"Management / Organizations" Essays

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Quality Management Organizations Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Quality Management Organizations

The two quality management organizations profiled in this analysis are Q-Plus Labs located in Irvine, California and Quality Auditing LLC who has offices located in Los Angeles, California, Minneapolis, MN and New York City. Both can serve local and national markets given their organizational structures. Of the two, Quality Auditing LLC is the closest locally while also having the ability to operate nationally. For purposes of this analysis Q-Plus Labs is defined as the national quality management organization and Quality Auditing LLC as the local one.

Analysis of Quality Management Organizations

Beginning with Quality Auditing LLC, their main business is providing auditing and consulting for improving procedures and requirements definition, to ensure their clients pass quality management audits. The main part of this company's business is audit outsourcing, supply quality auditing, suppler quality management auditing and supply chain analysis. Managing quality at a strategic level is critical to ensure each aspect of suppliers, manufacturing, logistics and fulfillment stay within procedural audit parameters, especially in highly regulated industries including pharmaceutical drugs (Hagan, 1984). Quality Auditing LLC has extensive expertise in the following standards ISO 9001, ISO 13485, ISO 14001, as 9100, 21 CFR 211, 21 CFR 820, NAY-1, 10 and CFR 50. Taken together, these standards indicate the company can equally manage supplier and internal quality process control audits across a variety of industries. The extent to which any organization can attain ISO 9001 certification and consistently retain it is a primary indicator of how effectively they will be able to pass regulatory audits on a periodic basis while attaining the benefits of lean manufacturing as well (Psomas, Fotopoulos, Kafetzopoulos, 2011). What Quality Auditing LLC actively promotes is their ability to transform clients into more lean-based and highly effective platforms for future profitable growth. The combining and orchestration of these services are over time intended to change the culture of…… [read more]

Project Management Organizations the Most Prominent Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (460 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Project Management Organizations

The most prominent project management organizations are: International Project Management Association (IPMA), Project Management Institute (PMI), Center for International Project & Program Management (CIPPM), Association of Project Managers (APM), Canadian Project Forum, Performance Management Association of Canada, Project Management Institute of Canada (PMI - Canada).

Another organization of this kind is CompTIA. The Computing Technology Industry Association activates on the global information technology industry. The members of the organization are represented by companies that promote innovation in the it field, and by "professionals responsible for maximizing the benefits organizations receive from their investments in technology" (CompTIA, 2008).

In other words, the organization's members are manufacturers, distributors, resellers, solution providers, ISPs, ASPs, software developers, e-commerce and telecom companies. The organization activates in the field of education, training, public policy, and others.

CompTIA's successful involvement in all areas of activity has determined a series of non-profit and governmental organizations join the association. In exchange, these organizations and all the other members gain access to industry research, networking and partnering opportunities, benefit from best practices, and from developed standards.

The organization's initiatives concern business education, convergence, e-business and software solutions, industry research, it services, it training and education, skills development, and software CEOs. CompTIA's programs are designed to promote industry growth.

Projects in Controlled Environments, or PRINCE2, was established in 1996, and represents the contribution of approximately 150 European organizations.…… [read more]

Knowledge Management Organizational Communication Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


A knowledge manager should have different backgrounds; for instance Information Technology, Marketing, Management etc. An effective knowledge manager is the one who is an all rounder and knows well about organizational behaviour, marketing, culture, technology etc.

Looking at all above discussion, it can be concluded that organizations must train their employees and make them learn the techniques of communicating effectively. Organizations that want to succeed make sure that they allocate sufficient time and effort for training their employees on effective knowledge management through proper communication and consider this activity as one of the core activities in the organization's time and performance management systems. Organization should make its employees understand that effective communication and learning, which are significant areas of knowledge management (Lehaney, 2004) and always results in proper transfer of knowledge, are not only beneficial for the organization but also benefit employees in the form of increase in salary, career development and getting bonuses.


Cortada, J,. & Woods, J,. ( 2000), The knowledge management yearbook 2000-2001, Butterworth -- Heinemann.

Davenport, T.H. & Laurence, P. (2000). Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know.

Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.

Eisenberg, M., Goodall, L., & Trethewey, A. (2007). Organizational communication: Balancing creativity and constraint, 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Karagiannis, D., Reimer, U.,(2002), Practical aspects of knowledge management, 4 rth International Conference,


Lehaney, B., Clarke, S., Coakes, E., & Jack, G .(2004), Beyond Knowledge Management, Idea group Publishing,


Luthans, F., Welsh, DH B., & Taylor, L.A. (1988). A descriptive model of management effectiveness. Group & Organization Studies, 13(2).

Malhotra, Y. (1997). "Knowledge Management in Inquiring Organizations." Proceedings of 3rd Americas

Conference on Information Systems (Philosophy of Information Systems Mini-track).

Rastogi, P.N. (2000). Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital - The New Virtuous Reality of Competitiveness. Human Systems Management, 19(1), 39-49.…… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change From Each Change Perspective Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Managing Organizational Change

From each change perspective, what are the key issues to understanding the wildcat strike?

The most critical are the employee's needs for having greater autonomy, mastery and purpose in their work. The unilateral decision to institute a tracking system in the form of a swiped card approach to tracking their time is draconian and insulting to every employee working for the airline. The management team might as well just tell them outright they are not trusted, and are merely labour hours to be reshuffled based on demand. BA Management has shown the antithesis of transformational leadership by being authoritarian and lacking in any definition of the program to show how customers will be better served or productivity enhanced. A second key issue is the complete lack of coordination with the unions, a lack of announcement over the program, no input whatsoever from employees or management, and a complete lack of understanding of why employees choose to work for them given the different hours as well. A third aspect of understanding the wildcat strike is that the meaning fo the swiped card program was only relevant and explained within BA management, there had been no announcement or development of an educational program as to why it was important in the first place. For change management to be effective there must be relevance and meaning communicated to employees if the planned changes are to be acted upon and successful (Sargent, Hardy, 2011).

Assume that you have been retained as a change consultant by BA management to advise them on how to avoid such a situation in the future. What lessons emerge from each perspective and what recommendations would you draw from each in constructing your advice to BA management?…… [read more]

Management -- Organizational Theory Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Management -- Organizational Theory

The article by Chieh-Peng Lin (Modeling Corporate Citizenship, Organizational Trust, and Work Engagement Based on Attachment Theory) is published in the Journal of Business Ethics (2010). This article delves into corporate citizenship and how to develop trust within an organizational environment. Lin posits that if more individuals in an employment environment could embrace a "work engagement" those individuals could avoid "burnout" and "low performance" (Lin, 2010, p. 517). Moreover, employees that embrace a "work engagement" approach would mean that those individuals would be furthering the interests of their organization (Lin, p. 517). Work engagement is defined by Lin as a "positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind" that is characterized by "vigor, dedication, and absorption" including a very strong identification with their efforts on the job and "feelings of enthusiasm, inspiration, pride and challenge" (Lin, p. 517). but, the theme in this article goes deeper: Lin seeks to know how work engagement dovetails with other emerging organizational / management theories.

What is the problem that is presented in this scholarly article? The author points out that while "corporate citizenship" or "corporate social responsibility" (CSR) are important initiatives in the community of companies that are competing for consumer attention, there is a lack of data that show how CSR helps build employee trust. And so the problem encountered by Lin is this: what is the relationship between CSR, organizational trust and work engagement? And moreover, Lin wants to know if the "attachment theory" can be used to explain the relationship between the three concepts mentioned in the sentence above. The author seeks to know which "dimensions of perceived corporate citizenship" influence a person's engagement with work and influence the amount of organizational trust the employee experiences (Lin, p. 518).

(the attachment theory, in Lin's definition: like all animals, humans make important and lasting "affectional bonds" (attachments) with "familiar, irreplaceable organizations"; if those bonds…… [read more]

Organization Management Organizational Management in the U.S Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,132 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Organization Management

Organizational Management in the U.S. Army

One of the most essential functions that management performs in a given business or corporate entity is the organization of that business or entity. This includes such elements as determining and implementing the most efficient division of labor, a system that allows for the delegation of authority, decisions regarding the departmentation and/or integration of the various activities and offices within the entity, developing a span of control over the entities operations, and the coordination of all aspects of the business or entity towards a common goal, and with common values and practices (Erven 2009). Each of these areas of managerial organization is essential to the efficient and productive operation of the business or entity, though some outfits might require a focus on specific elements of the general organizational needs. The United States Army is one such organization.

The delegation of authority and coordination of the various departments and resources at the U.S. Army's disposal is of paramount importance to the conducting of successful operations; though departmentation, division of labor, and a span of control are also highly important elements in the Army's organization, they are not focal points in the manner that delegation and coordination are. These concepts constitute the Army leadership's primary perspectives when making organizational choices, such as the allocation of resources. Specifically, the organization and allocation of human resources and available technological resources by the United States Army is marked by a conscious and purposeful obeisance to a strict chain of command, and to the coordination of efforts as dictated from an overall vantage point, with varying degrees of success in this organizational scheme.

The organization of human resources is carried out by Army management in a highly detailed manner. Schedules of deployment, evaluations and results, promotions, and an abundance of other information is made readily available to all Army personnel at any time, and is highly organized and tightly controlled (HRC 2010). Troop deployment timetables are analyzed and developed from a perspective of overall Army needs and individual soldiers' necessary leave times, both of which are under constant review. This makes for a highly structured deployment and organizational system that dictates precisely where human resources will be allocated, to what purposes, and the duration of that deployment (HRC 2010). Skill sets and abilities as well as job titles and rank are all taken into account in the human resource organization, as well, ensuring that the necessary human resources are maintained in every region and base in which the Army operates.

The high level of organization in the United States Army's deployment of its human resources is at once necessary and cumbersome. With an organization as large and as diversely engaged as the Army, a rigid system of organization is necessary in order for a big-picture view of the organizational scheme to be possible and manageable. At the same time, the number of variables that exist in the highly-organized schema lead to almost constant change, such that while the… [read more]

Management Organizational Stakeholders Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Management

Organizational stakeholders

Organizational stakeholders can be defined as an organization, group, or a person that may be interested or concerned with the affairs of an organization. The policies, objectives and actions of an organization may have an impact on the stakeholders or the stakeholders to impact on the organization. Some of the examples of those stakeholders who play key roles include unions, suppliers, shareholders, government agencies, employees, directors, creditors and the environment from which the organization gains its resources. The roles of stakeholders may not always be equal. The customers of a company are eligible to trading practices that are fair but the company cannot consider the same way it considers its employees. A good example of a negative effect of the stakeholders is in a scenario where the company is making a decision of lower costs and is planning on a round of layoffs. This affects negatively on the workers' community and later on, on the local economy. Persons who have shares in the company are affected positively in a case where the company launches new products and experiences profit where the stock price rises.

Every organization is inclusive of those stakeholders whose views need to be considered in cases of the organization working out strategic plans or important decisions concerning the organization. The customer is the main stakeholder who may happen to exist as another organization or a private buyer. The major aspects that matter most to the customer are timeless, price and quality of the product or the services that the organization renders. In a case where the organization is a supplier, then they will have to deal with the pressure of meeting this aspect while being considerate the most profitable ways or spending within the restrictions of the organization. The existence of various customers' preferences, the suppliers of goods and service have the chance to offer competition. The competitor is considered a stakeholder in an organization as they experience the impact of an organization's actions that they are in competition with.…… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change and Improvement Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,807 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Managing Organizational Change and Improvement

Globalization is changing the workplace at an incredible pace. This means, that because the competition is more severe, employers must ensure that productivity levels remain high. To achieve this objective requires that all employers address the concerns of their employees. Otherwise, they could be facing a situation of high employee turnover and low productivity. The… [read more]

Business Management Organizational Change Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,655 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Business Management

Organizational Change

Discuss the role of values in supporting organizational change.

Values are the standards of appeal by which one chooses between alternate behaviors. They often emerge as opinions, ideas, or feelings about a particular subject. A leader's effectiveness is often measured by their ability to influence the activities of their subordinates. Value conflicts can exist at the… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (370 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Managing Organizational Change

The impact of change on individuals and organizations can be minimal or substantial. Discuss some of the tools organizations can use to diagnose the most appropriate change. Which do you think would be most effective and why?

In diagnosing change within any organization, there are a multitude of factors that need to be taken into account, many outside the organization and therefore not under the direct control of management. The series of concepts, frameworks and tools including the 7-S Framework (Kaplan, 2005), the Star Model, Congruence Model, Burke-Litwin Model (Moody, Smith, 2004), PESTEL framework (Walsh, 2005), GAP Analysis, Stakeholder Analysis, Force-Field Change and others all have been studied as a means to lessen resistance to change. Each of these concepts, frameworks or tools can also be used for diagnosing which specific strategy for change is the most appreciate for any given organization. In analyzing these concepts, frameworks and tools it is clear that the most adaptable in terms of taking into account both internal and external factors is the 7-S Model (Kaplan, 2005). The logic supporting this specific model is that it…… [read more]

Managing Organizational Culture: Definitions Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,097 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Managing Organizational Culture

Organizational Culture: Definitions and Characteristics

Whenever people from different backgrounds with different beliefs, values, and norms converge as a group, a new culture is created that gives the group a distinct characteristic and dynamic. What happens, in effect, is the formation of an organizational culture that is unique from other cultures because it has a specific setting… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change A) Approaches Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Managing Organizational Change

a) Approaches to change

Change at DuPont was implemented as a natural process by which the organizational evolved. It was not embraced as a formal phenomenon nor was any emphasis placed on the creation of a context in which the employees and the firm would be prepared for a smooth transition. In other words, organizational development as a framework for change was not widely used.

