"Management / Organizations" Essays

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Organizational Change and the Lessons Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Part 2

Currently, my organization does not have in place a definite process for capturing knowledge. It is however important to note that the relevance of the lessons learned process cannot be overstated. To begin capturing knowledge from projects, my organization may first and foremost have to consider having in place a document designed for such a purpose. Such a document in addition to facilitating the documentation of lessons learnt could also enhance the accessibility of such lessons by others going forward. Prior to developing the document, my organization should first deliberate on its contents as well as how lessons learnt should be categorized. To guarantee its usability in the future, the document may in this case be standardized for all projects.

With the lessons learnt process in place, project managers within the organization can have something to refer to when undertaking similar projects in the future. It can be noted that in addition to capturing the particulars of a certain project, the lessons learnt process will also highlight the challenges faced during a project and make suggestions on how such challenges can be avoided in the future. Apart from the challenges encountered, it may also be a good idea to incorporate into the lessons learnt what went well and what was done to guarantee success. Such information is valuable to avoid repeating similar mistakes done in the past. The same can hence be regarded an approach to continuous improvement. In basic terms, using mistakes done in the past as a learning platform could in this case significantly reduce the probability of failure for both new and ongoing projects.

In my opinion, the lessons learnt document plays a crucial role in the improvement of both the efficiency as well as productivity of projects. By extension, the entire organization stands to benefit from such an…… [read more]

Mckinsey 7s Framework Congruence Model for Organization Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  4 pages (1,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


McKinsey 7S Framework

Congruence Model for Organization Analysis

Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance & Change

Force Field Analysis

Several organizations employ organization development (OD) strategies in order to j help them improve their effectiveness (Cummings & Worley, 1993). One of the strategies that are employed is organizational diagnosis. This strategy involves the assessment of an organization's current level of operation so as to design an appropriate and relevant change intervention. The concept of organization diagnosis is a crucial element of organizational development and is used in a way which is very much similar to the ones used in medicine (medical model). This process however involves the conducting of test, collection of vital information on the organizational system and the evaluation of this information in order to effectively prescribe the appropriate course of action. Organizational diagnosticians must therefore employ specialized methodologies to collect the vital information on a given organization, to effectively analyze this information as well as design an appropriate intervention as suggested by Tichy, Hornstein, & Nisberg (1977). The merger between Microsoft and Skype presents a potential case of organizational diagnosis. This is necessary so as to determine how certain aspects of Skype like inputs, productivity, resources, outputs, throughput effort, strategy as well as performance. The main purpose of such as an analysis is to see if there are any important issues at the organization (Skype) and how they ay affects its integration into the main company (Microsoft).

Before embarking on the analysis, it is important for us to view the organization a complete system (total system). The total system can be considered to be a representation of open system theory. This is in line with the opinions of Katz and Kahn (1978) which suggests that an organization can be regarded as a total system having;


Throughputs and Outputs that are effectively connected via feedback loops.

In this paper, we use the following models in performing organizational diagnostics. McKinsey 7S Framework, Congruence Model for Organization Analysis, Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance & Change, Force Field Analysis, Open Systems Theory and Falletta's Organizational Intelligence Model

McKinsey 7S Framework

The McKinsey 7S Framework evaluates a given organization using seven variables including organizational structure, organizational strategy, systems, skills, style, staff, as well as shared values. In this regard we can clearly see that the structure of Skype is not exactly similar to the for Microsoft.That is why it is important for Microsoft to make important changes to its organizational structure so as to accommodate the extra functions that would be created among its organizational ranks when it integrates with Skype. Under the new arrangement, both organizations would have to make changes to their structure in order for the deal to work. Under the new strategy for instance, Microsoft would have to create a Skype division which must appropriately report to its CEO, Steve Ballmer.

The fact that Microsoft bought Skype, a company that makes profits off a free product is just wonderful. That is why it would be a great idea… [read more]

Empowerment Delegation and Empowerment Approaches Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This is because empowerment focuses on the development of common human needs regardless of the culture or setting of the organization. Supervisors and managers have the obligation to realize that employees can be given responsibilities, rights in relation to decision-making, and powers concerning the allocation of resources within the company. This would result into an increase in the performance level of the employees thus achievement of goals and objectives of the company. Empowerment is also crucial to the development of the manager or supervisor in the context of the organization. Coaching and management practices by managers offer the perfect opportunity, for the leaders to relieve themselves as they execute the duties and obligations. Empowerment practices have the capacity to transform the mind-set or perception of the managers and supervisors as they delegate responsibilities down the structure of the company (Sarwar & Khalid, 2011).

Leaders also have the perfect opportunity to focus on the other aspect of the company thus facilitating the increase in revenues and productivity levels of the organization. Leaders have the opportunity to enhance the development and growth of the organization through adoption of empowerment approaches since there is time to concentrate on other objectives of the company. Empowerment also acts a motivational tool to the employees thus facilitating the achievement of goals and objectives of the company. Employees enjoy the benefits of exposure as they execute the new roles. This would allow employees to foster the development of their skills and expertise in performance of the roles and expectations of the company (Al-Mbaidin, 2010).


Hardina, D. (2006). An empowering approach to managing social service organizations. New York: Springer.

Daft, R.L. (2010). Organization theory and design. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage


Bennis, W.G., & Townsend, R. (2005). Reinventing leadership: Strategies to empower the organization. New York: Harper Collins.

Sarwar, A., & Khalid, A. (2011). Impact of Employee Empowerment on Employee's Job

Satisfactio n and Commitment with the Organization. Interdisciplinary Journal Of

Contemporary Research In Business, 3(2), 664-683.

Al-Mbaidin, S., & Ali yousef, F. (2010). Evaluating employee empowerment as an important

feature of successful management…… [read more]

Long-Term Planning and Information Systems Security Life Cycle Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,180 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Computer Science

Long-Term Planning and Information Systems Security Life Cycle Management

Information security means defending information and information systems from unlawful access, use, revelation, disturbance, alteration, examination, assessment, recording or damage. In order to be successful every business needs to have a written network security plan in place. A thorough policy will cover topics such as:

Acceptable use policy, to state what kinds of network activities are permissible and which ones are forbidden

E-mail and communications activities, to help diminish problems from e-mails and attachments

Antivirus policy, to help guard the network against threats like viruses, worms, and Trojan horses

Identity policy, to help defend the network from unauthorized users

Password policy, to help workers select strong passwords and protect them

Encryption policy, to provide leadership on using encryption technology to protect network data

Remote access policy, to help workers safely accesses the network when working outside the office (Security Network Checklist, n.d.).

Training Plan

The History Channel cannot guard the honesty, privacy, and accessibility of information in today's highly networked systems environment without making sure that each person involved in the process understands their roles and responsibilities and is sufficiently trained to perform them. Going forward training will be carried out for current employees; new employees within sixty days of hire; whenever there is a major change in the it security environment or procedures, or when an worker enters a new position which deals with sensitive information; and occasionally as refresher training, based on the sensitivity of the information the worker handles (Information Technology Security Training Requirements: A Role -- and Performance-Based Model, (n.d.).

Everyone needs basic training in it security notions and measures. Beyond the basics, this new approach institutes three separate levels of it security training: Beginning, Intermediate, and Advanced. Each level is then associated to roles and responsibilities. Because people often perform more than one role within the organization, they may need intermediate or advanced level it security training in their main job role, but only the beginning level in a secondary or tertiary role. This new concept makes possible training that is tailored to individual worker needs and career mobility, and to an organization's evolving or changing mission and mix of job functions. "In the end, the idea of refresher training which is traditionally viewed as repetitive learning, gives way to the just-in-time learning approach, as an individual's or organization's it security training needs evolve or change" (Information Technology Security Training Requirements: A Role -- and Performance-Based Model, (n.d.).

