Study "Management / Organizations" Essays 166-220

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Library Management of Information Essay

… The library policy for collection development defines amongst other things different collections required to be developed and sustained and the book selection policy. The library authority and library advisory committee formulate policy for developing library resources for reading and general program of library services that suit the interests and requirements of different categories. The committee frames, reviews, and improves library rules (Dhawan, 2002). It also recommends suitable budgetary provisions for the library and resources center. Finally, the committee is charged with the responsibility of recommending for proper functioning of library as a premier knowledge center. Management also involves assembling, forming logical units of works, defining hierarchical structures, identifying staffing requirements, assigning tasks and responsibilities, and coordinating human, financial, physical, informational, and other resources needed to attain library goals (Dhawan, 2002). Finally, library management should help ensure that library material is preserved and reading materials are organized on shelves (Dhawan, 2002).

A library's action plan should take into account how materials are to be acquired and how negotiations regarding borrowing materials from other libraries. Selection of library material and stacks maintenance should also feature prominently into the management's action plan. Some of the basic function that the library's management should take into consideration is the proper collection of fee, membership management, and how they respond to challenges (Lock, 1961). The action plan should also take into consideration how events are approved and designed, and the aspects of fundraising. Other vital components of the action plan should be how to plan for the construction of new libraries, extension to existing ones, building maintenance, and updating of information books and new versions (Lock, 1961).

Library management must take into account a library's mission statement. The mission statement should address how the management intends to respond to the needs of the users of the facility. The library management should conduct SWOT analysis so that strengths are leveraged to pursue opportunities and avoid threats. The library management should endeavor to stock materials that respond to the needs of their customers. If the customers are adult education professionals the services and material in the library should be tailored to their needs. Some of the weaknesses that a twenty-first century library may have is the management's failure to digitize their library so that those who do not feel like reading the hard copies have an alternative. Accessing material from the library can also be a challenge to some group of people especially the adults who may not be conversant with the cataloguing system put in place by the library officials. Another weakness may arise from the kind of the fee the management levies for use of their facility. Threats to the library management may be lack of funds for hiring competent staff to oversee the day-to-day running of the facility, stocking of the library with outdated material that are not responsive to the needs of the library customers, lack of educational institutions where library staff can enhance their skills. The library management should know that the library… [read more]

Finance Financial Management in Non-Profit Term Paper

… "Beyond all of this, of course, is the need to peer around the corner and look toward the organization's long-term future challenges, which can be five to 10 years in the future" (Epstein & McFarlan, 2011).


The make up… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Book Management Book Review

… ¶ … Organizational Behavior

Book review of a management topic of your choice

The book chosen for review in this paper is 'Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations' published in 2011 and written by Ricky W. Griffin, Gregory Moorhead. A… [read more]

Organization Management for Any Business, Whether Government Essay

… Organization Management

For any business, whether government, nonprofit, or profit, it is essential for managers to have an understanding about the theories of management. The most prominent theories applicable in this situation are the Scientific Approach, Bureaucratic, and Modern Theory.… [read more]

Enhancing Systems Security in an Organization Term Paper

… Managing Vulnerability With Countermeasures of Physical Security

Managing Vulnerability Using Countermeasures of Physical Security

Organizations are not immune to risks and uncertainties. Risks affect the overall management of operations in an organization. It reduces the efficiency of organizational activities because… [read more]

Principles of Scientific Management Essay

… ¶ … Scientific Management

Taylor believes that all employees are motivated by the need to earn more money: he promotes the concept of "a fair day's pay for a fair day's work." This means employees do not deserve to be compensated much like other workers who were highly productive when they cannot put up more effort or realize their potential in any given day. However, he is interested in efficiency. This led him to conduct various experiments to establish optimal performance levels in the workplace. In his experiments, he applied scientific methods to identify the optimal methods of doing any workplace task. Eventually, he established that people could develop better ways of completing tasks by estimating the time required for the numerous elements of a task. The initial observations of Frederick Taylor concerning the working practices by skilled employees arise from his previous observations around productivity. He believes that employees deliberately operate below their maximum efficiency and capacity. Taylor refers to this as soldiering because of three basic principles (Taylor, 1912).

The time and motion experiments led Taylor to contend that some people can work more efficiently than their counterparts can. According to Taylor, managers must hire such people where possible. As a result, workplace efficiency depends on the selection of the right people. Drawing from his experiments, Taylor created three basic principles, which are commonly referred to as "Taylorism."

First, employees believe that if they work more efficiently, fewer employees can complete the task and thus jobs would be lost.

Second, most remuneration systems imply that employees be paid equally regardless of how much they produced. Therefore, giving incentives to employees to show supervisors that their maximum job pace is low may be helpful. Even when workers were paid based on their productivity, they still believe that an increase in their overall output would encourage managers to set new standards, leading to a decrease in productivity bonus (Taylor, 1912).

Lastly, Taylor believes that the majority of employees use any method they are accustomed to instead of using the optimal method of work that might be determined by motion studies of the work and scientific time.

Scientific management at work in your public agency

At City Hall, all the above issues have been overcome by the management through taking responsibility for enhancing the productivity of employees. The management also believes in the scientific study of individual behaviors related to each task and how these behaviors can be efficiently organized. Drawing from Taylor's principles, this is the best way for City Hall to plan work that attempts to motivate employees, as such incentives places responsibility on the employees to increase productivity (Alvesson & Sveningsson, 2010). As a result, managers at City Hall have no input. Therefore, the management applied motion studies and scientific time to establish time taken for each task and… [read more]

Healthcare Management Risk Essay

… Integrated risk management should hence be embedded in the corporate strategy of the organization and shape the risk management culture of the organization. Identification, assessment and management of risks across organizations will help reveal the importance of the entire sum of risks and independence of each of the parts (The World Bank Group, 2014).

Another proactive aspect of integrated risk management is the fact that it does not focus only on the minimization or mitigation of risks but at the same time it focusses on support activities that foster innovation in order to achieve greatest returns with acceptable costs, results and risks. When looking at a decision making perspective integrated risk management involves establishing hierarchical limit system and risk management committees that will help in the determination of setting and allocation of limits (ECRI Institute, 2010).

Student 2

In most organizations risks are common and often lead to adverse effects on the organizations. Therefore proactive risk prevention is something very important in every organization. For the healthcare systems I would recommend several steps to be used in proactively dealing with impending risks of an organization. The first thing is understanding the environment in which an organization operates in. this can be done through establishment of strategic, organizational and risk management context within the the same time establish the existing constraints of the operating environment (Berg,2010). The next thing is identification of risks through underlining the risks can be strength or opportunity which has not yet been explored. The next step involves taking into consideration the source of the risk, the likelihood and consequence to estimate the unprotected risk without the controls in also involves looking at the controls, estimating of the effectiveness and resultant level of risk that have controls in place. After analysis the risk can be compared against other previously documented and approved tolerable risk criteria. Risks that are not acceptable have to be treated hence the next step involves establishment cost effective options of treating risks. Risks are quite dynamic and hence there is the need of formal and periodic review of the risk that has been dealt with. The risk management process is very important and hence there should be effective and clear communication .the communication of objectives, the entire risk management process and the elements involved has to be done effectively (ECRI Institute, 2010).


