"Management / Organizations" Essays

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Centralization Structure of the Model Term Paper

Term Paper  |  42 pages (11,522 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The data will be analyzed in relation to the context of the study framework and will be utilized to formulate a set of conclusions and recommendations.

II. Analysis and Findings

1. The Survey and Data

The onset of the information age has resulted in the necessity for new accounting practices to accommodate the onset of intellectual capital. Since intellectual capital… [read more]

Technology Has Taken Over Globally Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Most of the new firms are emerging with digital technology, while they introduce the computer base systems of management, they manage to spread much faster in the media and around the world, then their counterparts. Electronic media seems to provide answers to all the queries, while the world is now communicating much faster globally. A firm which has taken on the digital facilities, moves more rapidly in the international market. Every organization including universities and schools should upgrade their technology programs, as it will prove to be more beneficial for the students to blend in tomorrow's world.

Works Cited

Smith, Del, Decision Support: Consider these five issues when choosing a document-imaging strategy, 4th (Sept 2003), Available at http://techrepublic.com.com/5100-6262-1058083.html

Moran, T. Robert, Harris, R. Philip, Ph.D, Stripp, G.J.D, William,

Developing the Global Organization: Strategies for Human

Resource Professionals, Gulf Professional Publishing, 1st (July 1993)

Sutton, J.D. Michael, Document Management for the Enterprise: Principals,

Techniques and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 13th (Sept 1996)

Laudon, C. Kenneth, Laudon, P. Jane, Management Information Systems, eight

Edition, Prentice Hall; 8th Edition, 20th (Feb 2003)

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act: Available at http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/P-8.6/92209.html#rid-92329… [read more]

Construction Project Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Preventive controls should include adequate skill requirements in choosing team members and sub-contractors. Verification methods, such as management check off, independent checkers, substandard work audits, etc., should be designed into the continuous evaluation plans. Self-control mechanisms should include alternative construction plans for safety, cost effectiveness, and time saving measures. Insurance strategies can mitigate for loss in errors and other inadequacies. A good quality assurance strategy can also enable more guarantee in the design and construction processes. Other guarantee measures could include damage liquidations and retention funding.

Corrective mitigation should include weekly and milestone meetings. Weekly meetings should be based on evaluation of progress at a given time, focus on joint problem solving, partnering, goal and objective alignment, and performance improvements. Milestone meetings should be a time to reflect and evaluate progress and problems and develop better strategies for performance improvements.

Organizational mitigation should include alignment with the company's goals, objectives, and mission statement. Suppliers and subcontractors should be chosen on shared, mutual objectives and goals. There should be an initial evaluation of each supplier and subcontractor as well as continual evaluation methods. Contracts should contain all the specifics where all questions can be answered. The client contract should also include specification of approved personnel in design changes.


Olawale, Y. & S.M., 2010. Cost and time control of construction projects: Inhibiitng factors and mitigating measures in practice. Construction Management and Economics, 28(5), pp. 509-526 Scopus EBSCOhost, viewed May 1, 2014.

Tuuli, M.M.R.S. & K.T.Y., 2010. Control modes and mechanisms in construction project teams: drivers and consequences. Construction Management & Economics, 29(5), pp.…… [read more]

Organization Management for Any Business, Whether Government Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,048 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Organization Management

For any business, whether government, nonprofit, or profit, it is essential for managers to have an understanding about the theories of management. The most prominent theories applicable in this situation are the Scientific Approach, Bureaucratic, and Modern Theory. These theories have a unique emphasis in delivering a proven system for Planning, Organizing, Leading, Coordination, and controlling an organization (Shchermerhorn, 2011).

In this light, VDOT was ineffective because it lacked the proper management. An organization is more likely to succeed under a chain of command with a clear mission. Critical organizational changes that managers can take to address VDOT situation is to focus on addressing the organization's division of labor, levels of authority, impersonality, rules, guidelines, and provide a careers based on longevity (Shchermerhorn, 2011). A few examples of large successful bureaucratic organizations are Berkely University of California, and the Manhattan Project. UC Berkeley is world-renowned for it research and contribution to society such as statistical theory, discovery of vitamin E and the cyclotron (University of Berkeley). UC Berkely has shown a history of growth and prosperity thanks to its leadership.

While one might consider the organization to operate under bureaucratic leadership, the fact of the case appears to indicate that there is a focus on leadership as politically charged, without any real focus on the functions that need to be performed to reach the goals of the organization. Hence, a bureaucratic focus might be an effective way to provide a new and more effective focus for the organization.


According to the SPM Website (2012), the six major challenges that managers face include unrealistic deadlines, scope changes, an inability to manage risk, lack of team skills, poorly defined goals, and poor communication. At VDOT, the most significant challenge is probably to improve overall communication within the company. As it stands, there appears to be a lack of communication not only within the company as a whole, but also on a micro-level among employees within teams. The company has done little to respond to this, being more concerned with managing the politics within it. A secondary problem is unrealistic delaines, with the company completing only 20% of its assigned projects. Hence, this area is in need of significant management changes. The other areas are also in need of management, although a lot of the challenges can be mitigated by constructing a good communication basis among employees, employers, and teams.


Engineering innovation and cutting-edge research are among the greatest strengths within VDOT's internal environment. Hence, these should be exploited fully to turn around the company towards a more profitable entity once again. Other environmental factors, however, need to be taken into consideration, especially those that are less favorable. Among these are the general lack of systems that provide pertinent information on the status of projects or the true state of finances. These issues can be addressed with the proper management.


In the long-term, I would want projects that are completed on time, and a system that allows employees… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Book Management Book Review

Book Review  |  6 pages (1,815 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Organizational Behavior

Book review of a management topic of your choice

The book chosen for review in this paper is 'Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations' published in 2011 and written by Ricky W. Griffin, Gregory Moorhead. A number of definitions have been given for the term organizational behavior. The most important definition argues that organizational behavior deals… [read more]

Finance Financial Management in Non-Profit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,076 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"Beyond all of this, of course, is the need to peer around the corner and look toward the organization's long-term future challenges, which can be five to 10 years in the future" (Epstein & McFarlan, 2011).


The make up of the board of directors is another major difference between for profit and non-profit organizations. In both cases the original… [read more]

Library Management of Information Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,166 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The library policy for collection development defines amongst other things different collections required to be developed and sustained and the book selection policy. The library authority and library advisory committee formulate policy for developing library resources for reading and general program of library services that suit the interests and requirements of different categories. The committee frames, reviews, and improves library rules (Dhawan, 2002). It also recommends suitable budgetary provisions for the library and resources center. Finally, the committee is charged with the responsibility of recommending for proper functioning of library as a premier knowledge center. Management also involves assembling, forming logical units of works, defining hierarchical structures, identifying staffing requirements, assigning tasks and responsibilities, and coordinating human, financial, physical, informational, and other resources needed to attain library goals (Dhawan, 2002). Finally, library management should help ensure that library material is preserved and reading materials are organized on shelves (Dhawan, 2002).

A library's action plan should take into account how materials are to be acquired and how negotiations regarding borrowing materials from other libraries. Selection of library material and stacks maintenance should also feature prominently into the management's action plan. Some of the basic function that the library's management should take into consideration is the proper collection of fee, membership management, and how they respond to challenges (Lock, 1961). The action plan should also take into consideration how events are approved and designed, and the aspects of fundraising. Other vital components of the action plan should be how to plan for the construction of new libraries, extension to existing ones, building maintenance, and updating of information books and new versions (Lock, 1961).

Library management must take into account a library's mission statement. The mission statement should address how the management intends to respond to the needs of the users of the facility. The library management should conduct SWOT analysis so that strengths are leveraged to pursue opportunities and avoid threats. The library management should endeavor to stock materials that respond to the needs of their customers. If the customers are adult education professionals the services and material in the library should be tailored to their needs. Some of the weaknesses that a twenty-first century library may have is the management's failure to digitize their library so that those who do not feel like reading the hard copies have an alternative. Accessing material from the library can also be a challenge to some group of people especially the adults who may not be conversant with the cataloguing system put in place by the library officials. Another weakness may arise from the kind of the fee the management levies for use of their facility. Threats to the library management may be lack of funds for hiring competent staff to oversee the day-to-day running of the facility, stocking of the library with outdated material that are not responsive to the needs of the library customers, lack of educational institutions where library staff can enhance their skills. The library management should know that the library… [read more]

Evaluating and Explaining Organizational Accountability in Emergency Management of Typhoon Morakot a Citizens Perspective Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  30 pages (8,646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


¶ … Organizational Accountability in Emergency Management of Typhoon Morakot: A Citizens' Perspective -- Literature Review Chapter

Typhoon Morakot

The contemporaneous society is unfortunate enough to be witnessing numerous natural calamities. The debate over the causes of these calamities is ongoing, with some arguing the very force of nature and its changing shapes, whilst others blaming the changes on the… [read more]

Management &amp Organizational Behavior Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Management & Organizational Behavior

Management and Organizational Behavior

Using the Management Skill Set Assessment by Alan Chapman an analysis has been completed comparing my self-assessment to my immediate manager's perception of my performance on the 22 factors that comprise this framework. 13 of the factors were classified as a level factors, seven as B. factors and 2 as C. factors. Across the entire set of 22 factors, the average score of the rankings I gave myself was 8.36 and my supervisor's was 6.86. This difference of approximately 1.5 points across all factors held consistent across all three categories of factors (a, B and C). The greatest variation however was in the C. class of factors with a deviation of 2 in the average scores (8.75 versus 6.75). What is most interesting is the alignment of factors into the a, B and C. sectors of the analysis. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the totality of these rankings to determine what lessons can be learned for continual improvement.

Analysis of a-Level Factors

There are four skills in the a level of factors that exhibited the greatest variation between my own assessments vs. that of my manager. They are shown below in the red zone of the graphic titled Figure 1, a-Level Factors Analysis.

Figure 1: A-Level Factors Analysis

The yellow section of Figure 1: A-Level Factors Analysis shows that group of five factors where the difference is attributable by up to two differences in ratings, and the green section are the a-level factors my manager and I are in agreement on. This is a useful approach to analyzing the data as it provides insights into how much my manager sees me needing to improve on taking initiative to motivate others while also gaining greater leadership. As our company is heavily focused on quality management standards, there is also the critical need to provide leadership on these standards while also providing motivation to team members to stay focused on quality management and compliance. My manager also believes I need to also take a more active role in innovation and problem solving, and he would like to see me do this by engaging with other team members more often. When I asked my manager about these 13 factors and his rankings, he mentioned that my performance of the core functions of management continue to be excellent. These include planning, organizing, leading and controlling including the managing of our team's time. He also has said I excel at training and development, including effectively using it, and managing relationships with peers. From the foundation of the basics of management (planning, leading, organizing and controlling),…… [read more]

Change Management &amp Organizational Transformation Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (5,634 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Change Management & Organizational Transformation


The objective of this work is to examine changes in organizations, management and how management and technology are more frequently becoming factors for consideration. This work will select a company and analyze the status of organizational transformation and change management, and identify key organizational transformation and change management issues currently… [read more]

How Do Different Management Styles Affect an Organizations Overall Performance? Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,409 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … management styles affect an organizations' overall performance?

Different Management Styles and How They Impact Organizational Performance - Literature Review

Today's managers strive to develop and implement the best strategic courses of action which foster economic growth. In their endeavors, being aware of it or not, managers make use of various managerial styles. While one style may have an… [read more]

Organizational Management at British Airways Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,186 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Organizational Management at British Airways

Alongside with planning, staffing, directing and controlling, organizing is a major function of the managerial act. "Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization. The focus is on division, coordination, and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization. It is in this function that managers distribute authority to job holders" (Higgins, 1994). A major trend in organizing companies is that of increasing the efficiency of the business operations at numerous levels, such the technologies, the assets, the financials, the knowledge or the human resource possessed by the organization. To better understand how organizing is applied to numerous business components in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness, one should look at a clear example of organizational management and development.

British Airways is a UK-based company activating in the airline industry and operating throughout the world. Given that it operates on such a changing and demanding industry, the company has, on numerous occasions, been faced with the need to modify and improve their business components. The need to implement numerous changes was mostly generated by external forces. The most relevant of these are accounted by theoretical changes in the managerial approach, meaning that the company is to place more emphasis on satisfying the customers' needs and also increasing the staff's satisfaction on the job. Other factors were generated by major technological developments which had to be incorporated. In addition, the new strategies implemented by the competition forced British Airlines to adjust to the market requirements and further develop. Then, there were the tragic events of 9/11 in the United States, which severely impacted the airline industry and reduced the population's trust in airplanes. All these, along with other forces as well, have determined the management at British Airlines to place more emphasis on the organizational process.

Organizing the Human Resource

In 2007, British Airlines employed an estimated 48,070 individuals (British Airways 2007 Annual Report). The large number of employees requires the implementation of a wide series of human resource strategies that coordinate, supervise and increase the performances of the staff. The company understands the pivotal role played by the corporate employees and sees them as the path to reaching organizational success. This understanding is made clear by former British Airways chairman Sir Colin Marsha, who in an interview for the Financial Times stated: "In an industry like ours, where there are no production lines, people are our most important asset and everything depends on how they work as part of a team. This means that, to get the best results, managers have to care about how they (the employees) live and function, not just about how they work and produce" (Boyd, 2003).

