Study "Management / Organizations" Essays 56-109

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Managing Conflicts in Business Relationships Research Paper

… Managing Conflicts

Executive Summary the question of whether conflict is good for organizations divides academic researchers and real world practitioners. While conflict is acknowledged to have some benefits, real world managers are hesitant to make use of conflict and take… [read more]


Management in Spite of the Modifications Essay

… ¶ … Management

In spite of the modifications within the micro and macro environments, the number one goal of economic agents remains that of registering profits. Still, they now do this by placing a significantly greater emphasis on the needs… [read more]


Community Organization and Evaluate How it Leverages Thesis

… ¶ … Community Organization and Evaluate How it Leverages Community Assets and Develops Partnerships

To Address A Social Problem

ORGANIZATION & MISSION

The stated 'mission' of the organization chose for evaluation in this present study is that of the City… [read more]


Managing Homeland Security Essay

… Managing Homeland Security

You were recently selected as the Emergency Management Coordinator for a medium-sized city. Your position didn't exist in that city before you came along. You have been asked to submit a couple page write up for the… [read more]


Organizational Performance. This Study Pointed Out Essay

… ¶ … organizational performance. This study pointed out that while some association between HR policies and performance was obvious, there were no clearly defined factors as to why and how such an association existed. This, Purcell termed as the 'black… [read more]


Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts the Ability Thesis

… Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts

The ability of any organization to attain its' objectives and strategies is directly correlated to their ability to turn organizational behavior into a sustainable competitive advantage. The intent of this paper is to evaluate the foundational elements of organizational behavior including culture, diversity, communication, business ethics and change management.

Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts

The complexities of organizational behavior resist discrete delineations and instead invite a more cohesive, coordinated approach to studying this area of management. There are many factors that influence organizational behavior, many of which resist quantification yet are essential for the successful functioning of an organization. A subset of these factors is discussed in this paper including organizational culture, diversity, communication, business ethics and change management. Taken together, these concepts form the foundation of describing what organizational behavior's implications are for companies pursuing their objectives.

The essence of organizational behavior centers on the study of how the interactions of people acting individually and within groups influence the execution of strategies within organizations (Zohar, Tenne-Gazit, 2008). The study of organizational behavior centers on triangulating the efforts in an organization to achieve human, social and organizational objectives. One of the most challenging aspects of organizational behavior is when a corporation begins the new product development and introduction (NPDI) process. Of all shared processes that corporations contend with, the launch of new products is the most challenging due to the high level of process and role-based synchronization across many different departments. It is in fact a proof point for how effective any given organization is at managing its human resources and creating a culture that embraces change and the need to continually improve. In addition the NPDI also requires a very high level of accountability within organizations as each department and its team members must contribute to the effort for the overall product launch to be successful. Because of all these factors, it is considered a process that validates or refutes the extend to which human resources, corporate culture, process integration, clarity of communication, and change management are present or absent in any given corporation.

Cultures are undergoing more change than ever before in companies, and is defined as a set of values, beliefs, assumptions, principles, myths, legends, and norms that define how people think, decide, perform, and achieve their goals inside companies. Schein (1994) defines culture as..."a basic set of assumptions that defines for us what we pay attention to, what things mean, and how to react emotionally to what is going on, and what actions to take in various kinds of situations." Culture is considered by many researchers… [read more]


Management and Leadership Examine the Roles Term Paper

… Management and Leadership

Examine the roles and responsibilities of leaders in creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture

In order to create a healthy organizational culture, Disney is one of the few organizations which at one point was prepared to… [read more]


Management and Leadership All the Answers Term Paper

… Management and Leadership

All the answers to the questions pertain to General Electrics during the period when Jack Welch was CEO, from 1981 to 2003.

The roles of the leaders are both in creating and in maintaining a healthy organizational… [read more]


Miami Dade Emergency Management Office Term Paper

… Miami Dade Emergency Management Office

Miami Dade County Emergency Management Office - Bibliography notes

This paper will present the definition of the Miami Dade County Emergency Management organization, highlighting its operations and achievements. Further more we will discuss how this institution works, monitoring the activity of a volunteer association - NVOAD. In the end, the author will present his thoughts and ideas on this matter.

The present reality is characterized by important modifications in the actual state of things, related especially to the environment but also on the man's actions targeted at the environment. Two of the most used words nowadays are 'disasters' and 'terrorism'. The human kind is faced with natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, tsunami and related unfortunate events, as well as acts of terror and terrorism created by different nationalist or religious movements that militate for some ideals of theirs. In the first case, the natural events are produced by an indirect intervention and intrusion of humans in the normal state of things and events related to earth and its cycles. On the other hand, in the second case, terrorism is the result of direct human actions oriented toward citizens from other states or having different religions. Even if based on our example, the reader may understand that humans have a negative influence on the environment and the people around them, there is a group of volunteers with national action plan to say the contrary. In the next paragraphs, we shall discuss and exemplify the activity of the Miami Date County Emergency Management Organization, therein referred as MDCEM. (250)

Miami Date County Emergency Management Organization

MDCEM is an aid organization, set-up in order to help other individuals in situations were their life or their belongings are threatened, as it is the case of hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and so on. The objective of this volunteer organization, as it was simply put on the official website, is to diminish the impact of disasters and potential natural catastrophes by using its resources for planning, responding and managing information so that people can be saved.