Awareness Program

This approach believes awareness programs as a pre-requisite to it security training. Awareness is not training. The reason for an awareness program is merely to focus consideration on security. Awareness programs are planned to permit people to recognize it security apprehensions and respond to them accordingly. In awareness activities the learner is a receiver of information, while the learner in a training situation has a more active role. Awareness relies on reaching wide audiences with nice-looking packaging techniques so as to grab and hold… [read more]

Disaster Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The World Institute for Disaster and Risk Management is enthusiastic on supporting the efforts of preventing natural disasters. This is possible through stringent policymaking processes ensuring that all nations are informed appropriately on the sustainability of their intervention plans and disaster recovery options. Some of the critical areas that can be addressed when developing the prevention strategies in disaster management include but not limited to responsible institution, land-use planning, alternative economic activities as well as the technical steps needed (DRM Library, 2012).

An integrated approach towards risk management demands that different institutions and stakeholders are involved in policy development. Moreover, results and expectations from every sector should be put into perspective. A multidimensional representation of the disaster recovery process is presented when all the different approaches are considered. The relationships that exist between the different elements of disaster management form the basis for process enhancement. These elements include risk management, vulnerability levels, risk, and hazard. General risk mitigation can be developed inconsideration of all the elements. Such an approach is sustainable due to various reasons. First, the process puts into consideration the systems at risk and quantitative analysis offers a comprehensive elaboration of the system's vulnerability. However, the challenge lies in the scientific quantification of vulnerability. On the other hand, a hazard assessment is instrumental in explaining the interactions between the temporal and spatial arenas. It is pertinent to note that the relation between manmade risks and natural occurrences are closely associated with globalization (Woods, 2011).


Preventive approaches must be adopted as a paradigm shift to disasters and risks management. This will ensure that more integrated management approaches are used than before. The approach will ensure a high level of sustainability through preventive techniques.


DRM Library. (n.d.). World Institute for Disaster Risk Management. Retrieved September 12,

2012, from http://www.drmonline.net/drmlibrary/systems.htm

Woods, M. (2011). Risk management in organizations: an integrated case study approach. New York: Routledge… [read more]

Leadership Authority at Texas General Hospital Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,219 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Organizational/Leadership Analysis

Texas General Hospital


The authority within the Texas General Hospital rests with the Chief Executive Officer of the organization. The Chief Executive Officer ensures that all employees and other crucial officials within the organization perform their duties and expectations in relation to the job descriptions and responsibilities (Bullough, 2000). The authorityflows from the top to the bottom through the hierarchy as illustrated in the organizational structure (see appendix). At each level, the officer in charge of the department holds the authority to ensure that the employees at this stage follow the rules and obligations towards the achievement of the organization. The authority of the organization is legitimate in that it available through qualification and positional rank within the organization. The Chief Executive Officer reports to the board of directors who hold the final authority of the healthcare organization. The board of directors adopts authority the selection and qualification for the position at the supreme organ of the institution.


Making of decisions is crucial at different levels within the healthcare organization with respect to the weight and urgency of the matter. The board of directors makes final decisions that concern crucial aspects of the organization. One of the types of decisions made buy the board of directors is the increase in the cost of healthcare to meet or achieve the objectives of the organization. This decision must be in accordance with the mission and vision the organization. The attorney general makes crucial decision in relation to the legal aspects of the organization. This is through providing crucial information and advice to the board of directors, Chief Executive Officer, and other relevant departments within the organization. The advice of the legal officer is final in relation to decision making on the legal matters affecting the organization. Chief Executive Officer makes crucial decisions that might arise on a daily basis thus vital for the management and direction of the organization towards the achievement of the objectives and goals of the healthcare center. Departments also make crucial decisions at their levels under the guidance of the formal leadership at the relevant levels. This is through the organization of meetings to come up with goals and objectives in line with the mission of the organization. It is ideal for departments to pass these decisions to the higher authorities within the organization for approval.

Communication Patterns

The organization adopts different communication patterns in order to pass the crucial aspects of decision in relation to managing and controlling the healthcare system. One of the prevalent patterns of communication is vertical communication pattern. This involves passing or transmission of information from the top authority to the junior officials with reference to the hierarchy level. The board of directors makes vital decisions passed to the departments through the Chief Executive Officer. This is through written memo or organized meetings with the department heads. The other mode of communication is through the horizontal aspect of communication patterns. There is effective and efficient communication between departments at… [read more]

Total Quality Management in Healthcare Quantitative Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Total Quality Management

Total quality

The delivery of an excellent product requires the organization and its leaders to access the most valid and reliable data. This data becomes the basis for decision making. The nature of health care means that for the effective resolution of many problems a collaborative approach may be very useful. One of the basic collaborative techniques that may be used is brainstorming. Brainstorming allows for multiple views to be brought together and out of the fusion a novel solution identified.

Brainstorming is a useful solution in situations where the solution to a specific problem is not discernable through a logical process. This tool is also vital when the organization attempts to identify creative and fresh approaches to the pressing issues. What are (2005) notes that in a study of 168 studies from 36 hospital, 90% of the health quality care teams use brainstorming as a major tool. The value of brainstorming is in the simplicity of the technique and the participative nature of its execution. Kaluzny, McLaughlin, & Simpson (1992) posit that Total Quality Management (TQM) is participative. Consequently, the use of brainstorming is consistent with this objective of the TQM.

Brainstorming is a method of obtaining a large number of ideas from a group of people in a short time (Kubr 2002). The size of the group is usually between 8 and 12 persons. These individuals are given the freedom to examine an idea and provide unique if not beyond the box ideas. The particular value of this approach is that the judgments of the participants are suspended. The ideas are not examined immediately allowing for the individuals to produce as many ideas as possible within the given time period. Thus brainstorming is a major ideas generation tool. Phenomenal ideas are often produced through the brainstorming process. Very often "wild" or "crazy" ideas can become the foundation of better ideas when they are later examined and assessed for their value.

This later process of the evaluation of the ideas is possibly one of the main weaknesses of…… [read more]

Leadership and Strategy Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (619 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … Leadership & Strategy

Strategic leadership provides the vision and direction for the growth and success of an organization. To successfully deal with change, all executives need the skills and tools for both strategy formulation and implementation.[1] Managing change and ambiguity requires strategic leaders who not only provide a sense of direction, but who can also build ownership and alignment within their workgroups to implement change.[2] With that said, this essay will discuss GE system of leadership development and also the Leadership, Innovation and Growth (LIG) programme has helped GE manage change.

With evaluating the GE system of leadership development "Talent Machine: The Making of a CEO)," a lot can be said. It is clear that it is an organization has a lot of good qualities and the researcher and his organization. Throughout its history, GE always had a way of promoting its top leaders from its own ranks. The company's would need to be much admired executive growth practices were entrenched in the cultural standards that are put in place by Charles Coffin. One thing good about the company is that they have had some good leadership ever since 1892. However, throughout the years, Coffin's promise in being able to create a meritocracy which is founded on measured performance turned out to be the basis for a culture that was to turn the GE into "a CEO factory" as one observer called it. Evaluating the history of the leadership in GE is very important because throughout the 20" century, this machine was able to produce a pool of skilled managers that not merely lived up to the company's own needs, but then again also turned out to be a major source of CEO talent for business America. As a manager, so powerfully lasting was Coffin's achievement that a 2003 Fortune Magazine article named him "the utmost CEO…… [read more]

Insurance Services Organization (ISO) Is a Medium Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Insurance Services Organization (ISO) is a medium size firm headquartered in Jersey City, New Jersey (ISO, 2012). It provides a wide range of services for insurance professionals including industry and market research, tools to maximize the value of insurance policies to customers and profitability for insurance underwriters on a national basis, as well as the creation and production… [read more]

Leadership Discuss Strategic Planning as a Management Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Discuss strategic planning as a management process. Are you aware of your organization's strategic plan? Organization is a medical system. Discuss how nurse leaders are involved in the planning process? Discuss how fiscal planning and strategic planning are related. Discuss how your organization plan drives the budget. Write 2 different discussions using the above information.