As a consequence of the major role played by the human resource, it came only natural for the management at British Airways that they had to introduce a multitude of strategies that increase the efficiency of the personnel. This increased efficiency meant that the staff had to increase the… [read more]

Stress Management an Organization Starts Its Operation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,333 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Stress Management

An organization starts its operation with certain objectives in mind. The management of the organization adopts certain strategies and initiatives that contribute toward attainment of the objectives. The objectives shape the external policies of the company, external policy includes interaction and dealing with public, suppliers, governments, competitors, and taxation departments. The core of the external policy is the… [read more]

Management for Organizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8



Management for Organizations

Often thought to be the heart and soul of this nation's economy, businesses within the manufacturing industry produce every day, ordinary goods on an enormous level. These businesses characteristically partake in very labor intensive productions and employ a great number of people, who are in effect the farmers of industrialization. Labor Unions, raw materials, up-and-coming markets,… [read more]

Conflict in Organizations Conflict Management Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Conflict in Organizations

Conflict Management in Organizations

Conflict within an organization is not necessarily bad, and can act as a powerful catalyst to move a company forward to its objectives, overcoming both market limitations and competitors in the process. The sources of conflict within an organization can be behavioral, organizational and structural with a lack of goal clarity and communication often accelerating differences. Human Resource (HR) professionals need to champion the transfer of conflict management skills to each level of an organization to ensure that the skills and insights needed become engrained in the company's culture (Guttman, 2009).

Analyzing Conflict Management Strategies

Each organization needs to have a core set of conflict management skills, insights and programs in place that are regularly taught to each management layer of the company (Dionne, Yammarino, Atwater, Spangler, 2004). HR needs to champion the development and teaching of active listening techniques, support for assertiveness training, and depersonalizing exercises to ensure that managers and staff have a strong inventory if techniques to draw from (Guttman, 2009).

Yet HR cannot do this alone, they need to have the support of leaders throughout the organization for conflict management initiatives and techniques to be effective. The ownership of conflict management needs to be with the senior management teams, each layer of management and throughout the supervisory ranks of the organization (Guttman, 2009). One of the most effective approaches to managing conflict is to invest in leadership training programs that seek to grow the transformational leaders who have the ability to manage conflict effectively through communication and emotional intelligence-based insights (Carmeli, Atwater, Levi, 2011). The combining of HR expertise and transformational leadership is very effective for minimizing disruptions from conflict while also preserving the development of effective leadership strategies at the same time. This shared aspect…… [read more]

Organizational Management the Business Management Classes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Organizational Management

The business management classes I have found most relevant are:

Introduction to Business Management -- This class gave me a solid understanding and overview of all of the important business management theories I need to understand. It also helped me develop a foundation of theory and understanding as far as all management practices are concerned. I feel that it has allowed me to develop the necessary organizational skills. Thus, it helped pave the way for a successful understanding of organizational management.

Introduction to Organizational Management -- This class provided specifics in organizational management, which has given me a solid understanding of what to expect in my future business practices. The general overview was basic, but I still feel that a solid foundation is important for overall business success. Thus, the concepts I felt were most beneficial were the definitive concepts presented in class, which will help me out with goal setting and overall success (Antioch University, 2011). Therefore, I gained an excellent overall understanding of the concepts behind organizational management, and this foundation helped me to grasp most of what was presented in the following classes.

3. Knowledge and Leadership in Management. I learned about various leadership theories in this class, and how leadership is important in management. Several leadership theories were discussed, and I learned how to be a pro-active and encouraging manager. I feel better about how I will go about treating my employees, and I am certain I can both encourage and motivate them. Knowing how to lead a team and how to perform within a team is very important to overall business success, and personal success. Thus, I feel better prepared to work within a team, and to understand team dynamics and issues like groupthink, as well as basic motivating factors. Psychology is also an important part of business management, and I was able to get a nice,…… [read more]

Organizational Change and Stress Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The key in this case remains the removal of present obstacles by ensuring that others are empowered to act on the vision.

Sixth, efforts should be made to ensure that short-term wins are systematically planned and catered for. The reasoning here is that the change process may take time for the ultimate benefits to be realized and hence in such a case, the organization risks loosing momentum. The creation of short-term wins is a way to motivate organizational members as in this case, they have evidence that their efforts are not going to waste.

Next, Kotter (1995) warns against declaring victory prematurely. In this case, if victory tends to be declared too early, chances are that momentum will be lost. This will in turn reverse the gains made so far by allowing old habits to re-entrench themselves. It is hence critical that change agents accept that the entire change process might take years.

Lastly, Kotter (1995) proposes that the changes be anchored in the culture of the organization. This ensures that new behaviors take root within the organization. Failure to ensure that the new approaches are institutionalized may subject such approaches to degradation over time hence rolling back the gains made.


Allcorn, S. (2005). Organizational Dynamics and Intervention: Tools for Changing the Workplace. M.E. Sharpe

Ford, J.D., Ford L.W. & D'Amelio, A. (2008). Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 362-377

Hussey, D.E. (2000). How to Manage Organizational Change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Kotter, J.P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard…… [read more]

Functions of Management Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Functions of Management

The Four Functions of Management

The universally accepted functions of management -- whether it is a baseball organization, an opera company, a Fortune 500 corporation or an elementary school in Ireland -- include: Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. Professor Paul Allen of Middle Tennessee State University has written a book (Artist Management for the Music Business) in… [read more]

Organizational Management the Organizing Functions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Organizational Management

The organizing functions of management in an organization, related to human resources and knowledge, are especially crucial to an organization's success. Effective organization of human resources provides and mobilizes a framework for success. Such a framework considers the overall structure of the human resources unit, considers the needs of the business and employees, develops personnel organizational charts, incorporates internal and external factors, and establishes management practices for day-to-day operations. In terms of knowledge management, the organizing functions of management are equally crucial. In the case of knowledge management, organizing functions include effectively identifying and mobilizing intellectual and knowledge-based assets, and are focused on specific and clear goals. Further, this process includes provisions to allow employees to become actively involved in knowledge management, the integration of information technology, and is built on an understanding that knowledge is constantly updated, deleted, and amended.

The organizing functions of management provide crucial value to the organization. Through organizing functions, the manager can integrate policies and procedures into the organization's operation. The functions of management include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. All of these basic management functions are necessary in any business environment. In particular, the organizing function is a key component that is often over looked in establishing the framework for a successful business. Organizing is the part of a manager's workload that concerns mobilizing the resources that are necessary to complete a particular task. Effective management in the organizing function includes the often lengthy and complex process of setting goals and formulating specific strategies. During the organizing function, the effective manager decides what resources are necessary, and arranges these resources into a specific and useful structure that are aimed at supporting the organization's overall goals (Griffin, Ebert, and Starke).

Effective organization of human resources by management is crucially important to an organization's success. In terms of the overall management of an organization, a group that can require the most consideration during the organization process is human resources. Organizing human resources is an important component of allowing a business to operate as a productive unit.

In the organization of human resources, designing the overall organizing structure of the human resources unit is crucial. And ineffectively designed and mobilized structure can create chaos at worst, and company-wide inefficiency and confusion at the best. The organization of a human resources department includes the allocation of the responsibility for hiring and firing, training, and the creation of work assignments and job descriptions (United States Department of Agriculture).

The organizing functions of management must consider both the needs of the business, and the needs of employees. The business will function at its highest level when these dual needs are in alignment.

An important factor in the organization of human resources is developing personnel organizational charts. These charts show the relationships of employees to each other and management, clearly outline specific job descriptions, and often establish acceptable levels of performance for each position (United States Department of Agriculture). Each position or category of position should be clearly… [read more]

Traditional Project Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Traditional Project Management

Please write on: Traditional Project Management techniques have been shown to be less effective in when used on new product development projects. What, according to Belassi et al.(2006) explains this phenomenon?

In the study New product development projects: The effects of organizational culture (Belassi, Kondra, Tukel, 2007) the authors illustrate through an empirical analysis of which aspects in an organizations' culture benefit New Product Development (NPD) the most and least why traditional project management techniques are marginally effective. Throughout the detailed analysis the authors find the three critical success factors of work environment, management leadership and results orientation as being essential for any NPD strategy to succeed (Belassi, Kondra, Tukel, 2007). Their contention is that traditional project management techniques do not take into account these aspect of an organization and actually slow down the overall process of project team performance (Belassi, Kondra, Tukel, 2007). The authors also contend and show through intensive levels of empirical research just how critical it is to have strong leadership that is uncomfortable with uncertainty driving an NPD project. Further, an effective leader is one that can integrate the work environment, management leadership and results orientation to match the specific requirements of the team and project. All of these factors must be orchestrated for optimum results with leaders who are fully engaged in the overall vision of the project. Traditional project management technique's fail to take into account these more exogenous variables of cultures and fail often as a result, according to the authors' research and conclusions (Belassi, Kondra, Tukel, 2007). The need for being more transformational, not transactional, is shown in the study.

What role does entrepreneurship play in organizational culture? Please review several sources from journals with an entrepreneurial focus and discuss the affect an entrepreneurial orientation can have on a team's ability to manage a project.

The role of entrepreneurship in organizations is considered by many researchers to be indispensable in creating a culture of risk and continual renewal. From the highly disruptive nature of intrepreneurship that at&T has tried and successfully implementing from a business process management (BPM) standpoint (Morris, Trotter, 1990) to the highly disruptive nature of building entirely new divisions and incubators (Kuratko, Hornsby, Naffziger, Montagno, 1993), companies are increasingly realizing that entrepreneurship is a very powerful catalyst for bringing organizational change quickly into a culture.

The most successful efforts and initiatives within established companies are predicated on a strong sense of autonomy, mastery and purpose on the part of employees and the internal entrepreneurs (or intrepreuners at at&T calls them) who are running these programs (Kuratko, Hornsby, Naffziger, Montagno, 1993). What each of these initiatives attempt to do is completely remove the…… [read more]

Future of Project Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,141 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Future of Project Management

In many respects the evolution of project management parallels the development and continual validation of leadership theories, often corresponding to comparable timeframes. In the analysis presented in the Current State of Project Management Research: Trends, Interpretations, and Predictions (Kioppenborg, Opfer, 2002) the author has completed a meta analysis of the progression of product management as a discipline through several generations of thought leadership and research. This analysis will evaluate why the scholarly focus of study has shown the shift from a systems perspective to a leadership and organizational behavior one (Kioppenborg, Opfer, 2002). There has also been continual debate of whether project management is a social science or not, and if so if it bounded by the general theory of project management, the problem-driven or central paradigm perspective (Shenhar, Dvir, 2007). This analysis will evaluate these factors and define which paradigm fits best for project management in the context of social science.

Analysis of Project Management as an Academic Discipline

Having progressed from primarily an aerospace and defense-related beginning where project management was used for orchestrating manufacturing operations, the field of project management has rapidly progressed from its systems perspective to one that is more leadership-based (Kioppenborg, Opfer, 2002). The systems-dominant thinking that pervades project management can also be attributed to the prevailing operations research and operations management strategies that were so pervasive during the 1960s and 1970s including Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and the Critical Path Method (CPM) (Wechsler, Clinton, 2006). Both of these techniques began to gain significant momentum and adoption during the 1950s and 1960s as aerospace spending continued to be a major factor in the American national budget. The focus on aerospace and defense superiority drove widespread adoption of CPM and PERT echniques, further solidifying the leadership position of the systems perspective of project management (Kioppenborg, Opfer, 2002) / the systems perspective was also supported by the nascent efforts on the part of organizations to create global development and distribution networks (Wechsler, Clinton, 2006). This was a critical area of growth post-Cold War globally as companies began to evaluate how to gain the benefits of intellectual property throughout Eastern European and Asian nations. The continued growth of the systems perspective was also accelerated by the invention of advanced computer programming techniques that could automate these advanced networks relatively quickly, and across a very range of processes, procedures, systems and strategies. All of these factors combined to create a solid foundation for the future growth of systems perspective well into the 1970s as companies strove to be more efficient and cost-competitive relative to each other using computer-generated CPM, PERT and associated linear programming and operations research programs. The limits of efficiency and process performance within the systems perspective began to be shown in the late 1970s as the limits of optimization through linear programming and advanced techniques including Monte Carlo simulations illustrated computed optimal project performance. What these programs and initiatives lacked was the unquantifiable aspect of leadership's effect on the… [read more]

Organizational Behavior -- Conflict Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



I would want to know what the cultural norms and traditions for communication were. It shouldn't make a difference if the person is a woman, unless the cultural norms of the country dictate that women would behave in a manner different from men with regard to customary communication practices. Understanding ones culture helps facilitate communication and reduce the likelihood for misunderstanding.


