Study "Management / Organizations" Essays 661-715

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Organization Culture: An Analysis Essay

… They not only power the concept of individualism in the organization, but also champion the application of collectivism as a seconding theory in relation to organizational citizenship.

Relationship of the two articles

Much of the debate in the two articles seeks to examine the aggregate role of managers in championing a decisive collectivism and individual responsibility in a working environment. In Stohr et al. (2012), it is vital to understand that prison facility employees are obliged to a wider organizational commitment. Therefore, it is important for the members to management techniques, which will naturally seek to respond to challenges created in the development of a given management approach. In contrast, Finkelstein (2011) is behind a collectivism theory that seeks to empower the concepts of interdependence. Naturally, correction facilities like a prison stretch beyond the concept secluding long doers from the society to a more decisive counseling facility. Therefore, it is necessary to apply Finkelstein approach to answering experiments being conducted by Stohr et al., (2012), an individualized driven management approach. With time, a collectivism theory will empower prisons guard to a wider role of guiding inmates towards a desirable lifestyle free from crime.


Developing an appropriate organization culture is integral in responding to absences of management. Indeed, this analysis has clarified that a desirable organizational culture is one that seeks to foster a spirit of collective responsibility. Besides, future research should be directed towards examining on the possibility of deriving management an aggregate moral relativism as this will seek to absorb all employees in an equal organizational management theory. In encapsulation, organizational theory is vital since it directly responds to management issues of the 21st Century.


Finkelstein, M.A. (2011). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and organizational citizenship behavior: A functional approach to organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture, 2(1), 19-34.

Stohr, Mary K., Hemmens, Craig, Collins, Peter A., Inannacchinone, Brian, Hudson, Marianne, Johnson, Haily. (2012). Assessing the Organizational…… [read more]

Internet and Globalization Affect Your Everyday Life Essay

… ¶ … internet and globalization affect your everyday life (Personal or Professional)

Internet and globalization affects everyday in many ways. Internet is an empowering tool, creating access to large amount of information which can be used to support decision making as well as increase efficiency. Examples of this are extremely diverse, and can include such simple functions as providing information or directions to specific location through to the value associated through crowd sourcing. As a personal and professional level the Internet also provide a high level of connectivity, providing communication as well as information with potential suppliers of goods and services. The Internet may also be seen as supporting globalization.

Globalization may be seen to impact life in the waste so many types of goods and services are available. Examples of globalization include the ability to purchase a wide variety of consumer goods in supermarkets, including produce it is out of season, through to the ability of commercial organizations to utilize off shoring contracts. Advantages of globalization are not only associated with accessibility, the potential benefits in terms of comparative advantage. It is difficult to imagine a world without the Internet and globalization.

2) Identify and define the skills managers need to be effective. Of the skills identified, which skill do you feel is most important? Please explain and relate to school or jobs held.

The role of management includes planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Therefore, the skills which are needed by managers relate to their ability to undertake these different functions. Skills required may include the ability to gather and analyze information, to assess a situation and identify actions which need to be taken, as well as the ability to organize and manage resources.

The ability to assess situations and organize others may be argued as some of the most important skills, is utilizing the skills may facilitate an individual's ability to bring in others to carry out other management functions.

3) Identify and explain the functions of management. Choose one function and explain how that function relates to your own organization or daily life.

The role of management includes planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Planning relates to the way in which a set of actions are identified which are needed in order to achieve a specific goal. Organizing is the way in which those actions are realized through the management of people and resources, leading requires the manager to put into action the plan and the organization, guiding others, and controlling relates to the way in which progress towards scores are monitored and actions are taken to keep a plan on track.

Determining…… [read more]

Management at General Electric Research Paper

… GE, Crotonville.

General Eletcric

General Electric Crotonville

At the beginning of 1981, Jack Welch was not recognized as one of the adored CEOs globally. Jack Welch joined General Electric (GE) fresh from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign around 1960 and… [read more]

Managing Groups and Teens Case Study

… To achieve competitive market advantages from the strategic decision, the bank management will need to design two approaches:

Analyzing the competitive market environment of the new market,

Analyzing the possible reactions of the competitors towards the introduction o f the product in the new market.

To enjoy the best market advantages from the new products, the senior management will need to use the coevolutionary gaming strategy to analyze the best product and services to introduce in the market as well as incumbent response to the actions of the competitors. Using these strategies, the bank management will need to form two teams:

First team to guide the bank into the entry into the stimulated market environment.

Second team to form counteroffensive against the competitors or formulate innovate responses to compete successfully within the dynamic market environment.

Effect of Coevolutionary Gaming on Communication Processes

The Johari Window is a simple model to describe communication system within a group (Chapman, 2003). The model comprises of quadrants:

arena (things that you know and known by other),

blind spot (things that you do not know, however, others know),

facade (things that you know, however, unknown to others ) and,

Unknown (things that you as well as others do not know).

Essentially, Johari model reflects essential importance of feedback, self-disclosure as well as social interaction among human. The feedback represents reactions, feeling and perceptions of other towards our behaviors. The essence of communication is to facilitate harmony and human relations among individuals. However, the application of coevolutionary gaming with reference to communication is the process of disclosing and concealing information to other. Typically, the gaming suggests that it is essentially to disclose minimum possible of information to opponents. However, application of coevolutionary gaming in business process set a setback to communication and human relations because the model promotes conflicts within human relations environment since it does not build positive relations within a business environment.

Coevolutionary Gaming Impeding Decision Making

The effectiveness of coevolutionary gaming might not be applicable in making every decision making especially in case where competitors are faking their intentions in order to exploit the opportunities put forward by an organization within a business environment. For example, competitors can speculate the intention of a business before making a strategic decision and make a planning to make a counter offensive attack. By coevolving, a competitor can fake opponents on its real intention and act in multiple level of actions to counter decision of the opponents. The process can thwart decision-making process within a business environment.


To win in a dynamic competitive business environment, a business must act more quickly using irregular styles which competitors will not be able to predict. The strategy will assist in taking the advantages of the vulnerable of the competitors. Moreover, it is critical to weigh the benefits and shortcoming of sharing information within a competitive business environment.


The focus of this paper is to analyze the application of coevolutionary gaming in a dynamic business environment. The model is… [read more]

Integrated Emergency Management Essay

… (Handmer 2013)

All of these elements were incorporated into the Flood and Water Management Act of 2010.


Clearly, the flood of 2007 caused tremendous amounts of damage throughout the UK. To prepare for these issues, the government enacted the Flood and Water Management Act of 2010. This improves accountability, it provides additional amounts of funding and it changes the focus of stakeholders. The result is that communities began to implement workable strategies as a part of their contingency planning. At the same time, they are working with government officials to more effectively coordinate their responses. In the future, this is preparing everyone for these challenges, by ensuring that they know what to do and can receive the support they need.


Birkland, T. (2006) Lessons of Disaster: Policy Change After Catastrophic Events. Georgetown: Georgetown

Drennan, L. (2007) Risk and Crisis Management in the Public Sector. Routledge.

Dryzek, J. (2009) Theories of the Democratic State. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Flin, R. (2008) Safety at the Sharp End: A Guide to the Non-Technical Skills. London: Ashgate.

Freudenburg, W. (2009) Catastrophe in the Making: The Engineering of Katrina and the Disasters of Tomorrow.

New York: Island Press.

Handmer, J. (2007) The Handbook of Disaster and Emergency Policies and Institutions. London: Earthscan.

Handmer, J. (2013) Handbook of Disaster Policies and Institutions: Improving Emergency Management and Climate Change Adaptation. New York: Routledge.

Hindmoor, A. (2006) Rational Choice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Howlett, M. (2009) Studying…… [read more]

Project Management Term Paper

… This way the project manager can offer insights as well as get a feel of the work that is expected. If the project manager has been trained to pick up on values then this step could represent a critical opportunity to avoid any miscommunications that could led to costly delays or scope changes. The project manager should have the opportunity to speak directly to as many stakeholders as possible before planning the project so that they know exactly what is expected and can have a feel for the values that are important to the project.

3) Critically discuss how the workshop model presented by Thyssen et al. might be effective for your project and describe what challenges you would expect in utilising such a model

The workshop models seems like a brilliant format to try to tease out all of the expectations of the stakeholders. For example, the table in the end of the article offers different categories in which to rate expectations on such as:







life-cycle cost





Despite being able to use categories like these to be able to foster feedback, there will likely much disagreement among each category. For example, with an extended set of stakeholders, many different individuals will hold different values and have different expectations of the finished project. Therefore, even though a workshop can be an effective tool to try to learn more about stakeholder values, it can also just escalate the confusion as stakeholders may not agree on critical points. The project manager will have to use their interpersonal skills and conflict resolution in order to help sort through any of the conflicts that might arise in the use of…… [read more]

Qatar World Cup Research Paper

… It is important for us to briefly define these fields, so that we can have a better understanding of logistics pertaining to the FIFA World Cup 2022.

The first field that we shall briefly describe here is the Procurement Logistics.… [read more]

Kotter's Approach to Change Application Essay

… ¶ … Organizations

Kotter's theory on organizational change

Kotter's theory has been known to help leaders leverage the power within their hands and utilize it effectively to bring about change in steps that are subdivided into manageable bits bringing about possibility of high success rates. According to the Managing Change (2012), the philosophy that was propagated by Kotters was geared more towards approaching leadership with change orientation than what management brings about. It indicates that "The fundamental purpose of management is to keep the current system functioning. The fundamental purpose of leadership is to produce useful change." Kotter further puts it that in order for an initiative, especially dealing with change to be successful, there is need to have at least 75% of the concerned people supporting the initiative. Consequently, one should spend most of the time in this step in order to galvanize significant amount of support and consequently surety of bringing about the change.

The case under study in this paper is the changes that were instituted in Walmart in 2010 and in particular the manner in which these changes were communicated to the employees.


Bill Simon, the vice president of Walmart U.S. sent out a memo to all employees of Walmart notifying them of the changes that had been made within the organization. One of the key changes highlighted in the Memo was the realignment of the Logistics, Real estate and Store operations under one leader. The memo also highlighted the introduction of new senior leadership team with several promotions in the senior leadership positions. The Memo further informed the employees of the alignment of the Puerto Rica business with the U.S. ones. Finally the memo asks the employees to support the new changes and give a hand to the new leaders to make the organization achieve its goals.