University of California (2008). Ways to Reduce Risk. Retrieved March 24, 2014 from

ECRI Institute ( 2010). Sample Risk Management Plan for a Community Health Center Patient Safety and Risk Management Program. Retrieved March 24, 2014 from

Berg H., (2010). Risk Management: Procedures, Methods and Experiences. Retrieved March 24, 2014 from

The World Bank Group, (2014).Better Risk Management Can Unlock Opportunities, Prevent Crises, and Protect Poor amidst Disasters and Shocks, Says World Bank . Retrieved March 24, 2014 from [read more]

Octagon Sports Organizational Structure Research Paper

… This is where the Octagon falls, alongside IMG and others. Third, is the sports services, which involves organizations offering sports as their end products. This segment is again further divided into three facets including the Event that involves organizations generating… [read more]

Portfolio Management Term Paper

… " Tools utilized by AAA Northern California included: (1) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge; and (2) PMI's Project Management Professional credential. The foundation of AAA Northern California portfolio management was based on the following: (1) program and project alignment with the strategic goals of the organization; (2) the enterprise's operational capacity to deliver on the projects and programs proposed; (3) the impact of change and the organization's ability to absorb the results of successful execution of the programs and project; and (4) making sure the organization realizes the promised benefits to the organization of strategic investments. Coordination of available resources resulted in the ability to make the determination of projects that were higher in priority and return and to allocate the company's resources more effectively. The organization eliminated certain projects and was able to modify the scope of other projects. Results state the company met its objectives and that performance was above average achievement. The company experienced expansion in terms of evaluation of the project measures. The company went beyond expansion of its budgeting and scheduling with the inclusion of resource quality as well as scope of project and benefit to the company.

Case Study 2: OPM3

Published in 2003, the OPM3 standard was a software tool crated by CPM3 Product Suite comprised by a program that includes not only training but also certification linked with a strategic partnership with Oslo, Norway Company Dat Norsive Veritas Certification. Each of the companies desired to test QPM3 in real time. The first pilot project was the Washington Savannah River Co. (WSRC) a wholly owned subsidiary of Washington Group International. This company, located in Boise Idaho has over $3 billion in annual revenue with a total of 24,000 employees globally in projects involving "power, environmental management, defense, oil and gas processing, mining, industrial facilities, transportation and water resources." (OPM3, n.d., p. 1) The identified challenges in work processes were technical, scope management cost and schedule related challenges. The approach of management is focused on increased emphasis on project management implementation through use of principles and practices across the entire Savannah River Site. The company reports "constraints on assessment methods" but included: (1) standardize; (2) measure; (3) control; and (4) continuously improve, as the four process improvement groups. (OPM3, n.d, p.3) Best practices employed are reported as being "hundreds in the OPM3 standard." (OPM3, n.d, p. 3) Project execution plans and schedules were examined as well. Reported as results of the project was an "overall relative maturity achieved by WSRC at the Savannah River Site in the traditional project arena was very high." (p.4) Stated as the enablers of the maturity level reported inclusive of: (1) benchmarking, (2) executive sponsorship, (3) knowledge management, (4) resource allocation, (5) strategic alignment, (6) project management training and metrics, and (7) many others are stated as ranked at "97%.." (OPM3, n.d, p.4)

Works Cited

Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3) (2003) Retrieved from:

Project Management Institute, Inc. (2007) PMI® case study: AAA of… [read more]

Management and Business Management Theories Term Paper

… For example, at my organization, we do a ton of outreach with the community. We do this without press there and without photographers. We do this because caring about the community that we reside in has always been important to us and always will. Actions like these let employees know that our values are not full of hot air and that employees are expected to participate as well.

Compare and Contrast

The reading on teams was extremely informative, but I found some of the pillars which it highlighted as being part of effective collaboration or teamwork to be unrealistic. There's a certain element of teamwork which is frankly, easy to pinpoint and to analyze and other aspects which are more nebulous and organic. For instance, the notion of treating collaboration as a disciplined process might sound good in theory, but doesn't always pan out in reality. "This principle means that CWS organizations must recognize and support the principles as a strategy for goal accomplishment. Making collaboration a disciplined process requires the skills, knowledge, and training of a critical mass of participants that can pass on their expertise in successfully conducting collaborative processes" (Pierce & Newstrom, 2010). This might mean that organizations appear more competent at collaboration, but this is just in theory. Collaboration needs to be striven for and actively sought after, but it also needs room to breathe and it often needs to be treated as the organic and sometimes more unpredictable experience that it is (Pierce & Newstrom, 2010).

On the other hand, the chapter which deconstructed big winners and big losers was more apt at realistically pinpointing the elements and consistent factors which separate winners from losers. For instance, it's true and clear that losers often lack the qualities that winners have and which winners capitalize on. The clearest example of this is a lack of focus (Pierce & Newstrom, 2010). "Lack of clear strategic direction meant that activities of both existing and newly acquired business units failed to coalesce around common goals or to exploit synergies among them" (Pierce & Newstrom, 2010). This chapter was able to articulate in reality and practice some of the more elusive dynamics that the reading on teamwork was only able to approach in a mild fashion. This chapter was also able to provide hard, consistent examples to support each claim.

Evaluate My Organization

As alluded to earlier, my organization already implements many of the ideas and theories presented in the readings. However, my organization does them from a stance of commonsense or a sense of "this is a good idea" or "this is what good companies do." For instance, the clearest examples of this has been our desire and commitment to creating a fun, supportive and challenging work environment for our employees so that they'll be inspired to do their best. What we need to work on are the aspects of the readings that we're not aware of and that we don't have an innate instinct for. For instance, the… [read more]

Staffing Organizations Term Paper

… Tasks

The servers will be required to serve beverages and other accompaniments to the clients. Servers will also call for orders to the kitchen and picking them up when ready. The roles will also include writing orders and their totals, passing orders to cooks and replenishing the coffee at the serving station. Managers will be required to be qualified human resource managers with equitable experiences. The coffee servers will be required to have the required health status, good communication skills, and experience in the field, together with the ability to work within the mainstreams of the business (Caruth et al., 2009).


Whether one is a manager or a server, one will be required to be knowledgeable in customer service, sales, and marketing, have a good command in English language and Mathematics. The skills required will include good service orientation, speaking, social perceptiveness, coordination, and writing. They also include skills relating to management of material resources, operation and control, and monitoring among others. The abilities and others elements of KSAQs are determined by the roles and may include wrist-finger speed, and manual dexterity (Hernandez & O'Connor, 2009).

Context positions

While working in the coffee shop, the employees may find themselves doing so while standing, indoors, being useful to others, or while working and running. Evidently, these duties require a versatile individual with the job-required social interaction.


Bechet, T.P. (2008). Strategic staffing: A comprehensive system for effective workforce planning. New York: American Management Association.

Caruth, D.L., Caruth, G.D., & Pane, S.S. (2009). Staffing the contemporary organization: A

guide to planning, recruiting, and selecting for human resource professionals.

Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers.

Hernandez, S.R., & O'Connor, S.J. (2009). Strategic Human Resources Management: In… [read more]

Nonprofit Organizations Theory Management Policy Essay

… Nonprofit Organizations: Theory, Management, Policy

Q1.Nonprofit organizations

Although the economic recession has had a negative effect upon many industries, nonprofit organizations have suffered more acutely, given their dependence upon donations. Quite simply, when people are cutting back, personal donations are not considered necessities. The 2008 recession also decimated many endowments. Government financial difficulties have limited state and federal support for nonprofits. To take the example of one nonprofit, the St. Barnabas Hospital "witnessed a 10% increase in demand" while "governmental budget cuts" reduced revenue (Cannon 2011).

However, nonprofits spanning from organizations like UNICEF to universities play a vital role in our domestic and also our international economy. Governments must continue to try to support and leave untaxed the vital functions of nonprofit institution, especially when donations fall short (Anheier 2005: 207). International relief organizations are also needed to respond to international disasters like the Japanese earthquake and tsunami.

