to make decisions for continuing functionality (Khosrowpour, 2005).

Without electronic communication, there will be reduced speed in communication, no ease at work and reduced work output. Technology helps in managing the most complicated tasks in an organization, organization's profitability, and survival depends on IT. Absence or inappropriateness in the IT sector can lead to the collapse of an organization.

Online back up

When a disaster occurs in an organization, communication and technology can sometimes help to mitigate the effects. It also leads to the attainment of certainty which may result in attaining desired goal preventing disasters. It helps organizations to respond to changing circumstances adequately, hence prevent a disaster from affecting the business much. Configurations and security setting should be reviewed first. All employees should be informed on the security incidents, when they occur and how they should be reexamined. There should be redundancy planning to approach redundant IT infrastructure. For a reliable system, back up online systems can also be used when a disaster occurs to prevent paralyzing a business that depends on one system.

An audit is done first before development of an online system. When implementation is carried out, the system should be easy to follow. Procedures, training and a support system on how the system will function should be well communicated (Vacca 2009). This process requires commitment across all levels. When designing the system the best animations, sound and images should be used to communicate the business idea. The most efficient and effective way of communication should be used while including the most relevant information. The system should be secured with log on security or other types of security to prevent hackers. Built in quality in the system will ensure that their image is well communicated to all audiences. It will also ensure consistency in handling information across all product lines, projects and companies.


Recommendation Risk and vulnerable areas in an organization should be identified. Risk assessments should be done, and then they should be constantly updated. There should be a priority on the risk areas that should be dealt with first. Observing changes in Operating environments and organizational information system will help to monitor results which keep the organization aware of the risks. It helps the leaders in performing near real time risk management. Organizations should use past disasters to provide solutions; they should also try using other unique disaster management strategies. Diverse methods can be tried to deal with a disaster or emergency problem. Corrective, preventive, and detective control measures should be adopted to prevent disasters. Preventive-prevents a disaster from occurring, detective- detects something occurring that is not meant to occur and corrective- address existing nonconformities as they… [read more]

Emergency Management (Mitigation) Policy Analysis Research Paper

… President Carter is reported to have "transmitted to the Congress, the Reorganization Plan Number 3 (3 CFR 1978, 5 U.S. Code 903). The stated and achieved intent of this plan was to consolidate emergency preparedness, mitigation, and response activities into one federal emergency management organization. The President proclaimed that the plan would provide for the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and that the FEMA Director would report directly to the President." (Haddow, 2006) This was passed on June 19, 1978. It is reported that Reorganization Plan No.3 "transferred the following agencies or functions to FEMA: National Fire Prevention Control Administration (Department of Commerce); Federal Insurance Administration (HUD); Federal Broadcast System (Executive Office of the President); Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD); Federal Disaster Assistance Administration (HUD); and the Federal Preparedness Agency (GSA)." (Haddow, 2006) Also transferred to FEMA were "Oversight of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (Office of Science and Technology Policy); coordination of dam safety (Office of Science and Technology Policy); assistance to communities in the development of readiness plans for severe weather related emergencies; coordination of natural and nuclear disaster warning systems; and coordination of preparedness and planning to reduce the consequences of major terrorist incidents." (Haddow, 2006) During the 1980s, President Reagan appointed General Louis O. Guiffrida as Director of FEMA. FEMA was reorganized. General Julius Becton was reported as FEMA Director by President Reagan and is reported to have restored integrity to FEMA operations. During Reagan's presidency, Congress passed the Steward McKinney-Robert Stratford ACT. In 1992, several Hurricanes in Florida and Louisiana example the unprepared state of FEMA. FEMA was further shown as unprepared during the 1990s. Hurricane Mitch resulted in a change in foreign policy in the U.S. toward promotion of community-based mitigation projects. By the year 2001, the primary focus of emergency management became that of terrorism.

Summary and Conclusion

As this work has demonstrated emergency management changes in the U.S. followed the occurrence of natural disaster events and policy changes that occurred were administration dependent.