The most effective healthcare and medical services provides view strategic planning as a highly iterative, interactive process throughout the many departments and divisions of their organizations. Strategic planning as a management process involves the traditional processes of planning, organizing, leading and controlling within a framework that encapsulates each of these areas from a long-term perspective.

An excellent strategic planning process also allows for those most affected by the changes necessary for it to succeed to have a very clear, dominant voice in its definition and development (Kurtzman, 2010). Nurse leaders are critically important for the development and execution of a strategic plan in that they can quickly mitigate resistance to change, streamlining adoption of the plan significantly over time. The role of an effective strategic planner is to take into account the needs, preferences and wants of all constituents, customers, suppliers and stakeholders throughout the organization (Lazarus, 2011). This is the most critical aspect of change management and transparency in any strategic plan, especially from a healthcare perspective (Kurtzman, 2010).

Fiscal and strategic planning must be combined and measured concurrently to each other throughout each phase of the strategic planning process. Only by doing this can resources be budgeted for, plans created and solidified and metrics of performance defined that allow for the most effective fulfillment of a strategic planning and execution process (Nancy, 2010). Often the metrics used in fiscal planning are…… [read more]

Organizational Culture: The Walt Disney Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


For business success, most worldwide businesses attribute to corporate culture to be as equally important as corporate strategy. This is not a surprising thing to most global leading corporate because they classify organizational culture as their secret to success (Robbins, 2008).

Effects of organizational culture on the organization's workforce

As the leading company in the animated film industry, Disney was created in 1932. Being the first originator of the well-known cartoon Mickey Mouse, the company has succeeded in achieving a competitive market position in the market. This saw them rise to be one of the biggest animated films corporate. They had to develop a strong theme that would help it maintain its status. Through its creative and innovative team, it has been able to be what it is today. The cause of the large expansion is Disney's organizational culture, which is strategic integrity, innovation, and implementing training. Apart from dominating the animation industry, Walt Disney Corporation has also invested in Media Networks, Consumer products, parks, and resorts (Gibson & Ivancevich, 2005).

The company has emphasized on the importance of maintaining the integrity through open organization, and new employees are encouraged to adapt to the Disney affiliation with ease. While still maintaining an environment of employee acceptance, there is a training system for every employee to keep with the integrity of Disney. The environment created by the company paves the way for the desired customer service. With every effort to achieve their goal of "Bringing Happiness to Millions," they still develop a training program to educate their employees with skills to interact, but retain the sense of a community within them (Robbins, 2008).

In customer services: for example in Parks and Resort, Disney's training is very thorough. Disney expects employees to be at their best in terms of attentiveness, cleanliness and informative. If these are not met, then they are considered to be not qualified to work at Disney Park and Resort. Even when the expectations are high, majority of Disney's employees take pride in their work (Gibson & Ivancevich, 2005).


Robbins, S. (2008). Organizational Behaviour: Global and Southern African Perspectives. New York: Pearson

Gibson, J. & Ivancevich, J.…… [read more]

Quality Management How Important Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (604 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


The continual evolution of strategic planning and execution is also taking into account quality more than ever due to compliance requirements of state, local, federal and global agencies across regulated and unregulated industries (Johannsen, 1996). What emerges from the iterative nature of quality management being integrated into strategy planning and implementation are maturity models that indicate relative level of quality program goal attainment. At the highest levels of quality management maturity within a strategic planning process, the culture of a given firm has engrained the values and techniques into all core business processes (Calingo, 1996). Aside from the cost benefits and continued improvement in process performance, this approach also ensures a company will have a strong foundation for future growth as well. All of these factors contribute to greater agility and resilience in turbulent economic times.


The ability of a company to change its strategic planning approach to integrate TQM and comparable techniques often determines how effective they will be over the long-term with new product introductions and continued profitability (Calingo, 1996). The integration of strategic quality management directly into a company's foundational approach to defining and executing new strategies is crucial to their long-term success.


Calingo, L.M.R. (1996). The evolution of strategic quality management. The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 13(9), 19-37.

Frankforter, S.A. (1998). Strategic total quality management: Corporate performance and product quality. Academy of Marketing Science.Journal, 26(4), 352-352.

Johannsen, C.G. (1996). Strategic issues in quality management: I. theoretical considerations. Journal of Information Science, 22(3), 155-164.

Nowak, A. (1997). Strategic relationship between quality management and product innovation. The Mid - Atlantic Journal of Business, 33(2), 119-135.

OToole, T., & Harrington, D. (1998). Tracing the evolution of quality management: Lessons from the development of strategic management. Irish Journal of Management, 19/20(2), 139-152.

Pruett, M., & Thomas,…… [read more]

Enterprise, Balancing Quality Management Initiatives Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In addition, the quality of management is just as critical to their organizational performance. Integrating management of quality including Total Quality Management (TQM) into their BEST Model took several iterations over a period of years (de Kort, 2004, pg. 378). All the effort led to one of the best-performing Business Excellence models in existence today. The BEST Model is comprised of the following components. First there is the Business Excellence (BE) aspects of the BEST Model which concentrates on the quality of management that Philips is relying on to drive its quality management initiatives deep into the culture of the company. Second, the Speed (S) aspect of the Business Excellence framework speaks to the need for a very high need for urgency and continual performance improvement. Eliminating the non-value added components of any management workflow is critical in this regard (de Kort, 2004,379). Philips relies on Business Process Reengineering (BPR) as a means to continually drive speed into their core process and strategy areas and support these areas of the BEST Model (de Kort, 2004, pp. 378). The final aspect of the BEST Model is teamwork, with is concentrating on the continual improvement of communications and collaboration. In this area of the BEST Model, the company makes extensive use of Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodologies and programs, in addition to a continual evaluation and monitoring of Key Value Drivers (KVD) that provide greater visibility into performance based on collaboration (de Kort, 2004, pg. 379). Using all of these components together the Philips Business Excellence (PBE) Model was also designed. The intent of the PBE Model is to serve as a frame of reference for assessing improvements in quality management over time, while… [read more]

Humanitarian Supply Chain Management Project Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,318 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Time-Bound. The research gathering and data collection will take a total of six months. This includes examining the literature, scheduling and executing online phone interviews, and collecting survey data. Then, the project will need an additional three months for the analysis of the data collected, with another two to three months to create the final evaluation.

Project Quality Management

The project has already been planned out in great detail, which assures quality planning. To further ensure quality assurance, a system of metrics can be used to test the data being collected in the project. These tests are statistical evaluation of both qualitative and quantitative measures, and will evaluate the data as it is being collected in order to determine if more data is needed in more specific genres. Moreover, there will also be methods of quality control. Identified risks will be mitigated, and research on specific participants will help determine if they are the right person to be involved in the collection of data.

Project Communications

The project relies heavily on a solid communication program. First, telephone interviews need to be scheduled and executed with representatives from FEMA, the American Red Cross, and USAID. This will not only provide data for qualitative content analysis, but also may point the project in the right direction of finding better participants for the later survey portion of the data collection. This is the second half of the project communication, where fifty participants will be drafted to respond to short survey questions through email.

Project Risk Management

First, there is a clear risk in the process of implementing data collection through the survey methodology that this research is based on. There may be a slow response to survey questions, which could potentially hinder the progress of the research through the crucial period of data collection. Survey collection may have to be extended for a greater period of time in order to anticipate potential disasters that may stall the collection of data. In this, an extension of survey collection will help keep the project on an appropriate timeline without being dangerously behind schedule. Extending this period of time will have to include working within another time frame, most likely during the research collection process in order to ensure that the project does not go vastly over the time period allocated to its completion.