The changes that were made at Walmart in this case in the year 2010 were predominantly meant to help salvage the name of the business that was facing stiff competition in the U.S. At the time. The economic slowdown that was experienced in the U.S. In 2009 onwards saw Walmart suffer a great deal and hence started looking to foreign land for more investments like Puerto Rica and even China. These new ventures called for changes in leadership and even the changes in operations hence these changes were effected rapidly and the employees informed of these changes.

The problem with these changes were numerous since most of them were internal changes and yet from the memo, it is apparent that the employees were not involved in the making of these changes, the y were also not informed of the impending changes and the changes were made and a list of changes passed down to them from the Vice president. Indeed, even before implementing the changes, the employees were not informed of how these changes would affect them and the organization in a positive or negative way, and an attempt to put that forward is in the… [read more]

Value Management (Vm) "Uses Term Paper

… Lastly, there was a hierarchy of objectives created, based on the stakeholder input, that was used to guide the process. These objectives included the budget (relatively fixed), user requirements, and having fixed target date. Understanding which of the issues would be prioritized helped to guide the development process, ensuring that the project met all of the critical needs.

To further improve deliverable outcomes, I feel that the project needs a strong corporate culture to support the continuous improvement process. Initially, the project seemed to have trouble incorporating everybody's interest. Once this was resolved, with the river cruise, it is important that the culture be conducive to maintaining a high level of enthusiasm and focus. Organisational culture is an important element in creative thinking, where the culture encourages this.

The Open University library project succeeded in bringing people together for the common objective, and it could have been even better if there was a strong, definable organisational culture that placed emphasis on collaboration and innovative problem-solving (Naranjo-Valencia, 2011). As such it is recommended that in addition to following sound Value Management principles that the role of organisational culture cannot be ignored. Instead, it should be fostered because the culture will live on even after the project is completed. Further, the project might need a different culture than the organisation normally has, because the culture is focused on transformation instead of transaction. So that is the major recommendation to improve a project that was otherwise a highly successful endeavour.


IVM (2014). Value management techniques. The Institute of Value Management. Retrieved March 29, 2014 from

Valencia, J., Jimenez, D. & Valle, R. (2011). Innovation or imitation? The role of organizational culture. Management Decision.…… [read more]

Ford and Microsoft Comparison Essay

… 2, No. 1.

Arslan, A & Staub, S 2013, Theory X and Theory Y Type Leadership Behavior and its Impact on Organizational Performance: Small Business Owners in the ?ishane Lighting and Chandelier District, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 75, pp. 102-111.

Chattopadhayay, R & Ghosh, AK 2012, Performance appraisal based on a forced distribution system: its drawbacks and remedies, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 61, 8, pp. 881-896.

Cole, GA 2004, Management theory and practice, Cengage Learning EMEA, USA.

Crim, J, Han, KH, Jain, SM & Sidhu, I 2013, Best Practices for Performance Management.

Hollenbeck, JR, Gerhart, B & Wright, PM 2004, Fundamentals of human resource management, McGraw-Hill, USA.

Leibold, M, Probst, GJ & Gibbert, M 2007, Strategic management in the knowledge economy: new approaches and business applications, John Wiley & Sons, USA.

Miller, K 2011, Organizational Communication: Approaches and Processes: Approaches and Processes, Cengage Learning, USA.

Russ, TL 2011, Theory X/Y assumptions as predictors of managers' propensity for participative decision making. Management Decision, Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 823-836.

Sandhya, K & Kumar, DP 2011, Employee retention by motivation, Indian Journal…… [read more]

Building of Memory Managing Creativity Through Action Term Paper

… 3. Assess the criticality of the timing of communication in the success of the Yad Vashem memorial site project. Support the response with three (3) specific examples.

The timing of communication was critical to the success of the project. For example, Kornfield left the curators "enough time to make decisions right up until close to casting time of the various concrete elements." This means that the timing of the curators' decisions was fairly precise with respect to avoiding construction delays. At another point, Kornfield needed to have construction problems identified during the pre-qualification process in the search for a contractor. This was necessary because the contractor hired would need to be able to work through these problems -- it was necessary to test the contractor before they were hired. In another instance, many changes to the design needed to be approved by the architect before any serious construction could begin. Communication was essential here just to get the project started, and this was complex communication focused on conflict resolution, emotions and highly-technical issues.

4. Assume that two (2) key members of the team were replaced during the executing phase of the Yad Vashem memorial site project due to family crises. Discern actions Shimon Kornfield could take in order to establish trust and gain credibility with the remaining project participants.

There are several things that Kornfield can do to establish trust with the new team members and the existing team. The first is to make an appeal to credentials. The new people are undoubtedly highly qualified in their fields, and presumably they are equally qualified to work on Yad Vashem. The first step therefore is to ensure that the other members of the team are well aware of their credibility. Once the technical credibility of the new team members is established, the next step is to build rapport with the established team members. This likely involves some sort of social event -- a business lunch meeting without a specific agenda is a good idea. People tend to work together better when they have some social bonds, and it is necessary to speed up such interactions so that the new team members are able to contribute to their fullest.

Key here is that the new team members need to be as driven and dedicated to the project as the existing team members. It has been established that everybody shares a common vision, and therefore it is critical that the new team members buy into that vision immediately, but there is another factor. The existing people have invested their time, energy and money into this project. They may feel that this entitles them to greater say than the newcomers. This view is not necessarily a positive one, because it puts the newcomers at odds with the older team members. Careful monitoring of such things will be required of the project manager to ensure that the new people…… [read more]

Organizational Change the Macro Level Case Study

… e. The OD group should contribute to the organization meeting its goals. At this point, it is hard to argue that case. The OD group's mandate and mission seem unclear, and if that is the case then clearly they are not doing enough to help Hexadecimal achieve its strategic objectives.


The first choice is to scrap the group. Admit they are doing nothing, give a low ROI, or simply are a poor fit. Whatever the reason, the group isn't working out and they need to go. The second choice is to reconfigure the group. The OD group has too many outsiders to be accepted, but there is potential in their work so perhaps the group can be resuscitated by bringing in some established managers and cycling a couple of the MBAs who don't really fit into other roles within the company. The third alternative is the status quo -- the OD group has not really had a chance to implement its ideas and should be given that chance before judgment is passed.


It is recommended that the group is scrapped. The problem with special task forces is that they need a lot of credibility within the organization to succeed in implementing their bold visions. A group of zip-faced kids from outside the company, whose only authority comes from pieces of paper where the ink is still wet, will never have credibility within this company. Even Zoltan seems to have tuned half of them out. There is no coherent contribution that they make to helping the company achieve its strategic objectives. They are expensive, and these costs are being billed to other people. Basically, something like this OD group needs to be tremendous effective in order to justify its existence, and that has not been the case at Hexadecimal. So the best course of action right now is to admit that there was a mistake in bringing this group in. If some of them seem like they'll make good managers, put them in that role. The others can be let go.

If it is determined that a task force studying organization design issues could be valuable, that is something that can be done with an internal task force that consists of established company veterans, and maybe one fresh consultant with functional knowledge of the area. Further, Zoltan needs to take responsibility for this mess. At present, he is mostly dodging it. That is not good enough for the President. This was his idea and he designed the way that the group would be populated and their position in the org chart. So Zoltan needs to unwind his pet project and refocus energy on things that will bring a positive return on…… [read more]

Lynchburg Security Research Paper

… In particular, the report has assessed protocol enactment and accountability as appropriate security measure to respond to disaster prone areas. In addition, the report has compared the present security situation to the United Kingdom and clarified the necessity of devolving security management to the community level.


Agostino, D.M., & Jenkins, W.O. (2011). Catastrophic planning: states participating in FEMA's pilot program made progress, but better guidance could enhance future pilot programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.

Brownstein, C. (2007). Report of the DHS national small vessel security summit managing the risk. Arlington, VA: Homeland Security Institute.

Davis, B.J. (2011, November 1). Interagency Logistics Education and Training: Building Homeland Defense and Civil Support Liaisons: Disasters within the United States

Edkins, J. (2011). Missing: Persons and Politics. Cornell University Press.

Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Home Affairs Committee. (2013). Asylum: Seventh Report of Session 2013-14, Vol. 1: Report, Together with Formal Minutes, Oral and Written Evidence, Volume 1. London: Stationery Office

Jenkins, W.O. (2013). Homeland Security: Management of First Responder Grants in the National Capital Region Reflects the Need for Coordinated Planning and Performance G. New York: DIANE Publishing.

Kraft, M & Marks, E. (2012). U.S. Government Counterterrorism: A Guide to Who Does What. CRC Press

Kugler, R.L. (2011). New Directions in U.S. National Security; Strategy, Defense Plans, and Diplomacy: A Review…… [read more]

Health Care Management Term Paper

… 3. The organizational structure of Samaritan Medical Center and its affiliate centers greatly impacts its ability to function efficiently. This fact is largely attributed to the clear hierarchy and chain of command of leadership. The Board of Directors establishes a particular vision for the center (Samaritan), the administrative team delineates exactly how to accomplish it, and then the operations personnel is responsible for carrying out the administration's strategy so that it works. Each individual in this chain of command has specific functions and tasks which they carry out without ambiguity so that the center is able to deliver the most efficacious care to its patients.

4. The human resources department affects the organizational structure and function of the company by administering the specific methods of the administration for carrying out the vision of the Board of Directors. Human resources works at the operations level, and ensures that the correct people are hired and appropriately taken care of (in terms of their salaries, benefits, and other particulars to their jobs) so that the ends of Board and the administrative team is appropriately met. In this respect, the human resources personnel plays a vital role in carrying out the strategy of the these other two levels, since the task of human resources personnel is to find, train, and properly position qualified people who can complete the objectives of Samaritan Medical Center.


Samaritan Health. (2014). Administration. Retrieved from

Samaritan Health. (2014). Boards of trustees. Retrieved from

Samaritan Health. (2014). Our story and mission. Retrieved from… [read more]

Medcom's Attempt to Identify Case Study

… These processes include conducting project execution and kick-off, managing CSSQ, monitoring and controlling risks, managing project execution and gaining project acceptance (Execution and Control, 2012).

