"Medicine / Pharmacy" Essays

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Pharmacy Profession My Family Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Pharmacy Profession

My family and I immigrated to the U.S. In 2007. To this day, I regard moving to America a turning point in my life -- it was like being ushered into a completely new life. I must admit that during the very first days of my life in this great nation, things were not as easy as I would have liked them to be. First, there was the culture shock and the difficult task of trying to fit in. However, my family and I were fortunate enough to have a family that helped us settle and establish a new life here. My roommates at the language school I attended were also particularly supportive. In addition to helping me in every way they could, they did not at any time segregate me. They gave me all they could, and in so doing, paved the way towards my dream goal -- that of getting into one of the health care professions.

There are many reasons as to why I would like to get into the pharmacy profession. These reasons largely revolve around my own personal experiences and desires. To begin with, I must say that my desire to get into this particular profession was aroused earlier on -- after my grandfather was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Effectively, this remains one of the most devastating moments our family has had to encounter. At the time, no member of the family could speak fluent English and as a result, none of us could communicate efficiently with the doctors. We even had no idea what kind of medication my grandfather was taking -- for a while, we were largely passive observers. Luckily for us, one of the pharmacists was fluent in both Chinese and English. Due to the assistance he gave to us during this very difficult period, I naturally developed great admiration for him --…… [read more]

Why I Pursue Enrollment in Pharmacy School Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  6 pages (1,793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


And while I do not feel responsible for educating Heather on what is right and what is wrong, and it's not my job to provide her with ethical guidelines regarding original academic research, if the counselor advised me to go to the professor with my side of the story, I believe the best thing for me to do would be to follow his advice.

Additional Question: In terms of other work experiences I have had, I have served as a tutor for other students and through that work I have gained valuable skills in the field of communication. Tutoring a person, and doing a thorough job of helping another student fully comprehend the lesson and the substance behind the lesson, helps the tutor focus on presenting exactly the right information in the precise language and format for understanding. I gained valuable knowledge at to my own abilities to convey meaning and substance in that position.

It is important that every point in every conversation -- whether it is through a tutoring experience or a pharmacist's interaction with a patient -- has context and meaning.

In addition, I have had the opportunity to work in a laboratory, where absolute precision is pivotal to successful experiments and projects. In a very real way, developing professional laboratory skills is like developing the skills that a pharmacist must use in practice. Each ingredient, each chemical, and each solution that goes into a project in the lab must be absolutely precise, and errors are not acceptable. The same can be said of a pharmacist's responsibilities: making mistakes is not tolerable because human health issues depend on the exactitude of…… [read more]

Pharmacy - Interview Analyses and Synthesis Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Pharmacy - Interview


This project is a synthesis and analysis of the product of three interviews conducted with two practicing pharmacists and a retired pharmacist who work as a an industry advocate and contributes his time to patient advocacy groups as well. The range of professional experiences includes nearly five decades, with one of the subjects having entered the profession in 1960; he continues to practice at the age of 72. The other practicing pharmacist is relatively new to the profession, having just started his career a few years ago.

Several themes emerged throughout the series of interviews, including the dual role of the practicing pharmacist as a dispenser of drugs and an educator of patients; the role of technology in modern pharmacy; and the changes resulting from the evolution of the profession in the age of 21st century medicine, pharmacology, and technology. The purpose of this project is to acquire greater insight into the profession from information provided by knowledgeable individuals with different perspectives.

The Role of Pharmacists:

Pharmacists work in several different types of professional environments; predictably, their individual perspectives are substantially attributable to their specific responsibilities and to the realities of the vocational settings in which they work. The hospital pharmacist views his most essential roles primarily as defined by the need to dispense medications accurately and by the need to ensure that physician errors are identified and corrected before they result in dispensation errors.

The sheer volume of work faced by hospital physicians and the weakened condition of hospital patients (as compared to outpatients) raises the potential for the "perfect storm" of devastating medical harm that could result from pharmacy errors, regardless of whether the source of error was the prescribing physician or the pharmacist.

The hospital pharmacist must implement proactive measures to safeguard patients from errors, such as by maintaining lists of ambiguous terms and abbreviations known to be associated with potential misinterpretation or mistake. In order to be effective, those measures must be communicated to physicians; ultimately, optimal patient protection in this regard would require a standardized approach within the entire industry.

The secondary major role of pharmacists is that of provider of patient education, although setting also determines many aspects of that responsibility. The hospital pharmacist, for example, may have less opportunity for direct patient interaction compared with the outpatient pharmacist who ordinarily encounters patients under less exigent circumstances in which the patients are functioning more independently and in a frame of mind that is more conducive to their education. Even in the outpatient setting, heavy workloads and the need to provide fast service may preclude more extensive interactions between pharmacists and patients. One suggestion is that increased reliance of pharmaceutical technicians within the dispensation process would enable outpatient pharmacists to devote more time to direct patient interaction for the purpose of educating them.

In the hospital setting, the face-to-face education of the patient is more likely to come from physicians, supplemented by the pharmacist's notes and warnings. For… [read more]

Applying to Doctor of Pharmacy Program? Helping Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … applying to Doctor of Pharmacy Program?

Helping others help themselves. Teaching others so they can learn to take proactive steps to care for themselves and to administer their medications correctly. These are some of the central missions and goals of every pharmacist. My aptitude in the sciences, my desire to help patients, and my ability to put complex concepts into simple and comprehensible terms fuel my drive to enter the profession of pharmacy.