In a related risk, there is the potential for the research to be hindered by the unavailability of representatives to be interviewed. The participants being interviewed are working within a very hectic environment. When a disaster strikes, their main focus is in getting humanitarian aid to those who are most dire need for assistance. Thus, there going to be issues contacting participants who are working in the field or whose focus is solely on securing funds and aid for those in need across the globe. During periods of peace, it will be much easier to secure participant responses, as representatives will be much more available for the process of this research. Essentially,… [read more]

Conflict, Decision Making Conflicts Happen Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


When this is done, decision reached will effectively resolve the problem and improve the welfare of both the company and its employees.

The blocks, stages, and methods of creative decision making to determine

Creative decision making entails the ability to envisage, generate, and execute new ideas or concepts that are innovative and useful. As noted by Hellriegel, et al. (2001) creativity is very important for any organization to survive and remain successful. However, there are three main blocks that hinders creative decision making; these are perceptual, cultural and emotional blocks. When these blocks are eliminated, the possibility for making creative decisions increases.

Perceptual blocks, arises from stereotyping, which makes may work at times, but when new situations arises it hinders good judgment. Emotional blocs entail personal values and objectives that can as well hinder with the ability to look and determine correct creative options in making decisions. For example, some people fear taking risk, and thus are unlikely to try new alternatives. Cultural blocks also hinder the creativity and acknowledgment of creative options in decision making. They include taboos, traditions and the way people reason. These three groups of blocks when not checked hinder creative decisions.

Hellriegel, et al. (2001) points out that there are four stages of creative decision making, these are; preparation, where the person learns about the issue. Incubation, here, the person examines various ways toward creative alternatives. Illumination, this is the time the person becomes aware of the new solution to the problem. Verification, the person confirms the solution he has reached.

There are several methods of creative decision, but the best method that Tesco can use, is by finding a good alternative and thinking of ways in which it can improve that alternative. This method is a good one because it reduces the stress of searching for a better one. When the company is looking for a better alternative, it should base on the objectives the solution will offer and how it can be improved.

The environmental and strategic factors that affect the organizational design Tesco

All companies operate in certain environments and are bound to be affected by various external factors like economic, legal, political, social-cultural and technological. Thus, Tesco will be affected by the above factors in its organizational design. Tesco operates in a dynamic environment, where customers' demands and desires are ever changing. This calls for the company to continuously improve and update its processes, services and even goods to align itself with the customer' demands. More so, economic recession, turbulent political situations and changing consumer behaviour have to be considered by the company.

Strategic factors determine the way the company wants to position itself within its market. For instance, Tesco can decide to use differentiation strategy, where it will always strive to be the first in offering new products and services. Similarly, the company can decide to apply cost-leadership strategy, so that it produces products and services more efficiently than its competitors. Still it can combine the two strategies. Any of… [read more]

Management Decisions and Core HR Functions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Management Decisions and Core HR Functions

Management decisions

Ethics is an integral part of an organization's decision making process. Ethics informs the process of policy formulation and the process of defining and designating roles, duties and responsibilities within the organization. Business ethics bridges the gap between ethical standards and the decision making framework used by an organization. Simply put, business ethics evaluates the practices and conducts of employees and managers in an organization to see if they can pass the test of moral acceptability (Svensson and Wood, 2003). The evaluative nature of business ethics requires that all actions taken by the persons concerned be ethical. Unethical actions always lead to a series of bad decisions that harms the organization.

To ensure that the people in the organization comply with the laid down ethical standards, the organization must have an outlined set of rules, codes and guidelines which will ensure that the employees and the management are forewarned of injurious behaviors. These policy documents often outline the Dos and Don'ts and attempts to ensure that the employees maintain or observe the rules of moral behavior. Compliance with these rules and guidelines is inspired by then fact that there are certain social sanctions that are meted on the people that flout or break any of the rules (Svensson and Wood, 2003).

The managers of an organization are often faced with challenge particularly when it comes to addressing the concerns of all the relevant stakeholders. From the perspective of the executive suite, the cardinal responsibilities of management are to ensure that the employee's rights are not infringed upon; to ensure that the business operates in an ethical manner and; to ensure that all stakeholders' interests are addressed. When the rights of employees are observed, the company will thrive because happy employees are loyal and they serve the customers better increasing the overall output (Svensson and Wood, 2003). An organization that operates within the confines of ethical rules will also…… [read more]

Project Management Project Libra Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,150 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The second reason why projects fail is lack of executive support and sponsorship. Lack of support from senior management will lead to a project becoming a lower priority in any company, and eventually lead to its complete failure as well (Tsoukakas, 2001). The third reason a project may be terminated is lack of communication arising from trust either not being present to begin with, or violated through continual conflicts (Sutterfield, Friday-Stroud, Shivers-Blackwell, 2006). Lack of communication can also lead to internal processes and systems failing to capture overall direction of the project, in addition to the need for monitoring and continually improving process workflows as well. The fourth reason a project will fail is due to ongoing conflicts over goals. This is different than lack of clarity surrounding goals. Conflicts over goals begins when a company has siloed, often inflexible organizational structures that limit their ability to react quickly to market conditions. Conflicts over project goals are an indication of how entrenched cultures can become in protecting the status quo as well (Sutterfield, Friday-Stroud, Shivers-Blackwell, 2006). All of these factors taken together can lead to a project failing, and if all are present the project will most certainly fail.

4. Go to a search engine on the internet and enter the term project failure or project disaster. Select one example and develop an analysis of the project. Was it terminated or not? If not, why, in your opinion, was it allowed to continue?

The failure of Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Oracle to provide the U.S. Air Force with a functioning enterprise system they paid $628M in software for and over $1B in total costs is the basis of this analysis. There are many excellent lessons to be learned from the failed Expeditionary Combat Support System (ECSS) that the U.S. Air Force paid for and never did receive in functioning order to use. Starting with the requirements analysis and definition, CSC had responsibility for defining these yet did not have the internal staff to accomplish the task with a high degree of accuracy and precision. The project began with an incomplete and only partially understood definition of what was needed, and then quickly worsened from that point. CSC relied on Oracle to fill in the gaps in performance of the system and the costs continued to escalate for the U.S. Air Force. This decision by CSC to use Oracle components delayed the project as project managers and leaders argued if the software vendors' commercial off-the-shelf applications were suitable or not for the U.S. Air Forces' needs. As this delay continued to drag on, the project lost focus and the original requirements also changed.

In assessing the failed implementation of the ECSS, U.S. Air Force Director of System Integration Brigadier General Kathryn Johnson explained that there was no single point of accountability for the entire project. She also stated that the master schedule was not defined and not adhered to, and that the many changes to the core infrastructure of the… [read more]

Anatomy of Organizational Design (Kimberly Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The most prevalent examples the author includes are organizations he has worked with that have held onto static, rigid organizational structures that have outlived their usefulness and as a result failed to meet the needs of the stakeholders relying on them (Kimberly, 1984). From this context the author shows how a lack of awareness of and continual investing in organizational design can often lead to the gradual decline and disappearance of a firm over time. The use of foundational theories of organizational design defining structure are pervasively used, showing how, even thirty years ago, the concepts of organizational agility and stability are indispensable in defining profitable firms that can stay focused on customers and stakeholders (Hax, Majluf, 1981).

The author also argues that theories of organizational design need to move beyond the theoretical to the unpredictable and often difficult to plan for aspects of organizational performance,. These include the areas of taking personalities, political realities, and the pragmatism of tactics and strategies into account over the long-term. Only by integrating all of these factors into a single, contiguous platform of growth within organizational design can a business continue to grow. The culture of any organization is predicated by its organizational structure and design, and the greater the level of clarity and acuity in their planning the more effective these designs can be over the long-term.