This support organization's actions are supported on two pillars - prevention and taking action. Let us discuss each at a time. The negative effects of natural catastrophes can be limited by the prevention process. The prevention includes social aspects related to finding ways to prevent the natural disaster - such as organizing public debates, studies and meetings on the topic of the pollution reduction and derived subjects. Pollution is known as the main cause for a series of environmental incidents - the fastening process of the global warning with inevitable consequences for the Earth's inhabitants. Coming back to the prevention process, the monitoring is an essential key for preventing environmental disasters. In this sense,… [read more]


Organization Theory and Behavior Term Paper

… ORGANIZATION THEORY & BEHAVIOR

As we are entering the era of globalization, the world is changing, the technological page is much faster, the wealth of rich countries is slowly distributed to poorer countries, which in turn become consumer and/or production… [read more]


Knowledge Management in the Automotive Industry Term Paper

… Knowledge Management in the Automotive Industry

The Current and Potential Use of Knowledge Management within the Automotive Industry

Automotive Industry Analysis

Current Use of Knowledge Management in Automotive

Potential Future

The automotive industry's use of knowledge management is progressing from… [read more]


Human Resource Management Term Paper

… Some of the methodologies in that eminently readable text on team training might not be immediately amicable to more reserved cultural environments and climates, although it is, I believe, to my own environment, although not to every manager I have talked to in other organizations in my industry.

The Management of a Multicultural Workforce makes a persuasive and useful argument for the value of diversity education in all organizations. The nature of the education may vary according to the organization's size and composition of the employee and employer's backgrounds. Diversity education may seem more necessary in large organizations with individual of varied backgrounds, or reorganizing companies with a work staff from different organizational management environments and cultures. But still, diversity education and flexibility and tolerance in any organization cannot be ignored. The emphasis on the implications of national and organizational cultures for human resource management practices all firms of varying sizes remains key to coping with tomorrow's challenges. The text offers practical solution options as well as a historical context to the evolving concept of what constitutes a culture and notions of diversity. Finally, the text also provides potent statistical and real-life anecdotal evidence of the importance and the richness of such diversity for employees on a personal level, as well as how diversity is an asset, economically, to a company. Most importantly of all, The Management of a Multicultural Workforce highlights in a realistic rather than an idealistic fashion the tensions that will inevitable arise in newly heterogeneous settings at home and abroad, and the way that diversity education in human resource management practices can be translated and transported across… [read more]


Organizational Behavior Study Guide Chapter Term Paper

… Organizational Behavior Study Guide

Chapter 2 Study Guide- the high performance organization

High performance organizations deploy Total Quality Management strategies that are customer-responsive, as South West Airlines did in regards to keeping cost low, despite the expansion of the company. It knew what its customers desired, and continued this effective 'brand strategy.' Yet the company also responded to its employee's needs for flexible and challenging jobs, and treated employees with respect. Also, organizationally it was cost effective, as from the Southwest's organizational hierarchy was flat and lean, comprised of CEO, department heads, managers, supervisors, and employees and thus responsive to the challenges faced by the airline industry after 9-11 that leveled so many other businesses.

Global Dimensions of Organizational Behavior

Wal-Mart initially had difficulty deploying its United States advantages internationally because of its difficulty of integrating the unique company culture into that of European attitudes towards marketing. Its stress upon cheer, for example, was incomprehensible to its German staff, in terms of… [read more]


Public Management TQM -- Total Term Paper

… True, to analyze its philosophy of applying quantitative strategies to qualitative or subjective management goals such as improved production or employee attitudes, TQM does have considerable overlap with Jack Welch's Six Sigma school of management. But although Six Sigma may have a different structured or brand named trademark of buzzword verbs, to engage in a synthesis of these two different programs is certainly possible.

Ultimately most successful management programs deploy at least something similar to the core TQM philosophy of management. TQM stresses that the areas being measured by management must be important to the customers. Each measurement must be part of a defined and documented process. What is being measured in each measurement should be clearly defined and feasibly remedied by managers and supervisors. Also, when engaging in an evaluation, TQM stresses amongst its core principles that the employees in a TQM organization must "believe they can do something to streamline or improve the process; knowledge and authority to make changes," and "rust that their actions will be focused on the process, not the people involved." (Hunicke, 2001)

The branding of 'Total Quality Management' may or may not be a relatively permanent feature of the management landscape but this stress upon concrete and positive change will and must remain integral to American and international management efforts. Certainly, as a manager, using the full TQM process within any organization could and would improve the processes at work. Instead of passing the buck and passing the blame to a few scape-goated individual employees, organizational structures would be held accountable for failings to come up to standard and more easily remedied had not TQM been implemented.

Works Cited

Wayne J. Hunicke. (2001) "How To Implement A TQM Process." TQM. Retrived on July 14, 2004 at Advantage Systems Website http://www.dbainc.com/public_html/dba2/library/meawork.html [read more]


Human Resource Management the Importance Essay

… A written job description and definition are the keys to communicating job expectations to people. Do the best job you can! is terrible job guidance.

Employees chosen on the basis of the best person available are more effective than those chosen on the basis of friendship or expediency.

If specific job expectations are clearly spelled out, and if performance appraisals are based on these expectations, performance is higher. Also, employee train- ing results in higher performance if it is based on measurable learning objectives." http://www.bizoffice.com/library/files/human.txt

The paper has discussed the relative importance of the human resource management with specific reference to the importance and scope of the subject. The paper has discussed and presented the viewpoints regarding the assertion "Staff are the most important resource in any organization and its cost should be regarded as an investment rather than an expensive item of expenditure"; this assertion has been critically examined with specific reference to the sports management and related organization. The paper has proved the fact that this statement is not true and effective for the sports management. The conclusion will be further discussed by answering the following questions:

Does the study support or reject your hypothesis?