Nonprofits offer social services that are not traditionally 'profitable' but which substantially enhance the public good. Nonprofits, in contrast to larger government bureaucracies, often meet the individual needs of communities and underserved populations in a highly specific fashion. In recent years, the divides between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' of the world have become larger, and the power of for-profit organizations has grown. "The emergence of the multidivisional form in the first half of the twentieth century created organizations of hitherto unprecedented proportions" (Anheier 2005: 360). As both government and for-profit entities grow larger, they become less and less responsive to micro-level social needs, particularly to members of the population without financial power. Nonprofits can fill this vital function.

Q2. The environment of nonprofit organizations

The American Red Cross has been the recipients of increased criticism and scrutiny in the wake of a series of recent highly-publicized natural disasters, including Hurricane Katrina, the Japanese earthquake and tsunami, and Superstorm Sandy. "Many residents and volunteers in the hardest-hit… [read more]

Best Practices: Leadership and Management Research Paper

… Best Practices: Leadership and Management

In this essay, the contemporary "Best Practices" that are continuing nowadays in the areas of Leadership and Management and consequently making a difference for organizations and managers in today's world have been discussed. Suggestions have… [read more]

Conflict Decision-Making and Organizational Design Term Paper

… Conflict, Decision-Making and Organizational Design

Conflict, Decision Making and Organizational Design

Conflict is particularly common in organizations and are among the major causes of poor performance by employees. This leads to low production by the organization. Therefore, the organization comes… [read more]

Health System Management State Research Paper

… Results show that the health of the staff can be determined by considering various sentiments regarding the achievements and commitments. There should also be certain measures that help in coping as well as the ability to withstand any symptoms during the process. Little attention has been given to the respective career patterns amongst the staff of the hospital by Organizational psychology (Pienaar and Willemse, 2008).

A model that consists of 3 dimensions regarding the psychological reactions in response to burnouts is provided by Newmann and Grigg (2008). Furthermore, 7 factors causing burnout were also identified. Both models are being used by the researcher for purposes of statistical analysis.

Exhaustion: Employees are bound to get exhausted as well as burned-out when they encounter a burden of workload. It further results in deficiencies of mental and physical energy as well as emotion. This is usually the case when employees work for countless number of hours without taking a break and end up doing work that is way beyond their capability. They start moving away intellectually as well as emotionally from the life of work considered as a mechanism to cope since they become so worn-out (Newmann and Grigg, 2008).

Cynicism: The employee experiences an increased level of tiredness due to the increased pressure and exhaustion from work. The more it is felt, the more effort is given to distancing oneself away. There are higher risks involved of becoming insensitive as well as considerably negative in the process of distancing. Cynicism occurs simultaneously with exhaustion, among burned out employees. This is seen as a reaction to the increased workload. Through moving away from the work, employees seek to gain some emotional relief as well as reduce the feeling of helplessness that surrounds them because of going through the increased work (Newmann and Grigg, 2008).

Inefficacy: Employees stop feeling motivated due to the amount of overwork. Moreover they consider themselves as useless and not skilled enough to effectively and efficiently perform their tasks. This feeling decreases productivity and extends to tiredness and lack of motivation starts creeping in. Higher levels of discontentment with oneself as well as the work is experienced when the employees start believing that they are incapable of achieving the targets and goals assigned to them (Newmann and Grigg, 2008).


American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2008, September). Fact Sheet: Nursing Shortage. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from AACN Web site:

Chulay, M. & Burns, S. (2010) AACN Essentials of Progressive Care Nursing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Hodges, H.F., Keeley, A.C., & Troyan, P.J. (2008). Professional Resilience in Baccalaureate-Prepared Acute Care Nurses: First Steps. Nursing Education Perspectives, 80-89.

Kim, H.J., Shin, K.H. And Swanger, N. (2009). Burnout and engagement: A comparative analysis using the Big Five personality dimensions. International Journal of Hospitality Management 28, 96 -- 104

Liebhaber A, Draper DA, Cohen GR. (2009). Hospital strategies to engage physicians in quality improvement. Issue Brief Cent Stud Health Syst Change. Oct;(127):1-4.

Lynn-McHale Wiegand, D.J. (2011). AACN Procedure Manual for Critical Care. 6th… [read more]

Management Styles Different Management Styles Exist Article Review

… Management Styles

Different management styles exist and are in use, with the most common in use today being Management by Objectives (MBO). Bell, Bodie & Fulk (2011) in their research article on MBO and its role in developing team performance.… [read more]

Agency's Public Personnel Administration Organizational Essay

… S. department of justice. The Federal Law requires employees at the Office of DoD IG to have clearance; this ensures that they are not guilty members or criminals in the U.S.

The members should have a general academic background. The academic background sought should be palatable and ready to give the department a free and fair approach of ideas and technicalities found during service delivery. Stable health is another component that makes part of the requirements from the department. The personnel subjected to the recruitment and training activities should have a stable health record that includes quality of the physical strength, mental stability, and social/emotional stability. Such characteristics are necessary to be ascertained in an individual in order to ensure that they are available and free of uncertainties while at the Department of Defense Inspector General Office. Moreover, the recommendations state that the U.S. department of defense is an amenity that requires a continuum of productivity, ethical prowess, and individual readiness to perform in accordance to the set rules and regulations. Therefore, the DoD Inspector General recommends stability of members who enter for recruitment and training by the department (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2013).


Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (2012). Inspector General Act

of 1978, as amended. Retrieved on 31 January, 2013 from

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Charlotte Division: Former Staff Sergeant

Sentenced for Stealing Public Money Earmarked for Her Military Unit. Retrieved on

28th January, 2013 from

Inspector General (2007). Interagency Assessment of Counternarcotics Program in Afghanistan. Department of Defense Inspector General. Retrieved on 31 January,

2013 from

Office of the Secretary of Defense, (2010). Revised Organizational Structure for the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Report to Congress. Retrieved on 31 January, 2013 from


United States Department of Defense. (2011). Office of Inspector General: Mission

Statement. Retrieved on 31 January, 2013 from [read more]

Organizational Behavior Case Study

… As stated above, the most important change brought by her was in the communication system of the facility. Open environment increased the communication between all people of the facility; including staff, leads, residents and their family members. She encouraged upward communication that opened ways for staff to openly express their problems with seniors.

Number of meetings was also increased for improving the communication culture. Monthly staff's meetings were changed to weekly meetings and residents meetings the frequency was also changed from three months to bi-monthly. The feedback on issues raised by people of facility was given through publishing and distribution of posters and newsletters. This satisfied facility people that their concerns are considered important and resolved.

Manager came up with a new mission and vision of working together as a community. In order to create community environment; she initiated meeting, training of staff as well as family members and also residential forums which invited the community members to come and attend.

The achievements of the facility were published in order to highlight the hard work of staff and cooperation of residents and their family members. Satisfaction surveys were performed in which all facility participated and shared their views.

In order to change the behavior of the staff and employees; manager used the 'Supportive' model of organizational behavior (Cunningham, Eberle, 1990; Davis, 1967) . This model involves doing leadership with the managerial orientation of support. Employees are valued and their need of status and recognition is fulfilled. As a result the they improve their participation and performance at work.

Laissez-fair leadership was no more allowed and the key activities were assigned to management that included leaves approval, performance monitoring and other issues. All staff members were asked to review and sign the new policies. However, if they feel that they cannot continue working in such environment than they could leave. All these steps changed the culture of the residential care facility and it turned out to be a productive place where individuals were valued and appreciated for their hard work.


Atchison, J. (1998). Perceived job satisfaction factors of nursing assistants employed in Midwest Nursing

Homes. Geriatric Nursing.

Cunningham, J.B. & Eberle, T. (1990). A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign. Personnel, Feb 1990,

p.57 in Newstrom, J. & Davis, K. (1993). Organization Behavior: Human Behavior at Work.