Hax, A.C., & Majluf, N.S. (1981). Organizational design: A survey and an approach. Operations Research, 29(3), 417-417.

Kimberly, J.R. (1984).…… [read more]

Financial Management Differentiating Between the Different Users Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (522 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Financial Management

Differentiating Between the Different Users of Financial Information

From the strategic to the tactical, the role of financial information in the enterprise affects dozens of roles and positions across every department of a company. The intent of this analysis is to define the different users of financial information throughout an organizations, what their needs are for information and the sources of the information they use. As uncertainty has continued to escalate on surrounding economic issues, the role of financial analysis and information has continued to escalate, which often happens during periods of severe economic swings and differences (Stroud, 1988).

Analysis of Different Users of Financial Information

The aggregation of financial information for use by senior management is the most visible use of financial information throughout an enterprise, and reflects the requirements of risk management, profitability analysis, sales reporting and supply chain management considerations. The senior management team of an enterprise requires a very broad, strategic view of all aspects of the value chain to better navigate the firm relative to risks and opportunities (Kivijarvi, Saarinen, 1995). Data used at this level of the organization is often derived from enterprise-wise accounting, customer relationship management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM), pricing and Service Lifecycle Management (SLM) systems (Stroud, 1988). All of these systems are used for generating a very accurate, precise view of the enterprise and how the many financial transactions completed lead to the overall development of dashboards and scorecards.

The next level of users of financial information is director-level managers and leaders of functional areas that coordinate each other's…… [read more]

Leadership and Management Differences Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (524 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Leadership and Management

Differences in Management and Leadership

In the article What Leaders Really Do (Kotter, 2001) the author uses a variety of constructs, examples and frameworks to define the differences between management and leadership. Underlying all of these is the fact that management is more oriented towards ensuring the stability of an organization through a variety of control and reporting systems while leadership is more oriented towards defining a vision and mission for their business (Kotter, 2001). From this fundamental difference in the two roles, the author builds out a framework comparing each.

Analysis of Management vs. Leadership

Kotter's definition of management is aligned with the classical view of this function in an organization being comprised of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. He uses comparable terms and also expands more on the role of management in coping with complexity and anticipating needs in an organization from a staffing and resource perspective. The role of management, according to Kotter, is to also ensure the stability and longevity of an organization through the use of systems and controls that provide feedback on the alignment of an organization to its goals (Kotter, 2001). A manager is one that puts systems in place to also evaluate historical performance in light of current or existing performance relative to a goal or objective. All of these factors taken together lead to a manager being more focused on the present and immediate future, not necessarily looking past a time horizon where tactical strategies can make the most contribution to an organization (Kotter, 2001). The management role…… [read more]

Business Communication Analyze a Bona Fide Communication Problem Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,521 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Communication Problem and Analysis

In contemporary business management, communication problems lie at the root of many problems within business organizations. That is equally true within Human Resource Management (HRM) functions (Shadovitz, 2011). Two of the most common types of problems that typically arise within business units or departments have to do with culturally-based differences (Charvatova & van der Veer, 2006)… [read more]

Managing Differences by Pankaj Ghemawat Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Managing Differences by Pankaj Ghemawat

Triple Threat

The primary idea in Pankaj Ghemawat's article "Managing Differences: The Central Challenge of Global Strategy" is that the most successful method of globalization involves one or many of what the author refers to as the AAA Triangle. The three A's stand for aggregation, adoption, and arbitrage. The author provides numerous case studies of several well-known companies that show how using these three strategies leads to the effective expansion on the global stage. Aggregation involves combining aspects of development and production in attempts to "deliver economies of scale" (1). Adoption relies upon tailoring the practices of an organization to those of the local setting in which it is operating, and arbitrage is the exploitation of differences between and within different areas of countries.

A particularly useful part of this article is the fact that Ghemawat even implies what sorts of strategies (initially) will work for a certain type of organization. Organizations that require intense amounts of labor will benefit from arbitrage. Those whose primary area of focus is research and development will profit from aggregation, while organizations that will require a lot of advertising will probably need to use adaptation as they begin their efforts towards globalization.

The most important aspect of this article, however, is the fact that there is no one magic formula for success for a particular company. In fact, Ghemawat provides numerous examples of companies that achieved success by utilizing more than one of these strategies in different ways. Either they pursued two simultaneously, or they switched from one strategy from the next to help their organization to continue to expand. Of additional value is the fact that the author stresses that the type of strategy used and the particular combination that will help a specific company all pertains to a host of factors that affect that company. It…… [read more]

Change Plan Effectiveness Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,377 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


When measuring the cost the budgeted amount is compared against the actual costs. If the amount that has been used to implement create the new department is more than what had been budgeted for then it means that the plan implementation was not effective. On the other hand if the actual amount of money used to create the new department is less or exact as that which had been budgeted for it means that the implementation process was a success (Landahl, 2010).

The other factor to be measured is quality this can be measured through looking for benchmark practices of organizations in the field of long-term healthcare. If the quality of services provided is on the same level as the benchmark organization then it means that the change has been a success. The quality can also be measured through collecting of the views that the patients and the families have on the services that we are offering. If all they have is nothing but positive feedback then it mean that the change has been effective. If they give a negative feedback or show signs of dissatisfaction then it means that there is something that has not been done correctly or simply the change has not achieved its intended goals. Another way of measuring the quality is through registering the organization to institutions that conduct quality checks. If the organization performs well when a quality check has been conducted as compared to its performance before the change then it means that the organizational change has been effective.

The satisfaction of the clients is also very vital and should therefore be measured. The clients are the main reason why the changes had to be made. Therefore if they are not satisfied then it means that the change was not effective measuring the satisfaction involves creation of a feedback system where the clients are asked to give us feedback on the way we offer our services. If the customers appear to be satisfied with the services that we offer then it means that he change has been a success. However if the feedback messages received show that the clients are dissatisfied with our services it means that there is a problem with the proposed change.

Measuring the unfolding of the change process in the organization gives leaders in the workplace data that is key and which can be used when trying to understand the adjustments that need to be made in the change if any and the issues that need to be resolved so as to fully adopt the new solutions. Gauging how the employees, patients and their families feel about the change is very important. When the process of implementation is ongoing the nature of the meaning of the change and the implications that will come with the change on an individual employee performance level and the entire organization will be a source of information for job performance measures (Advameg, Inc., 2013). As both the overall organization outcomes and the job performance… [read more]

Automotive Used Parts Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,150 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The organizations within the industry will focus on the minimization of the cost of carrying inventories hence the opportunity of keeping inventory levels at the optimum. The other benefit of the three critical aspects of inventory management relates to the reduction of wastes due to shortages or surpluses within the market and global industry.

How the markets can make a… [read more]

Principles and Practices Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  7 pages (1,984 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Communication Management Plan

Life Alive

Life Alive was founded by Heidi Feinstein, a natural health consultant with the aim of promoting the importance of organic produce, eating fresh, and whole grains. The goal of the manager for the cafe is expansion to meet its mission of feeding vitality to the world by serving food prepared and grown locally, served and… [read more]

Organization What Is an Organizational Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


An organization that is designed from a scientific management perspective thus has many levels and many ways to distinguish among those levels.

The term ideal bureaucracy may strike some as an oxymoron because the term bureaucracy is often used as a codeword for organizational inefficiency and administrative inflexibility. In reality ideal bureaucracy simply represents one idea or theory of how human activity should be organized. Most attribute the development of ideal bureaucracy to Max Weber, who is generally credited with being one of the pioneers of the macro side of organizational psychology. Weber, as you may recall, wore many intellectual hats and made contributions to history, economics, political science, and sociology during his lifetime. In Weber's time, there were few organizations in the form that we see them today. Instead, a great many "organizations" of his era were loosely run family businesses, or they consisted of an individual craftsman who worked independently. Given these organizational forms, there was not a great need for organizing, per se.