The possible consequences of dysfunctional conflict include lost production time, inefficient operations and general ill will among employees. Lost production time and inefficient operations are more likely to occur in organizational conflict situations where a large group of people generally are required to work together to develop products or complete a task.


Resolution is the process whereby a conflict is ultimately resolved and put to rest. Stimulation is the process whereby conflict is actually aroused in a positive manner to generate new ideas and creative thinking processes. It would be appropriate to utilize both to put some issues to rest and bring others to the forefront of a discussion.


Typically negations require that people share ideas, allow open communications, seek to uncover differences in thinking and look for common ground. There are likely to be differences depending on if the negotiations are win-win or lose-lose, but for the most part each of these elements should be considered equally important.


During union-management relations and contract negotiations the most important conflict management strategies are those that allow open communications and seek to find common ground. The primary intent of such negotiations is uncovering common ground.

11. I would recommend that they compromise and decide on a way to approach the project that will serve both of their needs. They could divide project tasks so Susie could approach some and complete them early and Bob could follow up when he had time and complete other aspects of the project at a later date. Collaboration and compromise are key components of negations.


'Conflict."…… [read more]

Functions of Management A. Organization the Planning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (836 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Functions of Management a. Organization

The planning function in an organization refers to "the future impact of today's decisions." This includes everything from providing a mission for the company, setting strategic goals and defining the means by which these goals can be achieved. The planning function defines the trend the company will be following on a short- and long-term. In the case of the American College, the planning function includes remaining a top competitor (as a strategic objective) and developing the means by which this objective can be reached.

The organizing function establishes "the internal organizational structure of the business." This means that the American College designs the right organization chart that will serve most efficiently and that will work best with the current human resources. The organization function also works perfectly with the planning function, because, while the planning function designs the ways of action at a large scale, the organization function will handle the tactical details of how they should be carried out. How can financial stability and accurate tuition fees be maintained?

Directing or leading refers to ways in which the human resource is mobilized to make most out of the positions they work in. Motivation is a key element in the directing function, as is the vision that a leader needs to provide. In the case of the American College, the vision relies in the planning function and its strategic objective: providing an OPPORTUNITY for students, an opportunity of learning. The employees at American College, besides financial motivation, have the sheer satisfaction of their palpable and real success.

Finally, the controlling feedback involves a concrete and diverse feedback mechanism by which the way the decisions that the management makes and are implemented is evaluated and new ways of action are designed to cope with changes. In our case, for example, any change in price must be reflected and adjusted, as a reactive action to change. Additionally, control mechanisms, including financial ratio and a keen eye on the annual statements, are in place in order to ensure the fulfillment of one of the strategic goals, the financial stability of the company.

b. Supervisor

If in the organization's case, everything was at macro levels, the supervisor function transposes the four functions of management at division or lower levels. In this sense, the planning function refers, first of all, to financial stability in the department. In this sense, the supervisor needs to ensure that the actions he takes do not affect the department budget and that this…… [read more]

Mbo for Managing an Organization What Impact Term Paper

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¶ … MBO for Managing an Organization

What impact, if any, does the level of management have to do with how information is disseminated, how people interact with management, and how decisions are made? Explain.

Management sets the tone for everything done within a company. They decide how information will be shared: email, memorandum, formal level, informational meeting, or discussion meaning? Management that views information as a top-down process will tend to use one-sided communication, where management speaks and the rest of the employees listen. In a less authoritarian style of management, information will flow multiple ways - from top to bottom, bottom to top, and from the middle in both directions.

Describe a project in which you have participated either as a project manager or team member. What did you do (or the project manager do) to manage this project effectively? Analyze the success of the project based on what you have learned about planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

I was team leader for a new computer application. Once I learned the program, I was the contact person for about 20 other people and helped them learn to implement the program efficiently and well. In this role I communicated with the people learning the program but also the people above me who were in charge of the overall implementation. I found that I had to call the people I was supposed to be assisting. They were pushed for time and would tend to invent their own work-arounds rather than asking how the program should function. In addition to aiding those people, I reported this pattern to those above me, not as criticism of those I was helping train but so the people in overall charge would be aware that some people…… [read more]

Managing Across the Organization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,629 words)
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Classroom Management Across the Organization

Managing Across the Organization

The purpose of this work is to conduct research and then to assume through a scenario the identity of a CEO or an organization which has been effectively managed including the relationship processes across the organization. The Senior Manager left the organization it was discovered that he had left a bad… [read more]

Organizational Theory and Public Management Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. organizations of all kinds. To be sure, in a highly capitalistic society, the views of Marx are not likely to be embraced or valued to a high degree -- however; it is difficult to negate them entirely. Yet, culturally, the concept of power as defined by Weber as well as Freud continues to be reflected in the organizational models of today. Understanding this concept of power and authority allows one to better understand the components of organizational efficiency -- bounded by culture as it is.


Adler, Yael. "Organizational Behavior and Freud." Vault. 2001>http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3& ch_id=402& article_id=18863& cat_id=2071< (22 February 2005).

Burrell, G. And G. Morgan. Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis. London, Heinemann. 1979.

Denhardt, Robert B. Theories of Public Organization. Fourth Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. 2002.

Price, Alan. "Classical Organization Theory: Bureaucracy, Power and Control." HRM Guide. >http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/history/classical_organization_theory.htm< (22 February 2005).

Weber, Max The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Translated by A.M. Henderson & Talcott Parsons, The Free Press. 1947.

Weber, Max (1947) The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Translated by A.M. Henderson & Talcott Parsons, The Free Press.


Price, Alan. "Classical Organization Theory: Bureaucracy, Power and Control." February 22, 2005. HRM Guide. http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/history/classical_organization_theory.htm

Burrell, G. And G. Morgan (1979). Sociological paradigms and organizational analysis. London, Heinemann.

Adler, Yael. "Organizational Behavior and Freud." Vault. http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3& ch_id=402& article_id=18863& cat_id=2071

Ibid.… [read more]

Defining Organizational Learning Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Management Theory

Organizational Learning

In the business community, learning is much more than just a manner in which to create the future that is desired. In today's quick-paced, highly aggressive work world, it may in fact give a company the edge it needs to survive and thus keep fulfilling its purpose. Organizations flourish to adjust incessantly to external conditions as well as highlight internal hierarchical decisions that are needed for change. Therefore, organizations persistently tend to balance the learning process between equilibrium and evolution in order to achieve success (Chatterjee, 2010). Organizational learning necessitates systematic incorporation and collective interpretation of new knowledge that leads to collective action and involves risk taking as testing.

Systems behavior is affected by environment with both internal and external factors being at play. A system's assessment of the relation between its purpose and its behavior is determined by the stability of representations and views that determines the behavior of the learning system. This stability of representations and perceptions are brought about by some lasting changes induced by learning where rules stay in balance as long as the learning system is unmoved. "If the rules are changed contemporaneously, it would be difficult to ascertain the outcomes of a learning process" (Chatterjee, 2010.

Adaptive learning is related to reasonableness, protective relationships, and low freedom of choice and dissuasion of inquiry while generative learning requires five disciplines: personal mastery, mental molds, shared vision, team learning and systemic thinking (Chiva, Grandio, & Alegre, 2010). Internal factors or environment of a business consists of the organizational resources accessible to achieve its goals. These normally include human, technological, financial and physical resources. The task of management is to obtain these resources and make competent and effectual use of them inside an organization. Organizational resources are usually scarce and management success depends on how well these resources are both gotten a hold of then utilized (External and Internal Factors, n.d.).

External factors include sociological, economic, political and technological aspects. The sociological aspects include the demographic status and trends, work ethics and personal values, and general cultures. These factors all have difference influences on how management gets its job done. The social environment presented in each company is unique and as each business grows and expands, management needs to understand these unique environments. "This understanding assists the management to plan for the future and design products for particular groups of people" (External and Internal Factors, n.d.).

The economic and political aspects include all the essential factors such as competitors, suppliers and customers. In an open model of business management must study the economy and political environment in order to determine a continual and dynamic relationship. In this system the management assumes that the business or company has both input and output. By studying the companies' suppliers, competitors and customers as well as current political factors, management is capable of making effectual managerial decisions. Technology has the most remarkable effect on business as changes in this external environment are frequently felt by firm very… [read more]

Change Management Change in Organization: Organizations Function Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Change Management

Change in Organization:

Organizations function within a changing environment. Political, Economic, Social and Technical - PEST factors have an effect on an organization. Change is unavoidable and the difficulty managers face how to control change and use its outcome for the advantage of the organization. Change may involve any of the following external drivers: Environmental changes could be… [read more]

Global Business Project Management Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


These team members are capable of undertaking multiple projects at the same time. However, there are disadvantages like budgetary constraints and use of employees' time in the work place. Some assignments that the employees were working on originally may be disregarded as the employee engages in the other projects. The employees are few and they are the same people that are utilized in all the projects. As a result, the budget allocated for them is often small because of the illusion that since few employees are present the total needed is little (Gottlieb, 2007).

In a functional organization the employees get to be organized into departments based on possession of similar skills and the projects assigned get to be done inside individual department units. An advantage of this type of organization is that a clear line of command is stipulated. In this way the employees are more likely to be aware of what exactly is expected of them and the specific office of authority (Galbraith, 1971). There is also the advantage of project goals being suited to address departmental needs since they are determined inside the department. Under this type of organization the project decisions get to be made more swiftly and authoritatively (Goodman et al., 2003). Compared to the matrix organization, the functional organization is better for project management. The matrix organization places confusing obligations and responsibilities on the employees. The fact that they report to numerous superiors sometimes creates confusion as to who is the rightful senior authority. Their original duties are sometimes given minimal attention and new projects assigned get most attention. This confusion in the work place is bound to cause errors, and inaccuracies.

In conclusion, project management is an essential component when undertaking various projects in the organization. Projects differ because of a number of factors such as time, budget, top management involvement, and such other factors. It is important to prioritize the project so that top management can get involved, without top management involvement; the potential of project failure is increased. Fewer resources may be allocated to the project, the project processes may have minimal supervision and the employees may be less motivated. The project can either be approached from a functional organization approach or a matrix organization approach. The matrix organization is a little disorganized as the employees get to be assigned multiple projects during the same period and they report to numerous superiors. The functional organization is better since it is more organized; the employees report to a specific manager or superior and the project goals are more likely to address the needs of the departmental unit.


Berkun, S. (2005). The Art of Project Management (Theory in Practice (O'Reilly)). Cambridge: O'Reilly Media.

Galbraith, J.R. (1971). "Matrix Organization Designs: How to combine functional and project forms." In: Business Horizons, February, 1971, 29-40.

Goodman, M., Greenwood A., Major, I. And Nokes, S. (2003). The Definitive Guide to Project Management: The Fast Track to Getting the Job Done on Time and on Budget. New… [read more]

Agency's Public Personnel Administration Organizational Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


S. department of justice. The Federal Law requires employees at the Office of DoD IG to have clearance; this ensures that they are not guilty members or criminals in the U.S.

The members should have a general academic background. The academic background sought should be palatable and ready to give the department a free and fair approach of ideas and technicalities found during service delivery. Stable health is another component that makes part of the requirements from the department. The personnel subjected to the recruitment and training activities should have a stable health record that includes quality of the physical strength, mental stability, and social/emotional stability. Such characteristics are necessary to be ascertained in an individual in order to ensure that they are available and free of uncertainties while at the Department of Defense Inspector General Office. Moreover, the recommendations state that the U.S. department of defense is an amenity that requires a continuum of productivity, ethical prowess, and individual readiness to perform in accordance to the set rules and regulations. Therefore, the DoD Inspector General recommends stability of members who enter for recruitment and training by the department (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2013).


Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (2012). Inspector General Act

of 1978, as amended. Retrieved on 31 January, 2013 from

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Charlotte Division: Former Staff Sergeant

Sentenced for Stealing Public Money Earmarked for Her Military Unit. Retrieved on

28th January, 2013 from

Inspector General (2007). Interagency Assessment of Counternarcotics Program in Afghanistan. Department of Defense Inspector General. Retrieved on 31 January,

2013 from http://oig.state.gov/documents/organization/90158.pdf

Office of the Secretary of Defense, (2010). Revised Organizational Structure for the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Report to Congress. Retrieved on 31 January, 2013 from http://odam.defense.gov/omp/Library/Revised_Organizational_Structure_for_OSD_A


United States Department of Defense. (2011). Office of Inspector General: Mission

Statement. Retrieved on 31 January, 2013 from [read more]

Management Styles Different Management Styles Exist Article Review

Article Review  |  5 pages (1,558 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Management Styles

Different management styles exist and are in use, with the most common in use today being Management by Objectives (MBO). Bell, Bodie & Fulk (2011) in their research article on MBO and its role in developing team performance. The article explores different theories in literature on MBO and team management in improving performance. They identify that MBO improves… [read more]

Conflict Decision-Making and Organizational Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Conflict, Decision-Making and Organizational Design

Conflict, Decision Making and Organizational Design

Conflict is particularly common in organizations and are among the major causes of poor performance by employees. This leads to low production by the organization. Therefore, the organization comes up with various ways of solving the conflicts and an example of these ways is negotiation: To confer with another… [read more]

Staffing Organizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The servers will be required to serve beverages and other accompaniments to the clients. Servers will also call for orders to the kitchen and picking them up when ready. The roles will also include writing orders and their totals, passing orders to cooks and replenishing the coffee at the serving station. Managers will be required to be qualified human resource managers with equitable experiences. The coffee servers will be required to have the required health status, good communication skills, and experience in the field, together with the ability to work within the mainstreams of the business (Caruth et al., 2009).