On the other hand however, the firm focused on the sense-making approach, in the meaning that it was expected of the strategies implemented to be effective and efficient, as well as suitable and able to support the company in reaching its objectives. In a context in which the firm did not implement a specific pre-designed framework for dealing with change, it nevertheless turned to appreciative inquiry -- with the support of the academic community -- and strived to identify the best solution to the specific organizational problem.

b) Compatibility of approaches

At a general level, it could be assumed that the three approaches to change -- organizational development, appreciative inquiry and sense-making -- are incompatible as they each present different means of dealing with change, from a structured approach, to a customized approach. In essence nevertheless, with the real context of an organizational change situation, the three models are not entirely self exclusive.

In other words, in the context of an organizational change situation, the manager will not implement a strict and pre-defined model of change management, but will start from such a model of OD to gradually build on it. In other words, it would customize the solution based on the frameworks available, as well as based on the specifics of the encountered situation (Blecker, 2005),…… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change Identify the Key Elements Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (656 words)
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Managing Organizational Change

Identify the key elements of the resistance to change described in this situation.

For Perrier the key elements of resistance to change emanate from the once lucrative level of sales they had achieved, only to see their sales levels plummet due to benzene being found in their water. From a very lucrative business that provided the financial means to meet the unions' demands for 35-hour work weeks and average annual salaries of $32,000 a year to near-bankruptcy, the resistance to change began when Perrier senior management began tightening budgets, entertaining take-over talks with Nestle' and also looking to make symbolic statements of how drastic the economic conditions were for the company. The CGT (Confederation general du travail -- General Confederation of Labour) controls the Perrier processing plant with 93% of the plants' 1,650 workers being members. When Perrier management decided to cut 15% of its workforce, there was uproar from CGT. To make matters worse, Perrier management purchased cases of a competitor's latest beverage, Badoit Rouge, and placed it throughout the company cafeterias. Unionized workers saw this as an insult, further galvanizing them against any efforts to share in the financial burdens of Perrier's senior management. All these key elements were in retrospect were autocratic on the part of Perrier and were taken as condescending and arrogant instead of inviting ownership, which would have been a far more effective as a change management strategy (Brown, Cregan, 2008). As the senior management at Perrier continued to focus not on collaboration but more towards dominating unions into approving a 15% reduction in staff, the situation became even more tense (Passariello, 2004). The CGT union leader Jean-Paul Franc decried the lack of consideration and cooperation from Perrier and Nestle senior management, leading to an impasse in the negotiations (Passariello, 2004). Only after the French government intervened did the company and union make progress in reaching an agreement.

Construct a change management strategy for dealing with the situation. In…… [read more]

Managing Organizational Culture Dissertation

Dissertation  |  34 pages (12,420 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … opportunity exists for the company to expand internationally by setting up operations in the emerging economies of China and India. The question to consider is how to build cultural harmony between the facilities operating in three different countries. The question of whether it would be better to establish a certain national organizational culture is likely would be considered… [read more]

Human Resources Managing Organisational Culture Dissertation

Dissertation  |  34 pages (9,860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Understanding of organisational culture and cultural types also helps the understanding of why managerial reforms may impact differently within and between organisations. An organisation with a predominantly internal process culture, for example, may be more resistant to reforms aimed at promoting innovation. It is expected that staff in high uncertainty avoidance cultures to be more concerned with rule-following and… [read more]

Organizational Behavior: Motivation and Performance Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In these networking groups, as Inskeep points out, employees share experiences and single out their individual weak points. This is critical as it is in identifying their individual weak points that employees can strategize on how to eliminate such weaknesses and improve their performance. In the end, the organization benefits by having a more efficient and motivated workforce.

Section 2

Dr. Peter Drucker's Statement: "You cannot motivate employees, employees must motivate themselves."

Meaning of the Statement in Regard to Motivation Theory

When it comes to employee motivation, the best results are achieved not by promising incentives or cracking the whip, but by taking deliberate steps to stimulate self-motivation on the part of employees. Self-motivation promotes not only self-confidence, but also composure and collectedness in employees as they seek to perform their various duties.

Some of the Methods that Could be Used to Promote Self-Motivation in the Workplace

Self-motivation in the workplace could be promoted in a number of ways. These include:

1. Roping-in Employees in Decision Making

Allowing employees to be part of the decision-making process promotes their commitment to organizational goals and enhances their self-esteem. Given that motivation is largely about will, as opposed to the application of specific techniques (i.e. offering of incentives), involving employees makes them feel as part and parcel of the organization -- thereby inspiring and stimulating their drive and enthusiasm.

2. Goal-Setting

The performance of employees is likely to become better when goals are set and objectives clearly defined. Essentially, goal-setting not only spurs involvement, but also ensures that everybody is moving in the same direction. Goal-setting stimulates participation from employees, thus further enhancing their commitment to the achievement of the said goals and objectives.

3. Provision of Opportunities for Growth and Professional Enrichment

Employees who enjoy that which they engage in are likely to be more motivated than those that find tasks challenging or confusing. It is, therefore, important for the organization to not only provide in-house training for employees, but also encourage them to further enhance their professionalism by continuing their education.


Sims, R. (2002).…… [read more]

Managing Organizational Change Queensland Leisure Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,634 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Step 4 -- communicate the vision; it is very significant to the change management process what happens to the vision once it has been formed. There is need to communicate the QLG change and the intention frequently and effectively as well as powerfully such that it is part of everything that one does.

Step 5 -- remove obstacles; this is the next logical step once the leader of the vision has achieved the belief and participation of the employees in the new changes that shall have been introduced in QLG. This response, is achieved will be an indicator that they are ready to get the benefits of the changes yet to be implemented in QLG.

Step 6 -- create short-term wins; bearing that success motivates everyone, there is need to make the people feel the benefits of the change by and by rather than waiting till the very end which could take months like the complete change over in technology in QLG will take six months.

Step 7 -- build on change; this comes on the realization that many change initiatives fail due to the declaration of victory and meeting of targets too early in time. Each success in the implementation phase of the newt technology at QLG will act as a platform to build upon the issues that went right as the management identifies areas that can be improved.

Step 8 -- imbibe the changes in corporate culture; it is true that for any change to be long lasting, there is need to imbibe it into the culture of the organization since the corporate culture will more often than not dictate what gets done and what does not get done.


Kotter International (2012). The 8-Step Process for Leading Change. Retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/changesteps

Miranda B., (2013). What Causes Resistance to Change within an Organization. Retrieved February 6, 2014 from…… [read more]

Project Management February J. 2014 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


(Kerry, 2010). A project manager is an important project leader who communicates a project's vision to the subordinates. A project leader plans a project, measures performances of a project and solves problems that could arise from a project implementation. Common leadership styles used to run a project include:







Autocratic or Democratic.

To achieve organizational… [read more]

Human Resource Management Comparing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,475 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Human Resource Management

Comparing and Contracting Two Change Case Studies; Ajax Minerals and Perrier

Identify two (2) sources of resistance to change in the Ajax Minerals exercise and describe how the organization dealt with each type of resistance.

In any organizational change there is the potential for resistance; many models of change emphasize the need to overcome resistance for most… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Apart from reason, a heterogeneous organization should also understand the culture and personality of each member of the organization in order to become effective in managing change.

8. The scarcity of resources alone would be ground enough for diagnostic information to be unavailable; thus, it is imperative that members have sufficient resources to work efficiently.

9. Evaluation in OD programs are needed because it takes into account external and internal forces that are vital to the implementation of intervention in the organization. However, it is important to note that OD program evaluations are also difficult to accomplish, simply because it tests an intervention program at its first level; thus, it is also important to create follow-up evaluations to check whether the evaluations are as effective as the interventions as well.

10. I remember resisting change when I first became acquainted with the Internet technology, especially online communications, such as chatting, e-mailing, and joining online groups with people whom I share my interests with. Initially, I resisted this new technology because I believed that the Internet is just hype, in the same way that television is so much hyped during its inception in the commercial market. The criticisms given to TV and other technologies convinced me that the Internet is just a fad just like the other technologies.

Of course, my resistance to this technological change was due to the fact that I have few friends who subsist to Internet technology as well. Thus, the lack influence from my social environment did not convince me to use and subscribe to the Internet. I felt no urgency to conform and use this new fad in computer technology. Apart from the weak social influence of my environment, my perceived compatibility with the Internet had discouraged me to use the Internet, since I simply cannot comprehend the fact that the Internet exists for mere socialization only (of course, these are my biased thoughts about the Internet when I was still skeptical about its usefulness to computer users (and even non-users)). After two years, when I felt it necessary for my work to use the Internet, I began accessing and subscribing to the Internet. My experience illustrates how changes in the social environment encouraged me to adapt to the…… [read more]

Safety International Disaster Management Organizations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


These organizations have been blind to gender issues in disaster management; this makes it difficult to determine the needs of the differentiated impact on men and women.

Different ethnic groups have different cultures that sometimes require the disaster management teams are conversant with the cultures; these cultures can include beliefs or language, which helps in communication. Organizations treat disasters differently hence inequitable distribution of resources. This is because different disasters attract donor attention according to the effects of a disaster. Survivors are left in the good will of others to survive this cause, discrimination, residential segregation, social inequalities and racial-based stereo types. Due to societal structures, the aftermath of disasters always, leave people with psychological effects, which the organizations have not adequately dealt with. Disasters can be mitigated but it has often become difficult to remove vulnerable people from disaster prone environments.

Variant policies have been developed and established to mitigate disaster effects. Some of the international policies include (UNISDR) for 1999, United Nations international strategy for disaster reduction; this policy ensures that countries implement strategies that aid in disaster reduction. It includes building hospitals and constructions resilient to disasters to strengthen response. UNDRO and IDNDR are policies, which were put in place in the 1990's. These policies ensure that there is reduction in poverty levels, loss of lives and economic disruptions. United Nations UNDP has programs which prevent crisis and help in development. It operates in over one hundred countries and works towards recovery after disasters.


Policy implementation will lead to designing of strategies and practices that will minimize vulnerabilities. These practices will reduce physical hazards and enhance economic and social capacity to adopt. There are different disaster training articles and sources; they are not compatible with disasters faced by different countries. Countries have different types of disasters hence need unique training sources.


Damon, P. (2011). Introduction to International Disaster Management. Atlanata: Elsevier.

Rodriguea, H.E. (2007)(Handbook of Disaster Research). London:…… [read more]

Organizational Redesign -- Transferable Skills Managing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Organizational Redesign -- Transferable Skills

Managing organizational change in general and implementing organizational redesign in particular present serious challenges for organizations. Doing so successfully generally requires effective management and specific technical, communication, client relations, and detail-management skills at many different levels. Technical skills must match the needs of the new direction of the organization. Communication skills are crucial from the boardroom to front-line operations and at every level in between. Client relations and customer service skills can make or break a commercial organization largely independent of other important factors. Finally, detail-management skills are also capable of contributing substantially to success or failure at every level of the organization.

Specific Skills and Organizational Redesign

Technical skills are crucial to organizational success but they are not necessarily the highest in importance with specific respect to organizational redesign. That is primarily because issues in relation to technical skills are generally addressed by executive and managerial decisions rather than by decisions or circumstances at the operational level (George & Jones, 2008). Similarly, client-relations skills and detail-management skills are also extremely important in organizational redesign, but issues in those areas also are addressed by executive and managerial decisions. In the case of all three skill areas, organizational leaders may institute changes in specific requirements, policies, procedures, and protocols, but their successful implementation is more a matter of good hiring, effective training (or retraining) programs, and appropriate business-unit and personnel assignments (George & Jones, 2008).

The Comparative Importance of Communication Skills

If one particular area or skill set is most important to organizational success in general and to successful organizational redesign in particular, it would be communications.…… [read more]

Change Using Kotter's 8 Steps Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This would have helped employees in two ways. First, it would have given employees that intended to stay some additional measure of job security. Second, it would have made it more possible for employees who would eventually be terminated to find alternate employment, by staggering the number of employees to hit the job market.

For McDonald's, the most critical change would have been to have changed the timing. McDonald's failed to observe cultural changes that reflected a desire to have a variety of healthier options at McDonald's. It also ignored the menu changes at competing restaurants. Had it engaged in better timing for its healthier menu, it would have had a much more effective counter campaign to alleviate some of the bad publicity that was inherent when Super Size Me was released. For example, using choices available on its current menu, McDonald's could have seized on an advertising campaign similar to that used by Subway restaurants, and featured a real-life person who ate exclusively at McDonald's and managed to lose weight and gain health. Such a campaign would have been impossible using only McDonald's old menu.


Applebaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting

Kotter's 1996 change model, Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782.

Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.