The term administrative management was first coined by Henri Fayol, who was an engineer by training and eventually became the chief executive of a French mining company. Fayol (1984) sought to develop a relatively universal set of organizing principles for managers to apply in organizations. To give these principles meaning, however, Fayol presented them in the context of the activities of managers, or behaviors he called management functions. According to Fayol, the major functions of managers included planning, organizing, commanding, coordination, and controlling. The principles that Fayol proposed were designed to assist managers in carrying out these essential functions.


McKenna, D.D., & Wright, P.M. (1992). Alternative metaphors for organizational design. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 901 -- 960). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Taylor, F.W. (1911). Principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.

Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.) New York: Free Press.

Fayol, H. (1984).…… [read more]

Organizational Design Decentralization Is a Process Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Organizational Design

Decentralization is a process in which the responsibility and authority for some functions are transferred from a central location (be it organization, government, etc.) to communities, the private sector, or regional/local offices. Decentralization can take many forms, as shown in Figure 1. One of the primary requirements of decentralization is delegation which, in a sense, is a more extensive form of decentralization. Delegation means giving more responsibility to other levels to free up resources at the upper organizational levels. Delegation may be done in all types of organizations; and is an important part of managerial and organizational theory. Delegation is passing down responsibility to carry out specific actions; or a shift of decision-making authority from one organizational level to a lower one. This is not abdicating responsibility, but simply allows a shift so that more appropriate resources are used for the particular project or issue (Lannon, 2008).

Part 2 - as noted, matrix structures can be complex because the follow more than one paradigm of operation. The productivity, innovation and creativity may be increased, and managers are more able to solve complex problems through regular interaction. However, according to authors Hax and Majlut, there are several conditions that must be met to consider using a Matrix Organizational Model.

One example that seems appropriate in the contemporary business environment is the pressure for shared resources. Most organizations have downsized as much as possible due to the economic pressures from 2007 on, particularly in it. Cloud computing and other technological advances have reduced the number of it people needed to support an organization. In a matrix system, high efficiency and expertise are needed, which forces the sharing of human resources and professional experience. Using a matrix model, an it person could perform their regular duties while still maintaining a productive relationship with the matrix team. This would be similar with marketing, advertising, and planning personnel as well. By working in…… [read more]

Management Information Systems as it Applies to Public Administration Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Management information System is described as an information system which ensures a consistent provision of reports that are used in managerial monitoring and control of resources, functions, or other responsibility regarding an organization. Information that are provided by management information system are used in managing a sector or firm effectively and efficient. Contrary to other information systems, management information systems analyze and facilitate strategic and operation activities.

Management Information Systems assist the personnel to effectively plan, design, manage, as well as use information systems resources in supporting information needs of an organization. However, professional and managers within every organization should be equipped with basic understanding concerning the roles and nature of information technologies that are essential to the running of the organization effectively. Moreover, they should be equipped with computer application basic knowledge and appreciations that are of significance to proper functioning of organization as well as web application, databases, and web application.

Accessing data and the capacity to organize, process, as well as manipulate it, assist in creating the type of information that is important to complete a productive work. These organizations rely on information that they use in supporting their management, operation, and staff. Employee and supervisors as well depend substantially on information in terms of performing their work and carrying out planning and monitoring organizational tasks and services for which they perform. The requirement is to transmit information to others in the organization, to clients, to the public and to other organizations.

Success of an organization will always depend on customers and clients receiving accurate information. In the government, nonprofit, health care, as well as other sectors, the complexity in terms of relation among departments, levels, and units, makes information storage, retrieval, and transmission to be critical factors in achieving a desired productivity. Therefore, information definitely forms the fundamental organizational resource. These resources management tend to be an essential managerial function. Other critical managerial functions are in planning, designing, and supporting the needed systems in delivering information to organizational stakeholders in a timely manner.

In terms of management…… [read more]

Change Management Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Consolidate Improvement and Produce Still More Change

Since failure is caused by early declaration in mind, the seventh step by Kotter requires quick implementation of changes that have been achieved even in production of additional change. Concisely, the momentum should be maintained. The more your staff gains knowledge and agrees to need for the business change, the more positively they are bound to respond to the process of change. The staff members of the organization invest themselves in the duties they perform in the organization. The organization should be aware the knowledge of these duties making significant contributions to financial security, professional development, self-confidence, purpose or sense and identity. Changes that influence their duties may have a big personal and professional outcome (Goonan & American Society for Quality, 2009).

Benchmarking is defined as the process of evaluating services, products, and processes and compares them against the ones for the organization, which are understood to be leaders existing in more or one aspect of their functions. Benchmarking comes up with the necessary insights that one requires to have the knowledge of understanding the subject organization compared with other existing organizations even if they operate different business or is filled with different customer group (Patton, 2011). Benchmarking is accompanied with many reasons. Having full knowledge of the significant reasons allows managers to carry out their investigations carefully and obtain maximum benefits. The most significant benefits include the requirements of the end-user are met appropriately, the correct productivity measures are determined, attainment of competitive position, sorting and awareness of the best practice existing in the industry, and establishment of objectives based on the external conditions perspective. The process of benchmarking is an objective setter (Slatter & Lovett, 2009).

Leading global corporations have been using the strategy of engaging the right people to manage resistance during the change process. These include front line managers, middle supervisors and senior managers. This strategy has not been an effective tool in fighting resistance. In the end, it requires the leadership to act in managing resistance. This can be achieved if the leadership demonstrates high levels of commitment to the underlying change. While analysis and benchmarking are likely to spot the source of resistance, resistance must be addressed at the individual level. This can be achieved through personal discussions between supervisors and resisting employees (Baker, 2009).


Schlachter, T., & Hildebrant, T. (2012). Leading business change for dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Patton, Q. (2011). Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. New York: Guilford Press.

Baker, T. (2009). The eight values of highly productive companies: Creating wealth from a new employment relationship. Bowen Hills, Qld: Australian Academic Press.

Slatter, S.S.P., & Lovett, D. (2009). Corporate recovery: Managing companies in distress. Washington, D.C: Beard Books.

Goonan, K.J., & American Society for Quality. (2009). Journey to excellence: How…… [read more]

Emergency Management Disaster Planning. Unesco Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Disaster planning issues

As stated a disaster plan comprises of four phases the first phase is prevention which comprises of the identification and minimization of risks which can be posed within a building, fitting, equipment as well as the natural hazards that are found in natural hazards of an area. There can be inspection of buildings as well as alter factors that are potentially hazardous. It also involves the establishment of routine maintenance measures that will enable the building to withstand disaster. Installation of automatic detectors incase of fires .The next phase is the preparedness phase involves getting ready to cope with the disaster incase it actually happens. A written plan on preparedness, response and recovery should be in place, functioning and up-to -- date there should also be training of an in-house response steam for disasters. There should be documentation of building, inventory, names and contacts of response teams, disaster control services and so on. The plan should be distributed to all locations considered appropriate. Response is another phase of the disaster plan. Incase disaster actually strikes there should be set procedures to be followed. These include following emergency procedures in place for raising an alarm, personnel evacuation and ensuring the disaster site Is safe. The leader of the disaster response team should be contacted to brief and give direction to salvage personnel. Stabilizing the environment is important to ensure that no further damage occurs. There should be procedures in place that will ensure that appropriate people are alerted and are assembled quickly in case of disaster occurrence (Community Service Center, 2012).

Application of article

The article is very important as it talks about the causes of disaster and how disaster can be managed. The course is quite applicable as it clearly gives pointers on the phases of a disaster plan. The information from the article is in line with the course materials. The author could have expanded on the main point through giving detailed explanation instead of just pointing out key words.