This is where the rigid hierarchical structure at MEDCOM could actually help. Each project will be assigned a project manager, who will report to a program manager. The projects can be grouped into different programs, depending on their scope and on their deliverables. Another criterion for grouping projects together could be the geographic criterion, if this brings an improved and streamlined management.

So, the recommendation, as Ward pointed out, is to group projects into programs, following the criteria previously described. Such a grouping would be important from several different perspectives. First, it would ensure that the deliverables and the objectives of the projects are correlated at an organizational level. Second, it would allow a better resource allocation. Third, it would also allow a fewer people in control, which would streamline the leadership process, while also abiding by military regulations. Fourth, it would streamline the monitor and control function.

This discussion now needs to refer to the issue of people, an important aspect in this transformational process. The first recommendation that the organization could consider is the practice of retrospectives. Retrospectives imply that people come together on several occasions during the time of a program to discuss the evolution of the program and to investigate potential ways to improve the way the program functions (Lavell, Martinelli, 2008).

In an organization such as MEDCOM, retrospectives are also a way of bringing people together and of solidifying the ties that exist between them. Retrospectives will also likely improve communication beyond the hierarchical structure of MEDCOM, thus ensuring an increased efficiency in the way that information is transmitted from level to level in the program management framework.

At the same time, since this is a transformational process, it involves significant change. This change implies changing human behavior. As Lavell and Martinelli (2008) pointed out, the retrospective approach helps in the adoption of new methodology, as is the case here. This is likely because of the improved communication, which facilitates the flow of information. As shown in the hypothesis of the initial article discussed, one of the perceived problems that the new project management model must overcome is the "lack of perceived information."

Lavell and Martinelli (2008) also show that institutional change has to be managed. Management is particularly important in a period referred to as adoption chasm. This separates the period of the early adopters from the period of early majority and is the period when project adoption could potentially fail to make the step towards full adoption.

This paper has emphasized from the first paragraph that MEDCOM is involved in a transformational process. This transformational process is supported by the identification of transformational objectives and implemented through a set of recommendations that this paper has made.

These recommendations refer, primarily, to applied changes that need to be made to what is otherwise a rigid and hierarchical structure. The… [read more]

Leader-Member Exchange Theory Offers Three Essay

… The human aspect of business is not something easy to remove.

3. A virtual team is one that works remotely, in different places from each other, and almost all communication is conducted remotely. The Internet and telecommunications technology are the media by which virtual team members communicate. Leaders of virtual teams face some unique challenges in keeping the team cohesive and productive. A leader in a virtual team must first recognize that communication is not as smooth, and take that into account. Without the benefit of non-verbal communication, and where there are time and cultural differences, a virtual team can be successful if a leader encourages high levels of communication and a culture that emphasizes swift resolution of any problems.

Another key success factor for virtual teams is that leadership needs to ensure each member feels like part of the team and has equal opportunity to contribute. Some remote members may feel isolated, for example if several team members are from one country. Again, communication is the key challenge for the leader of a virtual team, and especially with respect to motivation and engagement of remote members of the team. The leader of the virtual team must always be willing to work with the team members to ensure full understanding of roles, and of expectations. More work is needed when the team is virtual than in a conventional team.

Otherwise, leaders in virtual teams need to recognize that the only thing that differs when the team is virtual is the communication. The team still is comprised of individuals, each with roles and tasks. The team should still have roughly the same power dynamic, and the role of the leader is not much different other than the need to emphasize communication to a greater degree.


Organizational culture is not always easy to define. In general terms, it consists of the norms, patterns, communication styles and thinking that exist in an organization in a definable pattern. Organizational culture, therefore, should be something that occurs throughout the organization, and contributes to "the way the organization does things." It should be something that differentiates one organization from another, in the same way that it does for geographic cultures. An analogy would be eating -- all cultures eat, but it is the way they eat and what they eat that makes them distinct. It is the same in an organization -- all organizations try to earn profit, but how they do this can vary significantly from one organization to the next.

There is a symbiotic relationship between organizational culture and leadership. Leaders help to define the organizational culture and serve as exemplars of the culture. Yet, they are also bound by it to some degree. The influential power than leaders have is dependent on culture, for example. In some companies the role of the leader is downplayed, while in others the leader has absolute power. The effectiveness of a leader is therefore dictated not specifically by culture, but by the ways in which the… [read more]

Riordan and Project Management Essay

… Three of the most general, yet vital measurements within any project, though, are time, budget, and quality control. These are self-explanatory in some ways, yet complex in others. The entire purpose of a project management system is to be able to adapt to a different set of circumstances, knowing that projects change, circumstances change, and therefore the way a project is managed must be adaptable as well (Stevens, 2002).

Key Deliverables- Deliverables are based on the ratio between the system as it is currently, appropriate benchmarks, and the overall goal of the project. They should be measured both quantitatively and qualitatively (e.g., total production rates for X product is quantitative, employee attitude and retention both quantitative and qualitative). These key deliverables should be part of the planning process that measures the success or failure of the plan, but should also be continuous and part of a feedback monitoring system to ensure for quality and sustainability:

Production Statistics -- One would hope and expect to see rising production rates that tie in with quality and efficiency, as well as improvement on ROI. The project should allow for a higher level of production using fewer resources in a smarter manner.

Quality -- Quality control is an important part of the new project -- fewer mistakes, customer returns and a higher level of satisfaction are key. It would not make sense to increase production, but see a large decline on quality and service.

Efficiency -- Using a newer model of SCM that links needs and deliverables between Riordan and vendors, as well as retooling the manufacturing process should fall into line with improving production and quality.

Morale -- Ensure greater connection to employee issues through a new reward system that encourages quality and efficiency, as well as identification of employee drivers that meet the needs of the company and workers.

Stakeholder Satisfaction -- Stakeholders include investors, management, customers, vendors, and employees. Increased levels of satisfaction on all stakeholder platforms ensures the efficacy of any new process management.

ROI -- Finally, the overall expected deliverable will include a greater return on investment and margin per product unit. Higher quality and greater efficiency would mean that the product may be produced and delivered faster with higher levels of quality and customer satisfaction, which in turn will feedback to a higher chance of word of mouth marketing, loyal customers, and more orders (See: Gifford, 2011).

Conclusions- To remain successful, the Riordan Remanufacturing/Retooling Plan must incorporate the above efficiencies as well as International Legal Compliance (fiscal reporting, adherence to employment laws, etc.); Ethical expectations by finding win-win situations and treating all stakeholders in a positive way, and protecting those stakeholder assets by maximizing asset control, negotiation with unions or representative governments, and ensuring a positive and proactive stance (Kotler and Lee, 2005).

Works Cited

Gifford, C. (2011). When World's Collide in Manufacturing Operations. Research Triangle Park, NC: International Society of Automation Press.

Kotler, P., Lee, N. (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility. New York: John Wiley.

Magrab, E., et… [read more]

Large System: Managing Strategic Case Study

… Print advertising was specific to outdoor and sports magazines that were nationally circulated. Lost Arrow Corporation owned Patagonia, which was not a publicly traded company. The company was happy with only small and slow growth achievements. Net sales went from $86,136 FY 1990 to $223,956 FY 2003. Patagonia made the switch to organic cotton and experienced difficulties with organic cotton due to the changes in the processes of dying the cotton and the colors not fading from the products

III. Explanation of How Patagonia Integrates Sustainability Into Its Design

Winter ( ) relates that dynamism is a characteristic of the organization that is prepared to cope with change and that views change as integral to the process. Developing effective sustainability requires that a company develop a strong identity. Otherwise, the company will be at the mercy of the tangent of any leader that manages to take control over the company. Therefore, it can be gathered from the literature that dynamic change is a type of change that is directed, controlled, and structured rather than being simply 'change'. Organization of work and the appropriate appointment of CEOs are both requisites to sustainability for the organization. Structure of the organization is important in that the organization must be customer-focused.and "embrace multiple stakeholders including employees, the communities, and countries in which they do business, and the environment." (Lawler and Worley, 2011, p. 2) In addition, it is reported that work systems are sustainable meaning that redundancies are reduced as well as "overlaps in distribution channels, customers, and product lines." (Lawler and Worley, 2011, p. 2)


Patagonia has historically integrated sustainability through acting on feedback from its customer. This is in effect the advice that would be given to this company and specifically, that Patagonia should continue surveying customers about their wants and needs in Patagonia's products. The company should strive toward overcoming the difficulties they are experiencing with organic cotton because going 100% organic cotton will strengthen Patagonia's brand identity and once having perfected the process of organic cotton product manufacturing, Patagonia will be way ahead of their competitors.


Cummings, T. And Worley, C. (2008). Organizational Development and Change (9th Ed). Cincinnati, OH: Southwestern College Publishing.

Eisenhardt, K. And J. Martin. (2000). "Dynamic Capabilities: What Are They?" Strategic Management Journal 21: 1105-1121.

Lawler, E. And C. Worley. (2011). Management Reset. San Francisco:…… [read more]

SWOT Analysis Is a Strategy SWOT

… To manage this situation the government needs to assist poor families by giving them startup capital to start businesses in poor neighborhoods (Krings, 2009).

Labor unions are necessary in the organization. Unions fight for the rights of workers and other basic elements. The rights of the worker include right to be provided with shelter, salary and good working conditions. If an organization goes against the interest of workers, union officials institute a mode of communication to the top management. Other methods, which unions use in addressing their complaints, are collective bargaining or collective action. Aspects addressed by these unions include, the rate of pay, discrimination, corruption and any other factor that affect an employee (Viebrock & Clasen, 2009). Unions motivate employees to work, and times disrupt work.

In the United States of America, the names of these unions include Air Line Pilots Association, American Federation of Musicians and American Federation of Teachers. There has been a clever idea to eliminate all waste of strikes without changing the bargaining power. In recent time, Virtual, strikes do take place; in this form of a strike, the workers keep on producing but at the end of the task both the employer and the employee lose. Therefore, the employee losses salary while the employer loses revenue. The product produced may go to charity or donated free of charge. Pilots of Meridiana Airline have used virtual strikes in 1999 and Miami bus company workers in 1960. During these strikes, other form of the economy did not change (Krings, 2009).


Pahl, N., & Richter, A. (2009). SWOT Analysis-idea, methodology and a practical approach.