The hypothesis statement is related to the importance of staff, the importance of human resource management and the relative techniques of the human resource management in sports management. The study has critically examine the hypothesis statement "Staff are the most important resource in any organization and its cost should be regarded as an investment rather than an expensive item of expenditure" and therefore, it rejects the hypothesis.

Does the study support or contradict previous research?

The study supports the previous researches and the findings and information related to the hypothesis statement are all added in the study so as to provide the readers with the effective information regarding the human resource management and the importance of staff.

Is the study conclusive or is further research needed?

Human resource management is a growing field therefore; further research is needed in order to know the relative importance of the human resource management and the importance of staff.

What are the implications of this research to the discipline?

This research study will provide the readers with all the relative information regarding the hypothesis statement and the readers ill understand the fact that the assertion "Staff are the most important resource in any organization and Its cost should be regarded as an investment rather than an expensive item Of expenditure" is not at all true with respect to the sports management. This research study will prove effective and beneficial for the readers who want to know about the relative aspects of human's resource management with specific reference to sports management. The information and findings re collected from various websites and these information are provided in the research study so as to provide the readers with relative background and authentic information based on sports management and the importance of staff. All the evidences and related researches prove that… [read more]


Headless Chickens Describes an Organization Term Paper

… This 360 degree study can help track the evolution of the leadership styles. A few years later, Avolio and Bass (1991) introduced leadership theoretical models which included three styles of leadership.

Transformational leaders are those who guide followers in the… [read more]


Organizational Development Term Paper

… Organizational development theory has always been a multifaceted discipline, incorporating not only business theory but "a wide range of theoretical influences including social psychology, group dynamics, psychotherapy, industrial- organizational psychology, participative management, and sociology" (Church & Jamieson, 2014: 2). Today, organizational development has been profoundly affected by globalization and changes in technology. The reading identifies three different perspectives on the change as traditional, pragmatic, and scholarly (Cummings & Worley, 2010: 693). Traditionalists stress the need for organizations to emphasize employees having a better work-life balance and humanistic values such as diversity, spirituality, and self-actualization (Cummings & Worley, 2010: 693). Supporting the organization requires supporting the humanity of employees. In stark contrast, the pragmatic trend emphasizes enhancing employee effectiveness by setting performance outcomes and work processes in a quantitative fashion and emphasizing metrics as a way of forcing employees to set a higher bar for performance. Finally, the scholarly trend emphasizes expanding formal research to help understand change and to enhance the results of change through validated best practices and methods (Cummings & Worley, 2010: 695). These perspectives are not mutually exclusive, of course.

Factors particularly influential in the field of organizational development include changes in the structure of the economy; developments in technology; evolving perspectives of management; organizational size; globalization; the need for greater teamwork; and industrialization. Globalization has been particularly influential in creating a more diverse workforce. Integrating this workforce can potentially improve productivity and innovation but must be done so in a systematic and intelligent fashion for the benefits to be reaped. Corresponding with an expansion in technology and innovation, there has also been a demand for greater environmental sustainability which will also affect organizations in the future. Consumer demographics are also changing which will affect how organizations will deliver goods: traditional marriages and household divisions mean that the traditional target of the nuclear family is no more in many countries. Political developments affect educational levels, choices of occupation, and therefore the budget and personal resource allocations of consumers. What is most interesting,… [read more]


Science and Art of Management Term Paper

… They can invest time in employees and train them. As a result, the whole organization will benefit from a skilled and trained workforce. This frame works on the notion that the structure of an organization is a beautiful but hollow shell if it does not allow the people to use their intelligence and energy to assist the organization. (Bolman and Deal)

The human relations frame works on the following assumptions:

Organization are made to fulfil the demands of human beings and not vice versa.

The relationship between the organizations and people is a need-based relation and both the sides need each other.

If the equation of relationship between an individual and an organization is asymmetric, the individual and the organization both will suffer.

On the other hand, if the equation is balanced, both sides will benefit from the relationship. (Bolman and Deal)

Political Frame

This frame works on the notion that the structure of an organization is bound to fail. There are places where structure and rationality will not work. The frame portrays the idea that the structure is eventually taken over by office politics. People gather and talk about what is correct and incorrect in the organization and this leads to a chain reaction which triggers politics. According to this frame, politics is the right way to make decisions for an organization. (Bolman and Deal)

The political frame works on the following assumptions:

Organizations are associations consisting of different people and groups.

There are certain differences between the thinking, perception and beliefs of these people. These beliefs change really slowly.

Allocation of scarce resources is the most important decision made by organizations.

Hence, the decisions of an organization are related to allocation of resources among people, with power being the most important resource. This leads to conflict.

The final decision is reached by bargaining and struggling to get a good position among all the groups. (Bolman and Deal)

Symbolic Frame

The symbolic frame is the most unconventional of the four frames described by Bolman and Deal. It works on the notion that the organization and its ups and downs cannot be measured and controlled. It is dependent on the culture of the organization rather than calculations and measurement. The symbolic frame makes the management see beyond the normal tangible elements to find out the factors that matter the most. These factors are embedded to the culture of the organization. The symbolic frame does not approve negativity like the political frame. (Bolman and Deal)

The following assumptions rule the symbolic frame:

The most important thing about an event is not what happened but what meaning was interpreted out of it.

Two same events may not have the same meaning. It depends on who suffered from the event and how did they interpret it.

The events that happen in complex organizations are normally very ambiguous and therefore, it is very difficult to find out how or why it happened.

As the level of ambiguity climbs, it becomes difficult to apply rational… [read more]


Christina Gold Leading Change at Western Union Case Study

… This creates awareness among the employees, thereby minimizing the resistance to change.