Aspects of recovery

Also part of the disaster plan is the recovery phase. This involves the getting back to normal state after the disaster has occurred. It entails the establishment of programs to be used in restoring the site and damaged materials into conditions that are stable and usable. Establishment of priorities when it comes to restoration work to be done is also important. A phase conservation program should be in place .item that are not worth being retained are discarded and replaced. The disaster site is then cleaned and rehabilitated and insurers contacted so that they can replace what has been damaged.


Unesco. (2009). Disaster Planning. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from http://webworld.unesco.org/safeguarding/en/pdf/txt_sini.pdf

Community Service Center.(2012). Post-Disaster Recovery Planning for Catastrophic Disasters .Retrieved April 19, 2013 from http://csc.uoregon.edu/opdr/recovery/… [read more]

Construction Project Risk Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Construction Project Risk Management

Risk management is the process of identification, assessment and prioritization of risk to minimize uncertainties within a project lifecycle. Risk management is a management tool aiming to identify the risks and uncertainties as well as determining the impact and develops appropriate management responses to manage the risks. A systematic approach to manage the risks is to… [read more]

How Would Socialization Occur Differently Between an Mechanistic and Organic Organization Explain the Cvf Typology? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



A mechanistic culture exhibits many qualities common to a bureaucracy. Bureaucracy is typically characterized with clear and distinct role designations. In addition, bureaucracies have many layer and clear lines of authority. These layers typically create a culture of methodical, slow action, with little room for flexibility. Organizational roles are centered, primarily around narrow specifications such as "finance," or "accounting." Through these forms of mechanistic culture, departments tend to be loyal to one another within their direct reports. However, as the case with many bureaucracies, inter-departmental animosity may arise due primarily to allocation of capital or funds. A mechanistic culture often resists change as it is a deviation from the accustomed norms of the organization.

In regards to socialization, many of the above elements become more profound. For instance, socialization agents are typically supervisors or managers in which the individual reports directly to. These socialization agents tend to create clear expectations in regards to role responsibility and performance evaluations. In addition, supervisors tend to focus solely on the delivery of pre-determined metrics rather than the individual. During the pre-employment stage of socialization, individuals often focus on their narrowly define role, mentioned earlier. They tend to focus on observations of co-workers and other socialization agents. In a mechanistic structure, many of the prevailing attitudes, principles and though processes are similar to one another. As such, the pre-employment phase has the individual getting acquainted with these behaviors and characteristics. During the encounter stage, a mechanistic culture often tests expectations of the individual. This comes in the form of supervisor socialization agents through performance reviews and feedback regarding expectations. The final stage of role management the individual may become better acquainted with his role and assimilate within the organization, or chose another role within the bureaucratic structure of the organization. If the latter option is chosen, then the entire process starts over in regards to socialization.

Now in an organic organization, the process of socialization is vastly different. In an organic organization, the departmental boundaries, hierarchy, levels of authority, and regulations are vastly diminished. The emphasis is instead placed on task completion, team work, candor, and the free flow of information. The culture emphasizes flexibility, change, and innovation. Socialization therefore tends to focus on individuals and the overall skillset they provide. Tasks are often multifaceted requiring new and innovative solutions. External competition is generally fierce, requiring the organization to adapt and change quickly. The socialization agents in this form of organization tend to have a more entrepreneurial culture that relies heavily on acquired divergent skills. An individual may be required to conduct financing activities while also being a sales consultant. Socialization agents are often working together for the common goal of the organization which results in very random occurrences.

Now, both forms of socialization do have similarities. For instance, both have some for authoritarian role and clear roles. In an organic organization, employees know and realize the CEO of the organization just as they would in a mechanistic organization. Both have socialization agents… [read more]

Leadership and Self-Evaluation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,519 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


On the other hand, few make an attempt to quantify the contribution achieved by human capital. A well defined human capital strategy should be developed to handle the vast organizational demands. The strategy should encompass an effective culture, a good organizational model, talent, transformational leadership, and goals that focus on investment in people. Knowledge in the organization commences and ends with people (Borkowski 2009, p.236). The expertise and experience that the employees come along with forms the greatest driver of the success of the organization. The contribution of the employees aid in building, maintaining, improving and preserving the organization. The term "human capital" forms a graphic identification that the members of staff are typically valuable to the organization. They are seen as assets that preserve the knowledge base of the organization. Realizing that people form an important part of the production process facilitates the management of human resource.this is because the future of the company is more dependent on the knowledge base than on what the organization owns.


Adler, N.J., & gundersen, a. (2008). International dimensions of organizational behavior. Mason, ohio, thomson/south-western.

Hiriyappa, B. (2009). Organizational behaviour. New delhi, new age international publishers.

Borkowski, N (2011). Organizational behavior in health care. Sudbury, mass, jones and bartlett publishers.

Staw, B.M. (2006). Research in…… [read more]

Procurement Proposals Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  3 pages (1,035 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Planning and Project Management

The process of planning procurements is a multi-step process that involves the task of selecting the items that need to be purchased, at what time and from what source (Lynch). it's a nuanced and detailed process that involves assessing current needs with future needs as well as looking at the "small picture" in conjunction with the "big picture." "During the procurement planning process the procurement method is assigned and the expectations for fulfillment of procurement requirements determined" (Lynch). Procurement planning is vital to any organization because it helps one zero in on the decisions and selection process and to focus on the sources. Furthermore, it helps planners asses how realistic their expectations are: "particularly the expectations of the requesting entities, which usually expect their requirements met on short notice and over a shorter period than the application of the corresponding procurement method allows" (Lynch). Furthermore, one should view all the steps as an opportunity to meet and discuss all connected requirements while fostering the creation of a general procurement strategy, such as a market survey and choosing the relevant procurement method given the current situation and requirements (Lynch). It also gives planners time to evaluate the time needed to complete the process and to delegate; this also offers a crucial snapshot to determine if the requirements can be completed within the expected period and by the parties involved (Lynch). During this time, one can discover if there is a need for added technical help for further developing technical specifications and to evaluate the feasibility of combining or separating different needs into different packages.

The first step in this process involves identifying opportunities. "Opportunities are usually triggered by a business requirement for a product or service. Material requirements might include: equipment, components, raw materials, completely finished products. Service requirements might include: computer programmers, hazardous waste handlers transportation carriers, maintenance service providers" (Handfield, 2011). During this process, other needs and opportunities will likely identify themselves. The next steps involve analyzing the situation, undertaking strategic analysis, undergoing a case study and then developing a strategic sourcing plan (Handfield, 2011).

The procurement statement of work is a vital document that presents an accurate snapshot of the job ahead and needs to have clear definitions and details. This document "…defines the scope of the work for a related procurement contract. In addition to the scope of work, it includes project objectives, specifications for the products or services being procured, project schedule and any other detail needed by the seller to be able to deliver the products or services" (projectmanagementlexicon.com, 2013).

There are several reasons why a project manager should buy scope from a seller. One is to expand the intellectual base (Fleming, 2003). Another is to have the ability to downsize, if circumstances prove them necessary (Fleming, 2003). Finally, relationships with suppliers often bring resources, facilities, investments and equipment (Fleming, 2003).

One of the main differences between a Request for Proposal (RFP) and a Request for Quote (RFQ) is that a… [read more]

Human Resource Information Systems Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,523 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Human Resource Information Systems: Wal-Mart

Identify HRM and business technologies that maximize organizational effectiveness, workforce productivity, and systems integration.