Munchen: GRIN Verlag.

Eden, C., & Ackermann, F. (2013). Making strategy: The journey of strategic management.

London: Sage Publications.

Selznick, D., McEwan, I., Yukl, G.A., & VanFleet, D.D. (2010). Leadership in organizations.

Leadership Quarterly, 2(3), 205-228.

Shepherd, D.A., Michell, R.J., & Sharfman, M.P. (2011). Strategic decisions: when and why managers are inconsistent in strategic decision making. Strategic Management Journal,

32(7), 683-704.

Viebrock, E., & Clasen, J. (2009). Flexicurity and welfare reform: a review. Socio-Economic

Review, 7(2), 305-331.

Krings, T. (2009). A race to the bottom? The free movement of labour and Trade unions, EU

enlargement. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 15(1), 49-69.

Stock, J.H., Keilis-Borok, V., Soloviev, A.,…… [read more]

Intel Organization Pfeffer and Salanick Essay

… The simplicity of the idea is perhaps too subtle for many leaders in today's world to understand. Politics and method are secondary to power itself. Intelligence leaders need to be fluid and far reaching in discovering new methods to attaining this most important resource.

Power is abstract in its materialization, but that does not mean that leaders cannot still find, process and eventually distribute this resource throughout the organization. A healthy respect must also accompany any leader's use of power. Anything of great importance must be treated with humility and candor in order to fully maximize its ability to promote useful and practical change within hierarchical systems.

Question 3

"Sir, I was struck with an idea as how to best maximize the gathering of intelligence in such a manner that would result in the needs of all our consumers becoming satisfied, if you care to listen? & #8230;.. First, I believe the system is bloated and overly managed. It is necessary to reexamine just exactly who exactly we are serving and who exactly is the benefactor from our actions. The political community within the federal government is very tense and untrusting right now and a new openness is called for at some level.

The ineffectiveness of our practices in the last ten plus years has shown us that something is dreadfully wrong with the way we do business and a change is needed at all levels. This change cannot be made in the open however, and a clandestine operation is in order. Disinformation and disguise must be used to its fullest capacity in order to make this change work and be effective. The use of propaganda through mass media, sports and culture must be swayed to represent this new approach of openness and effectiveness.

Perhaps a new shadow structure should be created, invisible to all but just a few, that would command and control this operation. Using all intelligence sources to combine their power would benefit this plan greatly and may be essential. Deception is key to attaining power and winning wars, we must adopt this approach at every and all levels. I personally volunteer my service in any way that would help realize this vision, thank you…… [read more]

Wal-Mart Remains Term Paper

… There is also significant effort when it comes to talent development. The company boasts important successes in the number of women, for example, that attended management-trainee programs, as well as underrepresented groups in general. Its direct action policies have also increased the number of female store managers (39% at present), as well as store managers from other minority categories. This is partly a result of the company's policy to promote from within, to development its own human resource etc.

A final note in this analysis on the existence of several diversity-related structures in the company, such as the global women's leadership council comprised of senior leaders from the 15 countries in which it operates. Such structures obviously encourage and sustain diversity throughout the organization by assigning women and other minorities more visible, preeminent roles.

One important element about diversity management that Wal-Mart seems to implement is essential top executive support.

The importance of this support comes from the need for diversity programs to have overall acceptance in the organization as a strategic objective for the corporation. Wal-Mart appeared to have understood the necessity for this type of implication: it has CEO commitment, but, as seen previously, also a dedicated managerial position for this.

This managerial support for diversity also helps another key requirement for the successful implementation of diversity practice: the organizational culture

. To a certain degree, the management team, by setting principles and approaches, helps drive the organizational culture. Integrating diversity into the organizational culture is something that the company needs to commit to before implementing concrete programs.

One important aspect (and perhaps a problem that Wal-Mart has) that should be emphasized is that some authors see diversity management as a way to adapt management policies depending on each employees' characteristics and particularities. In a complex organizational and business environment, this seems correct. With this in mind, it may be that Wal-Mart has always aimed towards creating a strict, rigorous structure on all issues, including diversity. Some of the legal problems it has could have come out of this attempt to impose a "one fits all" approach for everybody involved, something that did not function well.


Wal-Mart has been recognized as a committed organization to implementing diversity programs. As shown in Chapter 12 of the book, attracting and retaining workforce that reflects diversity is correlated to financial success in the marketplace and Wal-Mart is one of the companies that has already recognized that this is a business necessity.

However, at the same time, it has significant legal issues that are also diversity problems. Its challenge remains to analyze its existing approach in terms of diversity and identify the potential areas for improvement.

This paper's conclusion is that the company has emphasized too much a unique policy, applicable in all situations. Certainly, the mentor-mentee program is an excellent idea, but maybe it is not necessarily the right idea, depending on a particular situation. The company should aim to improve its mechanisms of feedback and control, particularly feedback from… [read more]

Project Management Essay

… Back-loaded the preset sets the highest level of activity to occur at the completion. Of the project

Front-loaded this preset sets the highest level of activity to occur during the beginning of the project.

Double peak this preset sets the… [read more]

Total Compensation Methods and Benefits Essay

… The employees are particularly important element of a business and the strategies to compensate the human capital should also be in line with the desired impact on the organizational culture. The organizational culture is also developed on the basis of management strategies. The culture of an organization has a profound impact on the employee's behavior. The employee's perception about the organizational culture is determinant of the impact it has on the performance. The higher management and organizational leadership should develop a strategy that has profound impact on the employee's performance and it is also enables them to achieve the desired results (Armstrong et al., 2005).


The research about total compensation programs and strategies provides an in-depth understanding of the valuable process as well as its significance in terms of organizational performance. The methods adopted by the organization to compensative employees are mainly dependent on its mission, objective, and values. The business can take an entitlement based approach as well as a performance based approach to design and implement its compensation programs. The compensation program includes the monitory and non-monitory rewards offered to its employees in return to their services for the business.


Armstrong, M., & Stephens, T. (2005). A handbook of employee reward management and practice. USA:Kogan Page.

Heneman, R.L. (2002). Strategic reward management: Design, implementation, and evaluation. USA: IAP.

Mathis, R.L., &…… [read more]

Operations Management Essay

… As each of these three strategic areas of a business have their own unique scheduling and time requirements, OM-based techniques, frameworks and enterprise-wide taxonomies to align them becomes even more important.

Evaluating the Importance of Operations Management and the Role… [read more]

Managing Diversity Research Paper

… Firms need to study how to manage diversity in the working environment to be solid in the future. Lamentably, there is no single formula for triumph. It relies fundamentally on the supervisor's capacity to understand the diversity as a thorough… [read more]

Operation Management Operations Term Paper

… Medicine or food, clothes or electronics, the sales of an organization depend on the quality of its products. The quality of the products of an organization depends upon its activities like designing, research, testing, cleaning, and evaluation. The company can conduct a detailed research on a product before launching in order to ensure that it is a superior quality product. The companies normally do not afford very high prices simply to offer superior quality. Therefore, the designing process should be creative and should involve cost saving. Quality is important because of many reasons (Building quality into product design, 2013). One of them is that the customer differentiates one product from the other mainly on the basis of cost and quality. Therefore, in order to inspire a customer to purchase a product, the company must offer good quality; one that is perceived by a client as well and not only the management of the company (How to Build a High-Quality Brand with an Affordable Product, 2013).

Besides the design, the company can ensure the quality of raw material used. A fine T-shirt cannot be made from a bad quality cotton. The company can build quality into products by making high quality material available. The management can also hire experienced skilled labor or train them to adopt procedures that are necessary for making good quality products. The company can offer test products to its customers. Then it can ask the customers for the feedback. The feedback will tell if the product is perceived as good quality or inferior quality. The weak points of the project can then be adjusted. Thus, it can be summarized that design, material acquisition and labor can help to build a quality product.


Building quality into product design, (2013), Retrieved from:

How to Build a High-Quality Brand with an Affordable Product, (2013), Retrieved from:

Silveira, G.D., and Slack, N., (2001) "Exploring the trade-off concept," International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(7), 949 -- 964

Trade-offs between inequality, productivity, and employment, (2012), Retrieved from:… [read more]

Project Management and Business Strategy Research Paper

… The most publically accessible shift in a multinational corporation's business strategy occurs when the company alters its current mission or vision statement to reflect the pursuit of new objectives. As researcher Jenny Stewart observes in The Meaning of Strategy in the Public Sector, "because agency mission statements are generally broad and uplifting, they do not in themselves provide a clear path to the goals or objectives the agency might set itself" (Stewart, 2004, pp. 16-21). Bridging the gap between mission statements issued by executive management and a company's actual ability to direct resources and personnel effectively and efficiently is precisely the role of a qualified project manager. By engaging in a methodical process of predictive analysis, project managers are capable of developing detailed strategic plans which contain a multitude of contingencies, both of the internal and external variety. According to prevailing research on the efficacy of predictive modeling, techniques and tools such as "scenario immersion, pictorial models, mathematical models, mock-ups, surveys, and computer simulations" (Goel and Pirolli, 1989, p. 19) are among the project manager's most effective resources during the process of implementing a comprehensive strategic adjustment. When members of executive management work in collaboration with the project managers who work to realize their plans, the overall strategic benefits to this working relationship far exceed the potential disadvantages.


Goel, V. And Pirolli, P. 1989. Motivating the notion of generic design within information-processing theory: The design problem space. AI magazine, 10 (1), p. 19. [Accessed: 14 Sep 2013].

Mintzberg, H. 1994. Rethinking strategic planning part I: Pitfalls and fallacies. Long-Range

Planning, 27 (3), pp. 12-21. [Accessed: 14 Sep 2013].

Pellegrinelli, S. And Bowman, C. 1994. Implementing strategy through projects. Long-Range

Planning, 27 (4), pp. 125-132. [Accessed: 14 Sep 2013].

Schwalbe, K. 2011. Information technology project management. Cambridge,…… [read more]

Change Proposal Imagine a Midlevel Essay

… The executives liked what they heard and agreed" (Smashing the clock, 2006, Businessweek).