New York: McGraw-Hill.

McNeese-Smith, D.K. (1999). The relationship between managerial motivation, leadership, nurse outcomes and patient satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(2), 243 ± 259.

Nakata, J.A. & Saylor, C. (1994). Management style and staff nurse satisfaction in a changing environment. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 18(3), 51 ± 57.

Robbins, S.R. (1986). Organizational behavior: concepts,… [read more]

Organization Behavior Competitive Advantage Essay

… b. Control Costs in the Long Run:

Although organizations have to expend a significant amount of budget on the training and skills development of their existing and newly recruited staff, these expenditures can eventually control the heavy costs which they… [read more]

Organizational Approaches to Managing Research Paper

… Understanding this and practicing this would increase the likelihood that the ethical code or practice will stay in place and that the employees will adhere to it.

Furthermore, an effective approach to the management of organizational ethics is a networked one. This is to perceive ethics as an issue that affects each individual, department, team in the organization as well as the organization as a whole. It also means to approach the management of organizational ethics from the perspective that ethics informs all activities performed within the organization and that are related to the organization. (Paine, 1994) This approach would involve managers to understand that ethics are more than behaviors; they are attitudes and perceptions as well. The organizational culture and environment are additional factors to be considered in this approach. If the work environment is conducive to the outlined ethical codes of the organization, the ethical practices will be maintained.

Technology can be utilized with any of these or any combination of these approaches. Some examples may include training videos, interactive applications on the computer or on mobile devices. The Internet could additionally be used for surveys or for tutorials. Whatever technology is used, it should be used in conjunction with sessions or trainings in real life, in person, with appropriate staff leading the way. Technology alone cannot sustain or create an ethical practice. The human factor is absolutely necessary because ethics are a part of the human condition.


McNamara, MBA, PhD, C. (2012). Complete Guide to Ethics Management: An Ethics Toolkit for Managers. Free Management Library, Web, Available from: 2012 November 04.

Paine, L.S. (1994). Managing for Organizational Integrity. Harvard Business Review, Web, Available from: 2012 November 04. [read more]

Organizational Behaviour This Report Focuses Essay

… These values determine to a great level how individual put their psychological energies into action. The outcomes of these can either be negative or positive (Dean, 2011). Further, they can advance beyond the group level and affect the relationship between… [read more]

Role of Supply Chain Management Essay

… In addition to the top management support, each department of the organization must be committed to the cause because it requires a cross functional effort. A significant amount of financial resources is also required in the initial stages of the implementation of JIT inventory. The transition phase can be a tough period for the organization and the organization must be willing to give time to the new system. Commitment and Trust play a vital role between the customer and the supplier. Our product must use Justin Time inventory. The reason for using this approach is that the product does not have a stable demand. Therefore it will help in reducing a lot of inventory handling costs and will also allow the customers to make the minor adjustments if they want to, in the product design and features. This also supports customization. However the relationships with the suppliers, distributors and retailers must be carefully managed and monitored and if required the company can also open up their own retail stores at a later stage, which will facilitate the customers in a better way.

There is a requirement for a value added supply chain for the product which can come from the e-business by conducting viral or virtual or electronic activities which can add value to the offering. The Internet can be used as an essential part in the supply chain as the whole channel of distribution can be managed through the Internet. There is a lot of potential in terms of speed of service, accuracy and efficiency, while doing a business electronically on a global scale. The company website will act as a catalogue of the product. It will give customers the opportunity to view the virtual warehouse of the products. Also tracking of orders can be managed easily by e-commerce including the shipping, processing and processing. E-commerce can give the organization to exceed the customer expectations if it is handled properly.


Simchi-Levi D.,Kaminsky P., Simchi-levi E. (2007), Designing and Managing the Supply Chain, third edition, Mcgraw Hill

Alan Pilkington, "Manufacturing Strategy Regained: Evidence for the Demise of Best-Practice," California Management Review, (1998) Vol. 41, No.1, pp.31 -- 42.

Management Coaching and Training Services, (2006). The Just-In-Time (JIT) Approach.

Hirano, Hiroyuki and Makota, Furuya (2006), "JIT Is Flow: Practice and… [read more]

Global Business Project Management Essay

… These team members are capable of undertaking multiple projects at the same time. However, there are disadvantages like budgetary constraints and use of employees' time in the work place. Some assignments that the employees were working on originally may be disregarded as the employee engages in the other projects. The employees are few and they are the same people that are utilized in all the projects. As a result, the budget allocated for them is often small because of the illusion that since few employees are present the total needed is little (Gottlieb, 2007).

In a functional organization the employees get to be organized into departments based on possession of similar skills and the projects assigned get to be done inside individual department units. An advantage of this type of organization is that a clear line of command is stipulated. In this way the employees are more likely to be aware of what exactly is expected of them and the specific office of authority (Galbraith, 1971). There is also the advantage of project goals being suited to address departmental needs since they are determined inside the department. Under this type of organization the project decisions get to be made more swiftly and authoritatively (Goodman et al., 2003). Compared to the matrix organization, the functional organization is better for project management. The matrix organization places confusing obligations and responsibilities on the employees. The fact that they report to numerous superiors sometimes creates confusion as to who is the rightful senior authority. Their original duties are sometimes given minimal attention and new projects assigned get most attention. This confusion in the work place is bound to cause errors, and inaccuracies.

In conclusion, project management is an essential component when undertaking various projects in the organization. Projects differ because of a number of factors such as time, budget, top management involvement, and such other factors. It is important to prioritize the project so that top management can get involved, without top management involvement; the potential of project failure is increased. Fewer resources may be allocated to the project, the project processes may have minimal supervision and the employees may be less motivated. The project can either be approached from a functional organization approach or a matrix organization approach. The matrix organization is a little disorganized as the employees get to be assigned multiple projects during the same period and they report to numerous superiors. The functional organization is better since it is more organized; the employees report to a specific manager or superior and the project goals are more likely to address the needs of the departmental unit.


Berkun, S. (2005). The Art of Project Management (Theory in Practice (O'Reilly)). Cambridge: O'Reilly Media.

Galbraith, J.R. (1971). "Matrix Organization Designs: How to combine functional and project forms." In: Business Horizons, February, 1971, 29-40.

Goodman, M., Greenwood A., Major, I. And Nokes, S. (2003). The Definitive Guide to Project Management: The Fast Track to Getting the Job Done on Time and on Budget. New… [read more]

Operations Management Role Essay

… However, IKEA has had to modify its operations and price model as it becomes an increasingly internationally-focused organization. When IKEA moved to the United States, it was forced to take into consideration the larger spaces most Americans lived within, the fact that the U.S. uses standard rather than metric measurements, and different American expectations of quality and durability. The Swedish norm for a sofa is that it should fit two people, for example, which is ill-suited to that of a large American family room and the color palate of Swedish IKEAK products was deemed too subdued. Swedish curtains were too short, textiles were of inferior quality, and "beds were measured in centimeters, not king, queen, and twin...kitchens didn't fit U.S.-size appliances" (IKEA, 2005, Businessweek). Even the glasses were too small. Products had to be redesigned to suit American customers but in a manner so that the IKEA price point was still observed, so as not to forego one of the company's major competitive advantages.

IKEA has also weathered criticism regarding its environmental record, given that many contend that it encourages the use of inexpensive furniture made of particle board that is disposed of within a few years. In response, IKEA has attempted to observe the most stringent E1 German standards regarding the release of formaldehyde emissions from particle board, begun use of ultraviolet and water-based lacquers to avoid harmful solvents and tried to reduce exhaust emissions in transportation whenever possible. "In a number of cases, the efforts have resulted in long-term cost reductions" for IKEA as well as benefits for the environment (Owens 2012). Branding itself as 'green' also involves reusing and recycling existing products, as well as resorting to new materials. "For its new PS line, it challenged 28 designers to find innovative uses for discarded and unusual materials" (IKEA, 2005, Businessweek).