I have always had a strong aptitude in the sciences. I majored in biology as an undergraduate and am currently pursuing graduate certification in project management. The latter will be an asset to me if (and hopefully when) I am called upon to fulfill a managerial role at a pharmacy or hospital. I also work as real estate salesperson. Daily, I must deploy my communication skills to interact effectively with clients and match buyers with the houses of their dreams. This job requires me to talk one-on-one with people and to make the process of buying a home understandable to the uninitiated homebuyer in a confusing marketplace. I chose this job because it would provide me with the financial security to pursue my dream of becoming a pharmacist and to hone my teaching and speaking skills which are critical to succeeding in the profession of pharmacy.

My dream of becoming a pharmacist first arose a few years ago when my aunt suffered a stroke. The stroke paralyzed her left side of her body. At first my aunt and my family feared that the independent woman we knew was gone forever. But I witnessed how, with the aid of modern medicine, my aunt was able to regain a life of quality and dignity. Of course her medications were supplemented with physical therapy. But the difference…… [read more]

Pharmacy Application Was Only Nine Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


While a student, I also tutored students in other science subjects, including Mathematics and Chemistry.

In addition, I have also begun working in the medical field, as a give position in a dental office during the summer of 2003. Through this job, I have formed important connections and had a chance to apply my book learning firsthand in the medical field.

I am confident that this academic and work background in the sciences will provide a solid foundation for further studies in the field of pharmacy.

In addition to my interest in its scientific aspect, I am also attracted to the social service aspect of a career in pharmacy. By dispensing medicine and information, pharmacists are in a unique position to be directly involved in the lives of their patients. In addition, I know that many pharmacists lend their expertise to the community by giving advice regarding minor conditions and over the counter remedies.

This social aspect is important, since I believe strongly in giving back to the community. When I first moved to this country, it was a struggle to learn English. Thus, when I began studies at the Suffolk Community College in Long Island, I was an active member of the International Club. Together with other volunteers, I developed enrichment programs for international students at the college. Conversely, I also helped Persian students who grew up in Orlando learn more about their culture, language and heritage.

The fast-paced changes in technology and medicine means that the field of Social Work will continue to grow both in scope and challenges. With the training gained from Name college's excellent Pharmacy program, I look forward to being a part of this dynamic field, towards giving back to the community and to…… [read more]

Pharmacy School Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This amazing capability of drugs has motivated me to look deeply into the foundation of pharmaceuticals. I am especially interested to understand how research in pharmaceuticals is conducted, how drugs are manufactured, and how drugs take effect in the living bodies.

Presently I am attending Valencia Community College, after having received AA degree in May 2003 from Polk Community College. Presently, I have been working at Walgreen Pharmacy for three years. In my present position, I work as a technician, in which my responsibilities include taking in new prescriptions, entering them in the computer, filling prescriptions, helping clients, and ordering medicine. This professional experience at Walgreen has been quite fruitful to me to motivate me for becoming a pharmacist.

Besides my professional interests in medicine as described above, I have been always dedicated to help people and have been involved in the care of the elderly patients. I have volunteered in several community programs that deal with nursing and caring of elderly people in my community. For example, I volunteered in raising money for Diabetes Walks, the American Heart Association, and beach clean-ups. I sold candy and raffle tickets to many events such as Historian for Student Activities and made holiday cards for nursing homes. All of the above chores that I have taken over the years have prepared me to take up the challenging tasks of the pharmacy.

In closing, I believe my educational expertise and interests closely tune with your course offerings. I am confident of my abilities in performing well and meeting your expectations in my academic achievements. I am also confident of my abilities performing superbly in future responsibilities as a pharmacist.

I deeply appreciate you taking the time to consider my application for admission. Should you have any questions, please contact me at…… [read more]

Desire to Study Pharmacy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (361 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


As a salesperson, I became aware of how important it is for people to be satisfied in a product that they had bought. If a customer buys something that has a significant effect on their lives, then I as a salesperson am happy too because my customer was satisfied over a small thing such as being able to buy something that changed his/her life. Aside from the academic and personal rewards of studying Pharmacy, the said course is also economically beneficial, since pharmacists are well-paid and usually offered stable jobs. All of the reasons that I have mentioned are the primary motivations why I wanted to study Pharmacy under the supervision of Drs. Henry Lee and Lewis Henry, and be able to realize my dream of becoming a pharmacist who can make a significant contribution to the people and the society in the best and most significant way…… [read more]

Pharmacy School Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I am fluent in Chinese, Taiwanese, and in English. These languages will be useful when patients come for their medications, because of course the pharmacist is obliged to explain the proper way that customers are supposed to take their medications.

A pharmacist is also responsible for giving customers / patients updated and accurate advice on health issues, and when necessary a pharmacist will refer a customer to services that may be useful, including health insurance that covers the cost of expensive medications. Pharmacists are required to understand the composition of drugs, their chemical and their physical properties, and highly professional and informed pharmacists -- as I intend to become -- will also understand how the drug that is being prescribed actually works in the human body.

My strong desire is to be able to help patients understand the drugs they are taking, and in that same context, it will bring great joy to me when I can see that the medications I am providing to an elderly woman has helped cure her disease. To have known her, to have had a chance to speak at length with her, and then to dispense her vital medicines and later discover that her disease has been cured -- these are the precious moments in the life of a pharmacist, and I will be living that life and will be making an important difference in many lives.

In conclusion, I know doctors are very busy and don't have the time it takes to fully explain certain medications. In those cases, I fully intend to be the professional pharmacist that will in fact take the time to explain what medications I am dispensing, and what that particular medication should to in order to help the customer be healthy…… [read more]

Claude Bernard and Experimental Medicine Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,476 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Bernard makes the case that statistics are useful to the physician because they lead to the indeterminate, but that cannot be a stopping point.[footnoteRef:7] The solution is to find these indeterminate issues and, through experimentation to make them determinate. He based his entire book "Principles of Experimental Medicine" on the principle of "experimental determinism" instead of on "statistical conjecture."… [read more]

Pharmacy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Pharmacy

Thank you in advance for your consideration of my application to enter the Doctor of Pharmacy program. I offer full assurances that if admitted, I will show that I am a dedicated, competent, and enthusiastic student as I become fully engaged with your program.