Whether one is a manager or a server, one will be required to be knowledgeable in customer service, sales, and marketing, have a good command in English language and Mathematics. The skills required will include good service orientation, speaking, social perceptiveness, coordination, and writing. They also include skills relating to management of material resources, operation and control, and monitoring among others. The abilities and others elements of KSAQs are determined by the roles and may include wrist-finger speed, and manual dexterity (Hernandez & O'Connor, 2009).

Context positions

While working in the coffee shop, the employees may find themselves doing so while standing, indoors, being useful to others, or while working and running. Evidently, these duties require a versatile individual with the job-required social interaction.


Bechet, T.P. (2008). Strategic staffing: A comprehensive system for effective workforce planning. New York: American Management Association.

Caruth, D.L., Caruth, G.D., & Pane, S.S. (2009). Staffing the contemporary organization: A

guide to planning, recruiting, and selecting for human resource professionals.

Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers.

Hernandez, S.R., & O'Connor, S.J. (2009). Strategic Human Resources Management: In…… [read more]

Management and Business Management Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,108 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


For example, at my organization, we do a ton of outreach with the community. We do this without press there and without photographers. We do this because caring about the community that we reside in has always been important to us and always will. Actions like these let employees know that our values are not full of hot air and that employees are expected to participate as well.

Compare and Contrast

The reading on teams was extremely informative, but I found some of the pillars which it highlighted as being part of effective collaboration or teamwork to be unrealistic. There's a certain element of teamwork which is frankly, easy to pinpoint and to analyze and other aspects which are more nebulous and organic. For instance, the notion of treating collaboration as a disciplined process might sound good in theory, but doesn't always pan out in reality. "This principle means that CWS organizations must recognize and support the principles as a strategy for goal accomplishment. Making collaboration a disciplined process requires the skills, knowledge, and training of a critical mass of participants that can pass on their expertise in successfully conducting collaborative processes" (Pierce & Newstrom, 2010). This might mean that organizations appear more competent at collaboration, but this is just in theory. Collaboration needs to be striven for and actively sought after, but it also needs room to breathe and it often needs to be treated as the organic and sometimes more unpredictable experience that it is (Pierce & Newstrom, 2010).

On the other hand, the chapter which deconstructed big winners and big losers was more apt at realistically pinpointing the elements and consistent factors which separate winners from losers. For instance, it's true and clear that losers often lack the qualities that winners have and which winners capitalize on. The clearest example of this is a lack of focus (Pierce & Newstrom, 2010). "Lack of clear strategic direction meant that activities of both existing and newly acquired business units failed to coalesce around common goals or to exploit synergies among them" (Pierce & Newstrom, 2010). This chapter was able to articulate in reality and practice some of the more elusive dynamics that the reading on teamwork was only able to approach in a mild fashion. This chapter was also able to provide hard, consistent examples to support each claim.

Evaluate My Organization

As alluded to earlier, my organization already implements many of the ideas and theories presented in the readings. However, my organization does them from a stance of commonsense or a sense of "this is a good idea" or "this is what good companies do." For instance, the clearest examples of this has been our desire and commitment to creating a fun, supportive and challenging work environment for our employees so that they'll be inspired to do their best. What we need to work on are the aspects of the readings that we're not aware of and that we don't have an innate instinct for. For instance, the… [read more]

Portfolio Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


" Tools utilized by AAA Northern California included: (1) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge; and (2) PMI's Project Management Professional credential. The foundation of AAA Northern California portfolio management was based on the following: (1) program and project alignment with the strategic goals of the organization; (2) the enterprise's operational capacity to deliver on the projects and programs proposed; (3) the impact of change and the organization's ability to absorb the results of successful execution of the programs and project; and (4) making sure the organization realizes the promised benefits to the organization of strategic investments. Coordination of available resources resulted in the ability to make the determination of projects that were higher in priority and return and to allocate the company's resources more effectively. The organization eliminated certain projects and was able to modify the scope of other projects. Results state the company met its objectives and that performance was above average achievement. The company experienced expansion in terms of evaluation of the project measures. The company went beyond expansion of its budgeting and scheduling with the inclusion of resource quality as well as scope of project and benefit to the company.

Case Study 2: OPM3

Published in 2003, the OPM3 standard was a software tool crated by CPM3 Product Suite comprised by a program that includes not only training but also certification linked with a strategic partnership with Oslo, Norway Company Dat Norsive Veritas Certification. Each of the companies desired to test QPM3 in real time. The first pilot project was the Washington Savannah River Co. (WSRC) a wholly owned subsidiary of Washington Group International. This company, located in Boise Idaho has over $3 billion in annual revenue with a total of 24,000 employees globally in projects involving "power, environmental management, defense, oil and gas processing, mining, industrial facilities, transportation and water resources." (OPM3, n.d., p. 1) The identified challenges in work processes were technical, scope management cost and schedule related challenges. The approach of management is focused on increased emphasis on project management implementation through use of principles and practices across the entire Savannah River Site. The company reports "constraints on assessment methods" but included: (1) standardize; (2) measure; (3) control; and (4) continuously improve, as the four process improvement groups. (OPM3, n.d, p.3) Best practices employed are reported as being "hundreds in the OPM3 standard." (OPM3, n.d, p. 3) Project execution plans and schedules were examined as well. Reported as results of the project was an "overall relative maturity achieved by WSRC at the Savannah River Site in the traditional project arena was very high." (p.4) Stated as the enablers of the maturity level reported inclusive of: (1) benchmarking, (2) executive sponsorship, (3) knowledge management, (4) resource allocation, (5) strategic alignment, (6) project management training and metrics, and (7) many others are stated as ranked at "97%.." (OPM3, n.d, p.4)

Works Cited

Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3) (2003) Retrieved from: http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/MGM/bubshait/project%20management/PDF/opm3KF.pdf

Project Management Institute, Inc. (2007) PMI® case study: AAA of… [read more]

Nonprofit Organizations Theory Management Policy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Nonprofit Organizations: Theory, Management, Policy

Q1.Nonprofit organizations

Although the economic recession has had a negative effect upon many industries, nonprofit organizations have suffered more acutely, given their dependence upon donations. Quite simply, when people are cutting back, personal donations are not considered necessities. The 2008 recession also decimated many endowments. Government financial difficulties have limited state and federal support for nonprofits. To take the example of one nonprofit, the St. Barnabas Hospital "witnessed a 10% increase in demand" while "governmental budget cuts" reduced revenue (Cannon 2011).

However, nonprofits spanning from organizations like UNICEF to universities play a vital role in our domestic and also our international economy. Governments must continue to try to support and leave untaxed the vital functions of nonprofit institution, especially when donations fall short (Anheier 2005: 207). International relief organizations are also needed to respond to international disasters like the Japanese earthquake and tsunami.

Nonprofits offer social services that are not traditionally 'profitable' but which substantially enhance the public good. Nonprofits, in contrast to larger government bureaucracies, often meet the individual needs of communities and underserved populations in a highly specific fashion. In recent years, the divides between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' of the world have become larger, and the power of for-profit organizations has grown. "The emergence of the multidivisional form in the first half of the twentieth century created organizations of hitherto unprecedented proportions" (Anheier 2005: 360). As both government and for-profit entities grow larger, they become less and less responsive to micro-level social needs, particularly to members of the population without financial power. Nonprofits can fill this vital function.

Q2. The environment of nonprofit organizations

The American Red Cross has been the recipients of increased criticism and scrutiny in the wake of a series of recent highly-publicized natural disasters, including Hurricane Katrina, the Japanese earthquake and tsunami, and Superstorm Sandy. "Many residents and volunteers in the hardest-hit…… [read more]

Best Practices: Leadership and Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Best Practices: Leadership and Management

In this essay, the contemporary "Best Practices" that are continuing nowadays in the areas of Leadership and Management and consequently making a difference for organizations and managers in today's world have been discussed. Suggestions have also been made on how managers and leaders today can practice the best options and achieve better results for both… [read more]

Health System Management State Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Results show that the health of the staff can be determined by considering various sentiments regarding the achievements and commitments. There should also be certain measures that help in coping as well as the ability to withstand any symptoms during the process. Little attention has been given to the respective career patterns amongst the staff of the hospital by Organizational psychology (Pienaar and Willemse, 2008).

A model that consists of 3 dimensions regarding the psychological reactions in response to burnouts is provided by Newmann and Grigg (2008). Furthermore, 7 factors causing burnout were also identified. Both models are being used by the researcher for purposes of statistical analysis.

Exhaustion: Employees are bound to get exhausted as well as burned-out when they encounter a burden of workload. It further results in deficiencies of mental and physical energy as well as emotion. This is usually the case when employees work for countless number of hours without taking a break and end up doing work that is way beyond their capability. They start moving away intellectually as well as emotionally from the life of work considered as a mechanism to cope since they become so worn-out (Newmann and Grigg, 2008).

Cynicism: The employee experiences an increased level of tiredness due to the increased pressure and exhaustion from work. The more it is felt, the more effort is given to distancing oneself away. There are higher risks involved of becoming insensitive as well as considerably negative in the process of distancing. Cynicism occurs simultaneously with exhaustion, among burned out employees. This is seen as a reaction to the increased workload. Through moving away from the work, employees seek to gain some emotional relief as well as reduce the feeling of helplessness that surrounds them because of going through the increased work (Newmann and Grigg, 2008).

Inefficacy: Employees stop feeling motivated due to the amount of overwork. Moreover they consider themselves as useless and not skilled enough to effectively and efficiently perform their tasks. This feeling decreases productivity and extends to tiredness and lack of motivation starts creeping in. Higher levels of discontentment with oneself as well as the work is experienced when the employees start believing that they are incapable of achieving the targets and goals assigned to them (Newmann and Grigg, 2008).


American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2008, September). Fact Sheet: Nursing Shortage. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from AACN Web site:http://www.aacn.nche.edu/Media/FactSheets/NursingShortage.htm

Chulay, M. & Burns, S. (2010) AACN Essentials of Progressive Care Nursing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Hodges, H.F., Keeley, A.C., & Troyan, P.J. (2008). Professional Resilience in Baccalaureate-Prepared Acute Care Nurses: First Steps. Nursing Education Perspectives, 80-89.

Kim, H.J., Shin, K.H. And Swanger, N. (2009). Burnout and engagement: A comparative analysis using the Big Five personality dimensions. International Journal of Hospitality Management 28, 96 -- 104

Liebhaber A, Draper DA, Cohen GR. (2009). Hospital strategies to engage physicians in quality improvement. Issue Brief Cent Stud Health Syst Change. Oct;(127):1-4.

Lynn-McHale Wiegand, D.J. (2011). AACN Procedure Manual for Critical Care. 6th… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (1,948 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


As stated above, the most important change brought by her was in the communication system of the facility. Open environment increased the communication between all people of the facility; including staff, leads, residents and their family members. She encouraged upward communication that opened ways for staff to openly express their problems with seniors.

Number of meetings was also increased for improving the communication culture. Monthly staff's meetings were changed to weekly meetings and residents meetings the frequency was also changed from three months to bi-monthly. The feedback on issues raised by people of facility was given through publishing and distribution of posters and newsletters. This satisfied facility people that their concerns are considered important and resolved.

Manager came up with a new mission and vision of working together as a community. In order to create community environment; she initiated meeting, training of staff as well as family members and also residential forums which invited the community members to come and attend.

The achievements of the facility were published in order to highlight the hard work of staff and cooperation of residents and their family members. Satisfaction surveys were performed in which all facility participated and shared their views.

In order to change the behavior of the staff and employees; manager used the 'Supportive' model of organizational behavior (Cunningham, Eberle, 1990; Davis, 1967) . This model involves doing leadership with the managerial orientation of support. Employees are valued and their need of status and recognition is fulfilled. As a result the they improve their participation and performance at work.

Laissez-fair leadership was no more allowed and the key activities were assigned to management that included leaves approval, performance monitoring and other issues. All staff members were asked to review and sign the new policies. However, if they feel that they cannot continue working in such environment than they could leave. All these steps changed the culture of the residential care facility and it turned out to be a productive place where individuals were valued and appreciated for their hard work.


Atchison, J. (1998). Perceived job satisfaction factors of nursing assistants employed in Midwest Nursing

Homes. Geriatric Nursing.

Cunningham, J.B. & Eberle, T. (1990). A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign. Personnel, Feb 1990,

p.57 in Newstrom, J. & Davis, K. (1993). Organization Behavior: Human Behavior at Work.