Parker, D., Verlinden, A., Nussey, R., Ford, M., & Pathak, R.D. (2013). Critical evaluation of project-based performance management: Change intervention integration, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(4), 407-419.

Sato, S., Lucente, S., Meyer, D., & Mrazek, D. (2010).…… [read more]

Kotter's and Lewin's Models Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,933 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The model is easily understood and continues in use today. Also, force field analysis lends itself to more scientific decision making.

There are also some limitations associated with Lewin's model. The transition or Change phase can be a pleasant trap as people become comfortable in temporary situations where they are not accountable for the hazards of normal work, and where talking about change may substitute for real action. A different problem can occur with the Freeze phase. Organizations sometimes encourage this phase to remain in a state of slushiness where freezing is never really achieved, which in theory makes the next unfreezing easier. The problem with this approach is that people fall into a state of change shock where they work at a low level of efficiency and effectiveness while they await the next change. They come to feel that it is not worth the effort to improve what they do (Straker, 2011).

Further critique of Lewin's model argues that it "is very rational, goal and plan oriented" and that "change looks good on paper, as it makes rational sense, but when implemented the lack of considering human feelings and experiences can have negative consequences" (Kritsonis, 2005, p. 6). There is the danger that individuals become so enthusiastic about a new change that they overlook the "feelings, attitudes, past input or experience" of other employees. As a result they can encounter either resistance or little enthusiasm for the proposed changes (Kritsonis, 2005).

In summary, both Kotter's and Lewin's models offer ways of supporting strategic change. They allow for diagnostic tasks that enable a manager to effectively plan and implement change.

Works Cited

21st Century Leader. (n.d.). Kotter's eight step model of change. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.21stcenturyleader.co.uk/kotter/

Chapman, A. (2010). Change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm

DealTime. (2000). Leading change, or changing leaders? [Review of the book Leading Change]. Retrieved from http://www.dealtime.com/Leading_Change_by_John_P_Kotter/leading-change-or-changing-leaders/RD-990772/reviews

Faucheux, M. (2009). Negotiating the advantages and disadvantages of change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.brighthub.com/office/project-management/articles/18477.aspx

Kritsonis, A. (2004-2005). Comparison of change theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 8(1), 1-6.

Leadersphere. (2008). Organizational diagnostic models A review & synthesis. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://leadersphere.com/img/OrgmodelsR2009.pdf

MindTools. (2012). Lewin's change management model Understanding the three stages of change. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.htm

Reynolds, L. (2009). Organisational change: Which model should you use? Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.trainingzone.co.uk/topic/strategy/organisational-change-which-model-should-i-use

Straker, D. (2011). Lewin's freeze phases. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/lewin_change/lewin_change.htm… [read more]

Total Awards Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,293 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Each can be seen as a slice of the overall pie in relation to compensation, development, and most especially retention and position in the marketplace.

The Financial View -- What are the costs associated with compensation? What types of risks does the organization face? What are the current limitations to the program in place?

The Environmental View -- What is the current technological, managerial, and even communications environment within the organization? Is the organization poised for innovation and development?

The Competitive Market View -- In relation to the competition, how does the organization value its resources (Human) within the overall marketplace? What is the total compensation value as compared to the competition, and how is the organization perceived?

The Employee View -- In general, what are the employees' needs, wants, values -- what is their current satisfaction with compensation? With management? With the organization? How large a factor are certain items of compensation (wages vs. benefits vs. development, etc.) within the rubric of the organization?

The Workforce View -- What are the demographics and psychographics currently? What is the perceived change? How might a rewards program contribute to that change?

And the Employer View -- What are the organization's strategic objectives? What is the current overall organizational philosophy? What requirements are there for current rewards and how might this change? What behaviors does the organization want/need in order to revamp the rewards package?

This process is not difficult for an organization, but does require the honest collection and evaluation of information in a logical, six-step format. 1) Analyze and Assess needs with a clear and cogent understanding of the current situation; 2) Using the organization's mission and strategy, design a rewards package that fits the overall philosophical bent of the organization; 3) Develop a plan based on purpose and objectives with measurable goals and structure within an agreed upon timeline; 4) Implement the program as a pilot study with a focused team to monitor; 5) Communicate the plan effectively to employees while considering the audience; be honest and open; 6) Evaluate and revise based on individuated results (Manas and Graham, 2003).

Describe the eight steps in the communication Process - Anytime a new project or objective is released to an organization, it is important to have a cogent communication plan. One approach relies on an eight-step program that will effectively communicate, relate, and then finally evaluate the new program or service:

Step 1 -- Analyze the situation -- identify changes necessary in compensation, benefits, and experience. Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How are the operative questions.

Step 2 -- Define the Objectives -- Using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) or SMAART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Audience Specific, Relevant, and Tied to Business) approach, ensure each objective is tied to real needs.

Step 3 -- Research -- understand the audience; questionnaires or focus groups that allow messages to be tailored to their needs will increase understanding and credibility.

Step 4 -- Determine key points and messages and focus on… [read more]

Company I Worked for Changed Its Sales Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,115 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … company I worked for changed its sales structure significantly in order to respond to changes in the competitive environment of the marketplace. This change was introduced from the top levels of management, which believed that the company's full range of products were not being fully exposed to the marketplace, largely as a result of the sales structure, including both the configuration of the representatives' territories and the process by which representatives sold into those territories. The change had numerous implications at all levels of the company and was felt by most members of the company to be -- although perhaps necessary for the company's survival in an increasingly competitive marketplace -- a fairly uncomfortable development.

In this brief paper, I will discuss and analyze the change in my company through an approach that accounts for stakeholder perceptions and multiple perspectives, showing the change to be a "story of change," as described by Palmer, Dunford, and Akin (2008). Following a brief summary of the change structure and events, as well as a description of the need that drove the change in the first place, I will describe the effects and implications of the change for a number of the stakeholders in the company's efforts, and will discuss the lessons learned from the change experience.

Need for Change and Change Structure/Events. My company had, over the course of several generations, evolved into a large national player in its marketplace. That marketplace itself had been characterized for decades as a producer-driven, value-based market in which public monies were spent on products that were chosen at the local level, so there was little effort on the part of consumers to demand product innovations. They simply looked at what producers offered and attempted to get the most for their money. There were a number of national players that competed for market share, and the companies were all relatively evenly-matched in terms of product offerings, sales force configurations, and the like.

However, following the advent of the internet and the introduction of new regional players who were able to enter the marketplace with very low overhead due to innovative production plans made possible by new technologies, competition had begun to increase significantly in the past decade or two, as consumers had a range of options for product choice and delivery.

Specifically, the change effort was made to break sales territories down into smaller and therefore more manageable geographical areas. This had the result that the attendant duties required to adequately cover those territories also changed. Whereas in the past, an emphasis was placed on broad and fairly shallow coverage of each individual account, so that a sales representative made his quota by going into each account briefly and finding out critical needs, meeting them, and then moving on, the new territory configuration required a more personalized approach. Essentially, the sales orientation changed from transactional relationships with the customer to relational relationships. Now representative were required to go into their accounts and dig below the… [read more]

on Organizational Behavior and Management Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (2,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Organizational Behavior and Management

Team Building: Organizational Behavior and Management

One of the best ways to manage the behavior of employees in an organization is through team building. There are many ways in which teams can be built, and there are also many different types of teams - and different exercise that can be used to help create the best… [read more]

Performance Management at the NIM Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The death stage refers to the end stage where organizational performance decline to the extent of inability to maintain its normal productivity and market competitiveness. On the other hand, entrepreneurial stage is characterized by the need for effective leadership, collectivity (delegation), formalization (beginning of organizational decline in productivity) and elaboration stage requires organizational revitalization (Hopkins, Hopkins, & Mallette, 2005).

From the case study, it seems that the case excludes the maturity stage and growth stage. The analysis does not consider the growth stages undergone by the campus. The analysis also does not consider the maturity stage of the organization. This has significant impacts on the performance and the growth of the company. Growth stage provides management of the campus with insights into the nature of its current and future performance. It provides the basis for developing the desired strategies for exploiting the prevailing opportunities. They are also essential in evaluating strategies required when respond to anticipatory challenges that may hinder the growth and development of the campus. On the other hand, the maturity stage enables organizations to evaluate their stability and competitiveness in the marketplace. It provides organizations with theoretical approaches required for understanding and identifying new opportunities prevailing in the marketplace (Hopkins, Hopkins, & Mallette, 2005).

In addition, the stage allows the management team to determine the efficacy of their actions and predict the future outcomes of their strategic plans. The other impact associated with the exclusion stage includes the failure to evaluate its market share and effective market segmentation to allow effective exploitation of the target market. Conclusively, designing a strategic plan in an organization requires active participation of all the stakeholders to ensure its success.


Hopkins, W.E., Hopkins, S.A., & Mallette, P. (2005). Aligning organizational subcultures for competitive advantage: A strategic change approach. New York: Basic Books.

Nambudiri R. & Jayasima J. (2008). Performance Management at the National Institute of Management (Central India…… [read more]

Management Principles Management Leadership Model Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There is a pre-assumption that the leader's traits existed before leadership and most of them failed to approach the study of personality. Several studies aiming at identifying some of the leadership traits reveal that most of the traits were unimportant compared to other traits (Dereli, 2007). In this context, some scholars have argued that the failure to outline leadership traits… [read more]

Project Management Your Company Planning Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Organizational culture refers to the collective behavior of the employees who form an organization and the different meanings that the employees attach to their actions Valentine, 2011.

An organization's culture will include its values, norms, vision, habits, systems, working language, and beliefs. Organizational culture is taught to new employees through informal trainings like stories, rituals, myths, and shared behavior. It is mostly formed from how an organization is structured, how it uses its resources, the employees in the organization, and how work is completed or the process of completing work in the organization. A good culture is formed when there is balance and harmony with the organization's goals and mission. The elements of a good organizational culture are mission, respect, solid communication, and superior performance.

An organization's culture will affect the success of a project either positively or negatively. If the organization's mission is not clear the employees will not understand why a specific project is being implemented, which might lead to resistance. Having a solid communication culture in an organization will ensure that the project manager is able to communicate to the employees in regards to the project, which will ensure that all employees understand and those who do not can ask questions freely. For a successful project, there should be respect among the employees. This will allow the employees to respect each other during the project implementation and management.

What are some of the key organizational elements that can affect the development and maintenance of a supportive organizational culture? As a consultant, what advice would you give to a functional organization that was seeking to move from an old, adversarial culture, where the various departments actively resisted helping one another, to one that encourages project thinking and cross-functional cooperation?

The key elements that would affect an organization's supportive culture are respect, communication, and clear mission. These three elements will affect how the employees interact and value with each other. In order for an organization to change its culture to one that departments support each other, it will need to clearly define its mission, change its communication methods, and develop a culture of respect amongst the various departments. A clear mission will define what the organization would want to accomplish and how it intends to accomplish it, which will allow the departments to better understand the organization. Open lines of communication from the top managers will ensure that employees can communicate freely with other employees and the different managers irrespective of department. Respect for individuals, will allow the employees to start valuing each department and appreciate its contribution to the organization.

Project management techniques have been used successfully for a wide variety of efforts, including the many NASA space missions, huge construction projects, implementation of major systems like ERP, movie production, the development of new products and services, theatrical productions, and much more. Why not use them for managing the operations function of any business? Please use examples to support your answer. You may use examples from your own… [read more]

Organizational Management -- Concepts and Terminology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Organizational Management -- Concepts and Terminology

Organizational Culture and Behavior

Organizational culture refers to the collective attitudes and values that characterize business organizations. Organizational behavior refers to the manner in which business organizations implement and manifest the various elements of their organizational culture (Robbins & Judge, 2009). The last organization for which I worked maintained an organizational culture that emphasized equal opportunity, ethical business practices, and the concept of developing leaders from within the organization. That organization also maintained a strong commitment to social welfare and to environmental responsibility. Employees were encouraged to participate in various efforts that benefited the local community and the organization carefully monitored compliance with environmentally conscious policies and practices.


In contemporary American society and business, diversity refers to the differences among individuals comprised by society and business organizations. Generally, diversity includes such differences as gender, race, ethnicity, religion, culture, nationality, sexual orientation, and gender identity (George & Jones, 2008). Diversity is an important aspect of modern business management because statutory law as well as fundamental objective concepts of social responsibility and morality require that all individuals in American society enjoy the same basic rights, opportunities, and benefits.

Certain classifications (such as race, ethnicity, religion, and gender) are recognized and protected by federal law; others (such as sexual orientation and gender identity) are only recognized and protected under the laws of some states and are neither recognized nor protected by the laws of other states (George & Jones, 2008). The most observable aspects of diversity with organizations would be the apparent makeup of their personnel in terms of race, ethnicity, nationality, and gender.


Communications encompasses the various ways that information is transmitted, shared, received, and stored within business organizations (George & Jones, 2008). Within business organizations, business units, hierarchical chains, and individuals must communicate with one another extensively. Likewise, business organizations must be able to communicate externally with other business organizations, customers, suppliers, contractors, customers, and government agencies.