Why I Am Qualified

I am intimately familiar with many of the medical responsibilities and fiduciary duties and that a pharmacist performs. I have had the good fortune to work with -- and be inspired by -- a highly talented pharmacist for about seven years. Indeed, I have served as an Inpatient Pharmacy Technician at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia since May of 2006. I was certified as a Pharmacy Technician by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board in December 2009, and continue this assignment today.

This challenging and vital position in the medical / healthcare field has introduced me in many contexts to the importance of being a patient-centered professional, a caring, well-informed and technically competent person.

In my capacity as technician, I trained in Robotic IV Automation (RIVA) and I was assigned as operator for IV batch production and patient specific medication. I was the person that was tapped to accurately prepare non-sterile and sterile doses within a specific window of time, which I handled capably. Exchanging and delivering medications at patient units and storing them appropriately, along with correctly monitoring the inventory and keeping a precise accounting of the supplies of medication, are some of my responsibilities at Children's Hospital.

My duties include training newly hired staff persons, student interns, and also I am counted on to provide orientation to new pharmacists that come…… [read more]

Medicine in the Ancient World Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,046 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Medicine in the Ancient World

The introduction of medicine and primitive healthcare strategies to the ancient world is one of the giant steps that were taken to improve the lives of the citizens. Much has changed of course in the centuries that have passed since ancient medicine was being introduced, but it is interesting and instructive to look back at… [read more]

Clinical Pharmacy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,264 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Clinical Pharmacy

The Discourse Community of Clinical Pharmacists

Many professions have a specific set of terms -- arguably a full linguistic code -- that enable faster and more precise communication between members of the profession, yet that obscure the meaning of these communications outside the profession. This is one example of a "discourse community," and such communities can be found in many different professions. The medical industry is home to many professions that have their own individual discourse communities, and the industry as a whole can also be thought of as one large discourse community, to some degree. Each different area of the medical world, however, has its own specialized language and terms that are specific to the functions and experiences of its branch of knowledge and expertise. Pharmacists form one such area in the field of medicine, and this particular discourse community will be further explored in this paper.

Community Members

Practicing pharmacists and pharmacy technicians (on a somewhat more limited basis) obviously make up the bulk of the members of the pharmacist's discourse community, but there are many other peripheral members as well. Anyone with a solid grounding in basic medical terminology would necessarily be able to participate in the pharmaceutical discourse community to some degree, meaning that virtually all medical practitioners are a part of this discourse community in some part. Pharmaceutical sales representatives and engineers, certain chemists, and even many well-versed patients would also be peripheral members of this community.

A common knowledge of how various chemicals can be combined and how these chemicals interact with different processes in the human body binds this discourse community together. Terminology used in this discourse community includes the brand names and generic names of many common pharmaceuticals, a host of medical terms including the names of certain ailments and disorders, and the names of many tools and descriptive terms used almost exclusively in the pharmaceutical trade. All members of this discourse community will necessarily have had some level of formal education regarding medical and/or pharmaceutical terminology, with most members having received higher education degrees and often-professional certification as well. Certain preconceptions and assumptions arising from the cause and effect model that comprises Western views of health is a definite part of this discourse community, and there is an attendant belief in the efficacy of proper pharmaceutical treatment. This discourse might be beginning to shift, however.

Current Conversations

The pharmaceutical industry and thus the pharmaceutical discourse community as a whole is driven by a great deal of innovation in ongoing research meaning there are always a great number of conversations occurring within the discourse community. Current issues, some of which suggest that a fundamental shift in the discourse community, include changing demographics in the taking of medications and consumption of pharmaceuticals, new sources of pharmaceutical compounds that had previously gone underutilized or summarily discounted and a host of other changing trends in pharmaceutical production and delivery (Humer 2005).

A large part of the discourse in the wider pharmaceutical community is… [read more]

Translational Medicine Is a New Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


BI's ability should be managed towards exploring information on human medicine as its ultimate pursuit. Bioinformatics methods are meant to identify molecular and cellular areas or aspects for specific clinical interventions and better insights into the profile of the disease. Imaging informatics are designed to understand pathogenesis and identification of treatment from the molecular, cellular, tissue or organ level. Innovations… [read more]

Pharmacy Experiences When Describing Their Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (634 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


One misprint on a medicine label or accidentally filling a prescription with the wrong drug can be fatal. One of my biggest fears is that I will make one of these mistakes. While I watched these pharmacists at work, I wondered how many of them were thinking about their dogs or what they were going to eat for dinner while they grabbed a bottle of pills. Fortunately, the system at this pharmacy was streamlined and it would be difficult to make such a glaring mistake. However, human error is a major consideration in this profession, perhaps more than I realized before.

I also noticed how personal biases can affect a pharmacist's reaction to a customer. Because a plethora of medicines and products exist for each ailment, the pharmacist can recommend whatever product he or she feels is best. However, what I would recommend might be totally different from what one of my colleagues would recommend. We pharmacists must always keep our personal biases out of the professional setting. I believe that when asked for advice, we should present the customer with the full gamut of products and help them make an informed decision on their own. Rather than offer them the latest marketing brochures or other promotional materials, we should take the business out of pharmacy and focus on healing and wellness.