Facilitating the change process aids in the reduction of resistance to change. This entails leading by example to ensure the employee enumerate the desired behavior and become motivation to adopt the change. The company should communicate to the employees the new changes required by the company. This not only creates awareness among the employees, but also aligns the required organizational goals with that of the employees. Other strategies applicable in managing the issues include the provision of incentives, adopting effective leadership styles (transactional and transformational), and coercing the employees to adopt the required organizational change (Leban & Stone, 2008).

How well aligned is the new structure to the six strategies?

The organizational six strategies align with the goals and objectives of the new organizational structure. The intended organizational structure aims at decentralizing most of the organizational activities. This will improve the development and marketing of a global brand targeting all consumer segments. The new structure developed in the company aims at developing a global network of service providers. This aligns with the organizational strategy of enhancing a global distribution network. The new structure aims at increasing the number of employees recruited by the organization. This implies to its future development and growth of leaders within the company. Creating new offices expands the leadership positions for the employees hence, building their leadership skills. Consequently, these strategies ensure provision of excellent services to the consumers, maintaining the performance of the company (Konrad & Mitchell, 2005).

Recommendations

The company must adopt the most effective leadership styles to ensure the success of their strategies. This entails adopting leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles to facilitate the success of the interventions. These leadership styles promote the inclusion of the employees in most of the organizational activities and ensure the creation of an environment that foster open communication. The company should also introduce activities that increase employee autonomy, responsibility, and accountability. This entails providing them with the freedom to make decisions and supportive environment. This leads to their motivation and innovation hence, the success of the company and the reduction of incidences of resistance to change. The company should strive to adopt the new technology. This not only enhances the operational management in the company, but also enhances its competitiveness in the market place (Bessant & Tidd, 2013).

Conclusion

Change is important to an organization. It shapes its performance and behavior of the employees. It promotes the realization of the set organizational goals and objectives. However, resistance to change might affect the realization of the objectives of the desired change. Therefore, it is highly recommendable that, organizations adopt strategies aiming at minimizing incidences of resistance to change.

References

Bessant, J., & Tidd, J. (2013). Managing innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational change. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Konrad, A. & Mitchell, J. (2005). Christina Gold Leading Change at Western Union. Harvard Business Publishing. Product #906M07-PDF-ENG

Leban, B., & Stone, R. (2008). Managing organizational… [read more]


Grapevine in Organization Research Paper

… Grapevine in Organization

The Grapevine: An Overview

Treece and Kleen (as cited in Ferreira, Erasmus, and Groenewald, 2010) define the grapevine as a "person-to-person method of spreading rumors, gossip and information, by informal or unofficial conversation, letter writing, or the like" (p. 100). ABC on the other hand defines the grapevine as an informal communication likely to be in existence in most organizations. Although it surpasses the official channels of communication within an organization, the grapevine cannot be ignored. The sheer amount of information that is 'processed' through the grapevine sometimes surpasses that transmitted through the official channels of communication.

It is often assumed that being a social animal, man is likely to make use of informal channels of communication even in those instances where there are clear and well-defined formal channels in an organization. The grapevine is an informal business communication channel.

It is also assumed that the grapevine occurs 'naturally' once the distribution of information in the organization is stifled in one way or another. Employees in this case according to Sims (2002) try to fill the information vacuum by amongst other things "providing bits of information to each other, even if these are based on speculation rather than facts" (p. 156).

Although it does have its costs (as will be pointed out elsewhere in this text), the grapevine could be advantageous in some specific scenarios. To begin with, top managers of business entities could tap on this communication channel to 'test the waters' with regard to various ideas prior to implementation. One of those who have in the past leaked ideas to the grapevine in an attempt to test their relevance include Anita Roddick -- The Body Shop's founder (ABC). Roddick in this case successfully used the grapevine to know subordinates' reactions to various policies. In a hypothetical case, a C.E.O of a leading firm could for example be interested in finding out whether or not… [read more]


Perrier Company and Ajax Minerals Term Paper

… For example, if the management would take an initiative to lay down the current workforce and recruit more skilled and efficient workforce then this might lead towards the reduction in the powers of the union as the new workforce may not join the union and instead favor the initiatives and strategies of the management. (Blackard, 2000)

Approaches for Managing Resistance to Change

The Perrier Company can manage resistance to change in an effective manner by implementing a strategy that involves the following steps;

Education and Communication; the organization can eliminate the resistance of the employees by clear communicating the rationale for change at all the levels of hierarchy. This communication eliminates the misconceptions of the employees regarding the change and make them more flexible and acceptable in relation to the change. The management can communicate this change through memos and face-to-face meetings and discussions. (Docstoc, 2011)

Facilitation and Support; the management can also reduce the resistance of employees by providing them with proper assistance and support. Employees usually fear change and it makes them frustrated and tensed. The management can provide the employees with counselling and therapy sessions and it can also help them in enhancing their and competencies. But this technique can be a bit expensive so the management shall be careful while using this tool. (Docstoc, 2011)

Negotiations; the management shall negotiate with the union and the employees regarding the change. It shall try to bargain with them and shall provide them with rewards if they comply properly with the change. Such rewards motivate the employees to perform well and according to the needs of the management and they also satisfy the unions as they are beneficial for the employees. (Docstoc, 2011)

References

Blackard, K. (2000). Managing Change in a Unionized Workplace: Countervailing Collaboration. [e-book] Denver: Greenwood Press. p. 83. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=yUFzQmAyjgUC&pg=PA83&lpg=PA83&dq=how+do+unions+resist+change&source=bl&ots=-oJcYO1gvO&sig=JZilh2wgLehLY1_Q3i3CjfCYxUI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=h2sPUvbtFcKI4ASI_YCADw&ved=0CCwQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=how%20do%20unions%20resist%20change&f=false.