Different forms of business communications typically include electronic messages (i.e. email), written (hard copy) memoranda, telephonic, face-to-face, in addition to other industry-specific or task-specific uses of media such as two-way radios or specialized proprietary software applications (George & Jones,…… [read more]

Organization Diversity, Conflict Management and Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+




Diversity refers to a combination of factors, which gives workforce an identity of its own. In our country, diversity of workforce is grounded in its varied ethnic backgrounds, sexual orientation, gender and age. With workforce composed of such unique factors, there is always an alarming potential for conflicts and discrimination. It is important for a firm to develop HR policies that reflect the changing corporate culture where diversity plays an important role and its management is a critical element in the success of the company.

Organizational policies should reflect a company's desire to treat diverse workforce with due respect and to address its grievances properly. In this connection, it needs to train its human resource management to handle diversity effectively while minimizing the risk of potential conflicts. Everything including recruitment, screening, interviewing and performance appraisal procedures can hinder smooth management of diversity if they do not reflect the diverse needs and aptitude of a highly diverse workforce. Human Resource managers today play a key role in the success of any organization because they help in minimizing risks of conflict and discrimination that arise due to diversity in the workplace. For this reason, it is the responsibility of the organization to provide adequate training to the HR staff, which is assigned the tasks of addressing grievances, facilitating communication and managing change in the organization. Diversity management has thus come to occupy an important place in organizational policies.

Bendick et al. (2001) write:

Starting in the mid-1980s and accelerating throughout the 1990s, many of these efforts have evolved into more ambitious undertakings with a different label -- diversity training -- and a more strategic role in human resource management... For example, a 1995 survey of the 50 largest U.S. industrial firms found that 70% had a formal diversity management program, typically including training, and an additional 8% were developing one... In a 1994 survey of members of the Society for Human Resource Management, 33% reported that their employers provided training on workforce diversity, making it about as common as training in sales techniques (35%) or clerical skills (3-1%)....And in a 1995 survey, 50% of members of the American Management Association reported having formal programs for managing diversity, with training a usual component; this figure had risen from 46% in 1992."

Diversity training is seen as a high effective strategy for elimination of discriminatory practices and risks of conflict in an organization. Apart from providing adequate training to the HR people, such programs also try to educate employees about the changing face of American workforce in order to help them develop tolerance for different viewpoints. Diversity management also helps a company tackle legal challenges that arise from discriminatory practices. With more women and older people entering the workforce, there is increasing risk of discrimination,…… [read more]

Formation Organizations Factors Influencing Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (5,085 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


All the cases and procedures are studied, measured, and quantified according to the confirmations of the technique used. Besides, the usability of the design item, and the longevity of the system in order to have a genuine organization formation process are also tested. Moreover, quantification responded to the nature and effectiveness of the methods and procedures involved in designing the… [read more]

Human Resource Management for Employee Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,413 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


They also promote and reward current employees for assisting in the recruitment of friends and acquaintances, largely because they realize that the friends of existing employees are more likely to share the same values and mindsets of employees who are happy at work and successful in their positions that will make them compatible with the organizational culture (Leader-Chivee, Hamilton, &… [read more]

Organizational Behavior and Management Concepts Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (531 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Organizational Behavior and Management Concepts

Organizational Behavior Defined

Generally, organizational behavior refers to the study of behavior patterns within professional business (and other) organizations (George & Jones, 2008; NAU, 2010; Robbins & Judge, 2009). It consists of three principal areas of analysis: the study of individual behavior, the study of individual behavior within a group, and the study of interrelations between and among different groups of individuals (NAU, 2010). Despite the substantial differences in the specific focus of each of those areas, all aspects of the study of organizational behavior serves the same essential purpose: to apply the knowledge gained to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability of professional business (and other) organizations (NAU, 2010). Additionally, the understanding of organizational behavior principles and practices can also be applied for the benefit of the individuals within the organizations (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009).

Components of Organizational Behavior

There are major distinctions within the study of organizational behavior, such as those pertaining to the respective realms of organizational effectiveness, process efficiency, personnel performance, and human motivation (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009). The roots of modern concepts of organizational effectiveness date back to the work of early industrial organization theorists such as Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Taylor, in particular, is considered the father of scientific business management because of the way he applied quantitative analyses to business processes. That approach involved, for one example, determining the optimal makeup of working groups and the ideal size of shovels for the most productive possible output…… [read more]

Hight Performance Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,188 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


High Performance Management

Accomplishing Organizational Goals according Total Quality Management

Given the importance of effective management in any type of organization today, the recent attention paid to management initiatives such as the ISO 9000 series and the total quality movement approach embody a single primary component: the producers of products and services must achieve the highest attainable quality; in fact, nothing short of this less will succeed in an increasingly globalized and competitive environment. Consequently, the two past few years have witnessed the rise of a philosophy that has been aimed at maximizing organizational quality. The use of existing world standards for quality control, such as the standards in the ISO 9000 series, can provide almost any type of organizations with the tools it requires to achieve these goals, but there are some constraints to the process that must be resolved before the maximum benefits of such approaches can be realized. These comprehensive and extensive standards are characterized by fundamental differences in product categories and sectors, but all of these provide important general quality control principles for all types of products and services today.

Without a doubt, the current trend toward making do with less to accomplish more is clear, and ISO 9000 quality systems standards or their equivalent have been adopted in more than 90 countries as national standards. In this regard, compliance with the comprehensive ISO 9000 standards has become less obligatory for businesses that want sell medical devices or telecommunications equipment in Europe, where more than 20,000 companies are registered. In the U.S., suppliers to the electrical, chemical, and nuclear industries are anticipating certification has also become mandatory (Barnes, 1998). Furthermore, managers have not been isolated from these trends and the number of ISO 9000 registrations is doubling every nine to 12 months in the U.S., from 100 in 1990 to 4000 in 1994 (Barnes, 1998). Despite these trends, it is important for managers at every level to recognize that successful TQM outcomes make it possible to more efficiently use an organization's resources by ensuring the optimal allocation of tasks, processes, and responsibilities within the concept of accountability. Consequently, every aspect of the business's operation that serves to contribute to quality within the organization is differentiated, and to the extent possible, improved.

To accomplish this broad goal, a TQM system can apply a company's resources to operate in union with improved efficiency in satisfying customer needs and thus achieving higher profitability. Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are regarded as a part of the Quality Control System for companies producing pharmaceutical products (Lorsch, 1986). GMP principles seek to ensure the regular production for products that confirm with the health standards required from regulatory bodies. In this regard, good manufacturing practices provides many companies with the general basics to determine the minimum acceptable requirements for the production at good products, covering all the activities related to the production process (Lorsch, 1986).

By all accounts, some type of change is going to be inevitable in a "new" organization if total quality… [read more]

Management Agree With the Statement "Organizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Management agree with the statement "organizations will not learn effectively until they recognize and confront the implications of the three occupational cultures." There are several reasons for agreeing with the statements. First according to Schein, organizational learning failures are caused not by resistance to change or human nature but the inability of people of different cultures to come together and communicate through the shared language. The people belonging to the three cultures have different understanding of the same subject that often creates the probability of the failure of organizational culture.

As Schein argues that, the first kind of culture-- the operational culture-- is the culture of every day activities that is carried by the line managers. These managers deal with day to-day routine activities in the organization and their main job is get products and services out in the markets, purchase supplies, process supplies and pack the products for the delivery.

This kind of culture involves operational people who like to work in teams and solve complex analytical problems in the organization. These people try to work collaboratively as a team; however, all of the members of their teams are of the similar outlooks, professions, and understanding. They tend to believe and trust each other for compensating the flaws in technology.

The second kind of culture belongs to executives, who Deal with capital, resources, and other vital means of production. People at these level control most of the organizational resources and they support learning and human potential, their main responsibility, however, lies looking at the bottom line of the organization for its survival.

The people belonging to the executive culture remain far from the operational people and…… [read more]

Managing the Total Quality Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As the rate of transformation in the business environment goes faster, suppleness, feasible all the way through CIM, turns out to be an important element for a triumphant venture.

Operational Problem

Existing Operational Problem:

major problem is the organization today is the lack of quality and experience on the part of the employees.


This problem basically crops up because the necessary topics vital to supervise people are not resolved by the leadership management. These topics are empowerment, conflict resolution, team building, etc.

Recommendations a) Recruitment of part-time employees to enhance inward competition.

A b) Upgrading of employees at Company's Coaching Centre.

A c) Develop effective communication with the employees.

A d) Constant Orientation from the part of the management.

Business Proposal and Recommendation

Managers of TQM should possess competent and true professional management skills. The management should engage in written and verbal communications in such a manner that institutes them as experts in the industry; as well as, they should present themselves on a level that anyone of any status should be able to understand and interpret. They should recognize that each and every client and individual allied with our business is equal in substance and is worthy of the same level of importance and service regardless of how great or small the project might be.

It should be especially pointed out that the management should believe in quality and not quantity, therefore they should be very comprehensive with their approach. Furthermore, they should possess workforce with excellent personalized skills. Furthermore, the management should always be truthful, and present the facts for what they really are. It should avoid stretching the truth at all cost. It should follow sound ethical and moral guiding principles in managing all cycles of business, and present itself with a level of integrity that is second to none.


Aly, Nael A. (March 1989). A Survey on the Use of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing In Food Processing Companies, Food Technology: 82-87.

Blest, John P., (Spring 1992). Raymond G. Hunt and Carolyn C. Shadle, Action Teams in the Total Quality Process: Experience in a Job Shop, National Productivity Review: 195-202.

Camp, Robert C., (1989). Competitive Bench Marking: Xerox's Powerful Quality tool is making Total Quality Happen, Research Report, The Conference Board. 35-42.

Chang, Tien-Chien and Richard A. Wysk, (1985). An Introduction to Automated Process Planning System, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

DeMeyer, Arnoud, (1990). How to Arrive at a Computer Integrated Manufacturing: a 3-year Survey, European Journal of Operational Research, 47. 239-247.

Doll, William J., Mark A. (June, 1987). Vonderembske, Forging a Partnership to Achieve Competitive Advantage: The CIM Challenge, MIS Quarterly. 205-220.

Evans, James R. And William M. Lindsay, (1992). The Management and Control of Quality, 2nd ed., West Publishing Co., St. Paul, Minnesota.

Francett, Barbara, (August, 1988). CIM Recipe: Get Set, Then Go, Computer Decisions. 27-28.

Gaylord, John, (1987). Factory Information Systems: Design and Implementation for CIM Management and Control, Marcel Decker, Inc., New York.

Goldhar D. Joel, and Mariann Jelinek, (May, 1985).… [read more]

Management: Organizational Change Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (716 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Finally, the manager has to maintain constant communication with his/her employees throughout the change process so as to reduce the extent of employees' resistance to change. he/she needs to communicate with their employees on, among other things, why the change is necessary, and how they (employees) and the greater organization stand to benefit from the same (Hornstein, 2008). Human beings are naturally resistant to change, and processes of change are likely to bring about feelings of uncertainty, fear, and insecurity amongst employees. The manager has to use communication to calm their employees down. They particularly need to pay attention to upward communication because then, they will be able to respond to the questions, concerns, and suggestions posed by employees - thereby minimizing the risk of resistance.

A Situation where Clinicians and Coders are Unable to Enter the Proper Codes Following a Software Change Process

This could be an indication of inadequate training on the part of clinicians and coders. The manager needs to identify the actual training needs and determine who exactly needs training -- there is the likelihood that only the coding part of training may have been done inadequately; and further, that not all clinicians and coders may be having problems with the same. Once this need has been identified, the manager tries to identify the possible causes of the same. he/she then formulates the specific objectives he/she intends the additional training to achieve, based on the identified need; and develops a training program for addressing the specific needs. In-house training, where everyone learns at their own pace, would, for instance, be appropriate if it is established that the initial training may have been inadequate as a result of the trainer not taking into account the learning differences of employees (Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment -- New Zealand, 2014).


Hornstein, H. (2008). Using a Change Management Approach to Implement IT Programs. Ivey Business Journal. Retrieved 27 September 2014 from http://iveybusinessjournal.com/topics/strategy/using-a-change-management-approach-to-implement-it-programs#.VCaEmIE-G1s

Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment -- New Zealand. (2014). Developing a Training Plan for Your Employees. The Government of New Zealand. Retrieved 27 September 2014 from…… [read more]

Management: Organizational Politics and Its Impact on Leadership PhD Model Answer

PhD Model Answer  |  6 pages (2,175 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Ii) Going around the boss -- hierarchical organizations still value protocol. Bypassing your boss could be hazardous and career-threatening. Iii) Badmouthing seniors in public forums -- the adage, 'praise in public, and criticize in private' is still significant; blurting out things that embarrass or criticize your boss in public places could damage your career and limit your recourses.

Combating Retrogressive Politics

If not properly checked, organizational politics can be a source of retrogressive power struggles, parochial politics, and bureaucratic infighting, all of which impede on organizational performance, morale, innovation, and initiative. Leaders should move to combat politics when it is dysfunctional or excessive. The strategies outlined below can guide a leader towards effectively accomplishing this (adopted and modified from Valle & Witt, 2001; Sonaike, 2013; Ogungbamila, 2013).

The very first step is identifying instances of politics, and establishing its causes and techniques. For instance, when an opportunity for promotion arises, the CEO can be alert for backstabbing or transparent impression management instances among potential candidates.