Operations management has thus played a critical role for the Swedish furniture company in keeping costs low for both the organization as a whole and for customers. Low-cost is part of the company's marketing positioning and competitive advantage. Given the proliferation of new discount stores selling furniture to rival IKEA, such as Wal-Mart and Target, it is essential that it stays true to its original vision while it answers criticism about the 'disposable' nature of its product. Minimalism and environmentally-friendly efforts are important for its core base of consumers. Operations managers must find ways to source materials and construct processes that satisfy all of these demands. The products sold at IKEA must not simply look like they are of the IKEA style -- they must be IKEA through and through, in terms of construction, design and pricing.


IKEA. (2005). Businessweek. Retrieved:

Owens, Heidi. (2012). IKEA. Natural Step case study. Retrieved:

What is operations management? (2012). MIT Sloan. Retrieved: [read more]

Defining Organizational Learning Essay

… Management Theory

Organizational Learning

In the business community, learning is much more than just a manner in which to create the future that is desired. In today's quick-paced, highly aggressive work world, it may in fact give a company the… [read more]

Future of Project Management Term Paper

… Future of Project Management

In many respects the evolution of project management parallels the development and continual validation of leadership theories, often corresponding to comparable timeframes. In the analysis presented in the Current State of Project Management Research: Trends, Interpretations,… [read more]

Traditional Project Management Research Paper

… Traditional Project Management

Please write on: Traditional Project Management techniques have been shown to be less effective in when used on new product development projects. What, according to Belassi et al.(2006) explains this phenomenon?

In the study New product development projects: The effects of organizational culture (Belassi, Kondra, Tukel, 2007) the authors illustrate through an empirical analysis of which aspects in an organizations' culture benefit New Product Development (NPD) the most and least why traditional project management techniques are marginally effective. Throughout the detailed analysis the authors find the three critical success factors of work environment, management leadership and results orientation as being essential for any NPD strategy to succeed (Belassi, Kondra, Tukel, 2007). Their contention is that traditional project management techniques do not take into account these aspect of an organization and actually slow down the overall process of project team performance (Belassi, Kondra, Tukel, 2007). The authors also contend and show through intensive levels of empirical research just how critical it is to have strong leadership that is uncomfortable with uncertainty driving an NPD project. Further, an effective leader is one that can integrate the work environment, management leadership and results orientation to match the specific requirements of the team and project. All of these factors must be orchestrated for optimum results with leaders who are fully engaged in the overall vision of the project. Traditional project management technique's fail to take into account these more exogenous variables of cultures and fail often as a result, according to the authors' research and conclusions (Belassi, Kondra, Tukel, 2007). The need for being more transformational, not transactional, is shown in the study.

What role does entrepreneurship play in organizational culture? Please review several sources from journals with an entrepreneurial focus and discuss the affect an entrepreneurial orientation can have on a team's ability to manage a project.

The role of entrepreneurship in organizations is considered by many researchers to be indispensable in creating a culture of risk and continual renewal. From the highly disruptive nature of intrepreneurship that at&T has tried and successfully implementing from a business process management (BPM) standpoint (Morris, Trotter, 1990) to the highly disruptive nature of building entirely new divisions and incubators (Kuratko, Hornsby, Naffziger, Montagno, 1993), companies are increasingly realizing that entrepreneurship is a very powerful catalyst for bringing organizational change quickly into a culture.

The most successful efforts and initiatives within established companies are predicated on a strong sense of autonomy, mastery and purpose on the part of employees and the internal entrepreneurs (or intrepreuners at at&T calls them) who are running these programs (Kuratko, Hornsby, Naffziger, Montagno, 1993). What each of these initiatives attempt to do is completely remove the… [read more]

Functions of Management Essay

… Functions of Management

The Four Functions of Management

The universally accepted functions of management -- whether it is a baseball organization, an opera company, a Fortune 500 corporation or an elementary school in Ireland -- include: Planning, Organizing, Leading and… [read more]

Global Human Resources Management Term Paper

… (ITAP International, nd, p.1) Palthe (2008) reports "HR could also play a leading role in helping to define the values and associated norms organizations should foster in order to generate a corporate culture that fundamentally respects, promotes, and protects the… [read more]

Organizational Change and Stress Case Study

… The key in this case remains the removal of present obstacles by ensuring that others are empowered to act on the vision.

Sixth, efforts should be made to ensure that short-term wins are systematically planned and catered for. The reasoning here is that the change process may take time for the ultimate benefits to be realized and hence in such a case, the organization risks loosing momentum. The creation of short-term wins is a way to motivate organizational members as in this case, they have evidence that their efforts are not going to waste.

Next, Kotter (1995) warns against declaring victory prematurely. In this case, if victory tends to be declared too early, chances are that momentum will be lost. This will in turn reverse the gains made so far by allowing old habits to re-entrench themselves. It is hence critical that change agents accept that the entire change process might take years.

Lastly, Kotter (1995) proposes that the changes be anchored in the culture of the organization. This ensures that new behaviors take root within the organization. Failure to ensure that the new approaches are institutionalized may subject such approaches to degradation over time hence rolling back the gains made.


Allcorn, S. (2005). Organizational Dynamics and Intervention: Tools for Changing the Workplace. M.E. Sharpe

Ford, J.D., Ford L.W. & D'Amelio, A. (2008). Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 362-377

Hussey, D.E. (2000). How to Manage Organizational Change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Kotter, J.P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard… [read more]

Management for Organizations Term Paper

… Industries

Management for Organizations

Often thought to be the heart and soul of this nation's economy, businesses within the manufacturing industry produce every day, ordinary goods on an enormous level. These businesses characteristically partake in very labor intensive productions and… [read more]

Organizational Management the Business Management Classes Term Paper

… Organizational Management

The business management classes I have found most relevant are:

Introduction to Business Management -- This class gave me a solid understanding and overview of all of the important business management theories I need to understand. It also helped me develop a foundation of theory and understanding as far as all management practices are concerned. I feel that it has allowed me to develop the necessary organizational skills. Thus, it helped pave the way for a successful understanding of organizational management.

Introduction to Organizational Management -- This class provided specifics in organizational management, which has given me a solid understanding of what to expect in my future business practices. The general overview was basic, but I still feel that a solid foundation is important for overall business success. Thus, the concepts I felt were most beneficial were the definitive concepts presented in class, which will help me out with goal setting and overall success (Antioch University, 2011). Therefore, I gained an excellent overall understanding of the concepts behind organizational management, and this foundation helped me to grasp most of what was presented in the following classes.

3. Knowledge and Leadership in Management. I learned about various leadership theories in this class, and how leadership is important in management. Several leadership theories were discussed, and I learned how to be a pro-active and encouraging manager. I feel better about how I will go about treating my employees, and I am certain I can both encourage and motivate them. Knowing how to lead a team and how to perform within a team is very important to overall business success, and personal success. Thus, I feel better prepared to work within a team, and to understand team dynamics and issues like groupthink, as well as basic motivating factors. Psychology is also an important part of business management, and I was able to get a nice,… [read more]

Conflict in Organizations Conflict Management Case Study

… Conflict in Organizations

Conflict Management in Organizations

Conflict within an organization is not necessarily bad, and can act as a powerful catalyst to move a company forward to its objectives, overcoming both market limitations and competitors in the process. The sources of conflict within an organization can be behavioral, organizational and structural with a lack of goal clarity and communication often accelerating differences. Human Resource (HR) professionals need to champion the transfer of conflict management skills to each level of an organization to ensure that the skills and insights needed become engrained in the company's culture (Guttman, 2009).