Lunenburg, F. (2010). Forces for and Resistance to Organizational Change. National Forum Of Educational Administration And Supervision Journal, 27 (4), p. 5. Retrieved from: http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fred%20C.%20Forces%20For%20and%20Resistance%20to%20Change%20NFEASJ%20V27%20N4%202010.pdf.

Unknown. (2011). Change Management; Resistance to Change. Docstoc. pp. 11-13. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/18867572/Change-Management-Issue-Resistance-to-Change.

Unknown. (2011). How to manage change. London: Acas. pp. 1-16. http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/d/b/Acas_How_to_manage_change (Jan_10)-accessible-version-Nov-2011.pdf.

Yuh-Shy, C. (2010). Individual Resistance from Employees to Organizational Change. Taiwan: Ching Yun University. pp. 1-5. http://www.jgbm.org/page/19%20Dr.%20Chuang,Yuh-Shy.pdf. [read more]


Developing Skills for Business Leadership Research Paper

… ¶ … Skills for Business Leadership

Executive Memorandum dated July 24, 2013

This memorandum describes the significance of the project, the nature of the topic addressed and the importance of the project.

This chapter provides a review of the relevant… [read more]


Public Administration the Role Case Study

… The use of these common identification codes is also depicted by the integration of information belonging to different sources which ultimately forms the basis for the comprehensive presentation of information.

Information is classified in the MIS on the basis of… [read more]


Management Course the Reasons Essay

… This is because throughout the course I learned that it is very important that managers properly plan the activities their subordinates are involved in. In addition to this, it is very important to control activities within the company in order to counteract the effects of certain environmental factors that can influence the activity of companies (Management Study Guide, 2011). I consider the advice of professors to continue to expand on knowledge regarding planning and controlling to be very useful.

Benefits of the Course

The Principles of Management course has benefitted me in numerous situations. As mentioned above, theories on management can be successfully applied in most everyday situations. The time management techniques I learned in this course helped me better organize my activities and to make the most of my time. Such techniques can be used by all individuals in order to improve their performance.

In addition to this, the course is very useful as a starting point for learning more on different topics regarding management. Although the course should be considered an introduction into the vast subject of management, it is course that presents useful information to managers. Therefore, I recommend this course to people that want to become managers, to improve their skills, and to improve their performance. The principles of Management course can be successfully used by people in different fields of work that want to improve their business.

Reference list:

1. Henry Fayol's 14 Principles of Management (2008). Management Innovations. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from http://managementinnovations.wordpress.com/2008/12/04/henri-fayols-14-principles-of-management/.

2. Clarck, D. (2010). Communication and Leadership. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcom.html.

3. Wong, R. (2000). Motivation: A Behavioral Approach. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=Vt6_hhe6DokC&printsec=frontcover&dq=motivation&hl=ro&ei=U-22TubeGYm5hAfSlLWhBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false.

4. Planning Function of Management (2011). Management Study Guide. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/planning_function.htm.

5. Controlling Function of Management (2011). Management Study Guide. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/controlling_function.htm. [read more]


Quality Management Approaches Six Sigma Research Paper

… ¶ … Quality Management Approaches

Six Sigma Quality Management

The Six Sigma Quality Management approach is based on two core concepts: (1) that business processes can (and should) be broken down into their component parts and standardized or optimized for maximum productivity, and (2) that the most effective method of instituting major changes in operational management in that regard is one that emphasizes the specific levels of expertise of team leaders who promote and facilitate those changes (George & Jones, 2008). More specifically, the most common form of the Six Sigma program is known as DMAICT, an acronym for Defining Opportunity, Measuring Performance, Analyzing Opportunity, Improving Performance, Controlling Performance, and Transferring Best Practice throughout the entire organization (George & Jones, 2008). To implement Six Sigma management, the system relies on team leaders who are certified as "belt" of various colors along the same lines as in the martial arts.

The principal advantages of using Six Sigma management is that it is well suited to organizations and processes that are conducive to standardization and in industries and applications where creativity and creative change is not highly valued. The Six Sigma system is not as beneficial within organizations whose processes are highly complex and whose rigid standardization could conceivably reduce rather than increase optimum productivity (Robbins & Judge, 2009).

Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach to business and operational management that is much broader than Six Sigma, in that it incorporates all stakeholders and processes rather than just the quantifiable elements of operational processes in relation to output and efficiency (Robbins & Judge, 2009). Whereas the Six Sigma approach focuses almost exclusively on operational management and processes, TQM seeks to optimize all… [read more]


Business Management -- Communications Issues Case Study

… Business Management -- Communications Issues

Defining the Issues

Kava represents a potential opportunity for business growth for this organization as well as an opportunity to contribute positively to the indigenous population in the process. For a company such as ours that is committed to achieving meaningful goals for the communities in which it conducts business, Kava is a perfect environment to succeed on both counts simultaneously. In that regard, there are three principle issues to be considered: First, the nature of the economic opportunities for this organization; Second, the manner in which those economic opportunities should be pursued and developed to uphold this organization's values and commitment to benefiting the local communities in which it does business; and Third, reasonable appreciation, management, and mitigation of the various risks posed by the nature of the new business environment.

There are primarily three main types of industries available for development on Kava: (1) Industrial Development (i.e. petroleum refinement, natural gas extraction, and commercial fishing); (2) Consumable Produce (i.e. coffee, cocoa, spices, bananas, and sugar); and (3) Tourism. Additionally, there is the potential for developing both physical infrastructure and human resource capital. Ideally, our organization will exploit all of those potential opportunities in a manner that is symbiotic and that contributes meaningfully to the host community while also generating income for our efforts. More specifically, we hope to develop industrial processes to produce, refine, and export petroleum and natural gas; we hope to develop and process the optimum quantity and quality of consumable produce for local consumption and export; and we hope to develop the maximum potential of the tourism trade.