Wal-Mart is one of the powerful retail brands in the warehouse retail industry. The organization has an effective and efficient reputation because of the value for money, wide range of products, and convenience in relation to addressing the needs and preferences… [read more]

Human Behavior in Organizations Understanding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,400 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Managers who have a strong sense and ignore their weaknesses on the self-evaluation report should welcome the fact that people have weaknesses, and work on them to improve their leadership skills. Self-evaluation helps in discovering the abilities and disabilities of leaders. Therefore, leaders must welcome their disabilities. In so doing, managers become strong in leadership and provide effective leadership towards… [read more]

Employee Engagement Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,276 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Employees will not be motivated to act proactively unless they feel as though they are working to fulfill a vital, specific mission in the service of an organization that has a purpose beyond that of rapacious profitability. Although an effectively-worded vision statement alone is not enough to motivate employees, having a genuine corporate ethos that permeates the entire organization can be profoundly motivational and help improve employee performance. For example, companies such as Google and Whole Food have clear 'values' beyond that of pure profitability, which draw uniquely-committed workers and contribute to the overall value of the organization. At my company, the fact that the organization is so old and well-respected has created a coherent corporate culture that inspires workers.

However, it should be noted that even the best companies sometimes have to change their visions to continue to motivate employees. For example, at my organization, one common complaint amongst female employees for many years was that the organization was insufficiently concerned with their need for flextime and for parental leave. Many top female employees complained this created a 'glass ceiling' which they could not break through to get to upper-level managerial ranks, even though the company paid lip service to the need for diversity and had an active EEOC-compliant policy. As more and more women obtained the qualifications and experiences for higher-level positions, it was necessary for the company to 'change with the times.' These policies are now better integrated into our employee benefits packages and there is also more attention to sensitivity training in the workplace, to create a more pleasant environment for all workers, regardless of gender. The fact that the company has taken physical actions to improve conditions has improved the motivational level of female employees. More women are in positions of power and also, overall women are less tired and stressed because of the new policies that take into consideration their lifestyle needs.

The third critical component of employee engagement, effectiveness, is the area in which corporations are often criticized for falling short upon their duties. Employees must feel as if they can be effective in their positions, which requires a good match of employees' skill sets to their required jobs; an organizational hierarchy that works well together and fosters cooperation between employees and work teams; and employee training and retraining when necessary. A Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) 2011 Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement Survey found that the "four aspects of employee career and professional development" found to be most lacking were that of a lack of job-specific training; the "organization's commitment to professional development," and career development and advancement opportunities (Healthfield 2011).

In this respect, the volatility of our industry and changes in technology have actually helped rather than hurt us in the long run. Because technology within the transportation industry has changed so rapidly, we are constantly forced to make investments in employee retraining and must regularly reevaluate the critical skills and abilities required for every position. We have improved the… [read more]

Quality Improvement Plan: Implementing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The management requires detailed reports about the performance and achievement of objectives. The structured approach is adopted to collect data, analyze, and prepare reports for management. However the top leadership is considerate in terms of system development. The input received form the users were incorporated within the system. The implementation also required support for users (Kolker, & Story, 2011).

Mayo Clinic has integrated technology and computer-based system to facilitate operations. In such circumstances communication plays a vital role in addressing organizational and functional issues arising from the implementation. The detailed communication plan addresses the issues related to early communication of awareness related issues. The staff and patient related benefits are also communicated from the higher leadership to middle and front line management. The careful emphasis on providing assistance for use during and after implementation is also integral part of the implementation plan.


The preliminaryeducation with respect to goals and objectives including the potential benefits are provided by the higher management. The initial orientation will be followed by the role specific training .The additional information and details regarding the potential working and implementation are provided through training sessions specifically designed for particular staff members. The job based and role specific training and support is provided through dedicated staff members of implementation team. The job responsibilities and system requirements are also provided to staff members through informative instructions (Mueller, 2009).

Annual evaluation:

The annual improvement assessment is performed through data collection and analysis of reports. The patient related record information and service levels are specifically defined in order to perform evaluation (Chute, Beck, Fisk, & Mohr, 2010). The project benefits and validity of achievement are evaluated with the baseline measurements. The pre-implementation and post-implementation baseline measures are compared to provide actual impact. The qualitative and quantitative measures are defined in order to assess results. The quantitative measures taken are with respect to the functions including clinical outcome measures, clinical process measures, workflow, financial impact measures, and application reliability. The qualitative measures include satisfaction, competency and adoption, access to patient records, quality of communications, and completeness of documents (Kolker et al., 2011).

External Entities:

The external entities including the regulatory authorities and governed agencies have a profound effect on decision making of healthcare organizations. The legislator requirements for patient information and privacy have to be fulfilled through the system requirements. The professional interest groups also provide assistance for quality improvement and accreditation of the system. The quality and performance measures developed on the basis of valuable input from government agencies, professional interest groups, and accrediting bodies facilitates the clinic's objectives. The government agencies and regulatory authorities impact the decision making process through implementation of laws and regulations.The knowledge sharing with the professional bodies has also increased the impact of the system on performance. The sharing of information and education between healthcare service providers will improve service quality for consumers of healthcare. The government and regulatory agencies will also benefit from the system and it is also possible that they adopt the system… [read more]

Multiple Levels of Analysis Models Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another problem is aggregation bias, in which data about the aggregate or whole organization is assumed to be able to be generalized about all of the organization's parts (Rousseau 1985:6). This type of thinking is often seen when consumers express outrage about a defective product and take their feelings out at lower-level employees -- all Toyota employees are assumed to be incompetent because of the fact that so many of the car company's products have been defective, for example, or Starbucks workers are held accountable for the high prices set by the home office. Cross-level fallacies suggest the opposite -- bad behavior by an individual employee (such as a rude McDonald's employee) is assumed to be true of the whole organization (Rousseau 1985:8).

A still more complex problem with multilevel analysis is that of cross-level fallacies, in which the different levels of the organization, are anthropomorphized to such a degree that the analysis lacks logical substantiation (Rousseau 1985:7). For example, assuming that an organizational level is 'stressed' because of an increased workload, similar to how a person feels stressed when overworked. Notions of 'organizational conflict' and 'organizational learning' can also fall prey to this fallacy. Because of the rhetoric commonly used in the business press as well as existing corporate law, it is very common to take very literally the assertion that corporations are 'persons' when they are not. Finally, contextual fallacies are the fallacies that do not take into consideration the context of a behavior when making a generalization about a particular phenomenon (Rousseau 1985: 10).

However, despite these many disadvantages to using multilevel organizational models, there are still many advantages to doing so. First of all, the existence of multiple levels is a reality, and the alternative is postulating a 'black box' organizational actor. This means it is very difficult to determine how internal power structures can impact organizational decision-making in a meaningful way, leading the observer to fall prey to a rational actor analysis of the organization, assuming that it always makes the 'best' organizational decision, regardless of the behavior of individual members. It could be argued that some of the fallacies inherent to multiple-level organizational research can be guarded against by using different forms of analysis. And taking an overly simplistic approach is itself fallacious, and can fall prey to making hasty generalizations based upon a relatively limited array of observations of organizational conditions.

Multi-level research also enables researchers to draw more comprehensive and nuanced conclusions about why particular behaviors occur. For example, rather than just studying groups in isolation, one study found that "employees in more cohesive work groups were rated by their supervisors as engaging in higher amounts of courtesy than could be explained by their individual levels of job satisfaction or organizational commitment," suggesting the influence of the group and macro-level cultural factors and "courtesy and job satisfaction" was positively associated with superior performance, although conscientiousness was not (Kidwell, Mossholder, & Bennett 1997). Merely studying one trait such as cohesion in groups or… [read more]

Fictional Current Situation Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,875 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


The employees and management should coordinate closely to facilitate the change management process throughout various phases. The organization can benefit to a large extant through implementing change management plan. The current organizational performance and employee satisfaction level is evident that it has the potential to perform and bring higher results. The expectations in betterment of organizational results provide motivation for employees and leadership to implement the plan (Von Krogh, Nonaka, & Rechsteiner, 2012).


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Wright, B.E., Moynihan, D.P., & Pandey, S.K. (2012). Pulling…… [read more]