Open communication is a valuable tool in constraining office politics. The leader can, for instance, use open communication to make known to all members the strategies of resource allocation. This reduces political maneuvering, and makes it difficult for individuals to gain or assume control of data deemed vital, and make use of the grapevine as a tool of war for political gain.

Leaders should avoid favoritism. If members believe that good performance is more important than impression management in obtaining rewards, they will most likely work towards impressing the boss through exemplary job performance.

Leaders should set positive examples by being non-political in the execution of their duties. The intensity and frequency of organizational politics at the lower levels could be minimized if the people at the top subtly demonstrate that politicking is not welcome.

Leaders ought to ensure that the goals of individual workers are in congruence with those of the organization. They could, for instance, organize forums, in which members are taught the importance and significance of goal congruence to both personal and organizational development. Workers who value goal congruence are less likely to engage in devious office politics.

Discussing questionable information publicly could also go a long way in constraining office politics. People who play devious politics usually prefer to operate privately and secretly; they are often ready to make derogatory statements, or drop innuendos and hints about someone else, as long as they remain unidentified. Offering to discuss such issues in a public forum could go a long way in minimizing the discrediting of others.


It is evident that there is need to reevaluate the myth of a non-political, objective, and highly rational organization, not only because it is irrational, but also because it disregards the idea that an organization is a network of cooperation as much as it is a network of competition. This myth leads us to construct an organization that blatantly disregards the concept of diversity of interests. I conclude that in order for a leader to… [read more]

Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These core concepts are often prerequisites of innovation. Finally my strategy would increase the ability of people to think creatively and use that creativity to produce innovation in their area of responsibility.

Strategy to help reduce bureaucracy

I would first want to identify the type of authority model within the organization. Charismatic authority, traditional authority and rational-legal authority are three types of authority that can arise in a bureaucracy. Charismatic authority is marked by leadership given to an individual due to his exceptional qualities. Traditional authority comes from factors like birth, custom or precedent. Rational-legal authority is acquired from rules and procedures, such as an individual's authority derived from his official job function. This is authority is what is occurring in many of the military organizations mentioned thought-out this document. The ability to reduce bureaucratic control will depend, in part, on the type of authority models used within the military organization. After that, I would want to modify bureaucratic structures through projects. Here, I would have the organization develop and lend resources to temporary project units to achieve specific objectives. Projects allow organizations to perform special tasks or solve specific problems under a project manager through ad hoc groups comprising select personnel with specialized knowledge and experience. Project structures can generally cut through bureaucratic systems better than functional departments within an organization (Kalinda, 2001). This would ultimately reduce the extensive layering and inefficient fighting that characterize bureaucracy. Finally, I would eliminate some excessive bureaucracy by reducing the hierarchy of the organizational structure. An organization with a number of layers between top management and front-line employees can slow communications and the flow of information. The flat organization structure is less encumbered by authority, with fewer managers required to review work.


1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1

2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf.

3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and…… [read more]

Management of Work-Related Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


It is also the aforementioned departments that have the resources and knowhow to develop and implement the most appropriate stress management policies and measures, embrace management standards that are likely to minimize work-related stress, etc. Essentially, the organization should also acquaint itself with workers' non-work-related sources of stress. This is more so the case given that "an employer's awareness of the employee's non-work-related stressors and problems facilitates good management" (Hawkins, 2003, p. 216).

As I have already pointed out elsewhere in this text, employees also have a role to play, albeit a secondary one, in the management of work-related stress. In that regard, employees must ensure that they are actively involved in organizational initiatives whose key goal is stress management. The said employees must also ensure that stressful situations/sources of stress at work are reported to the relevant departments. It should be noted that the organization cannot take any action if it is not aware of a specific source of stress. With that in mind, the move by employees to report possible sources of stress could come in handy in the identification of underlying problems and the subsequent formulation of the most appropriate strategies to tackle the problem. The relevance of being supportive of fellow employees undergoing stressful situations cannot also be overstated. As George & Jones (2010) observe, social support most particularly from friends and family is an important means of coping with stress.


To ensure that work-related stress is contained, the organization (via its various departments) should not only develop stress management policies but also closely monitor the said policies and procedures. This way, deviations from desired objectives can be identified and addressed promptly.


George, J.M. & Jones, G.R. (2010). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior (6th ed.). New York: PH Professional Business.

Hawkins, L. (Ed.). (2003). Tolley's Guide to Managing Employee…… [read more]

Environmental and Organizational Environmental Pressure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is one of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies with health care sales of more than $21.4 billion and leading positions in sales of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, oncology and neuroscience products. Besides the pressures to maintain this large and profitable profile, my personal finances are also involved in the application of these different pressures. A constant discussion about my own personal well being and finance permeates every professional behavior I indulge and admittedly dictates my future as well. Finances are very important from both the environmental and organizational standpoint.

Personal Perspective

For me, my life is personal and I don't give into pressures easily. This is common throughout the workplace as Angell (1999) agreed. She wrote ." Environmental management typically has not held priority-status within corporate-level strategy. As a result, the field of operations management has traditionally treated environmental issues primarily as a series of decision constraints." To me organizational management does not have a personal impact yet impacts the organization as a whole. This approach of removing oneself from the bigger picture is necessary for me to do, otherwise, I lose a sense of personal importance and dignity. I cannot picture myself as a cog of a giant wheel, even though others may routinely do such a thing.

Organizational Reactions

Organizations need to always be reacting and staying in a state of flux. The economic and industrial landscapes change at such a rapid pace, that expecting change is a good strategy. Remaining attached to outdated policies and practices puts the organization at risk to lose competitive advantage that was earned through successful implementation of change. A line of research, rooted in institutional sociology, proposes that firms respond to institutional pressures. The institutional sociology framework emphasizes the importance of regulatory, normative and cognitive factors that affect firms' decisions to adopt a specific organization practice, above and beyond the technical efficiency of the practice. Institutional theory places particular emphasis on legitimating processes and the tendency for institutionalized organizational structures and procedures to be taken for granted, regardless of their efficiency implications.

Strategies for Change

There is great risk for not welcoming organizational change and strategies need to be built around this inescapable fact of business and economics. Donovan (2013) remarked how organizational pressures are sometime too great. He offered rules to help develop a smart strategy that can help alleviate these problems. He suggested that "do not delegate large-scale organizational change to middle management; actively solicit feedback from employees before change occurs; do not let organizational culture dictate the intensity and breadth of change; and clearly communicate the change strategy and the reason behind the change." Any of these guidelines will be helpful in reducing environmental pressures or organizational pressures that have begun to affect the system in a negative and harmful way.


Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol30/30_3/pom30_3.pdf

Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business… [read more]

Parks Recreation and Tourism Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Parks, Recreation and Tourism

LA fitness Organization is an American-based health club with a number of branches across the United States and Canada. It was established back in 1984 in California. Lewis Welch and Chin Yol founded the organization. In the mid-1990's the company was able to expand its operations by acquiring fitness clubs that were experiencing financial distress or that were not operating profitably in southern California. Additionally, the organization built multipurpose sports club. The club had cardio and strength equipments, free weights, common exercise room, a swimming that served as a prototype. Swimming pool and a sports court for basketball and racquetball. The multipurpose fitness club hence offered its members a variety of workout options for the members.

The success of the prototype encouraged the organization to expand its operations. Form the year 1998 the organization increased the rate of club development across the United States including mid Atlantic states, sunbelt, pacific north west, the upper Midwest and the north east. Evaluating the rapid expansion rate, the company has opened over 180 clubs from the year 2006 to 2009.

In the year 2000, the organization acquired the largest fitness and health club chain in Atlanta. The company replaced its constituent units with larger prototype clubs. In the year 2007, the organization acquired six fitness clubs in Canada. In the year 2010, the expansion plans continued with acquisition of the pure fitness clubs in phoenix. In 2012, the company acquired all the family fitness clubs based in Florida despite the many challenges surrounding the transition. The main challenge was that most customers were angered by the acquisition by LA fitness product that replaced their popular Les Mills workouts. LA fitness organization remains a private company with the major shareholders being Madison Dearborn partners, CIVC partners and Seilder Equity partners.

LA fitness organizational structure has contributed to its success over the years. At the top is the Chief Executive officer who is the administrator of the business. Under the CEO, are top organizations directors who oversee the operation of the company in their respective field. They include the chief operation officer, the chief finance director, the marketing director and the operations director. The directors are directly answerable to the Chief executive officer on matters relating to the organization. The directors are then responsible for delegation of duties to other managers under them who in turn delegate the duties to the employees of the organization.

LA fitness organization is socially responsible to the various stakeholders including shareholders, employees, the government, the suppliers and their clients. This responsibility can be classified as economic, ethical, legal, voluntary and philanthropic (Tharrett & Peterson, 2008). Under economic responsibility, the organization should earn the owners of the business some return for the invested capital. In the legal art, the organization has a responsibility to comply with provisions of the law. LA fitness has complied with the law by paying taxes and complying with the employment act and other legislations.

Under ethical practice, the organization has been… [read more]

Dell Total Quality Management Questions Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,175 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dell Total Quality Management

Questions on Dell's Total Quality Management Strategy

What is TQM? Why it is important to your company?

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a foundational platform of enterprise- corporate-wide processes, procedures and programs designed to continually improve customer experiences and product quality. The foundational elements of TQM include cross-functional product design, a strong focus on customer involvement, committed leadership, cross-functional training, cross-functional product design, employee involvement, information and feedback, strategic planning, supplier quality management and process management (Rehder, Ralston, 1984). All of these factors are often coordinated to a common strategic plan to ensure the consistently high performance of an enterprise (Martin, 2004). They are indispensable to Dell as they have over a dozen business models concurrently with each other, each with unique supply chain, sourcing, procurement and manufacturing requirements. These concurrent business models make quality all the more difficult to attain yet paradoxically critical to the company's success. TQM is one of the strongest cornerstones of Dell.

How does TQM make a company's strategies more competitive?

TQM unifies every resource, department and division to a common objective of creating excellent products to meet and exceed customer's expectations (Rehder, Ralston, 1984). TQM is the fuel that also gives Dell the ability to create a continual stream of new products, designed around preferences and wants of customers, instead of just concentrating on needs or feature-based differentiation. Much of what Dell has achieved with its unique build-to-order business model and supporting supply chain synchronization is based on TQM-based principles and concepts (Martin, 2004). TQM then is the catalyst of what makes Dell so unique and competitive in a very challenging industry.

Explanation of How Dell implemented Deming's 7th Point (instituting leadership) with 3 examples.

Source: http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite2/articles/deming.htm

Dell's culture is known for being engineering-driven and very analytically-based. As a result the Deming's 14 Rules of Management are engrained into the quality management and engineering departments of the company, complete with analytics and metrics of performance reported showing progress towards Deming-based goals and objectives. The engineering-centric culture of the company is known for being very adept at quickly turning around new product ideas (Hammonds, 2003). Three examples of Deming's 7th point being put into account are Dell's aggressive move into the network services business, their continual evolution as a cloud computing services provider complete with their own training program, and the development of their world-class integrated supply chain (Dell Investor Relations, 2013) all illustrate how effectively the company is making use of the Deming philosophy.

List Juran's Trilogy functions, using an example from Dell's expertise with this concept.

The three trilogy functions of the Juran Trilogy include quality planning, quality control and quality improvement. (Godfrey, 2011) Dell uses these three areas to support and guide their enterprise-wide quality management programs at both the supply chain and production levels. Dell's cultural bias of measuring and quantifying as much as possible to ensure consistency and high performance is also reflected in how the company ahs adopted Juran Trilogy functions throughout their company (Dell… [read more]

National Incident Management System Theoretical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25


Generally, the incident command systems are the most common sets of command structures and terminologies, which are used on various incident scenes. They are important in providing efficient management of the resources that are involved during an incident resolution process. National Incident Management System is important in providing a national framework, which enables global responders work collectively on complex incidents.… [read more]

Managing Information Systems Introduction in the Contemporary Case Study

Case Study  |  8 pages (2,760 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Managing Information Systems Introduction

In the contemporary business environment, IS (information systems) have become the strategy weapons that organizations employ to achieve competitive advantages. With stiff competitions that organizations are now facing within the competitive business environment, many organizations have realized the importance of integrating the efficient information systems to enhance market efficiencies. Modern businesses now integrate highly efficient information… [read more]

Network-Centric Approach to Disaster Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The network centric approach provides a free uninterrupted flow of information which is accessible to all layers of the network and its components. It also encourages real time operation awareness and reduces the heavy handed influence of distant command centers on the tactical situation on the ground as indicated by von Lubitz et al., (2006).

However on the other hand it may be argued that the functionalities offered by network centric approach are either of no or very limited impacts during small well contained local adverse events for instant floods, this is also explicit as many incidents show that local response to a disaster becomes part of a larger national effort. The process of mobilization at the national and international level may also add further confusion and disarray. At times subsequent confusion may be instigated by inter-agency frictions, political power plays and a lot of bureaucracy.

Therefore, it is imperative to state that with its cardinal components of effective management and leadership in times of crisis international organizations should implement it.