Toward those ends, we intend to contribute to the development of the organizations and institutions necessary to maximize the ability of Kava to develop vocational opportunities in all of those areas for its indigenous population, including in relation to establishing and maintaining the necessary physical infrastructure to support all of those goals over the long-term. Finally, our goals include the development of the organizations and administrative processes to mitigate the risks posed by the identifiable sources of harm to the community and to any operations established on Kava.

Forces Involved in Formulation of the Problem

There are three principal forces involved in the formulation of the problem: (1) The specific nature of the economic opportunities identified previously; (2) the demographic breakdown of the local population; and (3) the specific nature of the potential risks involved and the cost (in both economic and human terms) of mitigating… [read more]


Global Business and Managing Across Cultures Essay

… In the communication conflict is one party drops in the defensive behavior the other party is likely to respond in the same way and the real essence of communication is then achieved. In this way mutual communication is created and… [read more]


Proposal to Cross Training Employees Research Proposal

… Business Management -- Employee Cross Training Proposal

Cover Letter

Cross-Training Employees

Enclosed please find my proposal for cross-training employees of this organization. My independent research has disclosed that there are undeniable benefits to organizations that promote cross-training of their workforces… [read more]


Leadership and Change Management Case Study

… They often fail through lack of senior management support and commitment, lack of vision and clear goals, poor training and inadequate rewards (Drew and Coulson-Thomas, p. 8).

A survey of 75 organizations in the UK ranging in size from 500… [read more]


Briefing for Emergency Management Essay

… Ing for Emergency Management

Emergency management is a relatively novel concept, with modern applications, theories, models and threats. The practices of emergency management have nevertheless existed since biblical times, and examples include the gathering of animals on Noah's Arc and… [read more]


Functional Organization and the Ability to Change Term Paper

… Business Management -- Structure and Change

Which organization is more horizontal in structure, the functional or divisional organization? Which do you feel works better? Support your answer.

Generally, the divisional organization is more horizontal than divisional organizations (Robbins & Judge, 2009). That is primarily because divisional organizations often maintain entirely independent business components with identical (or very similar) corresponding departments and subunits. They are essentially entirely independent organizations operating side by side (Robbins & Judge, 2009).

Conversely, functional organizations are less horizontal in structure because their various components are functionally related to and generally depend on one another to achieve a mutual objective (Robbins & Judge, 2009). Whereas the subcomponents of divisional organizations perform identical or similar functions, those of functional organizations usually perform different functions that cannot be performed by other subcomponents. Within functional structure, individual subcomponents cannot produce the organization's final product by themselves; they each contribute a specific element of the final product but their individual output is insufficient except within the framework that combines the respective output of all the subcomponents (Robbins & Judge, 2009).

In principle, there is no independent basis on which to say that either functional or divisional organization is necessarily "better" or in any way preferable to the other. That is because each structure is appropriate for different types of processes (Robbins & Judge, 2009). Generally, a functional structure is appropriate where the organization produces high volumes of less complex products, goods, or services. Meanwhile, divisional or horizontal structure is more useful in connection with the production of lower volumes of specialized goods or services that serve different consumer needs in various different applications and configurations (Robbins & Judge, 2009).

Which is more important to achieve change, readiness to change or the capability to change? Support your answer.

In some respects, readiness for change is functionally impossible without the capacity for change (George & Jones, 2008). That is… [read more]


Business Management: Human Resource Issues and Practices Case Study

… Business Management -- Human Resource Issues and Practices

Best Practices in Relation to the Concept of Best Fit for the Organization

In general, the concept of best practices is applicable throughout modern business management and administration. In principle, it is… [read more]


Organizational Behavior -- Theoretical Application Fact-Based Case Term Paper

… Organizational Behavior -- Theoretical Application

Fact-Based Case Study

My manager within the organization did not engage the team in any decisions at all. She routinely made decisions unilaterally and without considering the opinions, concerns, or analyses of her subordinates. She… [read more]


What Types of Changes Term Paper

… ¶ … Changes

Assessing Types of Organizational Change Strategies

The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the organizational change strategies of turning, adaption, reorientation and re-creation. As the last decade has been one of the most turbulent from an… [read more]


Six Sigma and Quality Management Research Proposal

… ¶ … Sigma and Quality Managemnet

Six Sigma and Total Quality Management

Today's economic agents are more and more pressured into delivering high quality products and services, at extremely competitive prices. This challenge has been raised by a multitude of… [read more]


Organizational Behavior Organization Change: Theory and Practice Research Paper

… Organizational Behavior

Organization Change: Theory and Practice

W. Warner Burke

Foundations for Organizational Science

Sage Production series, 2002

Evaluating the book Organization Change: Theory and Practice (Burke, 2002) from first a practical and secondarily from a theoretical standpoint is the… [read more]


Emergency Management and Communications Interoperability Research Proposal

… Emergency Management and Communications Interoperability

In an emergency situation, it is vitally important to have adequate communication software in place to ensure the speedy response of emergency personnel. Indeed, ideally, such systems would be free from failure and allow rescue… [read more]


Organizational Change Given the Rapid Pace Essay

… Organizational Change

Given the rapid pace of change that is influencing the global economies today, the ability to transform organizational change from a distraction to a core strength of any organization is critical. At the center of any organizations' ability to transform change from a distraction to the catalyst for growth are its leaders' attitudes, beliefs, and decisions with regard to navigating their organizations through uncertain times (Gandossy, Verma, 40). Studies have also shown that the Emotional Intelligence (EI) of leaders is even more critical than their title or position within the company hierarchy (McEnrue, Groves, Shen, 154, 155). Analyzing how leaders can be more effective in managing organizational change is the topic of this paper. From the accumulated research into this topic however one fact emerges as critical, and that is a leader, to be successful in overcoming resistance to change, must inspire trust in their subordinates. The era of being able to demand compliance through authoritarian means is over in many of the world's societies. It is more critical for a leader to have Emotional Intelligence (EI) over and above merely a title or formal position (McEnrue, Groves, Shen, et.al.). As a result, underscoring all concepts and strategies of successful leaders is the ability to gain trust through authenticity, consistency and transparency to their employees.