New York: McGraw-Hill.

McNeese-Smith, D.K. (1999). The relationship between managerial motivation, leadership, nurse outcomes and patient satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(2), 243 ± 259.

Nakata, J.A. & Saylor, C. (1994). Management style and staff nurse satisfaction in a changing environment. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 18(3), 51 ± 57.

Robbins, S.R. (1986). Organizational behavior: concepts,…… [read more]

Organization Behavior Competitive Advantage Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (4,150 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


b. Control Costs in the Long Run:

Although organizations have to expend a significant amount of budget on the training and skills development of their existing and newly recruited staff, these expenditures can eventually control the heavy costs which they have to incur in the long run. That is, if organizations continue to provide training to their employees on periodical… [read more]

Organizational Approaches to Managing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (576 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Understanding this and practicing this would increase the likelihood that the ethical code or practice will stay in place and that the employees will adhere to it.

Furthermore, an effective approach to the management of organizational ethics is a networked one. This is to perceive ethics as an issue that affects each individual, department, team in the organization as well as the organization as a whole. It also means to approach the management of organizational ethics from the perspective that ethics informs all activities performed within the organization and that are related to the organization. (Paine, 1994) This approach would involve managers to understand that ethics are more than behaviors; they are attitudes and perceptions as well. The organizational culture and environment are additional factors to be considered in this approach. If the work environment is conducive to the outlined ethical codes of the organization, the ethical practices will be maintained.

Technology can be utilized with any of these or any combination of these approaches. Some examples may include training videos, interactive applications on the computer or on mobile devices. The Internet could additionally be used for surveys or for tutorials. Whatever technology is used, it should be used in conjunction with sessions or trainings in real life, in person, with appropriate staff leading the way. Technology alone cannot sustain or create an ethical practice. The human factor is absolutely necessary because ethics are a part of the human condition.


McNamara, MBA, PhD, C. (2012). Complete Guide to Ethics Management: An Ethics Toolkit for Managers. Free Management Library, Web, Available from: http://managementhelp.org/freebusinesstraining/ethics.htm. 2012 November 04.

Paine, L.S. (1994). Managing for Organizational Integrity. Harvard Business Review, Web, Available from: http://hbr.org/1994/03/managing-for-organizational-integrity/ar/1. 2012 November 04.… [read more]

Organizational Behaviour This Report Focuses Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,228 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


These values determine to a great level how individual put their psychological energies into action. The outcomes of these can either be negative or positive (Dean, 2011). Further, they can advance beyond the group level and affect the relationship between different groups in organizations. The correlation between these values and those instituted at the corporate levels of the organization, to… [read more]

Role of Supply Chain Management Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (775 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In addition to the top management support, each department of the organization must be committed to the cause because it requires a cross functional effort. A significant amount of financial resources is also required in the initial stages of the implementation of JIT inventory. The transition phase can be a tough period for the organization and the organization must be willing to give time to the new system. Commitment and Trust play a vital role between the customer and the supplier. Our product must use Justin Time inventory. The reason for using this approach is that the product does not have a stable demand. Therefore it will help in reducing a lot of inventory handling costs and will also allow the customers to make the minor adjustments if they want to, in the product design and features. This also supports customization. However the relationships with the suppliers, distributors and retailers must be carefully managed and monitored and if required the company can also open up their own retail stores at a later stage, which will facilitate the customers in a better way.

There is a requirement for a value added supply chain for the product which can come from the e-business by conducting viral or virtual or electronic activities which can add value to the offering. The Internet can be used as an essential part in the supply chain as the whole channel of distribution can be managed through the Internet. There is a lot of potential in terms of speed of service, accuracy and efficiency, while doing a business electronically on a global scale. The company website will act as a catalogue of the product. It will give customers the opportunity to view the virtual warehouse of the products. Also tracking of orders can be managed easily by e-commerce including the shipping, processing and processing. E-commerce can give the organization to exceed the customer expectations if it is handled properly.


Simchi-Levi D.,Kaminsky P., Simchi-levi E. (2007), Designing and Managing the Supply Chain, third edition, Mcgraw Hill

Alan Pilkington, "Manufacturing Strategy Regained: Evidence for the Demise of Best-Practice," California Management Review, (1998) Vol. 41, No.1, pp.31 -- 42.

Management Coaching and Training Services, (2006). The Just-In-Time (JIT) Approach.

Hirano, Hiroyuki and Makota, Furuya (2006), "JIT Is Flow: Practice and…… [read more]

Operations Management Role Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


However, IKEA has had to modify its operations and price model as it becomes an increasingly internationally-focused organization. When IKEA moved to the United States, it was forced to take into consideration the larger spaces most Americans lived within, the fact that the U.S. uses standard rather than metric measurements, and different American expectations of quality and durability. The Swedish norm for a sofa is that it should fit two people, for example, which is ill-suited to that of a large American family room and the color palate of Swedish IKEAK products was deemed too subdued. Swedish curtains were too short, textiles were of inferior quality, and "beds were measured in centimeters, not king, queen, and twin...kitchens didn't fit U.S.-size appliances" (IKEA, 2005, Businessweek). Even the glasses were too small. Products had to be redesigned to suit American customers but in a manner so that the IKEA price point was still observed, so as not to forego one of the company's major competitive advantages.

IKEA has also weathered criticism regarding its environmental record, given that many contend that it encourages the use of inexpensive furniture made of particle board that is disposed of within a few years. In response, IKEA has attempted to observe the most stringent E1 German standards regarding the release of formaldehyde emissions from particle board, begun use of ultraviolet and water-based lacquers to avoid harmful solvents and tried to reduce exhaust emissions in transportation whenever possible. "In a number of cases, the efforts have resulted in long-term cost reductions" for IKEA as well as benefits for the environment (Owens 2012). Branding itself as 'green' also involves reusing and recycling existing products, as well as resorting to new materials. "For its new PS line, it challenged 28 designers to find innovative uses for discarded and unusual materials" (IKEA, 2005, Businessweek).

Operations management has thus played a critical role for the Swedish furniture company in keeping costs low for both the organization as a whole and for customers. Low-cost is part of the company's marketing positioning and competitive advantage. Given the proliferation of new discount stores selling furniture to rival IKEA, such as Wal-Mart and Target, it is essential that it stays true to its original vision while it answers criticism about the 'disposable' nature of its product. Minimalism and environmentally-friendly efforts are important for its core base of consumers. Operations managers must find ways to source materials and construct processes that satisfy all of these demands. The products sold at IKEA must not simply look like they are of the IKEA style -- they must be IKEA through and through, in terms of construction, design and pricing.


IKEA. (2005). Businessweek. Retrieved: http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2005-11-13/ikea

Owens, Heidi. (2012). IKEA. Natural Step case study. Retrieved:


What is operations management? (2012). MIT Sloan. Retrieved:

http://mitsloan.mit.edu/omg/om-definition.php… [read more]

Global Human Resources Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,478 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


(ITAP International, nd, p.1) Palthe (2008) reports "HR could also play a leading role in helping to define the values and associated norms organizations should foster in order to generate a corporate culture that fundamentally respects, promotes, and protects the human rights of all its stakeholders. For example, HR departments could proactively build performance management systems that incorporate human rights… [read more]

Organizational Behavior and Management Coursework Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


This will make the job and task fun for them (Hackman & Oldham, 1976).

If the employees will be able to derive meanings from the work i.e. they will find work meaningful they will be more willing and motivated to perform the task and work effectively and efficiently and there will be low turnover rate. Apart from this if the employees are accountable for the results and outcomes of the tasks and jobs they are more involved and motivated to perform the task and job with more responsibility (Martin, 2006).

The management of the organization has to change the management structure of the organization from scientific management to more participative management. The organization view has to be shifted from mechanistic to more organic. Under organic designs of the organization there is more delegation of authority and empowerment to employees so that they are encouraged and motivated to perform the tasks and jobs effectively and efficiently and with complete responsibility (Martin, 2006). This will also contribute in fulfilling and achieving the self-actualization need of the employees and in this way the employee turnover rate will be reduced and the production department will be able to cope up with the increasing sales and demand.


Zingfresh Holdings Pte Ltd. is facing problems and issues of with the effectiveness of the organization and turnover of employees because of following scientific management and bureaucratic style of management. The pre-defined standards and procedures are discouraging employees to show their effectiveness and productivity. In order to overcome these problems and issues the management of the company will have to change the management style and will have to become more participative and flexible in order to motivate and encourage employees to perform effectively and efficiently and give positive and outstanding results and outcomes.

Reference List

Colombo, M. & Delmastro, M., 2004. Delegation of Authority in Business Organizations: An Empirical Test. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 52(1), 53-80.

Gronroos, C., 1994. From Scientific Management to Service Management: A Management Perspective for the Age of Service Competition. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 5(1), 5-20.

Hackman, J. & Oldham, G., 1976. Motivation through the design of the work: test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279.

Harris, J., 1997. Scientific Management, Bureau-Professionalism, New Managerialism: The Labour Process of State Social Work. British Journal of Social Work, 28(6), 839-862.

Martin, G., 2006. Managing People and Organizations in Changing Contexts. Netherlands: Elsevier Ltd.

Rousseau, D.,…… [read more]

Change Management an Organizational Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,486 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Once stakeholders' interests and links to the change initiative have been identified, the owners can chart an engagement strategy (Austin, 2009). The engagement strategy outlines the timing, order and actions for connecting with key stakeholders (Austin, 2009).

The plan will be implemented by determining which stakeholders need to be approached before the change becomes public and determining if some need… [read more]

Octagon Sports Organizational Structure Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This is where the Octagon falls, alongside IMG and others. Third, is the sports services, which involves organizations offering sports as their end products. This segment is again further divided into three facets including the Event that involves organizations generating their revenues, either indirectly or directly from spectators (Staffa, Lewis, Braham & Griffins 2011). Here, the athletes are professional, and… [read more]

Healthcare Management Risk Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Integrated risk management should hence be embedded in the corporate strategy of the organization and shape the risk management culture of the organization. Identification, assessment and management of risks across organizations will help reveal the importance of the entire sum of risks and independence of each of the parts (The World Bank Group, 2014).

Another proactive aspect of integrated risk management is the fact that it does not focus only on the minimization or mitigation of risks but at the same time it focusses on support activities that foster innovation in order to achieve greatest returns with acceptable costs, results and risks. When looking at a decision making perspective integrated risk management involves establishing hierarchical limit system and risk management committees that will help in the determination of setting and allocation of limits (ECRI Institute, 2010).

Student 2

In most organizations risks are common and often lead to adverse effects on the organizations. Therefore proactive risk prevention is something very important in every organization. For the healthcare systems I would recommend several steps to be used in proactively dealing with impending risks of an organization. The first thing is understanding the environment in which an organization operates in. this can be done through establishment of strategic, organizational and risk management context within the organization.at the same time establish the existing constraints of the operating environment (Berg,2010). The next thing is identification of risks through underlining the risks can be strength or opportunity which has not yet been explored. The next step involves taking into consideration the source of the risk, the likelihood and consequence to estimate the unprotected risk without the controls in place.it also involves looking at the controls, estimating of the effectiveness and resultant level of risk that have controls in place. After analysis the risk can be compared against other previously documented and approved tolerable risk criteria. Risks that are not acceptable have to be treated hence the next step involves establishment cost effective options of treating risks. Risks are quite dynamic and hence there is the need of formal and periodic review of the risk that has been dealt with. The risk management process is very important and hence there should be effective and clear communication .the communication of objectives, the entire risk management process and the elements involved has to be done effectively (ECRI Institute, 2010).


University of California (2008). Ways to Reduce Risk. Retrieved March 24, 2014 from http://map.ais.ucla.edu/go/1000570

ECRI Institute ( 2010). Sample Risk Management Plan for a Community Health Center Patient Safety and Risk Management Program. Retrieved March 24, 2014 from http://bphc.hrsa.gov/ftca/riskmanagement/riskmgmtplan.pdf

Berg H., (2010). Risk Management: Procedures, Methods and Experiences. Retrieved March 24, 2014 from http://gnedenko-forum.org/Journal/2010/022010/RTA_2_2010-09.pdf

The World Bank Group, (2014).Better Risk Management Can Unlock Opportunities, Prevent Crises, and Protect Poor amidst Disasters and Shocks, Says World Bank . Retrieved March 24, 2014 from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/10/06/better-risk-management-unlock-opportunities-prevent-crises-protect-poor-amidst-disasters-shocks… [read more]

Principles of Scientific Management Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (942 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Scientific Management

Taylor believes that all employees are motivated by the need to earn more money: he promotes the concept of "a fair day's pay for a fair day's work." This means employees do not deserve to be compensated much like other workers who were highly productive when they cannot put up more effort or realize their potential in any given day. However, he is interested in efficiency. This led him to conduct various experiments to establish optimal performance levels in the workplace. In his experiments, he applied scientific methods to identify the optimal methods of doing any workplace task. Eventually, he established that people could develop better ways of completing tasks by estimating the time required for the numerous elements of a task. The initial observations of Frederick Taylor concerning the working practices by skilled employees arise from his previous observations around productivity. He believes that employees deliberately operate below their maximum efficiency and capacity. Taylor refers to this as soldiering because of three basic principles (Taylor, 1912).