Jeroen M.M. Neuvel & Henk J. Scholten & Adri van den Brink, (2010). From Spatial Data to Synchronized Actions: The Network-centric Organization of Spatial Decision Support for Risk and Emergency Management. Retrieved July 31, 2012 from http://www.feweb.vu.nl/gis/research/LUCAS/publications/docs/Neuvel_etal_From_spatial_data_to_synchronised_actions.pdf

von Lubitz, Beakley, Patircelli:( 2006). All hazards approach to network-centric disaster management: the role of information and knowledge management, and boyd's ooda loop in disaster leadership. Retrieved July 31, 2012 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=… [read more]

Faith Baptist Church in Manchester Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The perception of the employees about the same will be assessed from the replies to the questionnaires from which it would be possible to derive the level of feeling among the employees about the fairness of the systems and procedures. The views of the employees regarding the impact of the systems and procedures on their motivation will also be assessed through the questionnaires. It is then possible to estimate the impact of organizational justice on the motivation of the employees.

Protection of Human Subjects

Voluntary Participation

Before administering the questionnaire, the person selected for administering the questionnaire will be informed of our choice and asked whether he is willing to participate in the process of the survey through the questionnaire. Only after the person agrees, the questionnaire will be sent to him/her, thereby ensuring that the participation is voluntary (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2012a).

No Harm to Participants

The questionnaire and interviews relate to the perceptions of the employees about some systems and procedures relating to their organization. There is no enquiry in the questionnaire about any outsider or outside agency and there is nothing offensive to anybody. So there is minimal possibility of any harm to participants (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2012a).

Informed Consent

Informed consent of the participant will be obtained after… [read more]

Safety Towards Telecommunications and Technology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,120 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The other DSS include knowledge driven, document driven and model driven. Model driven use the available types of models in manipulation of data. Knowledge driven DSS is a system that uses expertise to solve problems. Document driven uses analysis, summary and retrieving of data; it provides as a summary of the documents relevance hence used to make decisions for continuing functionality (Khosrowpour, 2005).

Without electronic communication, there will be reduced speed in communication, no ease at work and reduced work output. Technology helps in managing the most complicated tasks in an organization, organization's profitability, and survival depends on IT. Absence or inappropriateness in the IT sector can lead to the collapse of an organization.

Online back up

When a disaster occurs in an organization, communication and technology can sometimes help to mitigate the effects. It also leads to the attainment of certainty which may result in attaining desired goal preventing disasters. It helps organizations to respond to changing circumstances adequately, hence prevent a disaster from affecting the business much. Configurations and security setting should be reviewed first. All employees should be informed on the security incidents, when they occur and how they should be reexamined. There should be redundancy planning to approach redundant IT infrastructure. For a reliable system, back up online systems can also be used when a disaster occurs to prevent paralyzing a business that depends on one system.

An audit is done first before development of an online system. When implementation is carried out, the system should be easy to follow. Procedures, training and a support system on how the system will function should be well communicated (Vacca 2009). This process requires commitment across all levels. When designing the system the best animations, sound and images should be used to communicate the business idea. The most efficient and effective way of communication should be used while including the most relevant information. The system should be secured with log on security or other types of security to prevent hackers. Built in quality in the system will ensure that their image is well communicated to all audiences. It will also ensure consistency in handling information across all product lines, projects and companies.


Recommendation Risk and vulnerable areas in an organization should be identified. Risk assessments should be done, and then they should be constantly updated. There should be a priority on the risk areas that should be dealt with first. Observing changes in Operating environments and organizational information system will help to monitor results which keep the organization aware of the risks. It helps the leaders in performing near real time risk management. Organizations should use past disasters to provide solutions; they should also try using other unique disaster management strategies. Diverse methods can be tried to deal with a disaster or emergency problem. Corrective, preventive, and detective control measures should be adopted to prevent disasters. Preventive-prevents a disaster from occurring, detective- detects something occurring that is not meant to occur and corrective- address existing nonconformities as they… [read more]

Emergency Management (Mitigation) Policy Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


President Carter is reported to have "transmitted to the Congress, the Reorganization Plan Number 3 (3 CFR 1978, 5 U.S. Code 903). The stated and achieved intent of this plan was to consolidate emergency preparedness, mitigation, and response activities into one federal emergency management organization. The President proclaimed that the plan would provide for the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and that the FEMA Director would report directly to the President." (Haddow, 2006) This was passed on June 19, 1978. It is reported that Reorganization Plan No.3 "transferred the following agencies or functions to FEMA: National Fire Prevention Control Administration (Department of Commerce); Federal Insurance Administration (HUD); Federal Broadcast System (Executive Office of the President); Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD); Federal Disaster Assistance Administration (HUD); and the Federal Preparedness Agency (GSA)." (Haddow, 2006) Also transferred to FEMA were "Oversight of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (Office of Science and Technology Policy); coordination of dam safety (Office of Science and Technology Policy); assistance to communities in the development of readiness plans for severe weather related emergencies; coordination of natural and nuclear disaster warning systems; and coordination of preparedness and planning to reduce the consequences of major terrorist incidents." (Haddow, 2006) During the 1980s, President Reagan appointed General Louis O. Guiffrida as Director of FEMA. FEMA was reorganized. General Julius Becton was reported as FEMA Director by President Reagan and is reported to have restored integrity to FEMA operations. During Reagan's presidency, Congress passed the Steward McKinney-Robert Stratford ACT. In 1992, several Hurricanes in Florida and Louisiana example the unprepared state of FEMA. FEMA was further shown as unprepared during the 1990s. Hurricane Mitch resulted in a change in foreign policy in the U.S. toward promotion of community-based mitigation projects. By the year 2001, the primary focus of emergency management became that of terrorism.

Summary and Conclusion

As this work has demonstrated emergency management changes in the U.S. followed the occurrence of natural disaster events and policy changes that occurred were administration dependent.


Bea, Keith (2007) Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes After Hurricane Katrina: A Summary of Statutory Provisions 6 Mar 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33729.pdf

Chapter One Introduction to Emergency Management (nd) Retrieved from: http://archone.tamu.edu/hrrc/Publications/books/FEMA_book/FEMA_book_in_PDF/FEMACh_1Intro.pdf

Civil Defense and Homeland Security: A Short History of National Preparedness Efforts (2006) Homeland Security Preparedness Task Force. September 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.iaem.com/about/documents/DHSCivilDefense-HSShortHistory.pdf

Haddow, George (2006) The Historical Context of Emergency Management. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDQQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftraining.fema.gov%2FEMIWeb%2Fedu%2Fdocs%2FChapter%25201%2520-%2520Intro%2520to%2520Crisis%2C%2520Disaster%2520and%2520Risk%2520Mgmt%2520Concepts.doc&ei=hUJjT4b_N4Le0QHn-LjCCA&usg=AFQjCNGOCu3ryY7kTH8McaM4xKS440O9Ag… [read more]

Business -- Change Management Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


It is anticipated that lead times necessary to (re)create an entire main product line capable of maintaining the same desirable qualities that constitute the current brand identity without significant amounts of sugar or corn syrup may actually be so great that research and development will have to begin substantially before the formal announcement of the proposed change.

Likewise, the actual reconfigure of the organizational hierarchy to include an executive level composed of medical advisors and nutritionists to provide extensive guidance and leadership in the real of the healthfulness of all Dr. Pepper Snapple Group products may have to await the formal announcement. Meanwhile, initial recruitment and negotiations should proceed to secure the necessary talent and make sure that the new executive management positions are filled by the time of the formal announcement. If necessary, retention agreements would be suggested so that the new executive talent can be in place at the time of the formal announcement (Russell-Whalling, 2008).

Finally, a nationwide strategic marketing campaign would be launched immediately following the formal announcement. It will be created specifically to be capable of ensuring the successful launch and, in effect, re-branding of the entire Dr. Pepper Snapple Group main product line featuring dietetic products that meet the taste (and other) specifications and preferences necessary to retain the vast majority of the organization's current base market.


Akin, G., Dunford, R., and Palmer, I. (2006). Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Daft, R. (2005) Management. Mason, GA: Thomson South Western.

DPSGroup (2011). "Dr. Pepper Snapple Group Reports First Quarter 2011 Results." Retrieved June 26, 2011 from: www.Drpeppersnapple.com

Fisk, P. (2008). Business Genius: A More Inspired Approach to Business Growth. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Capstone.

George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational

Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.

Robbins, S.P. And Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River,

NJ: Prentice Hall.

Russell-Whalling, E. (2008) 50…… [read more]

What Drives Organizational Change Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Organizational Change

Drivers of Organizational Change

Most organizations are in a constant state of change though these changes might be very subtle and slow-moving, due to the ever-changing environments in which they operate. Successful organizations realize this and work to manage change in a manner that yields a certain degree of consistency and high reliability with the flexibility to adjust as necessary. There are also times when certain catalysts create a clear and pressing need for more major organizational changes, the management of which is at least as crucial as the management of incremental changes on a more ongoing basis. The following paragraphs will detail the drivers and management of change following to catalyst events witnessed by the author, with appropriate analysis and commentary from contemporary literature on the subject.

At one point, a retail establishment at which the author was employed experienced a catalyst for change due to a shifting market. The owner had opted not to carry a rather small line of specific products due to problems with the ordering process with this particular supplier. A sudden increase in the demand for this specific brand of products brought on by a new marketing campaign was resisted by the owner for some time due to the same hassles in ordering, but finally the clear potential sales won out and the increased revenue proved more than worth the adjustments that needed to be made in the ordering process. This led to a more flexible set of policies and expectations for the entire establishment in terms of ordering and diversifying offered items, and serves as a prime example of the concept of "outside-in" thinking for consumer businesses -- emphasizing opportunities rather than capabilities (Fisk 2008).

Another…… [read more]

Tipping Point for Talent Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Tipping Point for Talent Management

The economic environment and the need for talent management practices

The modern day economic environment is the result of numerous processes of change. The end result is a complex economic climate characterized by varying degrees of governmental intervention, the promotion of markets regulated by demand and supply or by liberalization and globalization. All these economic elements -- as well as several others more -- have generated a new need for talent management practices. Examples in this sense include:

The access to information led to the creation of more pretentious customers

The more pretentious customers demanded high quality products and services, which could only be offered through talented staff members

At a global level, a trend is observed of GDP generation from services more in the detriment of industry and agriculture (Central Intelligence Agency, 2010). But services can only satisfy the customers when they are delivered by high skilled staff members.

As a final specification, it should be noted that, unlike an initial perception, the emergence of the internationalized economic crisis has not halted talent management practices, but it has in fact created new grounds for their implementation. To better explain, a major mistake of most economic agents is that of striving to deal with the crisis by downsizing. Combining the downsized employees with the individuals who lost their jobs due to organizational bankruptcies, the availability of labor force significantly increases. In this context, organizational leaders are presented with the opportunity of accessing talented individuals who would otherwise be unattainable (HR Malaysia, 2009).

2. Globalization and the tipping point of talent management practices

The forces of globalization have represented one of the primary generators of enhanced talent management practices. Globalization opened national boundaries and allowed economic, political, technological and otherwise values and practices to transcend boundaries. A direct impact of the opening of boundaries was an increased organizational access to foreign resources, including capitals, technologies, commodities, but also labor force. Several organizations engaged in processes of outsourcing by which they took work outside one country to have it completed within a more cost effective region. But the labor force in the cost effective country was seldom trained and able to perform the tasks at high quality standards. The need for talent management rose both from the necessity to train the foreign workers, as well as from the need to adequately manage them.

The second means in which globalization forced talent management refers to incremental levels of competition among economic agents, which was created as the result of boundaries opening and market penetrations by foreign competitors. In this context, the adequate management of the human resource became an organizational need and a competitive strategy.

3. Talent management beyond training programs

Talent management initially commenced at the premises of offering training programs to the organizational staff members. The aim was that of increasing the skills and performance levels of the individual employees, with the ultimate scope of increasing overall organizational performances. As time progressed however, and as both… [read more]

Knowledge Management Social Network Analysis Remains Relevant Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Knowledge Management

Social network analysis remains relevant to the contemporary social networking process. The mechanisms for social networking may have changed, potentially adding layers of complexity, but the underlying concept remains the same. The quality of one's social network and the abilities of that network are, if anything, easier to identify with modern technology. The chapters can be updated by… [read more]

Managing Conflicts in Business Relationships Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Managing Conflicts

Executive Summary the question of whether conflict is good for organizations divides academic researchers and real world practitioners. While conflict is acknowledged to have some benefits, real world managers are hesitant to make use of conflict and take steps to avoid it. This divide comes from an information divide. Managers deal with the full scope of externalities and… [read more]

Management in Spite of the Modifications Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (3,753 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … Management

In spite of the modifications within the micro and macro environments, the number one goal of economic agents remains that of registering profits. Still, they now do this by placing a significantly greater emphasis on the needs of the various stakeholder categories. Companies for instance strive to increase their revenues by satisfying the needs of customers or… [read more]

Community Organization and Evaluate How it Leverages Thesis

Thesis  |  13 pages (3,243 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Community Organization and Evaluate How it Leverages Community Assets and Develops Partnerships

To Address A Social Problem


The stated 'mission' of the organization chose for evaluation in this present study is that of the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The City of Atlanta states that it is committed to developing performance measures that assist in the… [read more]

Managing Homeland Security Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,062 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Managing Homeland Security

You were recently selected as the Emergency Management Coordinator for a medium-sized city. Your position didn't exist in that city before you came along. You have been asked to submit a couple page write up for the city's quarterly newsletter to explain just what emergency management is and what the function of the coordinator is. Draft a… [read more]

Organizational Performance. This Study Pointed Out Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,770 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … organizational performance. This study pointed out that while some association between HR policies and performance was obvious, there were no clearly defined factors as to why and how such an association existed. This, Purcell termed as the 'black box'. Further, Purcell also noted that strategic HRM practices are more productive from a medium to long-term perspective than in… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts the Ability Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts

The ability of any organization to attain its' objectives and strategies is directly correlated to their ability to turn organizational behavior into a sustainable competitive advantage. The intent of this paper is to evaluate the foundational elements of organizational behavior including culture, diversity, communication, business ethics and change management.

Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts

The complexities of organizational behavior resist discrete delineations and instead invite a more cohesive, coordinated approach to studying this area of management. There are many factors that influence organizational behavior, many of which resist quantification yet are essential for the successful functioning of an organization. A subset of these factors is discussed in this paper including organizational culture, diversity, communication, business ethics and change management. Taken together, these concepts form the foundation of describing what organizational behavior's implications are for companies pursuing their objectives.

The essence of organizational behavior centers on the study of how the interactions of people acting individually and within groups influence the execution of strategies within organizations (Zohar, Tenne-Gazit, 2008). The study of organizational behavior centers on triangulating the efforts in an organization to achieve human, social and organizational objectives. One of the most challenging aspects of organizational behavior is when a corporation begins the new product development and introduction (NPDI) process. Of all shared processes that corporations contend with, the launch of new products is the most challenging due to the high level of process and role-based synchronization across many different departments. It is in fact a proof point for how effective any given organization is at managing its human resources and creating a culture that embraces change and the need to continually improve. In addition the NPDI also requires a very high level of accountability within organizations as each department and its team members must contribute to the effort for the overall product launch to be successful. Because of all these factors, it is considered a process that validates or refutes the extend to which human resources, corporate culture, process integration, clarity of communication, and change management are present or absent in any given corporation.

Cultures are undergoing more change than ever before in companies, and is defined as a set of values, beliefs, assumptions, principles, myths, legends, and norms that define how people think, decide, perform, and achieve their goals inside companies. Schein (1994) defines culture as..."a basic set of assumptions that defines for us what we pay attention to, what things mean, and how to react emotionally to what is going on, and what actions to take in various kinds of situations." Culture is considered by many researchers…… [read more]

Management and Leadership Examine the Roles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,461 words)
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Management and Leadership

Examine the roles and responsibilities of leaders in creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture

In order to create a healthy organizational culture, Disney is one of the few organizations which at one point was prepared to reinvent the manner in which something is performed. And that is something which the founder Walt Disney did maybe better… [read more]

Management and Leadership All the Answers Term Paper

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Management and Leadership

All the answers to the questions pertain to General Electrics during the period when Jack Welch was CEO, from 1981 to 2003.

The roles of the leaders are both in creating and in maintaining a healthy organizational culture. As leaders, they provide a common vision for the company, common objectives and goals, as well as the incipient… [read more]

Miami Dade Emergency Management Office Term Paper

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Miami Dade Emergency Management Office

Miami Dade County Emergency Management Office - Bibliography notes

This paper will present the definition of the Miami Dade County Emergency Management organization, highlighting its operations and achievements. Further more we will discuss how this institution works, monitoring the activity of a volunteer association - NVOAD. In the end, the author will present his thoughts and ideas on this matter.

The present reality is characterized by important modifications in the actual state of things, related especially to the environment but also on the man's actions targeted at the environment. Two of the most used words nowadays are 'disasters' and 'terrorism'. The human kind is faced with natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, tsunami and related unfortunate events, as well as acts of terror and terrorism created by different nationalist or religious movements that militate for some ideals of theirs. In the first case, the natural events are produced by an indirect intervention and intrusion of humans in the normal state of things and events related to earth and its cycles. On the other hand, in the second case, terrorism is the result of direct human actions oriented toward citizens from other states or having different religions. Even if based on our example, the reader may understand that humans have a negative influence on the environment and the people around them, there is a group of volunteers with national action plan to say the contrary. In the next paragraphs, we shall discuss and exemplify the activity of the Miami Date County Emergency Management Organization, therein referred as MDCEM. (250)

Miami Date County Emergency Management Organization

MDCEM is an aid organization, set-up in order to help other individuals in situations were their life or their belongings are threatened, as it is the case of hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and so on. The objective of this volunteer organization, as it was simply put on the official website, is to diminish the impact of disasters and potential natural catastrophes by using its resources for planning, responding and managing information so that people can be saved.

This support organization's actions are supported on two pillars - prevention and taking action. Let us discuss each at a time. The negative effects of natural catastrophes can be limited by the prevention process. The prevention includes social aspects related to finding ways to prevent the natural disaster - such as organizing public debates, studies and meetings on the topic of the pollution reduction and derived subjects. Pollution is known as the main cause for a series of environmental incidents - the fastening process of the global warning with inevitable consequences for the Earth's inhabitants. Coming back to the prevention process, the monitoring is an essential key for preventing environmental disasters. In this sense,…… [read more]

Organization Theory and Behavior Term Paper

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As we are entering the era of globalization, the world is changing, the technological page is much faster, the wealth of rich countries is slowly distributed to poorer countries, which in turn become consumer and/or production markets with high potential and last, but not least, the way of doing business is taking a big turn to… [read more]

Knowledge Management in the Automotive Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,978 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


Knowledge Management in the Automotive Industry

The Current and Potential Use of Knowledge Management within the Automotive Industry

Automotive Industry Analysis

Current Use of Knowledge Management in Automotive

Potential Future

The automotive industry's use of knowledge management is progressing from creating and sustaining knowledge systems designed to support the major phases of product development, supplier management, production and service to… [read more]

Human Resource Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Some of the methodologies in that eminently readable text on team training might not be immediately amicable to more reserved cultural environments and climates, although it is, I believe, to my own environment, although not to every manager I have talked to in other organizations in my industry.

The Management of a Multicultural Workforce makes a persuasive and useful argument for the value of diversity education in all organizations. The nature of the education may vary according to the organization's size and composition of the employee and employer's backgrounds. Diversity education may seem more necessary in large organizations with individual of varied backgrounds, or reorganizing companies with a work staff from different organizational management environments and cultures. But still, diversity education and flexibility and tolerance in any organization cannot be ignored. The emphasis on the implications of national and organizational cultures for human resource management practices all firms of varying sizes remains key to coping with tomorrow's challenges. The text offers practical solution options as well as a historical context to the evolving concept of what constitutes a culture and notions of diversity. Finally, the text also provides potent statistical and real-life anecdotal evidence of the importance and the richness of such diversity for employees on a personal level, as well as how diversity is an asset, economically, to a company. Most importantly of all, The Management of a Multicultural Workforce highlights in a realistic rather than an idealistic fashion the tensions that will inevitable arise in newly heterogeneous settings at home and abroad, and the way that diversity education in human resource management practices can be translated and transported across…… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Study Guide Chapter Term Paper

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Organizational Behavior Study Guide

Chapter 2 Study Guide- the high performance organization

High performance organizations deploy Total Quality Management strategies that are customer-responsive, as South West Airlines did in regards to keeping cost low, despite the expansion of the company. It knew what its customers desired, and continued this effective 'brand strategy.' Yet the company also responded to its employee's needs for flexible and challenging jobs, and treated employees with respect. Also, organizationally it was cost effective, as from the Southwest's organizational hierarchy was flat and lean, comprised of CEO, department heads, managers, supervisors, and employees and thus responsive to the challenges faced by the airline industry after 9-11 that leveled so many other businesses.

Global Dimensions of Organizational Behavior

Wal-Mart initially had difficulty deploying its United States advantages internationally because of its difficulty of integrating the unique company culture into that of European attitudes towards marketing. Its stress upon cheer, for example, was incomprehensible to its German staff, in terms of…… [read more]

Public Management TQM -- Total Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


True, to analyze its philosophy of applying quantitative strategies to qualitative or subjective management goals such as improved production or employee attitudes, TQM does have considerable overlap with Jack Welch's Six Sigma school of management. But although Six Sigma may have a different structured or brand named trademark of buzzword verbs, to engage in a synthesis of these two different programs is certainly possible.

Ultimately most successful management programs deploy at least something similar to the core TQM philosophy of management. TQM stresses that the areas being measured by management must be important to the customers. Each measurement must be part of a defined and documented process. What is being measured in each measurement should be clearly defined and feasibly remedied by managers and supervisors. Also, when engaging in an evaluation, TQM stresses amongst its core principles that the employees in a TQM organization must "believe they can do something to streamline or improve the process; knowledge and authority to make changes," and "rust that their actions will be focused on the process, not the people involved." (Hunicke, 2001)

The branding of 'Total Quality Management' may or may not be a relatively permanent feature of the management landscape but this stress upon concrete and positive change will and must remain integral to American and international management efforts. Certainly, as a manager, using the full TQM process within any organization could and would improve the processes at work. Instead of passing the buck and passing the blame to a few scape-goated individual employees, organizational structures would be held accountable for failings to come up to standard and more easily remedied had not TQM been implemented.

Works Cited

Wayne J. Hunicke. (2001) "How To Implement A TQM Process." TQM. Retrived on July 14, 2004 at Advantage Systems Website http://www.dbainc.com/public_html/dba2/library/meawork.html… [read more]

Human Resource Management the Importance Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,180 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A written job description and definition are the keys to communicating job expectations to people. Do the best job you can! is terrible job guidance.

Employees chosen on the basis of the best person available are more effective than those chosen on the basis of friendship or expediency.

If specific job expectations are clearly spelled out, and if performance appraisals are based on these expectations, performance is higher. Also, employee train- ing results in higher performance if it is based on measurable learning objectives." http://www.bizoffice.com/library/files/human.txt

The paper has discussed the relative importance of the human resource management with specific reference to the importance and scope of the subject. The paper has discussed and presented the viewpoints regarding the assertion "Staff are the most important resource in any organization and its cost should be regarded as an investment rather than an expensive item of expenditure"; this assertion has been critically examined with specific reference to the sports management and related organization. The paper has proved the fact that this statement is not true and effective for the sports management. The conclusion will be further discussed by answering the following questions:

Does the study support or reject your hypothesis?

The hypothesis statement is related to the importance of staff, the importance of human resource management and the relative techniques of the human resource management in sports management. The study has critically examine the hypothesis statement "Staff are the most important resource in any organization and its cost should be regarded as an investment rather than an expensive item of expenditure" and therefore, it rejects the hypothesis.

Does the study support or contradict previous research?

The study supports the previous researches and the findings and information related to the hypothesis statement are all added in the study so as to provide the readers with the effective information regarding the human resource management and the importance of staff.

Is the study conclusive or is further research needed?

Human resource management is a growing field therefore; further research is needed in order to know the relative importance of the human resource management and the importance of staff.

What are the implications of this research to the discipline?

This research study will provide the readers with all the relative information regarding the hypothesis statement and the readers ill understand the fact that the assertion "Staff are the most important resource in any organization and Its cost should be regarded as an investment rather than an expensive item Of expenditure" is not at all true with respect to the sports management. This research study will prove effective and beneficial for the readers who want to know about the relative aspects of human's resource management with specific reference to sports management. The information and findings re collected from various websites and these information are provided in the research study so as to provide the readers with relative background and authentic information based on sports management and the importance of staff. All the evidences and related researches prove that… [read more]

Headless Chickens Describes an Organization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This 360 degree study can help track the evolution of the leadership styles. A few years later, Avolio and Bass (1991) introduced leadership theoretical models which included three styles of leadership.

Transformational leaders are those who guide followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements, yet leaving employees free to determine the details of how… [read more]

Organizational Development Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


Organizational development theory has always been a multifaceted discipline, incorporating not only business theory but "a wide range of theoretical influences including social psychology, group dynamics, psychotherapy, industrial- organizational psychology, participative management, and sociology" (Church & Jamieson, 2014: 2). Today, organizational development has been profoundly affected by globalization and changes in technology. The reading identifies three different perspectives on the change as traditional, pragmatic, and scholarly (Cummings & Worley, 2010: 693). Traditionalists stress the need for organizations to emphasize employees having a better work-life balance and humanistic values such as diversity, spirituality, and self-actualization (Cummings & Worley, 2010: 693). Supporting the organization requires supporting the humanity of employees. In stark contrast, the pragmatic trend emphasizes enhancing employee effectiveness by setting performance outcomes and work processes in a quantitative fashion and emphasizing metrics as a way of forcing employees to set a higher bar for performance. Finally, the scholarly trend emphasizes expanding formal research to help understand change and to enhance the results of change through validated best practices and methods (Cummings & Worley, 2010: 695). These perspectives are not mutually exclusive, of course.