The second dimension is managing 'down' decisions -- either through a hierarchy (in which management issues directives) or via collective wisdom (Birkinshaw's Four Dimensions of Management, 2013, Mind Tools). Once again, a balance is required. The impetus for change is to improve working conditions, thus workers can have input but managers may need to create a formal training program (as was the case at Best Buy) to convince employees that it is 'okay' to deploy a flexible schedule and they will not be penalized (Smashing the clock, 2006, Businessweek). Some workers may resist, fearing they will be 'let go' if they don't work 9-5.

The third dimension is 'managing objectives:' with some changes, there is alignment between all workers of the organization vs. obliquity in which "people pursue goals and objectives indirectly" (Birkinshaw's Four Dimensions of Management, 2013, Mind Tools). The objective of this change is to allow workers more flexibility. There is a clear objective for the change and the desire to change the workplace leadership culture as a whole, so some alignment must be achieved in terms of the view of employees. Finally, the fourth dimension is intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation: what drivers will be used to motivate the change? Extrinsic motivators include a carrot-and-stick approach and using threats and rewards; intrinsic motivators rely upon emotions, having a vision as a company, and conveying a sense of empowerment through offering opportunities to exercise leadership to the employee. In the case of offering a results-oriented workforce, there is a combination of extrinsic motivators in the form of the benefits of having more flexible time but also the sense of control over one's working life and a focus on performance vs. merely sitting in the office to fill the day.

The ROI for results-oriented work measurement was impressive at Best Buy: not only was turnover reduced, but productivity increased. "Orders processed by people who are not working in the office are up 13% to 18% over those who are. ROWE'ers are posting higher metrics for quality, too…Given the constant distractions, it sometimes feels impossible to get any work done at work" (Smashing the clock, 2006, Businessweek). Ultimately, a merger of the top-down and bottom-up project management approaches to change are required for full implementation -- although the change may need to be directed by the leadership, the full cooperation and enthusiasm of employees are required to make the program work, and ultimately it is designed for their benefit and sanity (Filey 2008).


Birkinshaw's Four Dimensions of Management. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:

Filey, A. (2008). Top-down and bottom-up project management. WRIKE. Retrieved:

Smashing the clock. (2006). Businessweek. Retrieved:… [read more]

Internal Controls Companies Need Essay

… Culp (2013) agreed with this notion when wrote " Risk management can, in fact, add a level of discipline and transparency to the innovation process, while supporting desired risk culture and appetite. Marrying risk management and innovation can boost innovation efforts by creating confidence that innovation bets are well-placed and that innovation risks are well-managed." Risk assessment requires the leadership branch of the organization to effectively and efficiently prioritize the risks that are present internally within the company. These risks assessments should precisely align themselves with company objectives and goals and reflect the strategic output of the company.

Part 3: Control Activities

This part of the checklist requires the inquirer or inspector to investigate the policies and procedures that ultimately guide the company's operations. The operations are more or less the results of the planning and strategic portion of any company's makeup. The control activities is where the rubber meets the road in the internal workings of a company and need to be addressed as such. This checklist should include looking into standard operating procedures and ritual behaviors that are not explicitly written in any manual to get a fuller picture of what the operational content of the company.

Part 4: Information and Communication

This portion of the checklist requires that the leadership examine access to important and vital information and data that is valued as intellectual property. Words and ideas contain valuable and worthwhile data that needs to be protected. It is also important to examine the public relations information that is being disseminated as well. Communication is very important and any useful checklist should address this issue.

Part 5: Monitoring.

The last part of the checklist deals with the way that a company manages and regulates itself. From the top to the bottom, all management decisions and duty descriptions should be evaluated for effectiveness and efficiency. The way a company evaluates itself reveals much about how well it understands how to improve itself and strike a balance between improvement and maintenance.

Works Cited

Culp, S. (2013). Risk Management Can Stimulate, Rather than Deter, Innovation. Forbes, 7 Jan 2013. Retrieved from management-can-stimulate-rather-than-deter-innovation/

Knauss, D. (2010). The Role of Business Ethics In Relationships with Customers. Forbes, 19 Jan 2010. Retrieved from leadership-citizenship-ethics.html

Louwers, T. et al. (2007)…… [read more]

Management Audit of San Francisco Research Paper

… Costs tend to be multidimensional. They could be IT installation, training, and equipment. Long-term operation costs include repair and maintenance of IT infrastructure. If the city and country of San Francisco spends on IT protection, it can result in opportunity costs. This refers to costs pertaining to inability to invest IT resources in other areas.

Data infrastructure - The idea of utilizing IT data infrastructure in the management and access of information across the city and country of San Francisco is evolving and the city is at the implementation stage. However, city of San Francisco lacks a strategic framework to create and guide their IT policies. This demonstrates the difficulty of the Management Audit of San Francisco's Information Technology Practices to create a data framework within the city. This data framework must be organizationally sophisticated and encompass numerous stakeholders with different levels of information of the city's problem (Goldsmith, 2009).

Budget and Legislative Analysts have differing interpretations of what constitutes a data infrastructure. However, most of them show that they have some elements of a data infrastructure already existing. The city and country of San Francisco must initiate a more comprehensive and mature implementation of a data infrastructure, managed by committed resources (Freire & Stren, 2011). The city reports that it has a small central IT unit, which is under resourced and incapable of serving comprehensive data infrastructure countrywide. The lacking capabilities include absence of spatial data standards and policies and formal data sharing plans between agencies or units. It is necessary for the city and country of San Francisco to develop data infrastructure capabilities in sectors that will serve their apparent pressing needs. The city can create an internet system that enabled access of data across multiple units.


Freire, M., & Stren, R.E. (2011). The challenge of urban government: Policies and practices. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Goldsmith, S. (2009). The twenty-first century city: Resurrecting urban America. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

Wagner, F.W. (2010). Revitalizing the city: Strategies to contain sprawl and revive the core. Armonk, N.Y:…… [read more]

Internal Controls Organizations Essay

… The group can consider the organizations risks based on the different risk objectives; strategic objectives, operational objectives, reporting objectives, and compliance objectives (COSO). The most effect controls will work to minimize organizations liability in a comprehensive manner will necessarily incorporate all four goals.

Internal controls are generally unique since no two organizations will have identical risk management profiles. Therefore it is necessary for the organization to include many different perspectives when building internal controls. COSO framework can be a very useful tool in designating best practices and identifying potential risks. In some case it can also be useful to include external stakeholders such as legislators, consultants, auditors, and suppliers. In many cases, there can be a large number of risks that are difficult to identify by a limited number of perspectives.

The overall objective of the internal control is to ensure, to a reasonable degree, that the Company's operational strategies and targets are followed up and that the owners' investments are protected (SSAB, N.d.). Building the risk profile first will allow the organization to construct its internal controls in systematic way so that it can effectively address the organizations goals.

If any risks manifest then this can have serve negative impacts on the organization. Events can influence the organization in either direct or indirect ways, or some combination of both. Internal controls can help protect the organization from a variety of events and also allow them to respond quickly if something does happen. A set of internal controls streamlines this process. In many cases the elements of risk associated with indirect risks are difficult, if not impossible, to quantify. However, having an effective internal control procedure in place can mitigate many of the most common risks and to the organization in a more competitive and sustainable position in the market.

Works Cited

COSO. (2004). Enterprise Risk Management. Treadway Commission, 1-7.

SSAB. (N.d.). Internal control and risk management. Retrieved from SSAB: -- Media/Investors1/Corporate-governace/Internal-control-and-risk-/… [read more]

Project Management Case Study

… 3. What advantages and disadvantages of a matrix type organization are apparent from this case?

Advantages of matrix organization are that when an employee feels overwhelmed as Olds felt, they can speak to the objective third party. This way Olds was able to voice his concerns to Sands and was moved to the project he preferred. Having employees move from project to project is also advantageous as it results in shared expertise in all the projects. This organizational structure also provides efficient utilization of the resources. Disadvantages are that employees have dual reporting responsibilities, which can cause conflict and anxiety as happened to Olds. There is also a possibility of project managers conflicting in regards to priorities. Palmer and Crosby had different priorities pertaining their projects, which resulted in conflict within the organization. There was also conflict with the functional manager as she was responsible for all the projects and employee distribution. Sands had to ensure that project managers delivered on their deadlines. This caused conflict as Palmer was behind schedule because Olds was concentrating so much on Crosby's project.

4. What could the management at M&M do to more effectively manage situations like this?

The management should use a strong matrix structure. This would ensure that there is project integration and would also diminish the internal power struggles with project managers. From the case, it is clear there was no project integration, and internal power struggles were the norm. This resulted in conflicts and delayed delivery on projects. Managers should also understand the organization's culture. This would allow the managers to work together and build teams geared towards the organization's goals. The management should also understand each member's identity, reward criteria, and emphasis on teamwork, which would eliminate a similar situation in the…… [read more]

Organization I Chose to Study A-Level Coursework

… p.732 #1. The loss of 30 managers out of 120 in the course of a year is definitely a need for concern for HCLC. That is 25% of the company's managers -- not regular employees. Management, conceivably has good jobs with accordant salaries. This sort of loss rate denotes a problem.

p. 732 #2. The additional data that is required to learn more about the managerial turnover rate is that which pertains to the circumstances of the managers leaving. Granted, there are a few "angry" resignation letters to consider ( Henemen et al., 2012, p. 732). However, for the majority of the resignations, "no reasons for leaving were given" (Henemen et al., 2012, p. 732). Ideally, exit interviews should accompany departure to provide insight into the causes of managers leaving.

p.732 #3. The costs of this turnover are substantial. They include retraining employees to fulfill these management positions, ultimately. Training involves a dedication of resources and time that could be devoted otherwise. The potential benefits of this situation are that they allow the company to promote within its own organization. Such a practice encourages employees to concentrate on their jobs and to have an extra from of extrinsic motivation to improve their work.

p.732 #4 Yes, there could be potential legal problems. The sheer amounts of departures from management help to build a precedent for individual legal cases. Moreover, Williams' stern distributing of orders when numbers are not met does not allow for much feedback from management. The punitive actions he takes, including demotions and pay cuts, can be a legal problem in the case of contracts or unions.

p.732. 5. The best way of addressing retention problems is for Williams to incorporate more feedback from management in addressing cases in which quotas are not met, and to issue exit interviews in which employees discuss their reasons for leaving


Heneman, H.G., Judge, T.A., Kammeyer-Muller, J.D. (2012). Staffing Organizations. New…… [read more]

Organization Used to Manage Essay

… One of the strengths of the approach integrated by the organization is the ability to prioritize the risks hence an opportunity to deal with the most vital risks in the production and delivery processes. One of the major weaknesses of the approach is inability to capture all risk categories towards the achievement of competitive advantage (Szabo, 2012, p. 778).