The time and motion experiments led Taylor to contend that some people can work more efficiently than their counterparts can. According to Taylor, managers must hire such people where possible. As a result, workplace efficiency depends on the selection of the right people. Drawing from his experiments, Taylor created three basic principles, which are commonly referred to as "Taylorism."

First, employees believe that if they work more efficiently, fewer employees can complete the task and thus jobs would be lost.

Second, most remuneration systems imply that employees be paid equally regardless of how much they produced. Therefore, giving incentives to employees to show supervisors that their maximum job pace is low may be helpful. Even when workers were paid based on their productivity, they still believe that an increase in their overall output would encourage managers to set new standards, leading to a decrease in productivity bonus (Taylor, 1912).

Lastly, Taylor believes that the majority of employees use any method they are accustomed to instead of using the optimal method of work that might be determined by motion studies of the work and scientific time.

Scientific management at work in your public agency

At City Hall, all the above issues have been overcome by the management through taking responsibility for enhancing the productivity of employees. The management also believes in the scientific study of individual behaviors related to each task and how these behaviors can be efficiently organized. Drawing from Taylor's principles, this is the best way for City Hall to plan work that attempts to motivate employees, as such incentives places responsibility on the employees to increase productivity (Alvesson & Sveningsson, 2010). As a result, managers at City Hall have no input. Therefore, the management applied motion studies and scientific time to establish time taken for each task and…… [read more]

Enhancing Systems Security in an Organization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Managing Vulnerability With Countermeasures of Physical Security

Managing Vulnerability Using Countermeasures of Physical Security

Organizations are not immune to risks and uncertainties. Risks affect the overall management of operations in an organization. It reduces the efficiency of organizational activities because most of the resources are directed towards managing, containing, and transferring the risk. This necessitates the adoption of effective risk management strategies that will allow organizations to manage the risk in the most cost effective ways. Risk survey is proven as one of the most essential strategies most organizations embrace in response to risk management. This entails gathering information related to the causative factors predisposing the organizations to risks. Therefore, this research paper discusses the modern countermeasures associated with physical security. In specific, the analysis will illuminate the issues associated with physical security like the role and effectiveness of on-site security personnel, countermeasures based on risk and vulnerabilities and ways of communicating priorities effectively to the stakeholders. In addition, the analysis will incorporate benefits associated with the modern countermeasures, risk management options, recovery and backup plans, and methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the adopted security program.

Modern security countermeasures associated with Physical Security.

Physical security poses a significant threat to most organizations globally. It affects the effectiveness of operations management across departments in an organization. One of the modern countermeasures associated with physical security is security surveys. Security surveys refer to the process of collecting information related to the threat and analysis for the establishment of the desired plans against a security threat. It provides information on "who," "what," "how," "where," "when," and "why" a problem exists in the organization. Security surveys eliminate vices such as fraud in the organization facilitating effective management of operations and reduction of losses. It maintains the productivity and sustainability of the organization in times of economic crises. Security surveys prevent crime losses that exceed the losses associated with accidents in an organization (Chapter 5 of Broder, & Tucker, 2011).

For a long time, larger organizations have considered physical security as a vital requirement for the growing business. This is no longer the case as larger sectors such as the government agencies, privately held companies, non- profit organizations and the publicly traded companies have embraced the need for the adoption of the physical security measures. In addition, the modern countermeasures associated with physical security are adopting strategies aiming at changing the attitude of businesses towards physical security. This entails creating awareness among the business managers/owners on the importance of protecting their businesses against unauthorized access. This is because; 75%-85% of the organizational losses occur due to unauthorized access by third parties.

In addition, the modern countermeasures associated with physical security have focused on empowering the responsibilities of the on-site security personnel. on-site security personnel have been provided with a wide range of activities including providing expert information on crime related losses incurred by a business. They conduct a detailed survey of the risks and threats facing the organization. They design security plans and ensure… [read more]

Information Technologies Information Management Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,095 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


StepTwo's contribution however was significant in the RTA project, integrating the electronic and manual content together into a unified system.

Making Knowledge Accessibility and Automation More Effective

In both case studies, the companies involved faced major challenges and difficulties in getting their knowledge management and content management systems' content available to users. This is a very common problem with knowledge management and content management systems as has been covered in class readings and lectures. Of the two cases, StepTwo also had the daunting task of getting manual content translated into electronic form so it could be more easily used and accessible over time. Making content accessible across the entire company in both cases was extremely difficult in the beginning due to a lack of integration as well, a point seen in the Frito Lay example and how database and systems integration was pivotal there.

Change Management

This is an area that is a weakness in the composition of both case studies quite frankly. While both cases shown a clear definition of how the "internal customer" is for the system, it is hard to believe people will change how they work and adopt a system just from looking at a brochure. It is also exceptionally difficult to get outside sales teams, many of which work remotely, to change how they are doing their daily jobs without an added incentive. This area of the case studies show how systems are often designed by senior management and given to employees to use, as was the case with StepTwo, and how critical it is for senior management the champion change and also be willing to change how they work as well as part of system adoption. Frito Lay adopting the system in remote sales teams required their input and ownership; a point downplayed in the case study but clearly in place as the adoption was successful.

Comparing and contrasting each case study's solutions

In analyzing each case study, they share these common attributes. First both focus on users often throughout the requirement process. Second, both solutions are architected to be platform agnostic and process centric, a good decision that opens up greater flexibility in defining a solution later. Third, both are focused on knowledge interpretation. While neither of the case studies say this explicitly it is evident in the approach of StepTwo using Delphi and Frito Lay using Business Objects to interpolate data. This will over time further increase the learning levels in the company from knowledge management.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Each Strategy

Both case studies are short-term successes with the longer-term challenges still ahead. For Frito Lay, creating a well integration content and knowledge management system is alleviating multiple requests and also trimming time-to-value of the information for the sales force. At RTA the call center representatives are now online and have the content necessary to increase their responsiveness and efficiency. In the long-term, both companies need to watch out for how they can use these content and knowledge management systems to… [read more]

Behavior Management and Organizational Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (907 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Behavior

Management and Organizational Behavior -- the Organizational Culture

The organizational culture is an emblem of each economic agent and it directly impacts the company's chances of succeeding. The organizational culture impacts the firm at each level and is felt -- in one way or another -- by each individual employee, as well as by each member of the stakeholder categories -- such as clients, business partners, the general public, governmental institutions, not-for-profit agencies and so on.

The specialized literature presents the manager and the general reader with a wide array of models of organizational behavior, but fact remains that the leader cannot implement a model from the textbook and expect it to work. And this is even more so applicable in a context in which some books, such as Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, do not present the reader with models, but with concepts of organizational culture and issues to be taken into consideration in the construction and assessment of an organizational culture. Author Allan a. Kennedy: "Our original purpose in writing the book was to get the subject of culture on the management agenda and to sensitize managers to its importance" (Richman, 1999).

The manager will as such have to devise his own model of organizational culture, based on the specifics of the entity he represents. In this order of ideas, the executive team at TUIU has also made its decision of implementing a Denison culture model based on the higher level of correspondence between model features and organizational requirements.

The executive team at TUIU initially looked at three models, as follows:

The Deal and Kennedy's Cultural Model

The Competing Values Framework, and the Denison Model.

Each of these models is characterized by its own features, which make it applicable within specific organizational contexts. The lines below present the main features of these three models. Also, the differences which are observed indicate why TUIU has chosen the Denison model.

The Deal and Kennedy Model of organizational culture is centered on the identification of four different "types of organization, based on how quickly they receive feedback and reward after they have done something and the level of risks that they take" (Changing Minds). These four cultures are:

Work hard and play hard culture, in which the reward and feedback are quick, and the risk is low

Tough-guy macho culture, in which the feedback and rewards are quick, and the risk is high

The process culture in which the feedback and reward are slow and the risk is low, and finally

The bet-the-company culture, in which the rewards and feedbacks are slow and the risk is high.

The Competing Values Framework defines the model of organizational culture…… [read more]

Management and Organizational Behavior Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Management and Organizational Behavior Analysis

How a Military Unit is like a Symphony

The parallels between a military unit and a symphony are many, especially when the aspects of how both function as living organisms that must stay internally synchronized yet interact with other entities to survive and thrive. The essence of any effective organization is the ability to stay agile enough to respond to internal needs but me stable enough to integrate with other organizational organisms (Schneider, 2000). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how each of these organizational organisms are comparable to each other.

Comparing a Military Unit and Symphony

Both have unique organizational structures that define their cultures, all supporting their mission, values and objectives. For the military unit, the small span of control within battalions, platoons and in the smallest unit, squads, defines how closely aligned each role in the organism must be to these guiding factors of mission and objectives. Comparably structured yet with a broader span of control, symphonies also have organizational structures that are specifically designed to enable each section to be at once unified yet separate enough to complete their tasks. This loose-tight coupling of a structure is essential for the socio-economic value of any organizational organism to be attained (Allee, 2009). In addition, this structure is also critically important for creating the necessary agility and resilience that gives the organization the ability to withstand significant change over time (Noruzi, Hernandez, 2010).

Both military units and symphonies need to anticipate change and devise approaches to enabling greater internal synchronization within departments as well. A symphony creates value and gains critical acclaim for how well the conductor and managers can create a very high level of synchronization or synergy. The same holds true for a military officer and their ability to create cooperation, collaboration and a consistent response organism wide to the goals and objectives of the unit. The most galvanizing aspects of these two organizations is that both can earn accolades on how well diverse teams are orchestrated and have a real-time level of communication and trust that translates into accomplishment. Trust that permeates an organizational culture acts as an accelerator, a catalyst of unification and consistency (Schneider, 2000). Without trust, organisms implode and often face atrophy as they will not have the ability to be fueled by interactions and input of fresh ideas.

The socio-economic aspects of each organization are…… [read more]

Management and Organizational Structure Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,190 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Management Theory

Organizational structure: Sara Lee Corporation

Sara Lee Corporation

Sara Lee is a world-renowned corporation. It is famous for its trusted, tested products, including Ball Park hot dogs, Hillshire Farm meats, Jimmy Dean sausages Sanex, Senseo and of course Sara Lee desserts (About Sara Lee, 2010, Sara Lee). The Sara Lee Corporation is international in its scope, and its output encompasses many types of products, although it focuses upon home-related items such as foods and skin cleansers.

Traditional centralized structure: Three problems and proposed solution

In a traditional, hierarchical firm structure (which characterizes Sara Lee at present), individuals are in charge of certain, specific products and functions: for example, the Sara Lee brand's operations in a particular region of the United States are always under the centralized control of top management. The advantage of a traditional structure is quality control: with a trusted brand like Sara Lee, there are high customer expectations which must be met to ensure repeat purchases. Customers must believe that Sara Lee and its signature products maintain the quality and flavor profile their mothers enjoyed.

However, Sara Lee as an entity has changed over the years. Given that it is more international in focus, communication problems could result between different divisions regarding regional tastes. For example, an individual in charge of UK operations might realize that British consumers are not as enamored with peanut butter or vanilla-flavored items, but the centralized command of the company back in the U.S. might be more convinced, based upon strong sales of such items in the past in the U.S., by his or her data 'on hand,' rather than the impressions of someone lower on the organizational hierarchy.

Centralized structures can also be alienating. If workers do not feel that their input is valued by company leaders, they may begin to simply do the minimum to 'get by' in the company, rather than make an investment of time, energy, and loyalty. The company can lose critical input from lower levels of the company that could improve organizational efficiency.

Centralized structures can also lack flexibility. If there are sudden changes, such as a sharp drop or rise in demand, having to seek approval from a centralized authority can make the organization less responsive. For example, a certain amount of autonomy for regional managers may be required to adjust product orders because of sudden heat waves or snow storms, or to allocate more money in operating costs because of a rise in fuel costs.

Even a centralized structure requires a close, responsive and participatory relationship between the central command and regional and international lower-level managers. A centralized structure must also do careful market research to ensure its flexibility to shifts in market conditions, so its standard operating procedures do not become outdated.

Most centralized structures either break down their divisions into functional organizations segmented by key functions such as "production, marketing, and finance" while "companies that employ a product or divisional structure, by contrast, break the organization down into semiautonomous units… [read more]

Management and Organizational Structure Issues Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,276 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Org Structure

A matrix structure has several advantages. With multiple reporting lines involved in decision-making and management, a company can function more quickly and share information better. For each company within the structure, independent policies and procedures can be set up. The company can respond better to difficulties because of the increased access to resources (Kerzner, 2009).

For Spectrum, the matrix structure should be based around geography and product. Although each company within the Spectrum family is different, they can all be broadly categorized as producers of consumer products. Therefore, significant advantages can accrue through use of a matrix structure. The companies would be one part of the matrix; the other part would be regional management offices.