Factors particularly influential in the field of organizational development include changes in the structure of the economy; developments in technology; evolving perspectives of management; organizational size; globalization; the need for greater teamwork; and industrialization. Globalization has been particularly influential in creating a more diverse workforce. Integrating this workforce can potentially improve productivity and innovation but must be done so in a systematic and intelligent fashion for the benefits to be reaped. Corresponding with an expansion in technology and innovation, there has also been a demand for greater environmental sustainability which will also affect organizations in the future. Consumer demographics are also changing which will affect how organizations will deliver goods: traditional marriages and household divisions mean that the traditional target of the nuclear family is no more in many countries. Political developments affect educational levels, choices of occupation, and therefore the budget and personal resource allocations of consumers. What is most interesting,…… [read more]

Science and Art of Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,195 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


They can invest time in employees and train them. As a result, the whole organization will benefit from a skilled and trained workforce. This frame works on the notion that the structure of an organization is a beautiful but hollow shell if it does not allow the people to use their intelligence and energy to assist the organization. (Bolman and Deal)

The human relations frame works on the following assumptions:

Organization are made to fulfil the demands of human beings and not vice versa.

The relationship between the organizations and people is a need-based relation and both the sides need each other.

If the equation of relationship between an individual and an organization is asymmetric, the individual and the organization both will suffer.

On the other hand, if the equation is balanced, both sides will benefit from the relationship. (Bolman and Deal)

Political Frame

This frame works on the notion that the structure of an organization is bound to fail. There are places where structure and rationality will not work. The frame portrays the idea that the structure is eventually taken over by office politics. People gather and talk about what is correct and incorrect in the organization and this leads to a chain reaction which triggers politics. According to this frame, politics is the right way to make decisions for an organization. (Bolman and Deal)

The political frame works on the following assumptions:

Organizations are associations consisting of different people and groups.

There are certain differences between the thinking, perception and beliefs of these people. These beliefs change really slowly.

Allocation of scarce resources is the most important decision made by organizations.

Hence, the decisions of an organization are related to allocation of resources among people, with power being the most important resource. This leads to conflict.

The final decision is reached by bargaining and struggling to get a good position among all the groups. (Bolman and Deal)

Symbolic Frame

The symbolic frame is the most unconventional of the four frames described by Bolman and Deal. It works on the notion that the organization and its ups and downs cannot be measured and controlled. It is dependent on the culture of the organization rather than calculations and measurement. The symbolic frame makes the management see beyond the normal tangible elements to find out the factors that matter the most. These factors are embedded to the culture of the organization. The symbolic frame does not approve negativity like the political frame. (Bolman and Deal)

The following assumptions rule the symbolic frame:

The most important thing about an event is not what happened but what meaning was interpreted out of it.

Two same events may not have the same meaning. It depends on who suffered from the event and how did they interpret it.

The events that happen in complex organizations are normally very ambiguous and therefore, it is very difficult to find out how or why it happened.

As the level of ambiguity climbs, it becomes difficult to apply rational… [read more]

Christina Gold Leading Change at Western Union Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This creates awareness among the employees, thereby minimizing the resistance to change.

Facilitating the change process aids in the reduction of resistance to change. This entails leading by example to ensure the employee enumerate the desired behavior and become motivation to adopt the change. The company should communicate to the employees the new changes required by the company. This not only creates awareness among the employees, but also aligns the required organizational goals with that of the employees. Other strategies applicable in managing the issues include the provision of incentives, adopting effective leadership styles (transactional and transformational), and coercing the employees to adopt the required organizational change (Leban & Stone, 2008).

How well aligned is the new structure to the six strategies?

The organizational six strategies align with the goals and objectives of the new organizational structure. The intended organizational structure aims at decentralizing most of the organizational activities. This will improve the development and marketing of a global brand targeting all consumer segments. The new structure developed in the company aims at developing a global network of service providers. This aligns with the organizational strategy of enhancing a global distribution network. The new structure aims at increasing the number of employees recruited by the organization. This implies to its future development and growth of leaders within the company. Creating new offices expands the leadership positions for the employees hence, building their leadership skills. Consequently, these strategies ensure provision of excellent services to the consumers, maintaining the performance of the company (Konrad & Mitchell, 2005).


The company must adopt the most effective leadership styles to ensure the success of their strategies. This entails adopting leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles to facilitate the success of the interventions. These leadership styles promote the inclusion of the employees in most of the organizational activities and ensure the creation of an environment that foster open communication. The company should also introduce activities that increase employee autonomy, responsibility, and accountability. This entails providing them with the freedom to make decisions and supportive environment. This leads to their motivation and innovation hence, the success of the company and the reduction of incidences of resistance to change. The company should strive to adopt the new technology. This not only enhances the operational management in the company, but also enhances its competitiveness in the market place (Bessant & Tidd, 2013).


Change is important to an organization. It shapes its performance and behavior of the employees. It promotes the realization of the set organizational goals and objectives. However, resistance to change might affect the realization of the objectives of the desired change. Therefore, it is highly recommendable that, organizations adopt strategies aiming at minimizing incidences of resistance to change.


Bessant, J., & Tidd, J. (2013). Managing innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational change. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Konrad, A. & Mitchell, J. (2005). Christina Gold Leading Change at Western Union. Harvard Business Publishing. Product #906M07-PDF-ENG

Leban, B., & Stone, R. (2008). Managing organizational… [read more]

Grapevine in Organization Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (639 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Grapevine in Organization

The Grapevine: An Overview

Treece and Kleen (as cited in Ferreira, Erasmus, and Groenewald, 2010) define the grapevine as a "person-to-person method of spreading rumors, gossip and information, by informal or unofficial conversation, letter writing, or the like" (p. 100). ABC on the other hand defines the grapevine as an informal communication likely to be in existence in most organizations. Although it surpasses the official channels of communication within an organization, the grapevine cannot be ignored. The sheer amount of information that is 'processed' through the grapevine sometimes surpasses that transmitted through the official channels of communication.

It is often assumed that being a social animal, man is likely to make use of informal channels of communication even in those instances where there are clear and well-defined formal channels in an organization. The grapevine is an informal business communication channel.

It is also assumed that the grapevine occurs 'naturally' once the distribution of information in the organization is stifled in one way or another. Employees in this case according to Sims (2002) try to fill the information vacuum by amongst other things "providing bits of information to each other, even if these are based on speculation rather than facts" (p. 156).

Although it does have its costs (as will be pointed out elsewhere in this text), the grapevine could be advantageous in some specific scenarios. To begin with, top managers of business entities could tap on this communication channel to 'test the waters' with regard to various ideas prior to implementation. One of those who have in the past leaked ideas to the grapevine in an attempt to test their relevance include Anita Roddick -- The Body Shop's founder (ABC). Roddick in this case successfully used the grapevine to know subordinates' reactions to various policies. In a hypothetical case, a C.E.O of a leading firm could for example be interested in finding out whether or not…… [read more]

Perrier Company and Ajax Minerals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, if the management would take an initiative to lay down the current workforce and recruit more skilled and efficient workforce then this might lead towards the reduction in the powers of the union as the new workforce may not join the union and instead favor the initiatives and strategies of the management. (Blackard, 2000)

Approaches for Managing Resistance to Change

The Perrier Company can manage resistance to change in an effective manner by implementing a strategy that involves the following steps;

Education and Communication; the organization can eliminate the resistance of the employees by clear communicating the rationale for change at all the levels of hierarchy. This communication eliminates the misconceptions of the employees regarding the change and make them more flexible and acceptable in relation to the change. The management can communicate this change through memos and face-to-face meetings and discussions. (Docstoc, 2011)

Facilitation and Support; the management can also reduce the resistance of employees by providing them with proper assistance and support. Employees usually fear change and it makes them frustrated and tensed. The management can provide the employees with counselling and therapy sessions and it can also help them in enhancing their and competencies. But this technique can be a bit expensive so the management shall be careful while using this tool. (Docstoc, 2011)

Negotiations; the management shall negotiate with the union and the employees regarding the change. It shall try to bargain with them and shall provide them with rewards if they comply properly with the change. Such rewards motivate the employees to perform well and according to the needs of the management and they also satisfy the unions as they are beneficial for the employees. (Docstoc, 2011)


Blackard, K. (2000). Managing Change in a Unionized Workplace: Countervailing Collaboration. [e-book] Denver: Greenwood Press. p. 83. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=yUFzQmAyjgUC&pg=PA83&lpg=PA83&dq=how+do+unions+resist+change&source=bl&ots=-oJcYO1gvO&sig=JZilh2wgLehLY1_Q3i3CjfCYxUI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=h2sPUvbtFcKI4ASI_YCADw&ved=0CCwQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=how%20do%20unions%20resist%20change&f=false.

Lunenburg, F. (2010). Forces for and Resistance to Organizational Change. National Forum Of Educational Administration And Supervision Journal, 27 (4), p. 5. Retrieved from: http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fred%20C.%20Forces%20For%20and%20Resistance%20to%20Change%20NFEASJ%20V27%20N4%202010.pdf.

Unknown. (2011). Change Management; Resistance to Change. Docstoc. pp. 11-13. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/18867572/Change-Management-Issue-Resistance-to-Change.

Unknown. (2011). How to manage change. London: Acas. pp. 1-16. http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/d/b/Acas_How_to_manage_change (Jan_10)-accessible-version-Nov-2011.pdf.

Yuh-Shy, C. (2010). Individual Resistance from Employees to Organizational Change. Taiwan: Ching Yun University. pp. 1-5. http://www.jgbm.org/page/19%20Dr.%20Chuang,Yuh-Shy.pdf.… [read more]

Developing Skills for Business Leadership Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (3,879 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … Skills for Business Leadership

Executive Memorandum dated July 24, 2013

This memorandum describes the significance of the project, the nature of the topic addressed and the importance of the project.

This chapter provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning tools and techniques used to practitioners to understand how systems operate and what can be… [read more]

Public Administration the Role Case Study

Case Study  |  12 pages (3,769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The use of these common identification codes is also depicted by the integration of information belonging to different sources which ultimately forms the basis for the comprehensive presentation of information.

Information is classified in the MIS on the basis of content type and the type of data source. The first class of the MIS is the "standard reports" which have… [read more]

Management Course the Reasons Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,668 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


This is because throughout the course I learned that it is very important that managers properly plan the activities their subordinates are involved in. In addition to this, it is very important to control activities within the company in order to counteract the effects of certain environmental factors that can influence the activity of companies (Management Study Guide, 2011). I consider the advice of professors to continue to expand on knowledge regarding planning and controlling to be very useful.

Benefits of the Course

The Principles of Management course has benefitted me in numerous situations. As mentioned above, theories on management can be successfully applied in most everyday situations. The time management techniques I learned in this course helped me better organize my activities and to make the most of my time. Such techniques can be used by all individuals in order to improve their performance.

In addition to this, the course is very useful as a starting point for learning more on different topics regarding management. Although the course should be considered an introduction into the vast subject of management, it is course that presents useful information to managers. Therefore, I recommend this course to people that want to become managers, to improve their skills, and to improve their performance. The principles of Management course can be successfully used by people in different fields of work that want to improve their business.

Reference list:

1. Henry Fayol's 14 Principles of Management (2008). Management Innovations. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from http://managementinnovations.wordpress.com/2008/12/04/henri-fayols-14-principles-of-management/.

2. Clarck, D. (2010). Communication and Leadership. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcom.html.

3. Wong, R. (2000). Motivation: A Behavioral Approach. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=Vt6_hhe6DokC&printsec=frontcover&dq=motivation&hl=ro&ei=U-22TubeGYm5hAfSlLWhBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false.

4. Planning Function of Management (2011). Management Study Guide. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/planning_function.htm.

5. Controlling Function of Management (2011). Management Study Guide. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/controlling_function.htm.… [read more]

Quality Management Approaches Six Sigma Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Quality Management Approaches

Six Sigma Quality Management

The Six Sigma Quality Management approach is based on two core concepts: (1) that business processes can (and should) be broken down into their component parts and standardized or optimized for maximum productivity, and (2) that the most effective method of instituting major changes in operational management in that regard is one that emphasizes the specific levels of expertise of team leaders who promote and facilitate those changes (George & Jones, 2008). More specifically, the most common form of the Six Sigma program is known as DMAICT, an acronym for Defining Opportunity, Measuring Performance, Analyzing Opportunity, Improving Performance, Controlling Performance, and Transferring Best Practice throughout the entire organization (George & Jones, 2008). To implement Six Sigma management, the system relies on team leaders who are certified as "belt" of various colors along the same lines as in the martial arts.

The principal advantages of using Six Sigma management is that it is well suited to organizations and processes that are conducive to standardization and in industries and applications where creativity and creative change is not highly valued. The Six Sigma system is not as beneficial within organizations whose processes are highly complex and whose rigid standardization could conceivably reduce rather than increase optimum productivity (Robbins & Judge, 2009).

Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach to business and operational management that is much broader than Six Sigma, in that it incorporates all stakeholders and processes rather than just the quantifiable elements of operational processes in relation to output and efficiency (Robbins & Judge, 2009). Whereas the Six Sigma approach focuses almost exclusively on operational management and processes, TQM seeks to optimize all…… [read more]

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