Discuss and evaluate the principal methods for assessing risk, which you would recommend to your organization for use in its new product development initiatives for the future. What challenges do you see which your organization would face in adopting these methods of risk assessment?

There are various risk assessment methods: issue-based, checklist, and scoring. Among the three principle-risk assessment methods, I would recommend the application of issue-based and scoring mechanisms with the aim of enhancing the ability of the organization to address its risks in relation to the development of new products in the market. Issue-based method will enable the organization to break down certain issues into parts for instance the concept of technical, commercial, and managerial issues. These issues are critical in identifying and managing risks within the context of an organization thus opportunity to achieve competitive advantage in the market and industry of operation (Kaplan & Mikes, 2012, p. 49). The method would be ideal for the generation of the checklist thus facilitating effectiveness and efficiency in the assessment of risks. Scoring method of risk assessment enables the organization to determine the value or degree of the risk in relation to the threshold value. This value is critical in enhancing the ability of the organization to address vital risks.


Nippa, M, Pidun, U, & Rubner, H 2011, 'Corporate Portfolio Management: Appraising Four Decades of Academic Research', Academy Of Management Perspectives, 25, 4, pp. 50-66

Kaplan, R, & Mikes, A 2012, 'Managing Risks: A New Framework', Harvard Business Review, 90, 6, pp. 48-60

Szabo, A 2012, 'Risk Management: An Integrated Approach to…… [read more]

Fictional Current Situation Case Study

… The employees and management should coordinate closely to facilitate the change management process throughout various phases. The organization can benefit to a large extant through implementing change management plan. The current organizational performance and employee satisfaction level is evident that it has the potential to perform and bring higher results. The expectations in betterment of organizational results provide motivation for employees and leadership to implement the plan (Von Krogh, Nonaka, & Rechsteiner, 2012).


Anderson, L.A., & Anderson, D. (2010). The change leader's roadmap: How to navigate your organization's transformation. USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (Eds.). (2013). Transformational and Charismatic Leadership:: the Road Ahead. USA: Emerald Group Publishing.

Bestelmeyer, B., Brown, J., Densambuu, B., Havstad, K., Herrick, J., & Peinetti, H.R. (2013, April). State-and-transition models as guides for adaptive management: What are the needs?.In Meeting Proceedings (pp. 27-33).

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change.USA: Kogan Page.

Carter, M.Z., Armenakis, A.A., Feild, H.S., & Mossholder, K.W. (2012).Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

Loorbach, D. (2010). Transition management for sustainable development: a prescriptive, complexity-based governance framework. Governance, 23(1), 161-183.

Lussier, R.N., & Achua, C.F. (2009). Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development: Theory, Application, & Skill Development. USA: Cengage Learning.

Muller, R., & Turner, R. (2010). Leadership competency profiles of successful project managers. International Journal of Project Management, 28(5), 437-448.

Rotmans, J., & Loorbach, D. (2009).Complexity and transition management.Journal of Industrial Ecology, 13(2), 184-196.

Rowley, S., Hossain, F., & Barry, P. (2010). Leadership through a gender lens: how cultural environments and theoretical perspectives interact with gender. International Journal of Public Administration, 33(2), 81-87.

Spillane, J.P. (2012). Distributed leadership (Vol. 4).John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Storey, J. (Ed.).(2013). Leadership in organizations.USA: Routledge.

Von Krogh, G., Nonaka, I., & Rechsteiner, L. (2012). Leadership in organizational knowledge creation: a review and framework. Journal of Management Studies, 49(1), 240-277.

Von Krogh, G., Nonaka, I., & Rechsteiner, L. (2012). Leadership in organizational knowledge creation: a review and framework. Journal of Management Studies, 49(1), 240-277.

Wright, B.E., Moynihan, D.P., & Pandey, S.K. (2012). Pulling…… [read more]

Multiple Levels of Analysis Models Essay

… Another problem is aggregation bias, in which data about the aggregate or whole organization is assumed to be able to be generalized about all of the organization's parts (Rousseau 1985:6). This type of thinking is often seen when consumers express outrage about a defective product and take their feelings out at lower-level employees -- all Toyota employees are assumed to be incompetent because of the fact that so many of the car company's products have been defective, for example, or Starbucks workers are held accountable for the high prices set by the home office. Cross-level fallacies suggest the opposite -- bad behavior by an individual employee (such as a rude McDonald's employee) is assumed to be true of the whole organization (Rousseau 1985:8).

A still more complex problem with multilevel analysis is that of cross-level fallacies, in which the different levels of the organization, are anthropomorphized to such a degree that the analysis lacks logical substantiation (Rousseau 1985:7). For example, assuming that an organizational level is 'stressed' because of an increased workload, similar to how a person feels stressed when overworked. Notions of 'organizational conflict' and 'organizational learning' can also fall prey to this fallacy. Because of the rhetoric commonly used in the business press as well as existing corporate law, it is very common to take very literally the assertion that corporations are 'persons' when they are not. Finally, contextual fallacies are the fallacies that do not take into consideration the context of a behavior when making a generalization about a particular phenomenon (Rousseau 1985: 10).

However, despite these many disadvantages to using multilevel organizational models, there are still many advantages to doing so. First of all, the existence of multiple levels is a reality, and the alternative is postulating a 'black box' organizational actor. This means it is very difficult to determine how internal power structures can impact organizational decision-making in a meaningful way, leading the observer to fall prey to a rational actor analysis of the organization, assuming that it always makes the 'best' organizational decision, regardless of the behavior of individual members. It could be argued that some of the fallacies inherent to multiple-level organizational research can be guarded against by using different forms of analysis. And taking an overly simplistic approach is itself fallacious, and can fall prey to making hasty generalizations based upon a relatively limited array of observations of organizational conditions.

Multi-level research also enables researchers to draw more comprehensive and nuanced conclusions about why particular behaviors occur. For example, rather than just studying groups in isolation, one study found that "employees in more cohesive work groups were rated by their supervisors as engaging in higher amounts of courtesy than could be explained by their individual levels of job satisfaction or organizational commitment," suggesting the influence of the group and macro-level cultural factors and "courtesy and job satisfaction" was positively associated with superior performance, although conscientiousness was not (Kidwell, Mossholder, & Bennett 1997). Merely studying one trait such as cohesion in groups or… [read more]

Quality Improvement Plan: Implementing Term Paper

… The management requires detailed reports about the performance and achievement of objectives. The structured approach is adopted to collect data, analyze, and prepare reports for management. However the top leadership is considerate in terms of system development. The input received form the users were incorporated within the system. The implementation also required support for users (Kolker, & Story, 2011).

Mayo Clinic has integrated technology and computer-based system to facilitate operations. In such circumstances communication plays a vital role in addressing organizational and functional issues arising from the implementation. The detailed communication plan addresses the issues related to early communication of awareness related issues. The staff and patient related benefits are also communicated from the higher leadership to middle and front line management. The careful emphasis on providing assistance for use during and after implementation is also integral part of the implementation plan.


The preliminaryeducation with respect to goals and objectives including the potential benefits are provided by the higher management. The initial orientation will be followed by the role specific training .The additional information and details regarding the potential working and implementation are provided through training sessions specifically designed for particular staff members. The job based and role specific training and support is provided through dedicated staff members of implementation team. The job responsibilities and system requirements are also provided to staff members through informative instructions (Mueller, 2009).

Annual evaluation:

The annual improvement assessment is performed through data collection and analysis of reports. The patient related record information and service levels are specifically defined in order to perform evaluation (Chute, Beck, Fisk, & Mohr, 2010). The project benefits and validity of achievement are evaluated with the baseline measurements. The pre-implementation and post-implementation baseline measures are compared to provide actual impact. The qualitative and quantitative measures are defined in order to assess results. The quantitative measures taken are with respect to the functions including clinical outcome measures, clinical process measures, workflow, financial impact measures, and application reliability. The qualitative measures include satisfaction, competency and adoption, access to patient records, quality of communications, and completeness of documents (Kolker et al., 2011).

External Entities:

The external entities including the regulatory authorities and governed agencies have a profound effect on decision making of healthcare organizations. The legislator requirements for patient information and privacy have to be fulfilled through the system requirements. The professional interest groups also provide assistance for quality improvement and accreditation of the system. The quality and performance measures developed on the basis of valuable input from government agencies, professional interest groups, and accrediting bodies facilitates the clinic's objectives. The government agencies and regulatory authorities impact the decision making process through implementation of laws and regulations.The knowledge sharing with the professional bodies has also increased the impact of the system on performance. The sharing of information and education between healthcare service providers will improve service quality for consumers of healthcare. The government and regulatory agencies will also benefit from the system and it is also possible that they adopt the system… [read more]

Employee Engagement Essay

… Employees will not be motivated to act proactively unless they feel as though they are working to fulfill a vital, specific mission in the service of an organization that has a purpose beyond that of rapacious profitability. Although an effectively-worded vision statement alone is not enough to motivate employees, having a genuine corporate ethos that permeates the entire organization can be profoundly motivational and help improve employee performance. For example, companies such as Google and Whole Food have clear 'values' beyond that of pure profitability, which draw uniquely-committed workers and contribute to the overall value of the organization. At my company, the fact that the organization is so old and well-respected has created a coherent corporate culture that inspires workers.

However, it should be noted that even the best companies sometimes have to change their visions to continue to motivate employees. For example, at my organization, one common complaint amongst female employees for many years was that the organization was insufficiently concerned with their need for flextime and for parental leave. Many top female employees complained this created a 'glass ceiling' which they could not break through to get to upper-level managerial ranks, even though the company paid lip service to the need for diversity and had an active EEOC-compliant policy. As more and more women obtained the qualifications and experiences for higher-level positions, it was necessary for the company to 'change with the times.' These policies are now better integrated into our employee benefits packages and there is also more attention to sensitivity training in the workplace, to create a more pleasant environment for all workers, regardless of gender. The fact that the company has taken physical actions to improve conditions has improved the motivational level of female employees. More women are in positions of power and also, overall women are less tired and stressed because of the new policies that take into consideration their lifestyle needs.