Observing professional pharmacists in action helped me better understand the nature of my chosen profession. I realized that on a daily basis, pharmacists must hone their interpersonal skills, practice meticulous attention to detail, and be keenly aware of the biases that affect their professional judgment. Perhaps more than anything, I realized that rote memorization of facts and academic learning is only half of the job; the remainder entails kindness, caring, and compassion: a genuine concern for the health and well-being of our customers.… [read more]

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine at Its Best Article

Article  |  3 pages (999 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Regenerative Medicine at its best.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): Regenerating the liver

One of the most promising and life-saving therapies being developed today is the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to regenerate human tissue. As in the case of all stem cells, MSCs have a unique therapeutic potential to repair tissue because they are both multi-potent yet are highly capable of self-renewal ("MSCs," R&D Systems, 2013). They are primarily found in bone marrow but have also been isolated from other parts of the body, including the blood of the fetus' umbilical cord blood, liver and lung tissue ("MSCs," R&D Systems, 2013). MSCs can be grown so they regenerate into many different cell types, making them extremely flexible and for use in medical therapies ("MSCs," R&D Systems, 2013).

One example of a therapy deploying the flexibility of MCSs to great effect is a developing treatment for liver failure, currently being tested upon mice. MCSs were used to create liver 'buds.' These transplanted buds, when transplanted in the mice, worked in conjunction with the mice's other organs and secreted human liver-specific proteins. "They also created human metabolites, tiny molecules that are produced when the body metabolizes a substance" ("Researchers create miniature human liver out of stem cells," CBS, 2013). Liver failure has resulted in a transplant waiting list of more than 16,500 on an annual basis but only 6,256 people were able to receive a liver transplant in 2012. The hope is that these buds could be used to repair and restore the function of human livers ("Researchers create miniature human liver out of stem cells," CBS, 2013).

After being transplanted, the liver cells in the experiment grew new blood vessels, evidently regenerating themselves. "We just simply mixed three cell types and found that they unexpectedly self-organize to form a three-dimensional liver bud… After hundreds of trials, the three cells worked together and began to make three-dimensional structures" said the Japanese scientists who conducted the study ("Researchers create miniature human liver out of stem cells," CBS, 2013). The buds were implanted in the mice's brains but this would not be used in the human application of the therapy. The ideal would be to "mass-produce' human liver buds from induced stem cells for a scaled-up transplant attempt on a human patient" (Vergano 2013).

To construct an preliminary experiment determining the efficacy of this therapy would require a comparison of two groups of mice, all of which had induced liver failure (the liver failure in the mice of the original experiment was chemically induced): one of the groups would receive the treatment and the others would not, and the experimental group would be monitored for tissue regeneration (Vergano 2013). If the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group, this would establish that the therapy had some validity. The observable positive result supporting the therapy would be revascularization of the liver in the experimental group vs. A failure of the liver to show improvement in the experimental…… [read more]

Regenerative Medicine Stem Cells Assisted Windpipe Construction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,014 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Regenerative Medicine

Healing Thy Self Still Requires Faith, but Less So

The trachea is an essential structure connecting the lungs to the mouth and being born without one is fatal 99% of the time (Sifferlin). Hannah Warren, a Korean Canadian, was unlucky enough to face this fate and had been kept alive through a tube acting as an artificial trachea for the past two years. On April 9 of this year, Dr. Paolo Macchiarini at the Advanced Center for Translational Regenerative Medicine, Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden harvested stem cells from Hannah's bone marrow and seeded them into a trachea-shaped plastic mesh. The purpose of this surgery was to generate a trachea from Hannah's own cells.

This was the sixth such surgery ever performed and the first in the United States (Sifferlin). The FDA approval was based on the experimental nature of the surgery, which is typically allowed in cases when the patient's life is at risk. In other words, this type of surgery is considered a last resort because it has a low chance of success, but without it the patient will certainly die. The experimental nature of this research is evident from the different opinions expressed by regenerative medicine experts in Sifferlin's article, who conveyed the sense that the outcomes of these surgical interventions cannot be reliably predicted.

Despite the skepticism regarding the use of an artificial matrix scaffold for seeding autologous stem cells during a regenerative surgical intervention, the empirical research supporting this approach continues to expand (reviewed by Polzer et al.). One of the main advantages of this approach is the use of the patient's own cells, which should prevent an immune reaction against the regenerating tissue. Tissue rejections are not uncommon in more traditional non-autologous tissue transplant patients and powerful immune suppressing drugs are typically required to protect the transplanted tissue from the host's immune system. More traditional regenerative approaches have relied on taking tissue from other parts of the body, such as bone or skin, followed by grafting these tissues into the diseased or injured location. The problem with this approach is that the donor graft site is injured in the process. The use of stem cells to generate new autologous tissue avoids this problem.

During the early days of surgical intervention using artificial scaffolds seeded with stem cells it was discovered that the survivability of the cells was very low (Polzer 1). This was due to a lack of oxygen and other nutrients normally supplied by blood vessels. What was needed, therefore, was a prevascularized artificial scaffold that could support the newly transplanted cells. Polzer and colleagues investigated the various approaches to supporting cell survival during regenerative stem cell surgery in rodents. Although the researchers found in vitro seeding to be the most efficient, grafting a seeded scaffold into the body necessarily exposes the cells to hypoxic conditions until the scaffold become vascularized (Polzer 7). Most cells in hypoxic conditions will secrete angiogenic factors, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1-? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth… [read more]

Cam Therapy Herbal or Botanical Medicines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (862 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Herbal or Botanical Medicine

Herbal Medicines Pose Health Risk to Millions in Asia. By Sifferlin, A.

Herbal or botanical medicines are increasingly being used today. There are various articles as well as scholarly journals that have been written on herbal medicine. This paper will analyze two magazine articles and two scholarly journals on herbal medicines.