Analyzing Conflict Management Strategies

Each organization needs to have a core set of conflict management skills, insights and programs in place that are regularly taught to each management layer of the company (Dionne, Yammarino, Atwater, Spangler, 2004). HR needs to champion the development and teaching of active listening techniques, support for assertiveness training, and depersonalizing exercises to ensure that managers and staff have a strong inventory if techniques to draw from (Guttman, 2009).

Yet HR cannot do this alone, they need to have the support of leaders throughout the organization for conflict management initiatives and techniques to be effective. The ownership of conflict management needs to be with the senior management teams, each layer of management and throughout the supervisory ranks of the organization (Guttman, 2009). One of the most effective approaches to managing conflict is to invest in leadership training programs that seek to grow the transformational leaders who have the ability to manage conflict effectively through communication and emotional intelligence-based insights (Carmeli, Atwater, Levi, 2011). The combining of HR expertise and transformational leadership is very effective for minimizing disruptions from conflict while also preserving the development of effective leadership strategies at the same time. This shared aspect… [read more]

Organizational Behavior and Management Coursework Research Proposal

… This will make the job and task fun for them (Hackman & Oldham, 1976).

If the employees will be able to derive meanings from the work i.e. they will find work meaningful they will be more willing and motivated to perform the task and work effectively and efficiently and there will be low turnover rate. Apart from this if the employees are accountable for the results and outcomes of the tasks and jobs they are more involved and motivated to perform the task and job with more responsibility (Martin, 2006).

The management of the organization has to change the management structure of the organization from scientific management to more participative management. The organization view has to be shifted from mechanistic to more organic. Under organic designs of the organization there is more delegation of authority and empowerment to employees so that they are encouraged and motivated to perform the tasks and jobs effectively and efficiently and with complete responsibility (Martin, 2006). This will also contribute in fulfilling and achieving the self-actualization need of the employees and in this way the employee turnover rate will be reduced and the production department will be able to cope up with the increasing sales and demand.


Zingfresh Holdings Pte Ltd. is facing problems and issues of with the effectiveness of the organization and turnover of employees because of following scientific management and bureaucratic style of management. The pre-defined standards and procedures are discouraging employees to show their effectiveness and productivity. In order to overcome these problems and issues the management of the company will have to change the management style and will have to become more participative and flexible in order to motivate and encourage employees to perform effectively and efficiently and give positive and outstanding results and outcomes.

Reference List

Colombo, M. & Delmastro, M., 2004. Delegation of Authority in Business Organizations: An Empirical Test. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 52(1), 53-80.

Gronroos, C., 1994. From Scientific Management to Service Management: A Management Perspective for the Age of Service Competition. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 5(1), 5-20.

Hackman, J. & Oldham, G., 1976. Motivation through the design of the work: test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279.

Harris, J., 1997. Scientific Management, Bureau-Professionalism, New Managerialism: The Labour Process of State Social Work. British Journal of Social Work, 28(6), 839-862.

Martin, G., 2006. Managing People and Organizations in Changing Contexts. Netherlands: Elsevier Ltd.

Rousseau, D.,… [read more]

Management and Organizational Behavior Research Paper

… Management & Organizational Behavior

Management and Organizational Behavior

Using the Management Skill Set Assessment by Alan Chapman an analysis has been completed comparing my self-assessment to my immediate manager's perception of my performance on the 22 factors that comprise this framework. 13 of the factors were classified as a level factors, seven as B. factors and 2 as C. factors. Across the entire set of 22 factors, the average score of the rankings I gave myself was 8.36 and my supervisor's was 6.86. This difference of approximately 1.5 points across all factors held consistent across all three categories of factors (a, B and C). The greatest variation however was in the C. class of factors with a deviation of 2 in the average scores (8.75 versus 6.75). What is most interesting is the alignment of factors into the a, B and C. sectors of the analysis. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the totality of these rankings to determine what lessons can be learned for continual improvement.

Analysis of a-Level Factors

There are four skills in the a level of factors that exhibited the greatest variation between my own assessments vs. that of my manager. They are shown below in the red zone of the graphic titled Figure 1, a-Level Factors Analysis.

Figure 1: A-Level Factors Analysis

The yellow section of Figure 1: A-Level Factors Analysis shows that group of five factors where the difference is attributable by up to two differences in ratings, and the green section are the a-level factors my manager and I are in agreement on. This is a useful approach to analyzing the data as it provides insights into how much my manager sees me needing to improve on taking initiative to motivate others while also gaining greater leadership. As our company is heavily focused on quality management standards, there is also the critical need to provide leadership on these standards while also providing motivation to team members to stay focused on quality management and compliance. My manager also believes I need to also take a more active role in innovation and problem solving, and he would like to see me do this by engaging with other team members more often. When I asked my manager about these 13 factors and his rankings, he mentioned that my performance of the core functions of management continue to be excellent. These include planning, organizing, leading and controlling including the managing of our team's time. He also has said I excel at training and development, including effectively using it, and managing relationships with peers. From the foundation of the basics of management (planning, leading, organizing and controlling),… [read more]

Change Management an Organizational Research Paper

… Once stakeholders' interests and links to the change initiative have been identified, the owners can chart an engagement strategy (Austin, 2009). The engagement strategy outlines the timing, order and actions for connecting with key stakeholders (Austin, 2009).

The plan will… [read more]

Evaluating and Explaining Organizational Accountability in Emergency Management of Typhoon Morakot a Citizens Perspective Literature Review

… ¶ … Organizational Accountability in Emergency Management of Typhoon Morakot: A Citizens' Perspective -- Literature Review Chapter

Typhoon Morakot

The contemporaneous society is unfortunate enough to be witnessing numerous natural calamities. The debate over the causes of these calamities is… [read more]

Change Management and Organizational Transformation Thesis

… Change Management & Organizational Transformation


The objective of this work is to examine changes in organizations, management and how management and technology are more frequently becoming factors for consideration. This work will select a company… [read more]

How Do Different Management Styles Affect an Organizations Overall Performance? Thesis

… ¶ … management styles affect an organizations' overall performance?

Different Management Styles and How They Impact Organizational Performance - Literature Review

Today's managers strive to develop and implement the best strategic courses of action which foster economic growth. In their… [read more]

Organizational Management at British Airways Term Paper

… Organizational Management at British Airways

Alongside with planning, staffing, directing and controlling, organizing is a major function of the managerial act. "Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization. The focus is on division, coordination, and control of… [read more]

Stress Management an Organization Starts Its Operation Term Paper

… Stress Management

An organization starts its operation with certain objectives in mind. The management of the organization adopts certain strategies and initiatives that contribute toward attainment of the objectives. The objectives shape the external policies of the company, external policy… [read more]

Change Management Change in Organization: Organizations Function Term Paper

… Change Management

Change in Organization:

Organizations function within a changing environment. Political, Economic, Social and Technical - PEST factors have an effect on an organization. Change is unavoidable and the difficulty managers face how to control change and use its… [read more]

Organizational Theory and Public Management Term Paper

… S. organizations of all kinds. To be sure, in a highly capitalistic society, the views of Marx are not likely to be embraced or valued to a high degree -- however; it is difficult to negate them entirely. Yet, culturally, the concept of power as defined by Weber as well as Freud continues to be reflected in the organizational models of today. Understanding this concept of power and authority allows one to better understand the components of organizational efficiency -- bounded by culture as it is.


Adler, Yael. "Organizational Behavior and Freud." Vault. 2001> ch_id=402& article_id=18863& cat_id=2071< (22 February 2005).