Managing Organizational Change

Responding the many external forces while keeping the internal processes, systems and strategies aligned to organizational objectives requires leaders to create a climate where risk is seen not as a threat but a call to greater accountability and ownership to overcome chaotic situations (Karp, Helgo, 82, 83). Only by creating a corporate culture that thrives on change can any leader of an organization turn the inevitable changes in direction of strategies, even business models, into an asset instead of a liability. The greatest enabler of positive organizational change is trust in the leaders who are working to create and fulfill the vision of a new business model, organizational structure and direction for the company to succeed in (Karp, Helgo, 92, 93).

Resistance to change however can be so significant that it can "freeze" a company from getting to its goals or even making progress towards survival. Too often leaders will resort to their formal power in the organizational structure to gain cooperation for initiatives, yet this has only a limited level of effectiveness to it. As McGregor has determined in his Theory X and Y approaches to management, Theory X managers believe that employees are inherently lazy and must be coerced to work. Theory Y managers see employees as ambitious and self-motivated, only needing to trust in organizational change and looking for a chance to take ownership of the direction. These are markedly different management… [read more]


Theory Practice and Application Essay

… Management Theory According to Experience
The capacity for managerial success is not exclusive. Every
individual has the opportunity to integrate the qualities necessary to move
an organization in a satisfactory direction. This can be achieved by an
assimilation of the… [read more]


Rosabeth Kanter Research Proposal

… Rosabeth Moss Kanter: Change Management

Rosabeth Kanter and Change Management: Teach the Elephant to Dance or Eat it One Bite at a Time?

One of the harsh realities of living and working in an organization is the inevitability of change.… [read more]


Public Services Management According to Hood ) Term Paper

… Public Services Management According to Hood (1991)

According to Hood (1991) the New Public Management (NPM) has come to represent a global phenomenon. This work will answer what the main trends in the worldwide movement have been since 1991 and… [read more]


Evaluating Management Theory and Practice Term Paper

… Gendered Managerial Styles

The Role of Gender in Organizational Change Management

Management was considered a traditionally men's realm in the past. Clearly defined social roles and the "glass ceiling" dictated that women could not be CEOs or top managers. There… [read more]


Organizational Theories as a Product Term Paper

… ¶ … Organizational Theories as a Product of an Evolutionary Process

In analyzing how contemporary organization theories are a product of an evolutionary process, the progression of theories can't be viewed in isolation, they must be seen as influenced by… [read more]


Organizational Alternatives and Social Change Term Paper

… Organizational Alternatives and Social Change

What is organizational behavior? It is a social science discipline much like cultural anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology. That means that it uses the scientific method to establish truth and to validate its… [read more]


Self-Directing Self-Managing Work Teams and How it Is Relevant to the Workplace Term Paper

… Self-Directed Teams

Self-directed work teams are becoming increasingly popular in both manufacturing and service organizations, because of their positive characteristics of focusing on team contributions and solutions, collaboration, continuous improvement, competency and positive results to productivity. However, a company must… [read more]


Project Management for Dummies Term Paper

… 49); "developing and analyzing a network diagram" (p. 71) and "assign your project's personnel needs" (p. 105). Chapter 5 in particular also stresses the importance of finding the right people to assist with the project. Portny observes "Your project's success… [read more]


Performance Management Total Quality Management -TQM Endeavors Term Paper

… Performance Management

Total quality management -TQM endeavors to produce an organizational culture that promotes constant development in everything by everyone at all times, and necessitates changes in organizational processes, priorities relating to strategies, individual beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. (Pun; Lau,… [read more]


Organizational Behavior - Terminology and Concepts Term Paper

… Organizational Behavior - Terminology and Concepts

Organizational Behavior: The field of organizational behavior has assumed increasing significance in the light of a rapidly changing, global business environment. This is because the study and application of organizational behavior results in better management of both the external as well as internal environment through the building of relationships at the individual, group, organizational, and social level. Organizational behavior achieves this through adopting a systems approach that studies: (a) the effect of social organizations on the behavior and attitudes of individuals within them; (b) the effects of individual characteristics and actions on organizations, with a particular emphasis on the efficacy of leadership in organizational systems; - the performance, success, and survival of organizations; (d) the mutual effects of resource and task, political and cultural environments on organizations and vice versa (Pfeffer, 1997, p. 4). Thus, it is evident that organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of management issues such as organizational structure, culture and leadership.

Organizational Culture: The culture of an organization is defined as a system of shared beliefs and values, which shapes its behavior and, thus, forms its distinct identity. While the culture of an organization can emerge as organizations learn to survive, adapt, and solve problems over a period of time, it is important to note that management can work consciously towards creating and sustaining a system of beliefs for knowing and managing organizational experience. Indeed, organizational culture can be built, sustained or changed through the management of policies as well as through focusing on the various formal and informal processes that lead to shared meanings (Harris, 1993, p. 64).