The third critical component of employee engagement, effectiveness, is the area in which corporations are often criticized for falling short upon their duties. Employees must feel as if they can be effective in their positions, which requires a good match of employees' skill sets to their required jobs; an organizational hierarchy that works well together and fosters cooperation between employees and work teams; and employee training and retraining when necessary. A Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) 2011 Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement Survey found that the "four aspects of employee career and professional development" found to be most lacking were that of a lack of job-specific training; the "organization's commitment to professional development," and career development and advancement opportunities (Healthfield 2011).

In this respect, the volatility of our industry and changes in technology have actually helped rather than hurt us in the long run. Because technology within the transportation industry has changed so rapidly, we are constantly forced to make investments in employee retraining and must regularly reevaluate the critical skills and abilities required for every position. We have improved the… [read more]

Human Behavior in Organizations Understanding Term Paper

… Managers who have a strong sense and ignore their weaknesses on the self-evaluation report should welcome the fact that people have weaknesses, and work on them to improve their leadership skills. Self-evaluation helps in discovering the abilities and disabilities of… [read more]

Human Resource Information Systems Essay

… Human Resource Information Systems: Wal-Mart

Identify HRM and business technologies that maximize organizational effectiveness, workforce productivity, and systems integration.

Wal-Mart is one of the powerful retail brands in the warehouse retail industry. The organization has an effective and efficient reputation… [read more]

Conflict Resolution Management Message Strategies Research Paper

… Conflict Resolution and Management Strategies



Conflict can be defined as a disagreement between two or more persons or groups on any particular issue/issues. It is a situation in which one person or group perceives that its interests are opposed by other person or group. Conflict can be defined differently in different situation; it can be a war, an opportunity or a journey (Buchnan & Huczynski, 1997).

Conflicts are also very common in organizations in the form of clashes that occur when the behaviour of one group frustrates or blocks the goals of another group of the organization (Buchnan & Huczynski, 1997). The conflicts in an organization can be between management-management, management-employees or employees-employees. Organizational conflicts must be resolved in order to grow, survive and make the required changes. According to a survey conducted by the American Management Association, 24% time of the managers during a working day is spent in resolving conflicts (Guttman, 2004).

Pattern of Communication in Conflict Management

People respond to differences of opinions with different reactions. There are different ways to deal with the differences; ignoring the differences, embracing differences, fighting differences and transforming differences. However, when differences become a problem, conflict needs to resolve with the help of strategies and management styles.

Conflict Resolution Strategies

Conflict resolution takes place when the conflicting persons or groups are willing to discuss, understand each other's concerns and resolve the conflict despite of disagreements. Conflict resolution strategies can be described in terms of winning and losing. The strategies can be divided into following three categories (Singh, 2008):

1. Win Lose Strategy: In this strategy, one party or group loses and one wins. This strategy is considered as unsatisfactory because there are higher chances of conflict at later stages.

2. Lose-Lose Strategy: A third party is involved to reach to a decision as both parties are lose in making a deal. The decision made by third party is hardly accepted by both conflicting parties.

3. Win-Win Strategy: This strategy results in satisfying outcome for both of the parties as the purpose is to solve the problem of both parties.

Conflict Management Styles

The two different components or behaviors for responding to conflicts are Assertiveness and Cooperation. Assertiveness is a behavior used when trying to resolve own concern while cooperation is behaviour used when understanding or satisfying other party's concerns. These two components are not opposite to each other but are used in different conflict situation and can be divided in to five different management styles (Singh, 2008).

1. Avoid Conflicting:

This management style involves low assertiveness and low cooperation because people who avoid conflicts are less cooperative and unasserted. Many people also avoid conflict because they do not have confidence in their conflict management skills. This management style can be used when the issues are not very important or when no one is ready to take the responsibility. Avoiding skills include ability to…… [read more]

Procurement Proposals Business Proposal

… Planning and Project Management

The process of planning procurements is a multi-step process that involves the task of selecting the items that need to be purchased, at what time and from what source (Lynch). it's a nuanced and detailed process that involves assessing current needs with future needs as well as looking at the "small picture" in conjunction with the "big picture." "During the procurement planning process the procurement method is assigned and the expectations for fulfillment of procurement requirements determined" (Lynch). Procurement planning is vital to any organization because it helps one zero in on the decisions and selection process and to focus on the sources. Furthermore, it helps planners asses how realistic their expectations are: "particularly the expectations of the requesting entities, which usually expect their requirements met on short notice and over a shorter period than the application of the corresponding procurement method allows" (Lynch). Furthermore, one should view all the steps as an opportunity to meet and discuss all connected requirements while fostering the creation of a general procurement strategy, such as a market survey and choosing the relevant procurement method given the current situation and requirements (Lynch). It also gives planners time to evaluate the time needed to complete the process and to delegate; this also offers a crucial snapshot to determine if the requirements can be completed within the expected period and by the parties involved (Lynch). During this time, one can discover if there is a need for added technical help for further developing technical specifications and to evaluate the feasibility of combining or separating different needs into different packages.

The first step in this process involves identifying opportunities. "Opportunities are usually triggered by a business requirement for a product or service. Material requirements might include: equipment, components, raw materials, completely finished products. Service requirements might include: computer programmers, hazardous waste handlers transportation carriers, maintenance service providers" (Handfield, 2011). During this process, other needs and opportunities will likely identify themselves. The next steps involve analyzing the situation, undertaking strategic analysis, undergoing a case study and then developing a strategic sourcing plan (Handfield, 2011).

The procurement statement of work is a vital document that presents an accurate snapshot of the job ahead and needs to have clear definitions and details. This document "…defines the scope of the work for a related procurement contract. In addition to the scope of work, it includes project objectives, specifications for the products or services being procured, project schedule and any other detail needed by the seller to be able to deliver the products or services" (, 2013).

There are several reasons why a project manager should buy scope from a seller. One is to expand the intellectual base (Fleming, 2003). Another is to have the ability to downsize, if circumstances prove them necessary (Fleming, 2003). Finally, relationships with suppliers often bring resources, facilities, investments and equipment (Fleming, 2003).

One of the main differences between a Request for Proposal (RFP) and a Request for Quote (RFQ) is that a… [read more]

Leadership and Self-Evaluation Term Paper

… On the other hand, few make an attempt to quantify the contribution achieved by human capital. A well defined human capital strategy should be developed to handle the vast organizational demands. The strategy should encompass an effective culture, a good organizational model, talent, transformational leadership, and goals that focus on investment in people. Knowledge in the organization commences and ends with people (Borkowski 2009, p.236). The expertise and experience that the employees come along with forms the greatest driver of the success of the organization. The contribution of the employees aid in building, maintaining, improving and preserving the organization. The term "human capital" forms a graphic identification that the members of staff are typically valuable to the organization. They are seen as assets that preserve the knowledge base of the organization. Realizing that people form an important part of the production process facilitates the management of human resource.this is because the future of the company is more dependent on the knowledge base than on what the organization owns.


Adler, N.J., & gundersen, a. (2008). International dimensions of organizational behavior. Mason, ohio, thomson/south-western.

Hiriyappa, B. (2009). Organizational behaviour. New delhi, new age international publishers.

Borkowski, N (2011). Organizational behavior in health care. Sudbury, mass, jones and bartlett publishers.

Staw, B.M. (2006). Research in…… [read more]

How Would Socialization Occur Differently Between an Mechanistic and Organic Organization Explain the Cvf Typology? Term Paper

… Culture

A mechanistic culture exhibits many qualities common to a bureaucracy. Bureaucracy is typically characterized with clear and distinct role designations. In addition, bureaucracies have many layer and clear lines of authority. These layers typically create a culture of methodical, slow action, with little room for flexibility. Organizational roles are centered, primarily around narrow specifications such as "finance," or "accounting." Through these forms of mechanistic culture, departments tend to be loyal to one another within their direct reports. However, as the case with many bureaucracies, inter-departmental animosity may arise due primarily to allocation of capital or funds. A mechanistic culture often resists change as it is a deviation from the accustomed norms of the organization.

In regards to socialization, many of the above elements become more profound. For instance, socialization agents are typically supervisors or managers in which the individual reports directly to. These socialization agents tend to create clear expectations in regards to role responsibility and performance evaluations. In addition, supervisors tend to focus solely on the delivery of pre-determined metrics rather than the individual. During the pre-employment stage of socialization, individuals often focus on their narrowly define role, mentioned earlier. They tend to focus on observations of co-workers and other socialization agents. In a mechanistic structure, many of the prevailing attitudes, principles and though processes are similar to one another. As such, the pre-employment phase has the individual getting acquainted with these behaviors and characteristics. During the encounter stage, a mechanistic culture often tests expectations of the individual. This comes in the form of supervisor socialization agents through performance reviews and feedback regarding expectations. The final stage of role management the individual may become better acquainted with his role and assimilate within the organization, or chose another role within the bureaucratic structure of the organization. If the latter option is chosen, then the entire process starts over in regards to socialization.

Now in an organic organization, the process of socialization is vastly different. In an organic organization, the departmental boundaries, hierarchy, levels of authority, and regulations are vastly diminished. The emphasis is instead placed on task completion, team work, candor, and the free flow of information. The culture emphasizes flexibility, change, and innovation. Socialization therefore tends to focus on individuals and the overall skillset they provide. Tasks are often multifaceted requiring new and innovative solutions. External competition is generally fierce, requiring the organization to adapt and change quickly. The socialization agents in this form of organization tend to have a more entrepreneurial culture that relies heavily on acquired divergent skills. An individual may be required to conduct financing activities while also being a sales consultant. Socialization agents are often working together for the common goal of the organization which results in very random occurrences.