Burrell, G. And G. Morgan. Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis. London, Heinemann. 1979.

Denhardt, Robert B. Theories of Public Organization. Fourth Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. 2002.

Price, Alan. "Classical Organization Theory: Bureaucracy, Power and Control." HRM Guide. >< (22 February 2005).

Weber, Max The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Translated by A.M. Henderson & Talcott Parsons, The Free Press. 1947.

Weber, Max (1947) The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Translated by A.M. Henderson & Talcott Parsons, The Free Press.


Price, Alan. "Classical Organization Theory: Bureaucracy, Power and Control." February 22, 2005. HRM Guide.

Burrell, G. And G. Morgan (1979). Sociological paradigms and organizational analysis. London, Heinemann.

Adler, Yael. "Organizational Behavior and Freud." Vault. ch_id=402& article_id=18863& cat_id=2071

Ibid. [read more]

Managing Across the Organization Term Paper

… Classroom Management Across the Organization

Managing Across the Organization

The purpose of this work is to conduct research and then to assume through a scenario the identity of a CEO or an organization which has been effectively managed including the… [read more]

Mbo for Managing an Organization What Impact Term Paper

… ¶ … MBO for Managing an Organization

What impact, if any, does the level of management have to do with how information is disseminated, how people interact with management, and how decisions are made? Explain.

Management sets the tone for everything done within a company. They decide how information will be shared: email, memorandum, formal level, informational meeting, or discussion meaning? Management that views information as a top-down process will tend to use one-sided communication, where management speaks and the rest of the employees listen. In a less authoritarian style of management, information will flow multiple ways - from top to bottom, bottom to top, and from the middle in both directions.

Describe a project in which you have participated either as a project manager or team member. What did you do (or the project manager do) to manage this project effectively? Analyze the success of the project based on what you have learned about planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

I was team leader for a new computer application. Once I learned the program, I was the contact person for about 20 other people and helped them learn to implement the program efficiently and well. In this role I communicated with the people learning the program but also the people above me who were in charge of the overall implementation. I found that I had to call the people I was supposed to be assisting. They were pushed for time and would tend to invent their own work-arounds rather than asking how the program should function. In addition to aiding those people, I reported this pattern to those above me, not as criticism of those I was helping train but so the people in overall charge would be aware that some people… [read more]

Functions of Management A. Organization the Planning Term Paper

… Functions of Management a. Organization

The planning function in an organization refers to "the future impact of today's decisions." This includes everything from providing a mission for the company, setting strategic goals and defining the means by which these goals can be achieved. The planning function defines the trend the company will be following on a short- and long-term. In the case of the American College, the planning function includes remaining a top competitor (as a strategic objective) and developing the means by which this objective can be reached.

The organizing function establishes "the internal organizational structure of the business." This means that the American College designs the right organization chart that will serve most efficiently and that will work best with the current human resources. The organization function also works perfectly with the planning function, because, while the planning function designs the ways of action at a large scale, the organization function will handle the tactical details of how they should be carried out. How can financial stability and accurate tuition fees be maintained?

Directing or leading refers to ways in which the human resource is mobilized to make most out of the positions they work in. Motivation is a key element in the directing function, as is the vision that a leader needs to provide. In the case of the American College, the vision relies in the planning function and its strategic objective: providing an OPPORTUNITY for students, an opportunity of learning. The employees at American College, besides financial motivation, have the sheer satisfaction of their palpable and real success.

Finally, the controlling feedback involves a concrete and diverse feedback mechanism by which the way the decisions that the management makes and are implemented is evaluated and new ways of action are designed to cope with changes. In our case, for example, any change in price must be reflected and adjusted, as a reactive action to change. Additionally, control mechanisms, including financial ratio and a keen eye on the annual statements, are in place in order to ensure the fulfillment of one of the strategic goals, the financial stability of the company.

b. Supervisor

If in the organization's case, everything was at macro levels, the supervisor function transposes the four functions of management at division or lower levels. In this sense, the planning function refers, first of all, to financial stability in the department. In this sense, the supervisor needs to ensure that the actions he takes do not affect the department budget and that this… [read more]

Organizational Behavior -- Conflict Management Term Paper

… 6.

I would want to know what the cultural norms and traditions for communication were. It shouldn't make a difference if the person is a woman, unless the cultural norms of the country dictate that women would behave in a manner different from men with regard to customary communication practices. Understanding ones culture helps facilitate communication and reduce the likelihood for misunderstanding.


The possible consequences of dysfunctional conflict include lost production time, inefficient operations and general ill will among employees. Lost production time and inefficient operations are more likely to occur in organizational conflict situations where a large group of people generally are required to work together to develop products or complete a task.


Resolution is the process whereby a conflict is ultimately resolved and put to rest. Stimulation is the process whereby conflict is actually aroused in a positive manner to generate new ideas and creative thinking processes. It would be appropriate to utilize both to put some issues to rest and bring others to the forefront of a discussion.


Typically negations require that people share ideas, allow open communications, seek to uncover differences in thinking and look for common ground. There are likely to be differences depending on if the negotiations are win-win or lose-lose, but for the most part each of these elements should be considered equally important.


During union-management relations and contract negotiations the most important conflict management strategies are those that allow open communications and seek to find common ground. The primary intent of such negotiations is uncovering common ground.

11. I would recommend that they compromise and decide on a way to approach the project that will serve both of their needs. They could divide project tasks so Susie could approach some and complete them early and Bob could follow up when he had time and complete other aspects of the project at a later date. Collaboration and compromise are key components of negations.


'Conflict."… [read more]

Organizational Management the Organizing Functions Term Paper

… Organizational Management

The organizing functions of management in an organization, related to human resources and knowledge, are especially crucial to an organization's success. Effective organization of human resources provides and mobilizes a framework for success. Such a framework considers the… [read more]

Management and Quality Control Within Organizations Term Paper

… What can nonmanufacturing companies learn and apply from Toyota's philosophy and practices?

There are many key learnings that nonmanufacturing companies can draw from Toyota's main philosophies and practices. The first is that management decisions should be based on long-term philosophies and values that the company holds even if it puts short-term goals at risk. For education and government institutions, they should develop a mission and vision statement that guides management decisions even if in the short-term they are not favorable. These may include activities such as reducing the workforce based on performance to only retain those performing at minimum acceptable levels, or optimizing assets e.g. increasing or reducing asset base for future productivity.

A second key learning is that these organization should create a continuous processes to evaluate their activities in order to bring problems to the surface and tackle them at the right time possible. This may require the organization to invest time and money into ensuring their employees are challenged to use their creativity towards the success of the company. This culture of continuous improvement may be difficult to build, especially in government and education institutions. However, there are many benefits of this culture including better and optimal utilization of resources. Education and government institutions can create a continuous change process by ensuring managers act as change agents and include their employees in the change process by allowing them to give opinion and using these to drive change.

The third lesson is that any company or organization should respect and honor their extended network of suppliers, partners, and competitors. They should challenge this network to improve their activities in order to drive sustainable growth. In education and government, the key lesson is for them to find their network of partners and suppliers and challenge them to improve their processes. For example, the government can challenge their suppliers to provide quality materials… [read more]

Roles and Functions in Healthcare Management Essay

… Leaders interact with their subordinates at personal levels, holding calls with nurses if need be, holding meetings with service personnel, hospital representatives and employees, and are, hence, constantly aware of the issues facing the organization. [7: 7 Brent James, "Quality Management for Healthcare Delivery," Inter-Mountain Healthcare, 18, (accessed March 3, 2014)] [8: 8 Brent James, "Quality Management for Healthcare Delivery," Inter-Mountain Healthcare, 18, (accessed March 3, 2014)]

Controlling: involves assessing the performance of members vis-a-vis the expected standards, in an attempt to ensure that they maintain appropriate standards of conduct, and always give the best service of care to patients[footnoteRef:9]. With people's lives at stake, healthcare facilities cannot afford to compromise on quality control. Substandard performance ought to be punished appropriately because its effects could be disastrous; perhaps resulting in deaths that could easily have been avoided and imposing serious and costly legal liabilities upon the facility[footnoteRef:10]. On the other hand, it is always good manners to reward remarkable performance. [9: 9 Brent James, Inter-Mountain Healthcare, 17.] [10: 10 Brent James, Inter-Mountain Healthcare, 17.]