Diversity: As the term implies, diversity is any collective mixture that is characterized by both differences as well as similarities. It can refer to people, organizations, and even systems. Thus, diversity can be conceptualized on various dimensions such as workforce or functional diversity. The issue of diversity is an important one as it can affect employee perception of organizational behavior and practices. This implies that diversity must be managed by developing an environment that works well for all employees. This is an inclusive process that addresses workplace behaviors and differences within the framework of an organization's culture and climate. The management of diversity has, of late, come center stage due to an increasingly diverse workforce, at the national and global level (NOAA, para 2, 4).

Communication: Organizational communication, both internal and external, plays a key role in determining organizational performance, learning, and culture. In… [read more]


Supply Chain Management Hypothesis Thesis

… It requires the total dedication from organization within which it SCM implementation is being planned. SCM "expands the scope of the organization being managed beyond the enterprise level to include interorganizational relationships." (Strader et al., 1999)

Supply chain depends heavily… [read more]


TQM Layouts Term Paper

… Thus the value process chain analysis for a fast food chain would emphasize pedestrian traffic, for a retail chain, the amount of time spent looking at goods, and for a bank, the amount of time each teller spent with a customer, and the speed in which the teller redirected the consumer to the necessary channels. (Control Charts, 2004)

Question 3: TQM

It has been said "strategic planning is necessary because the environment that organizations operate in is constantly changing. There are many forces operating on the organization and most of them are outside of the organization's control." Thus, to remain viable in the future, an organization must anticipate the force changes and act to position itself for success. Total Quality Management provides such a solution. By analyzing customer needs, such as why they purvey a particular fast food establishment, the organization is better apt to design innovative projects from the future, from health foods to child-centric products. "TQM organizations have processes that continuously collect, analyze, and act on customer information," so that customer needs can be collected as data and analyzed for use in future-directed strategic planning. Also "activities are often extended to understanding competitor's customers," so one can understand the different aspects of one's enterprise that one can provide one's customers to stand out from the competition. Also "developing an intimate understanding of customer needs allows TQM organizations to predict future customer behavior," as consumer needs are ever shifting and ever changing in a dynamic marketplace. Customer satisfaction must be the goal of every strategic planning decision, and processes must be tightened and improve to maximize efficiency and quality.

Works Cited

Control Charts."(2004) Retrieved on June 21, 2004 at http://deming.eng.clemson.edu/pub/tutorials/qctools/ccmain1.htm#Types

Retail Elements." (2003) Retrieved on June 21, 2004 at http://www.retailelement.com/

TQM." (2004). Retrieved on June 21, 2004 at http://www.tqe.com/tqm.html [read more]


Job Satisfaction According to (Hulin Essay

… Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction

The concept of organizational commitment attracts interest in creating an understanding in employee dedication towards an organization's objective. The association of organizational commitment is linked with the employee's attitude since it relates to their mindset… [read more]


Quality Without Tears Book Report

… Quality Without Tears: The Art of Hassle-Free Management

In the book Quality Without Tears: The Art of Hassle-Free Management (Crosby, 1995) published by McGraw-Hill on May 1, 1995 (ISBNs 0070145113 and 978-0070145115) the author shares his insights and lessons learned from working in the quality management profession for over two decades. This book is also considered a classic in manufacturing, lean production and quality management professional organizations globally. It is the foundation of many internal training programs on quality management as well.

The Author's Intention In Writing This Book

The author, Phillip Crosby, wrote this book to share his expertise in quality management gained from decades of work in the filed with readers and clients alike. The four absolutes of quality the author based the book's foundation on include the following. First, quality is conformance to requirements. He shows through examples of how companies attaining high quality levels in supply chain management, sourcing, production and services have all been able to attain greater quality levels by making requirements a central part of their reporting and analysis systems Internally. The second foundational elements is that the system of quality is prevention, not reaction or even fire-fighting as often happens in many manufacturing companies suffering from low quality levels (Crosby, 1995). The third absolute of quality is that a performance standard must exist for a quality of zero defects must exist for an organization to continually progress on the dimensions of quality internally. The fourth and final absolute of quality is that quality is the price of nonconformance (Crosby, 1995). These four absolutes or foundational elements are critical for the core aspects of the book, which is a thorough overview of the fourteen steps as defined by the author. These fourteen steps are designed to take into account the change management aspects of quality management, in addition to organizational and systemic factors as well (Crosby, 1995). It is apparent from the authors' depth of insight in these areas that he has had experience implementing each one.

These fourteen steps include management commitment, formation of a quality improvement team, defining quality measurement metrics, calculating the cost of quality, and raising quality awareness through continual education and training (Crosby, 1995). In addition to these factors, the author provides insights into the aspects of corrective action strategies within companies, zero defects planning, supervisor training, and how to devise and implement a zero defects day. These factors serve as the foundation of goal setting and a continual development of strategies to gain greater insights into how to improve quality as well. The final four factors included in the framework include error cause removal, recognition, quality councils and the need to continually seek new improvements in processes (Crosby, 1995). Based on how inclusive the examples are in these areas of the book it is clear the author had a very clear idea of what… [read more]


Future of CRM Research Paper

… Future of CRM -- Introduction

Impact of social media and utilization of the Internet on CRM

Successful customer loyalty program

Future trends in multi-channel approaches

Consumer demographics and behaviors along with the resulting influence customer relationship development

Amazon.com: a successful… [read more]


Organization Behavior Case Study

… Organization Behavior

Over the last several decades, the airline industry has been undergoing major transformations. This is because globalization is leading to changes in how firms are competing with each other over routes and passengers. At the heart of these… [read more]


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