The regional management offices would coordinate back office support in terms of a variety of categories, from accounting to compliance to market research. Furthermore, each geographic center can help the Spectrum head office to monitor and measure the activities of each of its constituent firms within a given area. By doing this, the knowledge within the company can be improved, and this leveraged to benefit all geographical sections and other companies within Spectrum.

1a. The cooperative form of the multidivisional structure is the most appropriate for Spectrum. The cooperative form is best suited for corporations whose sub-units do not compete directly against one another, either for customers or for organizational resources. The cooperative structure allows each to operate with relative independence, but to share information and knowledge to the benefit of each division (Hoskisson, 2008).

The firms within the Spectrum banner do not compete directly against one another, but each of them has similar target markets. They may also benefit from knowledge-sharing with respect to technology development, production management and logistics.

Spectrum appears to already have a multifunctional structure. To ensure that this structure functions in the cooperative form, links must be made at the managerial and occasionally at the functional levels. At the managerial levels, there should be open, informal communication links. There should also be regular, structured communications such as meetings or conferences that bring the managers together. Issues and challenges faced by one firm can be discussed for all firms so that knowledge will be shared. Communication links and relationships can be forged to facilitate the informal communication process.

2. I believe a cooperative multidivisional structure would be the most beneficial for Spectrum. The company primarily operates in North America, whereas many firms find that the matrix structure can be best to put to use in a multinational situation. The matrix structure is also difficult both to implement and to execute.

Spectrum's current organizational structure and the nature of its business support the simplicity of the multidivisional structure. With each company operating independently, they will be able to address specific needs within their markets and their own unique corporate cultures within the context of the Spectrum culture. Once the communications linkages are formed, the multidivisional structure will allow the companies to share information and attain economies of scale where such… [read more]

Management Theories to Be Used in Deploying Quality Improvement and Organizational Change Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,031 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Management Theory

Effective Management Theories for Deploying Quality Improvement and Implementing Organizational Change

The large number of management theories that currently exist in practical use and in the academic literature is a testament to the increasing diversity of management needs and recognized potentials for different strategies and perspectives during the increasingly volatile world of business. Not al theories are as applicable in all situations, and while some may hold up better overall no management theory is truly comprehensive to the exclusion of all others. Depending on the specific goals, both immediate and long-term, of a given organization, as well as the current situation within that organization, different management theories and perspectives can be of greater or lesser use and appropriateness.

Two specific purposes for which several specific managerial strategies and frameworks have been developed, and to which many general theories can also be applied, are the deployment of quality improvement strategies and the implementation of organizational change. These actions often occur jointly, though it is also of course fully possible to undertake only one at a time. For the purposes of exploring effective management strategies in these actions, it is perhaps best to consider them separately at first. In this paper, an exploration of several management theories as they relate to quality improvement deployment and organizational change implementation will be conducted, leading to advisements regarding preferred theories of management for such effectively engaging in such actions separately and jointly within a given organizational situation.

Theories for Deploying Quality Improvement

One general managerial theory (that actually encompasses a myriad of sub-theories) that has been specifically developed for and often applied to quality improvement activities is that of structured quality management, and specifically Total Quality Management (Kovel-Jarboe 1996). This approach addresses every aspect of a business organization's activities in an almost micro-managerial fashion, controlling and coordinating each level of the organization to support the same changes in quality. Though this theoretical approach is somewhat cumbersome, and would not be advisable on an ongoing basis in any but the smallest of organizations (and it is questionable even in these), it is highly effective at deploying quality improvement through the direct control granted to the organization's top decision makers over each aspect and action of the organization.

Systems theory is another approach that can prove highly successful in deploying quality improvements in an organization. Though not as directly involved in the minutiae of organizational activities, the more holistic and comprehensive view of systems theory can predict major changes in the quality of output from reconsiderations and adjustments in the input and processing aspects of the organization (McNamara 2009). This theory is also more broadly useful than Total Quality Management theory, and has been seen as of increasing importance during times of volatility in specific industries and the business world at large -- such as in the current era. By viewing and treating the organization as a cohesive and interconnected system, quality can be affected in numerous more subtle ways.

Implementing Organizational Change

Both of… [read more]

Ford the Organization and Its Management Accounting Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,472 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Ford

The Organization and its Management Accounting Function

Ford Motors Company

Ford Motors is without any doubt one of the most reputable American symbols. The United States automobile manufacturer has been present within the international market for more than a century and, throughout this period, it has registered both successes as well as failures. And the most recent… [read more]

Organizational Change Management Undergoing Changes Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (378 words)
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Organizational Change Management

Undergoing changes within an organization is a critical, and thus very challenging, task that managers need to face and overcome to achieve the overarching goal of this necessary change. But before this goal could be achieved, managers are confronted with the reality that they have to create a balance between managing operations (daily tasks and processes in the organization) and human resources. Ultimately, in every organization, managers need to deal with human resource first in order to effectively implement changes in operations that management deems efficient for the organization.

This delicate balancing of human resource and operations management are reflected in the images of managing change, particularly the change manager as 'director' and 'navigator' (27). The relevance of these images are best mirrored in the Hewlett-Packard case study, wherein the case presented two types of management 'styles' as personified by Carly Fiorina and Mark Hurd, who assumed CEO positions in HP, consequently. Fiorina was depicted as projecting an image of the change navigator, as a response to the ongoing and eventual merger between HP and Compaq, giving focus on human resource management first to ensure that…… [read more]

Management Accounting Systems and Organizational Structure Essay

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Management Accounting Systems & Org Structure

Management accounting, by its very nature, is intertwined with organizational structure. Whereas financial accounting is designed with structural consistency in mind to assist the external stakeholders from whom those statements are produced, management accounting's structural form is dictated more by the needs of the internal stakeholders. As firms devise their management accounting systems, those systems are inevitably influenced strongly by the underlying structures and beliefs of the firm itself. In that way, we can see how management theories, both structural and behavioral, can influence the development of management accounting systems within a given organization.

Bureaucracy is a structural construct developed to organize and operate complex organizations. Managerial accounting systems had their genesis in meeting the needs of the bureaucracy. Managers within the hierarchy had specific information needs, and throughout history often engaged in ad hoc managerial accounting practices in the course of their evaluation and decision-making.

These practices over time evolved into the more formal science of managerial accounting.

The structure of bureaucracy requires information that can be passed up and down the chain of command. For example, a subordinate manager needs financial data to support a project that must receive a series of approvals from higher managers. Ad hoc numbers do not easily translate, and the structure of financial accounting is geared too much towards scorekeeping. This lead directly to the formalization of managerial accounting systems, so that forward-looking information could not only be produced but could be disseminated in a consistent manner throughout the organization to all internal stakeholders, in the same way that financial statements are disseminated in a consistent manner to the external stakeholders.

Taylor's scientific management was crucial in the development of management accounting systems. By adapting the scientific method to management, and to production in particular, he had several key impacts on management accounting systems. The first was that scientific management required the sort of information that management accounting systems produces.

Managers were required to quantify things that had previously not been quantified. Taylor found for example that many techniques used were based on rules of thumb, rather than quantifiable evidence. The need for such quantification lead to rapid advances in managerial accounting systems. The systems were designed to uncover information and then present it in usable format.

Another way in which Taylor's scientific management led contributed to the development of management accounting systems was that the earliest practitioners of Taylorism, such as Henry Ford, shaped the direction of management accounting. The very types of information that management accounting systems produce today stemmed from the needs of scientific management. Taylor's work focused the study of management on narrow tasks, rather than just end results. This shifted the focus of managers towards inputs, in addition to outputs. Management accounting systems that developed to support Taylor's scientific management began to focus on the contributions of each part of the production process, in order to improve productivity at all levels, as opposed to merely focusing on the end results. Decision-making no… [read more]

Organization Theory Management Term Paper

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Organization Theory

Management Theory

Management, in general, has become a sine qua non-matter for today's development of activity of any kind. Given the complexity and importance of activities nowadays, it is imperative to use management related issues in dealing with these activities and all they comprise. Hence, one can observe the importance of management in general and of organization in… [read more]

Organizational Change the Change Management Implies Term Paper

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Organizational Change

The Change Management implies the manner in which the consumers are made to receive a new business process -- and the technology that makes it possible. The inherent principle behind the change management is that human beings make the companies perform and not technology. The change management is with regard to making certain all of those things that… [read more]

Concepts of Bureaucracy Scientific Management and Informal Organization Term Paper

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¶ … Bureaucracy, Scientific Management and Informal Organizations

The organizational concepts and resulting strategies of bureaucracies, scientific management and informal organization practices each contribute to the unique cultures criminal justice organizations develop over time. In addition, these three managerial concepts are continually changing within each of their own areas as well. This contributes to a constant state of change both within organizations that rely on these three managerial concepts, and significant changes occurring in the management concepts themselves. Synchronizing criminal justice organizations' broader objectives is discussed in this paper as is the origins of the three organizational concepts themselves. As each criminal justice organization is significantly different due to major differences in their people, processes, performance to objectives, and needs, there is no specific optimal mix of these three concepts across all justice organizations. Instead there needs to be a tailoring of these concepts to the specific strengths and weaknesses of each criminal justice organization of interest.

Origins of the Concepts

The origins of bureaucracy are first recorded during the Middle Ages when feudal kingdoms began to resemble modern-date states or nations. The use of bureaucracy was widely relied on for enforcing the specific laws and requirements of the ruling parties of a kingdom or state. The Catholic Church is considered to be one of the most powerful early bureaucracies both from a political and financial standpoint. In his many writing Max Weber defined bureaucracy in modern terms (Weber, 1946). His key tenets of bureaucracy include the following: that these organizational structures are in jurisdictional areas that are defined by specific rules and regulations; that regular activity of enforcement of policies by paid officials is necessary to bring order and continuity into the organizational structure; that the officials of a bureaucracy have the authority to give commands and have them obeyed is another aspect. Finally a bureaucracy is a lifetime employment endeavor where bureaucrats' progress form lesser-responsibility positions to increasingly higher profile and therefore higher levels of authority. Despite bureaucracy having a negative connotation today, Weber found it as critical for organizations to grow globally. Bureaucracy Scientific management, the second concept of the three covered in this paper, is attributed to the research and theories of Frederick Taylor (Taylor, 1911). Scientific management is also called Taylorism, and is considered the foundation of defining empirically based approaches to defining worker productivity.

Taylor's contribution to scientific management also centers on selecting the best possible worker for a job, training on the standardization of key tasks, and an implied belief that the higher the wages, the higher the productivity. Taylor is considered one of the major contributors to today's approach to business process improvement, an approach to streamlining processes in companies by first looking for wasted time in inefficient steps (Hammer, 2003). Michael Hammer's work in business process improvement and business process management is heavily influenced by Taylor's work on scientific management. Taylor also envisioned scientific management as being critical for measuring the performance of organizations by professional managers, not necessarily the owners… [read more]

Management Theory Organizational Behavior Management Theory Article Term Paper

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Management Theory

Organizational Behavior Management Theory

Article Review Scavenger Hunt


Wilpert, B. (1995). Organizational behavior.

In his review of organizational behavior and psychology, Wilpert (1995) reviews subjects pertinent to the field of psychology and organizational behavior and leadership, including language, technology, leadership and social constructs created in the workforce using a multivariate analysis approach. On reviewing theoretical developments in… [read more]

Management and Organizational Behavior Term Paper

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Management and Organizational Behavior

What are the Greatest Impediments to Successful Product Development?

The intent of this essay is to provide insights into the greatest impediments that organizations face in successful new product development. There are many challenges to defining, designing, prototyping and producing products, yet the greatest impediment of all is when an organization becomes too complacent, even lazy, in terms of listening to customers. This lack of the Voice of the Customer is a major reason many organizations go out of business, they quite being relevant to their prospects and customers. Complacency kills companies faster than anything else, because it robs them of their ability to bring new products, new services, and in short, a reason for customers to continually turn to them for solutions.

One of the second major impediments to organizations completing successful product development is a lack of accountability and process definition in engineering, new product development, and product design. This lack of accountability and lack of processes manifest themselves with schedules that are unrealistic, rarely if…… [read more]

Managing the Learning Organization Essay

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Learning Organizations: Dynamism and Flexibility

What constitutes a learning organization?

One definition of learning organizations is that they are "organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together" (Senge… [read more]

Human Resources Change Management Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 4


The third discipline is shared vision. This collective discipline establishes a focus on mutual purpose, by developing shared images of the outlook they seek to create, and the principles and guiding practise by which they hope to get there. The fourth discipline is team learning. Through methods like dialogue and skilful discussion, teams alter their collective thinking, learning to mobilize their energies and ability beyond the sum of individual members' talents. The fifth discipline is systems thinking. In this discipline, people learn to better understand interdependency and change, and thus to deal more effectively with the forces that shape the consequences of actions (Green, 2007). This means that change must be driven by developing competence within the organization, by managers and workers in each unit creating and taking ownership of their change programs because they are motivated by pride in improving their professionalism and achieving better results (Ahlberg & Naucler, 2007).