Bea, Keith (2007) Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes After Hurricane Katrina: A Summary of Statutory Provisions 6 Mar 2007. Retrieved from:

Chapter One Introduction to Emergency Management (nd) Retrieved from:

Civil Defense and Homeland Security: A Short History of National Preparedness Efforts (2006) Homeland Security Preparedness Task Force. September 2006. Retrieved from:

Haddow, George (2006) The Historical Context of Emergency Management. Retrieved from: [read more]

Business -- Change Management Project Term Paper

… It is anticipated that lead times necessary to (re)create an entire main product line capable of maintaining the same desirable qualities that constitute the current brand identity without significant amounts of sugar or corn syrup may actually be so great that research and development will have to begin substantially before the formal announcement of the proposed change.

Likewise, the actual reconfigure of the organizational hierarchy to include an executive level composed of medical advisors and nutritionists to provide extensive guidance and leadership in the real of the healthfulness of all Dr. Pepper Snapple Group products may have to await the formal announcement. Meanwhile, initial recruitment and negotiations should proceed to secure the necessary talent and make sure that the new executive management positions are filled by the time of the formal announcement. If necessary, retention agreements would be suggested so that the new executive talent can be in place at the time of the formal announcement (Russell-Whalling, 2008).

Finally, a nationwide strategic marketing campaign would be launched immediately following the formal announcement. It will be created specifically to be capable of ensuring the successful launch and, in effect, re-branding of the entire Dr. Pepper Snapple Group main product line featuring dietetic products that meet the taste (and other) specifications and preferences necessary to retain the vast majority of the organization's current base market.


Akin, G., Dunford, R., and Palmer, I. (2006). Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Daft, R. (2005) Management. Mason, GA: Thomson South Western.

DPSGroup (2011). "Dr. Pepper Snapple Group Reports First Quarter 2011 Results." Retrieved June 26, 2011 from:

Fisk, P. (2008). Business Genius: A More Inspired Approach to Business Growth. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Capstone.

George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational

Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.

Robbins, S.P. And Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River,

NJ: Prentice Hall.

Russell-Whalling, E. (2008) 50… [read more]

What Drives Organizational Change Essay

… Organizational Change

Drivers of Organizational Change

Most organizations are in a constant state of change though these changes might be very subtle and slow-moving, due to the ever-changing environments in which they operate. Successful organizations realize this and work to manage change in a manner that yields a certain degree of consistency and high reliability with the flexibility to adjust as necessary. There are also times when certain catalysts create a clear and pressing need for more major organizational changes, the management of which is at least as crucial as the management of incremental changes on a more ongoing basis. The following paragraphs will detail the drivers and management of change following to catalyst events witnessed by the author, with appropriate analysis and commentary from contemporary literature on the subject.

At one point, a retail establishment at which the author was employed experienced a catalyst for change due to a shifting market. The owner had opted not to carry a rather small line of specific products due to problems with the ordering process with this particular supplier. A sudden increase in the demand for this specific brand of products brought on by a new marketing campaign was resisted by the owner for some time due to the same hassles in ordering, but finally the clear potential sales won out and the increased revenue proved more than worth the adjustments that needed to be made in the ordering process. This led to a more flexible set of policies and expectations for the entire establishment in terms of ordering and diversifying offered items, and serves as a prime example of the concept of "outside-in" thinking for consumer businesses -- emphasizing opportunities rather than capabilities (Fisk 2008).

Another… [read more]

Tipping Point for Talent Management Research Paper

… Tipping Point for Talent Management

The economic environment and the need for talent management practices

The modern day economic environment is the result of numerous processes of change. The end result is a complex economic climate characterized by varying degrees… [read more]

Knowledge Management Social Network Analysis Remains Relevant Essay

… Knowledge Management

Social network analysis remains relevant to the contemporary social networking process. The mechanisms for social networking may have changed, potentially adding layers of complexity, but the underlying concept remains the same. The quality of one's social network and… [read more]

123. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.