Now, both forms of socialization do have similarities. For instance, both have some for authoritarian role and clear roles. In an organic organization, employees know and realize the CEO of the organization just as they would in a mechanistic organization. Both have socialization agents… [read more]

Principles and Practices Marketing Plan

… Communication Management Plan

Life Alive

Life Alive was founded by Heidi Feinstein, a natural health consultant with the aim of promoting the importance of organic produce, eating fresh, and whole grains. The goal of the manager for the cafe is… [read more]

Automotive Used Parts Industry Term Paper

… The organizations within the industry will focus on the minimization of the cost of carrying inventories hence the opportunity of keeping inventory levels at the optimum. The other benefit of the three critical aspects of inventory management relates to the… [read more]

HRM Issues Research Report an Organization Essay

… ¶ … HRM Issues Research Report

An organization has several departments such as finance, marketing, logistics, administration and human resource. Human resource management or HRM is responsible for the management of organizations' employees. The prime function of HR is recruitment,… [read more]

Construction Project Risk Management Research Paper

… Construction Project Risk Management

The nature of the construction market

The nature of the construction tasks makes the sector one-of-a-kind because the production centers or plants mostly need to relocate to the construction website (Chapman, 2001). There are lots of… [read more]

Construction Project Risk Management Research Paper

… Construction Project Risk Management

Risk management is the process of identification, assessment and prioritization of risk to minimize uncertainties within a project lifecycle. Risk management is a management tool aiming to identify the risks and uncertainties as well as determining… [read more]

Emergency Management Disaster Planning. Unesco Article Review

… Disaster planning issues

As stated a disaster plan comprises of four phases the first phase is prevention which comprises of the identification and minimization of risks which can be posed within a building, fitting, equipment as well as the natural hazards that are found in natural hazards of an area. There can be inspection of buildings as well as alter factors that are potentially hazardous. It also involves the establishment of routine maintenance measures that will enable the building to withstand disaster. Installation of automatic detectors incase of fires .The next phase is the preparedness phase involves getting ready to cope with the disaster incase it actually happens. A written plan on preparedness, response and recovery should be in place, functioning and up-to -- date there should also be training of an in-house response steam for disasters. There should be documentation of building, inventory, names and contacts of response teams, disaster control services and so on. The plan should be distributed to all locations considered appropriate. Response is another phase of the disaster plan. Incase disaster actually strikes there should be set procedures to be followed. These include following emergency procedures in place for raising an alarm, personnel evacuation and ensuring the disaster site Is safe. The leader of the disaster response team should be contacted to brief and give direction to salvage personnel. Stabilizing the environment is important to ensure that no further damage occurs. There should be procedures in place that will ensure that appropriate people are alerted and are assembled quickly in case of disaster occurrence (Community Service Center, 2012).

Application of article

The article is very important as it talks about the causes of disaster and how disaster can be managed. The course is quite applicable as it clearly gives pointers on the phases of a disaster plan. The information from the article is in line with the course materials. The author could have expanded on the main point through giving detailed explanation instead of just pointing out key words.

Aspects of recovery

Also part of the disaster plan is the recovery phase. This involves the getting back to normal state after the disaster has occurred. It entails the establishment of programs to be used in restoring the site and damaged materials into conditions that are stable and usable. Establishment of priorities when it comes to restoration work to be done is also important. A phase conservation program should be in place .item that are not worth being retained are discarded and replaced. The disaster site is then cleaned and rehabilitated and insurers contacted so that they can replace what has been damaged.


Unesco. (2009). Disaster Planning. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from

Community Service Center.(2012). Post-Disaster Recovery Planning for Catastrophic Disasters .Retrieved April 19, 2013 from… [read more]

Change Management Essay

… Consolidate Improvement and Produce Still More Change

Since failure is caused by early declaration in mind, the seventh step by Kotter requires quick implementation of changes that have been achieved even in production of additional change. Concisely, the momentum should be maintained. The more your staff gains knowledge and agrees to need for the business change, the more positively they are bound to respond to the process of change. The staff members of the organization invest themselves in the duties they perform in the organization. The organization should be aware the knowledge of these duties making significant contributions to financial security, professional development, self-confidence, purpose or sense and identity. Changes that influence their duties may have a big personal and professional outcome (Goonan & American Society for Quality, 2009).

Benchmarking is defined as the process of evaluating services, products, and processes and compares them against the ones for the organization, which are understood to be leaders existing in more or one aspect of their functions. Benchmarking comes up with the necessary insights that one requires to have the knowledge of understanding the subject organization compared with other existing organizations even if they operate different business or is filled with different customer group (Patton, 2011). Benchmarking is accompanied with many reasons. Having full knowledge of the significant reasons allows managers to carry out their investigations carefully and obtain maximum benefits. The most significant benefits include the requirements of the end-user are met appropriately, the correct productivity measures are determined, attainment of competitive position, sorting and awareness of the best practice existing in the industry, and establishment of objectives based on the external conditions perspective. The process of benchmarking is an objective setter (Slatter & Lovett, 2009).

Leading global corporations have been using the strategy of engaging the right people to manage resistance during the change process. These include front line managers, middle supervisors and senior managers. This strategy has not been an effective tool in fighting resistance. In the end, it requires the leadership to act in managing resistance. This can be achieved if the leadership demonstrates high levels of commitment to the underlying change. While analysis and benchmarking are likely to spot the source of resistance, resistance must be addressed at the individual level. This can be achieved through personal discussions between supervisors and resisting employees (Baker, 2009).


Schlachter, T., & Hildebrant, T. (2012). Leading business change for dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Patton, Q. (2011). Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. New York: Guilford Press.

Baker, T. (2009). The eight values of highly productive companies: Creating wealth from a new employment relationship. Bowen Hills, Qld: Australian Academic Press.

Slatter, S.S.P., & Lovett, D. (2009). Corporate recovery: Managing companies in distress. Washington, D.C: Beard Books.

Goonan, K.J., & American Society for Quality. (2009). Journey to excellence: How…… [read more]

Management Information Systems as it Applies to Public Administration Article Review

… Management information System is described as an information system which ensures a consistent provision of reports that are used in managerial monitoring and control of resources, functions, or other responsibility regarding an organization. Information that are provided by management information system are used in managing a sector or firm effectively and efficient. Contrary to other information systems, management information systems analyze and facilitate strategic and operation activities.

Management Information Systems assist the personnel to effectively plan, design, manage, as well as use information systems resources in supporting information needs of an organization. However, professional and managers within every organization should be equipped with basic understanding concerning the roles and nature of information technologies that are essential to the running of the organization effectively. Moreover, they should be equipped with computer application basic knowledge and appreciations that are of significance to proper functioning of organization as well as web application, databases, and web application.

Accessing data and the capacity to organize, process, as well as manipulate it, assist in creating the type of information that is important to complete a productive work. These organizations rely on information that they use in supporting their management, operation, and staff. Employee and supervisors as well depend substantially on information in terms of performing their work and carrying out planning and monitoring organizational tasks and services for which they perform. The requirement is to transmit information to others in the organization, to clients, to the public and to other organizations.

Success of an organization will always depend on customers and clients receiving accurate information. In the government, nonprofit, health care, as well as other sectors, the complexity in terms of relation among departments, levels, and units, makes information storage, retrieval, and transmission to be critical factors in achieving a desired productivity. Therefore, information definitely forms the fundamental organizational resource. These resources management tend to be an essential managerial function. Other critical managerial functions are in planning, designing, and supporting the needed systems in delivering information to organizational stakeholders in a timely manner.

In terms of management…… [read more]

Organizational Design Decentralization Is a Process Essay

… Organizational Design

Decentralization is a process in which the responsibility and authority for some functions are transferred from a central location (be it organization, government, etc.) to communities, the private sector, or regional/local offices. Decentralization can take many forms, as shown in Figure 1. One of the primary requirements of decentralization is delegation which, in a sense, is a more extensive form of decentralization. Delegation means giving more responsibility to other levels to free up resources at the upper organizational levels. Delegation may be done in all types of organizations; and is an important part of managerial and organizational theory. Delegation is passing down responsibility to carry out specific actions; or a shift of decision-making authority from one organizational level to a lower one. This is not abdicating responsibility, but simply allows a shift so that more appropriate resources are used for the particular project or issue (Lannon, 2008).

Part 2 - as noted, matrix structures can be complex because the follow more than one paradigm of operation. The productivity, innovation and creativity may be increased, and managers are more able to solve complex problems through regular interaction. However, according to authors Hax and Majlut, there are several conditions that must be met to consider using a Matrix Organizational Model.

One example that seems appropriate in the contemporary business environment is the pressure for shared resources. Most organizations have downsized as much as possible due to the economic pressures from 2007 on, particularly in it. Cloud computing and other technological advances have reduced the number of it people needed to support an organization. In a matrix system, high efficiency and expertise are needed, which forces the sharing of human resources and professional experience. Using a matrix model, an it person could perform their regular duties while still maintaining a productive relationship with the matrix team. This would be similar with marketing, advertising, and planning personnel as well. By working in…… [read more]

Organization What Is an Organizational Essay

… An organization that is designed from a scientific management perspective thus has many levels and many ways to distinguish among those levels.

The term ideal bureaucracy may strike some as an oxymoron because the term bureaucracy is often used as a codeword for organizational inefficiency and administrative inflexibility. In reality ideal bureaucracy simply represents one idea or theory of how human activity should be organized. Most attribute the development of ideal bureaucracy to Max Weber, who is generally credited with being one of the pioneers of the macro side of organizational psychology. Weber, as you may recall, wore many intellectual hats and made contributions to history, economics, political science, and sociology during his lifetime. In Weber's time, there were few organizations in the form that we see them today. Instead, a great many "organizations" of his era were loosely run family businesses, or they consisted of an individual craftsman who worked independently. Given these organizational forms, there was not a great need for organizing, per se.

The term administrative management was first coined by Henri Fayol, who was an engineer by training and eventually became the chief executive of a French mining company. Fayol (1984) sought to develop a relatively universal set of organizing principles for managers to apply in organizations. To give these principles meaning, however, Fayol presented them in the context of the activities of managers, or behaviors he called management functions. According to Fayol, the major functions of managers included planning, organizing, commanding, coordination, and controlling. The principles that Fayol proposed were designed to assist managers in carrying out these essential functions.


McKenna, D.D., & Wright, P.M. (1992). Alternative metaphors for organizational design. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 901 -- 960). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Taylor, F.W. (1911). Principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.

Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.) New York: Free Press.

Fayol, H. (1984).…… [read more]

Ethics Imagine Term Paper

… The leaders at all levels are not always held accountable for their ethical conduct. They are not always held accountable because of the open ended and loose structure of the organization. There are no tighter controls on the leaders and… [read more]

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