Ahlberg, J. & Naucler, T. (2007). Leading change: An interview with Sandvik's Peter Gossas.

Retrieved from http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Leading_change_An_interview_with_Sandviks_P


Green, M. (2007). Part II - Chapter 03: Organizational case studies. Change management masterclass; a step-by-step guide to successful change management. London.

Green, M. (2007). Part III- Chapter 09: Integration. Change management masterclass; a step-by-step guide to successful change management. London.

Jones, J., Aguirre, D. & Calderone, M. (2004). 10 Principles of Change Management.

Retrieved from…… [read more]

Role of the Manager in an Organizations Ethical Policies and Practice Essay

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¶ … Role of Managers in Organizational Ethics

Ethics in Organizational Management

One of the more defining changes in contemporary business and other professional organizations, particularly in the 21st century, has been the relative importance of organizational ethics (Stevens, 2008). Generally, organizational ethics apply to internal relations, such as in recruitment, hiring, training, supervision, performance assessment, career opportunity and development,… [read more]

Describing Operations Management Principles Essay

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¶ … operations management, that are expressed in Chapters 1, 2, & 3 of the Stevenson text and the materials about Johnson and Johnson Company. We will then correlate operations management tools to the specific types of applications. Some of these tools are related to competitiveness, such as forecasting and design.

Summary of Chapters 1, 2 and 3

In chapter 1 of the Stevenson text, the chapter begins by speaking about operations management in which a company produces goods and services on the end. The operations segment of a company needs the support and input of other divisions such as finance and sales and marketing. The production of goods and services means that resources are being transformed into those finished goods and services at the end of the operations management process. Separate goods and services are frequently being produced concurrently. This production of goods and services is distinct from the simple delivery of goods and services. Process management consists of one or more actions that transforms inputs into outputs. This process has to be managed to meet demand. This means that output has to be managed by accurately forecasting demand. Along the way, inventory, quality and cost are managed to bring this about on every level from the layout of factories, to employing training and more. Much of chapter 1 deals with describing the operations management not just as a discipline, but as a career option as well (Stephenson, 2011, 1-20). Certainly, Johnson and Johnson is a typical example of this type of organization. Such films are international in scope, with it operating and selling worldwide and in almost every country on the globe. Consumer products businesses such as contact lenses, medical devices, bandages, etc. are marketed to the mass consumer market, as well as pharmaceuticals products ("Johnson & johnson," 2012). Organizational management allows companies like Johnson and Johnson to rationally plan the company and avoid short-term thinking only of the bottomline that ends in debacles like the recent medical fraud lawsuit against the company (Vertuno, 2012).

In chapter 2, the Stevenson text deals with the issues of competitiveness, strategy and productivity in an age of globalism. Competitiveness comprises taking into account issues such as consumer wants and needs, price and quality and advertising and promotion. In the area of products and services, this deals with cost, design, location of production, quality, quick response, flexibility, management issues such as inventory and supply chain management, service issues and labor issues including management and rank and file employees. Stevenson further on in the chapter delves into the reasons for organizational failure such as neglecting operations strategy, failing to take advantage of organization strengths and weaknesses, shortsightedness, putting too much emphasis on the production/service design and not enough on process, not investing sufficiently in capital and human resources, failing to establish communication and cooperation in an organization and also not considering consumer wants and need. The chapter then delves into a case study in good operations management by analyzing the success of the… [read more]

TQM Initiatives at Ford Motors Essay

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¶ … TQM initiatives at Ford Motors. Ford Motors adopted the concept of TQM in 1980 and since then has adopted other more efficient techniques of quality and performance management such as Six Sigma. The company has however retailed key elements of TQM approach with a user-centric approach. This approach is described together with its merits and demerits.

Total quality… [read more]

Management &amp Supervision in Social Work Term Paper

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Management & Supervision in Social Work

The team of Alfred Kadushin and Daniel Harkness has published a book titled Supervision in Social Work, which has a number of key ideas and strategies about the leadership needed by supervisors and management in social work. This paper reviews and critiques that book as well as an excellent book by author Donna Hardina,… [read more]

Orgazational Behavoir Organizational Behavior: Mcdonalds Essay

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Orgazational Behavoir

Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior: McDonalds

In any organization people can make the assumption too that the very key objective of that corporate is to make it in the world; what precisely does having an organization that knows how to win mean? And what exactly does it take to make it? At one time, organizations had put a huge… [read more]

Communication in Organizations Research Paper

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Every organization has a culture. Culture is defined by the way people act together, how information is shared and how decisions are made. Culture is something that is created by the leadership of the organization and can become very entrenched into the core fabric of the way business is done on a daily basis. Positive cultures can influence productivity and… [read more]

Conflict and Its Management Essay

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Conflict and Its Management

As an efficient manager, it is not about avoiding conflict entirely, but rather working within the context of conflict to find effective solutions. No matter how hard we try, no manager can ever avoid conflict entirely. Thus, it is important to shape potential conflict into something that can positively motivate a team to increase efficiency and productivity, a style of management which can prove difficult, but possible. This was exactly the case in a previous conflict where a botched Navy inspection created conflict within my team because of a lack of communication and an improper execution of structure. This created a sense of conflict and disappointment within the troops; yet, through an effective management style, they were motivated to increase their abilities and productivity as a way to resolve the conflict at hand.

The Navy is incredibly particular regarding its inspection process. All previous inspections had gone well, and the one right before had received a grade of above average. This essentially created a false sense of security in both the Commanding Officer's communication towards proper training of new recruits, as well as the team as a whole, who began to believe that they had sufficient efforts to receive another good inspection grade. Yet, this was not the case. Instead, the group received an average grade, which was disappointing to both the Commanding Officer and the team in general. This created internal conflict, where the troops were both disappointed with themselves and the lack of communication exhibited by the Commanding Officer that had led to the decrease in grade of their inspections.

The nature of conflict itself is incredibly varied, and can depend on individual circumstances, like the one described above. Thus, there are many definitions of conflict. Still, some definitions are more useful than others. Wall & Callister (1995) describe conflict as "a process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party" (519). Essentially, because of certain causes, a core process begins to develop which then leads to the negative feelings and actions of members of the team in response to the cause of the conflict itself. Moreover, conflict can be incredibly damaging to the overall productivity of teams (Alper et al. 2000). If not resolved within the proper manner, it can create anxiety and tension in the workplace that slows down the efficacy of any team. This is why it is so important to resolve the conflict in a positive manner, rather than letting it fester with negative elements.

This definition of conflict does fit the issue presented earlier. Essentially, the situation described was created out of specific causes, which then lead to a process of conflict that decreased the grade of the overall inspection for the team. This was a prime example of intergroup conflict, where the conflict was not driven by external outside factors, but rather internally from other branches of the same organization. This conflict was being exhibited from within the overall… [read more]

Project Management Considered as the "Father Research Paper

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Project Management

Considered as the "father of the modern strategy field" (Harvard Business School. Faculty and Research. N.D. PP. 1) Professor Michael Porter contends that over the past decades amidst: globalization, intense competition, "dynamic markets, and changing technologies… management tools have taken the place of strategy" (Porter, M. November- December 1996. PP. 1 ). Much like productivity enhancement tools, total… [read more]

Managing Non-Profit Organizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (810 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Managing Non-Profit Organisations

Organizations Management

Voluntary income






Voluntary Expenditure






Income from charitable activities






Expenditure on charitable activities






Income from trading activities






Expenditure on trading activities

Voluntary income detail

List top 5 sources of voluntary income eg individual donations, corporate donations

Cash and short-term deposits












Derivative financial instruments





Account receivables












Fundraising challenges, problems, or priorities

It is obvious that the economic and financial crisis has significantly affected the incomes of the Red Cross. The effects of this situation are reflected by the organizations' activity. Therefore, the most important challenge in the case of the Red Cross is represented by maintaining the level of its incomes.






Total income from all sources






Total expenditure of all kinds






Total Funds to carry forward






Unrestricted Funds to carry forward











Voluntary income margin






Trading income margin






Charitable activity deficit

The information presented reveals the fact that the Red Cross has a constant financial activity that allows the organization to develop medium term and long-term objectives. This is helpful in developing successful strategies. The company's financial situation allows to reach these objectives (ICRC, 2010).


The injustice that the campaign intends to address is represented by violence towards children in developing countries. The Red Cross subsidiaries in these countries have reported an increased number of violent abuses towards this category. The campaign addresses physical, verbal, and emotional abuse on these children. The fact that the authorities in these countries were not successful in addressing such issues requires the help of the Red Cross and of the specialists that work in this organization.

The vision that this campaign is based on is represented by building a healthy, safe, and secure environment for children in these countries. This is because the development of these children is significantly influenced by their environment. If they are confronted with a violent environment, they are likely to consider that violence is normal. This means that they will…… [read more]

Total Quality Management Is an Integrated Organizational Research Paper

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Total Quality Management is an integrated organizational attempt that is developed to improve quality at every organizational level. Notably, the description of quality is largely dependent on the role of the individuals who are engaged in defining it. Businesses and firms that don't make quality have high risks of long-term survival because customers in the modern market demand and expect high quality from organizations. In most cases, total quality management is described as the management system for a customer-oriented company that involves all employees in continual development of all organizational aspects.

This management system utilizes strategy, data, and efficient communication to incorporate the principles of quality into all the activities and culture of the organization. Therefore, the core of Total Quality Management is a managerial approach that focuses on long-term success through customer satisfaction. In order to achieve customer satisfaction, the TQM effort ensures that all organizational members are involved in enhancing processes, goods and/or services, and the culture where they work.

History of Total Quality Management:

The history of total quality management can be traced back to the beginning of the 1920s when statistical hypothesis was originally applied to control of product quality ("History of Quality," n.d.). The concept of quality has been in existence for several years despite of the changes in its meaning and evolution over time. As total quality management emerged in the early 20th Century, quality management was basically defined as the process of inspecting products to ensure that they adhered to certain specifications. One of the major developments in this concept occurred in the 1940s when statistical sampling procedures were used to analyze quality and quality control charts used to supervise production processes.

Through the help of several quality gurus, the concept took on a wider meaning in the 1960s and was regarded as something that included the whole organization since it was not limited to the production process only. The other reason for the broader context of the concept was because all functions for the quality of products affected the entire organization. During this period, quality was still viewed as an aspect that needed to be inspected and corrected, a perspective that changed in the late 1970s.

The late 1970s change in the perception of the concept of quality is attributed to the loss of market share by many U.S. industries to foreign competitors. As part of their survival techniques, many companies were forced to make drastic changes to the quality programs resulting in the emergence of a new quality concept. The concept adopted a strategic meaning because companies in every industry…… [read more]

Project Management Human Resource Training Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Project Management

Human Resource Training in Project Management

The case analysis presented in Workplace learning to improve it project management (Damare, 2008) of the Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health (DMH) illustrates how effective team-based and individual training can be in streamlining project management performance across a large, diverse public health organization. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how human resource training within project management environments accelerates strategic and tactical objective performance, in addition to reducing the costs to attain these results. The many benefits to long-term learning and morale are also evaluated in this analysis (Crawford, Leonard, Jones, 2011).

Best Practices in Human Resource Training within Project Management

The study of the Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health illustrates several critical best practices for human resource training in project management environments (Damare, 2008). Additional literature review illustrates how long-term learning is being achieved in project management curriculum and learning scenarios by incorporating scaffolding, or the development of individualized learning programs to ensure each professional has a program aligned to their unique strengths and weaknesses (McNamara, Parry, Lee, Pitt-Catsouphes, 2012). In conjunction with scaffolding, there reliance on curriculum specifically designed to ensure a high degree of autonomy, mastery and purpose throughout the learning cycle is critically important in project management-based learning scenarios and programs (McNamara, Parry, Lee, Pitt-Catsouphes, 2012). With these learning best practices anchoring human resources training in project management environments, the specifics of how the core concepts of project management itself are defined.

The first and most significant best practice is defining a teaching framework across the entire project life cycle, encompassing concept, planning, implementation and closing, which are the key phases as defined in the DMH study (Damare, 2008). The project life cycle is multidimensional, incorporating roles from project management, business analysts and contract managers. All three of these have unique and differentiated critical success factors that they have in creating, collaborating on and completing projects (Dexter, 2010). In addition, each of these teams have completely different metrics they are evaluated on, different career paths, and completely different strategies for getting work done (Little, 2011). All of these differences in expectations, perceptions of projects, and program responsibilities can only be unified in a common direction through concerted, continual training in project management (Dexter, 2010).

The second best practice of human resource training within project management environments is to create a common taxonomy of how knowledge is captured, used and propagated or shared throughout an organization and its extended ecosystem of partners (Little, 2011). This is one of the best practices of human resource training on several levels, the most valuable being the ability of shared knowledge and insight to create shared expectations and trust (Crawford, Leonard, Jones, 2011). As individual departments share knowledge, insight and experience trust becomes an accelerator across the entire organization, making collaborative benefits accrue in each phase of the project life cycle…… [read more]

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