Herbal Medicines Pose Health Risk to Millions in Asia

The article talks of a particular herbal remedy that was banned in U.S.A and European countries but still being used in Asia. There was a connection made by researchers on an epidemic of kidney on women in Belgium that had been using herbal medicine to lose their weight. The kidney problems were attributed to Aristolochic acid belonging to birthwort plants. This is an agent that is used to treat arthritis, asthma and weight loss. Despite the fact that herbs containing aristolochic acid have been banned some people are still being exposed particularly in Asia. Researchers found that herbal medicines that contain the acid are still being purchased online. The reason the article was written was to provide a diagnostic classification aristolochic acid nephropathy which is a kidney failure that is associated with the acid. It finally gives a caution to users indicating that active agents in these herbal medicines can change. This article generally show the fact that despite the knowledge of some effects of herbal medicine they are still in use (Sifferlin, 2013 ).

How safe is your herbal medicine?

There are many people who run to herbal medicine for treatment of aches and pains, boosting of immune system or mood improvement. The fact that herbal medicines are seen as natural and healthy options as compared to conventional medications very few people as questions of the safety of herbal medicines. Those who purchase herbal medicines are seen to be at risk health problems as warned by specialists. For instance women using black cohosh for menopause symptoms suffer liver damages that are severe. This led to new rules that are designed to protect consumers from herbal medicines that are unregulated. The article highlights on some supplements that are seen to have effects when used, these are such as agnus castus with side effects like acne, gastrointestinal upsets and rashes. Devils claws, Echinacea, pelargonium, Rhodiola, Valerian and such like have been noted to present various side effects. This article generally enlightens people not to blindly use herbal medicine rather they should find out if they have any side effects before they use them ( Symons, 2013).

University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC)

The article of 2011 University of…… [read more]

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (791 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Natural products involve the use of various herbal medicines that are purchased as dietary supplements whereas mind and body medicine focus on the interactions within the brain, body, mind, and behavior in order to influence physical functioning and promote health. Manipulative and body-based practices are primarily based on body systems and structures while movement therapies are approaches used to promote physical, spiritual, emotional, and mental well-being. Alternative medical systems or therapies are developed based on complete theoretical systems and practice.

One of the major treatment modalities that can be used as a complementary therapy, an alternative therapy, and an integrative therapy for sleeping disorders is alternative therapy. Alternative medical systems are based on complete systems of theory and practice that have evolved earlier than the traditional medical approach in the United States. As complementary therapy, alternative medical systems can be used to treat sleeping disorder through herbal treatments. This treatment procedure involves using herbs as effective sleeping remedies to help in dealing with the condition. For example, valerian is a herb that can be used to deal with the condition at the onset of sleep and with sleep maintenance (Ratini, 2012). As an alternative therapy, this modality can help in treatment of sleeping disorders through promoting regular exercise. Regular exercise not only deepens sleep in young adults but also enhances sleep in older people. An example of the use of regular exercise as a substitute to conventional medicine when dealing with sleep disorders is low-to-moderate tai chi or Tibetan yoga exercises. As integrative therapy, alternative medical systems for sleep disorders involve using melatonin and relaxation and meditation for sleep disorders. Melatonin has proven to be an effective treatment for lessening sleep disturbances while regular relaxation and meditation leads to higher blood levels of melatonin, which is a significant regulator of sleep. An example of this procedure involves using melatonin supplements and several relaxation and meditation techniques like yoga sessions.


Ratini, M. (2012, May 31). Alternative Treatments for Sleep Disorders. Retrieved March 25,

2013, from http://www.webmd.com/balance/alternative-therapy

Solomon, H.R. (2006, September 18). Alternative Approach to Treating Allergies: The Wonders

of Nature. Retrieved March 25, 2013, from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/544051_3

"What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine?" (2012, May). National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam… [read more]

Pharmacy Information Security Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,962 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


For instance, in case the pharmacy manages a website and the former is accessed by anyone due to inappropriate authorization procedures, then the website can be removed completely from the system, because of the risk it posses which includes the leaking of confidential information to unauthorized parties in the public. The risks are, therefore, removed, and this leaves an efficient… [read more]

Personalized Medicine Uses Advanced Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The medical establishment has for a long time enjoyed a paternalistic approach that entails controlling patient access to data and information regarding personal health. Moreover, the companies that develop the applications that enable personalized medicine might also have a legal right to copyright all the data contained therein.

The advantages of personalized medicine far outweigh the drawbacks, though. As the U.S. News report "Personalized Medicine" (2011) shows, personalized medicine means more focus on prevention. When a doctor has the genetic data of a patient, the doctor can also foresee problems before they manifest, or can tell a patient that he or she is at risk for contracting a certain disease later in life. This way, the patient can make necessary lifestyle changes or take medications that might prevent that illness from ever manifesting.

Personalized medicine also has the potential to lower healthcare costs overall ("Personalized Medicine," 2011). Without the unnecessary period of trial and error, where the doctor is trying different medications on the patient to see what works, personalized medicine allows for a more accurate portrayal of what the patient's body needs. This is as true for psychiatric medicine as it is for physiological medicine. For example, personalized medicine can be used when a patient is depressed. Normally, the patient might go through three or four different medications, and some of them take months to kick in before realizing they are not working or have bad side effects. The same might be true with antibiotics, which can harm the patient when overused or when the wrong one was taken. Personalized medicine can solve a lot of health care problems, including patient outcomes and cost of care.


"Personalized Medicine," (2011). U.S. News. Retrieved online: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine

"Personalized Medicines Fact Sheet," (2012). National Institutes of Health. Retrieved online: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Research/FeaturedPrograms/PGRN/Background/FactSheet.htm… [read more]

Public Health Funding Be Directed Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,471 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


In the Homeopathic medicines there are a few legal regulations that are present. They are allowed to be used by patients even without a proper declaration of their efficacy or without a safety assessment done. Studies that have been conducted related to homeopathic medicines have shown to have a strong therapeutic effects and a high level of patient satisfaction with… [read more]

Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. ) Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  4 pages (1,909 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


More interaction among researchers, policymakers, and clinicians, so studies can be aimed at answering questions of interest to policymakers and clinicians.