Management and Diversification

Thanks to globalization, and reduced air transport costs, America has become largely diversified in terms of culture, ethnic groups, beliefs, and values. This is the same kind of diversity that health practitioners encounter in the country's medical facilities on a daily basis. Different people hold different beliefs regarding healthcare and medical care. A healthcare manager's greatest role is to ensure that the members of his organizations are equipped with the skills to handle diversity, and respond to patients' needs in a manner that is respectful to their beliefs[footnoteRef:11]. To this end, a healthcare manger has to put in place measures that ensure that his employees are aware of, and are trained to operate in a manner that satisfies the CLAS standards. It is the manager's role to organize training programs, seminars, and forums through which employees are made aware and kept up-to-date with these standards. [11: 11 WHO, "Leadership and Management," World Health Organization, 280, (accessed March 3, 2014)]

The one significant element of healthcare management I would wish to gain is talent management. I say this because the world is highly competitive today; unlike in the past, healthcare organizations compete for talent, which is now a source of competitive advantage, as each organization strives to outdo its competitors and be the best[footnoteRef:12]. I look forward to being a manager who knows just how to keep his employees satisfied and working to remain at the organization, one who looks beyond just filling a role, one who desires to see his employees develop and leave the organization not out of dissatisfaction but in the pursuit of higher positions of management. [12: 12 John Thompson, Sharon Buchbinder and Nancy Shanks, "An Overview of Healthcare Management," Jones and Bartlett Learning, 9, (accessed March 3, 2014) ]


Healthcare management is a fast-growing profession, but it is important that those looking forward to take up managerial positions understand the various responsibilities, tasks, duties,… [read more]

Organizational Change and Personal Development Plan Term Paper

… I believe the leadership expertise is a process acquired on a daily basis. I believe that working with AMRAAM will bolster my efforts to achieve my career goals by acquiring the necessary leadership and management skills.

Professional and personal goals

Setting goals promote the growth and development of a leader. I would improve my time management and completion of tasks within the stipulated timeframe. I would like to visit approximately 65% of the successful organizations in the U.S. To learn from them. One of my professional goals is to advance my managerial knowledge and skills by attending various seminars. I would like also to enroll for part-time MBA program at the University of California to acquire additional knowledge and skills related to project management and leadership. I would like also to continue building my social networks while working at AMRAAM. This will increase my chances of better job placement and promotion in the future (Richman, 2012).

Evaluation of my leadership capabilities


I. Communication skills

Communication is essential in the establishment of effective working partnerships. I have discovered from my experience that, I communicate successfully with others. Achieving proper communication skills rely on using the most appropriate method of communication to facilitate understanding. Effective communication ensures success of the designed projects.

II. Organized

Throughout my experience, I have learnt that being organized is essential when working as a leader or a manager. I keep organized by keeping weekly outline of projects and assignments to avoid delays and time wastage.

III. Relationship management

I realized the importance of ensuring positive relationships when still a project coordinator at the American Army. This is achievable through the establishment of an environment that fosters open communication, free consultation, mutual relationship and understanding and teamwork.

IV. Promoting an organizational culture

Promoting an organizational culture is the sole duty of any leader/manager within an organization. Throughout my experience, I have learnt that, informing, promoting employee growth and development, adopting transactional and transformational leadership promotes the incorporation of the desired culture into the organization.


I. Time management

Although I am an organized leader, I realize that I have difficulties with time management. I handle many projects while under pressure in order to ensure the success: this hampers my ability to practice the virtue of effective time management. However, I often delegate some responsibilities to provide adequate time for effective management of the projects.


Richman, L.L. (2012). Improving your project management… [read more]

Project Closing Term Paper

… The second article fosters an organizational culture that emphasizes on high disciplinary levels like observing stipulated deadlines.

Secondly, the quality of costing, performance, and strategy cannot be ignored. In fact, the two organizations are pursuing projects, which have a considerate command on diverse stakeholders. Based on this, role of played by client satisfaction is a close commonality of the two organizations. While, CSTC -- A is actively pursuing interests of its audience (stakeholders interested in the professionalization of the Afghanistan military), ZuSRoM's main client is the Ethiopian government. It is interested in a timely completion of the project. Thirdly, the two organizations have tools of the trade. The CSTC -- A is interested in building a professional army through reconstruction of a secure environment. In contrast, ZuSRoM tools of trade are mainly substantial materials like building, concrete, and stones.


This comparison has been substantial in analyzing the validity of two different managerial approaches. The comparison has focused on two diverse organizations with similar managerial objectives. In particular, the comparison has elaborated on the role played by external stakeholders in influencing internal organizational goals. The study has appointed critical factors like cost, time, and strategy development as basic notabilities in both organizations.


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Rural Payment Agency Change Programme. Retrieved July 29, 2012 from [read more]

Project Management Essay

… Project Management

A project is a temporary group activity that is designed to produce a unique result, service, or product. It is temporary since it has defined end and a beginning and has defined resources and scope. Project management is… [read more]

Role and Improving Management Performance Essay

… For instance, by developing a positive communication culture within the department, employees will experience a better working environment, which often results in improved performance (Avolio, Bass & Jung, 2009).

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Organization Models Within the Correctional Term Paper

… Participative model

This model of management is normally quite democratic and open as compared to the authoritarian and bureaucratic models. However it is not quite effective in dealing with crisis situations that are fast moving. The model allows and is often dependent on the input of the staff regarding how the organization is supposed to be some experiments inmates have been given an opportunity to give their feedback as well. The main assumption in this model is that the correctional goals as well as the agency are accomplished more efficiently when the entire members of staff have taken part in reaching a consensus on the action that will be taken (Salinas, 2009). This participative model gives staff an increased sense of ownership when it comes to the planning and implementation of operations which leads to better attitudes toward and the support of routine events as well as new initiatives. However, formal, open discussions and negotiations as well as the collective participation within the institution are often termed as time consuming. This is because a lot of time will be taken to get the involved people to the discussions and most of all take a lot of time in coming to a is often very difficult for many people to come to a consensus easily and very fast without any form of disagreements and taking the last possible time (Carlson, Garret,.&Christopher,2010).

The authoritarian and bureaucratic models are the ones which are most prevalent within the correctional environments. However, these models are not open to change owing to the fact that the built-in resistance to any new ideas is self-defeating. Most of the successful agencies have ended up adopting the bureaucratic model and included some of the elements of the participative model. Correctional leaders decentralize things like daily decision making since they can and easily opt to seek the participation from the stuff in various avenues. Few successful administrations are advocates of the looseness and lack of structure that they associate with the participative model. This involvement of the midlevel managers as well as the line staff within specific work groups or in the overall strategic planning has numerous benefits. The staff generally enjoys these activities and since they are the ones that are closest to the work arena they can make a significant contribution in the whole correctional environment. These forms of representative democracy within the correctional environments are often found to be very effective (Baunach, 1981).


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Lerch J., Viglione J,. Eley, E., Andrews… [read more]

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