Policymakers should commission RTs of policy-relevant questions

Authors of reviews should provide more contextual information or refer readers to easy-to-find articles

Authors of reviews should develop user-friendly formats: this article suggests 3 formats: a 20-second version of 1-paragraph to 1-page bottom-line summary; a 2-minute version of 2- to 3-page summary focusing on validity and applicability; a 2-hour complete version.

Waldman, M.H. (2006). Evidence-based medicine. How to translate research into patient care. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 96(4), 374-377.

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) consists of integrating clinical experience with the best evidence from systematic research to improve patient care

Must learn how to critically appraise medical studies

Paradigm developed by Canadian physicians at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario

Viewed as a paradigm shift described by T. Kuhn

Represents intersection of "epochal scientific hypothesis; an ever evolving body of evidence; and an idealized professional process -- a way of practicing medicine."

New way of thinking about providing best care for patients. Incorporated by many major medical journals

Confusing and threatening to physicians as few taught its philosophy and applications

Vast array of info 10,000 medical journals; 40,000 new articles week, and 30 minutes a day physicians have to review the literature- if could read all day for 6 weeks would be a century behind

Much of medical training is quickly obsolete and patients are more educated

EBM requires new skills- 5 steps in practice: 1. asking answerable questions; 2. finding the best evidence, 3. critically appraising the evidence (this is the most important of the steps); 4. acting on the evidence, and 5. Evaluating one's performance.

Not all evidence is equally valid.

Figure one is a pyramid that presents least to most reliable evidence: animal/lab research; case studies; case-control studies; cohort studies; randomized controlled trials; systematic reviews; meta-analyses

Best to divide evidence into patient -oriented and disease-oriented categories

Must learn to do a search; First, the question must define the issue in order to allow a literature search to succeed.

The ability to frame a question involves a learning curve

Use the acronym PICO: the patient or problem being addressed; the intervention or exposure being considered; the comparison intervention or exposure; and the clinical outcomes of interest.

Step three in 5 steps above is the most important- because it is where specific questions about an individual patient…… [read more]

Personal Statement for Pharmacy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


That happened because I lost my only brother in a car accident that year. We were very close, and I was emotionally devastated. It was the most tragic event I had ever experienced and it took me a long time to deal with it properly. I was confused and uncomfortable during that time, and I lost my focus. I started classes at UCI, and then transferred to Cal State Fullerton. In 2006-2007, I was a member of Biology Club and Student Health Professions Association (SHPA). I tried DeVry University and enrolled there in a different major, but didn't care for it, so I transferred to University of Phoenix and took classes online. That also did not work out for me. During that period in my life I was still trying to find my way after the loss of my brother, and a tried a lot of different majors and jobs.

Despite my "hopping" around to different job and majors, I always came back to pharmacy. It's my passion and what I want to do with my life. It has been some time since I lost my brother (and lost my way in the process), and I am in a better place. I have more determination, I am stronger, and my life is under much more control than it was during the years I struggled so much. I want to be a pharmacist. I always have. I want to help people, and I am now mentally healthy enough and ready to start school again. I currently work at Orange County Immune Institute, and I have been there a year. The stability is back in my employment, and I am fully committed to ensuring that the stability is back in my schooling, as well. I do volunteer work in the pharmacy at Garden Grove Hospital, as well, and I love helping people and being there for the patients, both at my job and in my volunteering. The desire to be a pharmacist has not left me. Despite some difficult life circumstances, I feel I am now ready to move forward, and getting my education…… [read more]

Chemistry Through Veterinary Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It is not an anti-anxiety drug and does not relieve pain; rather, it acts as a "chemical restraint" without affecting the dog's emotions (Kelley). In sum, Molly-on-Acepromazine feels just as fearful and aggressive as ever but cannot do anything about it, which would help a veterinarian who must handle Mollie but would also give Mollie a heapin' helpin' of torture. According to Vetinfo.com, veterinarians do not completely understand how the drug works but they do know it "involves blockage of dopamine nerve receptors in the brain" (Richards). What is worse, at least one authority believes that the chemical/physical restraint makes the dog associate the pills negatively with the whole fear/aggression situation, which can make Mollie even more fearful and aggressive on her next veterinary visit (Kelley). Acepromazine is not only a chemical restraint; it is also a "dissociative agent" that harms Mollie's ability to logically understand her environment, so it greatly increases her fear. A "Pain Management Guidelines Task Force for the AAHA/AAFP goes even further, stating that Acepromazine can actually "disinhibit aggression," making the dog more dangerous; therefore, the Task Force says that Acepromazine should not be used to control fear or anxiety (AAHA/AAFP Pain Management Guidelines Task Force 243).

Despite all these negative aspects, characterized as "significant effects that must be considered" (Richards), VetInfo.com maintains that Acepromazine "works often enough that many vets will try this approach first. We do this when we think it has a chance of helping make an office visit go easier" (Richards). Right: the office visit goes easier for you, Mr. / Ms. Vet; not for Mollie. After researching this drug and its torturous effects, there is no way that I would allow a veterinarian to use it on my dog.

Works Cited

AAHA/AAFP Pain Management Guidelines Task Force. "Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association: AAHA/AAFP Pain Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats." September/October 2007, Vol. 43. aahnet.org. Web. 1 December 2011.

Kelley, Terry, CVT, CPDT. Fearfuldogs.com. 2011. Web. 1 December 2011.

Richards, Mike, DVM. VetInfo: Medication - Acepromazine. 2010. Web. 1 December 2011.…… [read more]

Complementary / Alternative Medicine vs. Traditional Western Approach Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (576 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There are a wide range of mild problems that can be easily treated without the invasive or harsh approaches that are advocated by allopathic physicians.

3. Why is it important to know about these practices?

It is important to know about complementary and alternative medicine because they are effective means of promoting personal and public health. More scientific research may yield reasons why certain alternative treatments are favorable to those promoted vehemently by pharmaceutical companies. Consumers are spending a lot of money on alternative and complementary medicines because those interventions enable people to take back control of their personal health. Doctors would do well to read the market forces and understand that they will gain more clients by promoting alternative medicine than clinging to the past.

4. How would you approach patients/clients who rely on complementary/alternative medicine? Comment specifically on how you would handle the differences in cultural values, beliefs, and practices.

I would most certainly promote the use of complementary and alternative medicine within the framework of an allopathic practice. This is because I know that allopathic medicine is as limited as any shelf of herbs in Whole Foods. Alternative and complementary medicine focuses on prevention and long-term solutions that can have meaningful psychological and physical benefits. Allopathic remedies, on the other hand, focus on short-term solutions and remedial methods. At times, the two methods can work brilliantly in tandem with one another.


National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (2011). What is CAM? Retrieved November 1, 2011 from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/

US Department of Health & Human Services, Maternal Child Health Bureau (2009). Core Concepts in Cultural Competence. Retrieved November 1, 2011 from http://support.mchtraining.net/national_ccce/case0/home.html… [read more]

Institutional Pharmacy According to Various Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (514 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


There are various bodies that can regulate the pharmacies and they can range from state boards, such as the Mississippi Board of Pharmacy (MBP), to national boards. Regulations can, furthermore, include the following, according to MBP (2011):


-Pharmacy Board Examination

-Practical Experience Requirement

-License Renewal and Continuing Education [4: "Regulations - Table of Contents." HOME. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. .]

The important regulatory bodies further include, and this is very important to mention:

-OSHA (governmental agency that enforces health and safety regulation)

-FDA (charged with regulating consumer consumption of food and drugs)

-HIPAA (an organization that provides regulations for health and privacy of individuals)

-DEA (works as a body for the Department of Justice and is the drug enforcement agency that regulates drugs and combats illegal substances)

-Orphan Act (part of the FDA and has been utilized to treat rare diseases by enforcing research and development of such drugs)

all of whom contribute greatly towards organizing and streamlining national rules and regulations.

It is thus important to note the positive aspect of institutional pharmacies upon the landscape of nursing homes, and other such long-term care facilities, especially due to their positive impact. However, it is most important to note that there are rules and regulations dominating the market, and there are three major players that dominate the market as well. The business is therefore tough, but very rewarding.… [read more]

Nuclear Medicine Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Amen, D. (2009) The science of brain SPECT imaging, Share Guide, Issue 106, pp. 21 -- 29

Busemann-Sokole, E.; Plachinska, A.; Britten, A.; Lyra Georgosopoulou, M.; Tindale, W.; Klett, R.; (2010) Routine quality control recommendations for nuclear medicine instrumentation, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Vol. 37, Issue 3, pp. 661 -- 671

Busemann-Sokole, E.; Plachinska, A.; Britten, A.; (2010) Acceptance testing for nuclear medicine instrumentation, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Vol. 37, Issue 3, pp. 672 -- 681

Castle, N. (2010) Care after chemical, biological, radiation or nuclear events, Emergency Nurse, Vol. 18, Issue 7, pp. 26 -- 36

Cuocolo, A. & Breatnach, E.; (2010) Multimodality imaging in Europe: A survey by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR), European Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, Vol. 37, Issue 1, pp. 163-167

Kidd, S. (2010) Nuclear in the new decade, Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 132, Issue 5, pp. 54-55

Lass, P. (2005) The situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Vol. 32, Issue 12, pp. B11 -- B14

Radioimmunotherapy (2009) European School of Nuclear Medicine Continuing Medical Education at the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Sept…… [read more]

Pharmacy School Application Essay

Application Essay  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Pharmacists are at the hub of the health care industry, and are in a unique position of power. We conduct research but we also implement that research by applying the fruits of our research to improving health and well-being. Pharmacists are sometimes the first line of defense against a range of wellness issues. I stand ready to join the legions of talented, skilled professionals who have dedicated their lives to the fascinating world of pharmacy. What's more, I will proudly serve the community as a graduate of the Oregon State University College of Pharmacy. All serious students of pharmacy know that Oregon State's College of Pharmacy offers unparalleled instruction, among the best in the nation. The Oregon State College of Pharmacy is outstanding because the caliber of the school itself supports an ethical yet progressive department. As the only public university in the United States with land, sea, sun, and space grants, Oregon State offers its graduates something extra. I would be honored to be a part of the Oregon State community.

The faculty of the College of Pharmacy includes notable names in pharmacological and chemical research such as associate professors Taifo Mahmud and J. Mark Christensen. However, I am most eager to participate in research with Kerry McPhail and especially Professor George H. Constantine. This is because I believe the field of natural products chemistry is the wave of the future. More and more consumers are gravitating towards natural products as their first line of defense against illness. Preventative medicine also depends on a working knowledge of which natural products can be used safely and effectively. Because I am passionate about preventative medicine and believe that natural products offer valuable solutions, this will be one of my primary areas of independent research. I view the field of natural products pharmacy as being one that will be commercially viable, as natural products are already biting into the market shares of…… [read more]

Supplement Application for Pharmacy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (447 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


How do you think that the location of UH Hilo College of Pharmacy will influence your educational experience and do you think that these influences will add value to your pharmacy education?

The UH Hilo College of Pharmacy is, by its very location, very well situated to provide a diverse educational experience within the field of pharmacy. I am impressed by the funding recently secured by members of the college and encouraged by the college's focus on interdisciplinary approaches to pharmacy and the inclusion of western and eastern medical philosophies. I believe that my experience at Hilo will allow me to develop into a more well-rounded and better informed pharmacist, capable of meeting the needs of a diverse clientele. The practicum opportunities are also of great interest to me and I look forward to being able to spend time on more than one of the Hawaiian islands in the process of receiving my education. To me, pharmacy is as much about people as it is about pharmaceuticals, and I believe that studying in Hawaii will provide me with a great opportunity to interact with a wide cross-section of individuals from various backgrounds and cultures, all of which will serve to make me better at my chosen career.… [read more]

History of Medicine Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,720 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … History of Modern Medicine

Looking back at modern medicine today, it is difficult to picture the many preliminary (if not necessarily primitive) earlier transitional stages through which the study of medical science had to progress to reach its modern form. The earliest historical period of medicine was a long period where any attempt to understand diseases and dysfunction… [read more]

History of Medicine Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


History Medicine

The History of Medicine: Straight Path or Winding Road?

Looking back at the history and trajectory of various sciences and other areas of human achievement from a modern vantage point, it can be easy to see the past as a straight line of accomplishments that build on each other, leading directly and inevitable to the current state of human knowledge. One discovery leads to another, which leads to another, and as knowledge is refined in one area new applications are found in other areas, driving all sciences and knowledge forward at the same pace -- or so it often seems. In reality, few individual discoveries let alone whole bodies of science and knowledge actually progress in such a linear fashion, but rather there are fits and starts, false leads and parallel courses of inquiry, and a variety of backtracks, twists and turns that make the progress of science and knowledge more accurately described as a winding mountain path than a straight line. Though neither metaphor is perfect, the mountain path is far more accurate.

This is no less true in the history and trajectory of medicine than it is in the realm of other sciences; though it might seem as though medicine has undergone a straight and simple path from the time of the ancient Greeks to today, with ever increasing rationality and empiricism leading to ever greater discoveries, this is far from the truth. The study and science of medicine has undergone several different iterations at different times throughout the history of civilization. At times there are what can be said to be steps "backwards," and at other times concurrent investigations and advances occur completely independent of each other. In short, there are many complexities to the trajectory of medicine's history and progress.

This can be seen from the very earliest advances of medicine into a science rather than an extension of mythological and superstitious beliefs. As society progressed from mythopoeic hunter gatherers to agricultural communities able to sustain surpluses of food and thus turn their attention to other pursuits in a more concentrated way, illness and health became issues with natural and rational rather than supernatural and divine causes in several civilizations at around the same time. Even with this increase in rational empiricism in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and slightly later in Greece, however, medicine was not suddenly the subject of careful, direct, and skeptical inquiry that it is expected to be today. Instead, even the briefest examination of an ancient Egyptian medical papyrus (or at least the translation of such a papyrus) reveals a hue level of religious influence and appeal in the diagnosis and healing of disease, and many of the "rational" conclusions reached were entirely spurious.

The same is true of the Greek priests of medicine, who -- like the Egyptians -- admitted patients to their temple only after pre-diagnosing them and selecting individuals likely to survive, thus increasing the perceived efficacy of the temple and the priesthood. Then suddenly, the appearance of Hippocrates… [read more]

Complementary Alternative and Integrative Medicine Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (594 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine refers to procedures and products that are not typically included in conventional allopathic medicine. Collectively referred to as CAM, complementary and alternative medicine includes time-honored healing modalities such as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Ayurvedic medicine, and homeopathy. Herbal remedies and vitamin therapy can be complementary or alternative medicines. Procedures such as craniosacral therapy and reiki are also considered to be alternative or complementary. Chiropractic medicine is sometimes included under the rubric of complementary medicine.

The terms complementary medicine and integrative medicine imply that the intervention is used in conjunction with allopathic medicine to enhance the benefits of both. The term alternative generally means that the intervention is used instead of allopathic medicine, at least for a short while. Some alternative interventions are accepted and used relatively often by the medical community. Alternative medicine is only likely to be embraced by the allopathic community when an intervention or procedure has undergone rigorous scientific review. Hypnotherapy, acupuncture, and some specific herbal remedies have undergone rigorous scientific review. They are therefore more likely to be integrative or complementary than methods that have not undergone scientific scrutiny.

Three factors that have promoted the popularity and use of CAM include the following. First, traditional medical care is wrought with problems including high cost of insurance coverage and poor quality of care delivery in some health care institutions. Doctors have become increasingly indebted to pharmaceutical and insurance companies. Second, complementary medicine and alternative medicine encourage the client to take control of his or her own health. The Internet and other new media allow ready access to information about diseases and ailments. New Age philosophy and the self-help book phenomenon has also promoted complementary and alternative medicine. Well-known medical doctors like Deepak Chopra and Andrew Weil have written books…… [read more]

Pharmacy Statement Personal Statement My Interest Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Pharmacy Statement

Personal Statement

My interest in medicine began perhaps later than many individuals, though the circumstances surrounding my introduction to the arena were no less meaningful or profound than other experiences, and perhaps more so than some. At the age of twenty-two, I had to watch my grandfather spend three years suffering from ninety-five percent paralysis and other sever medical issues as the result of a stroke he had suffered. His eventual passing was incredibly bittersweet; I was losing a man I had loved, looked up to, and respected, but who was no longer wholly available, and who was in an unknowable amount of mental and physical anguish. What made the entire three-year period the most agonizing from my perspective, other than watching my grandfather's suffering and the suffering it caused my grandmother as she cared for her slowly dying husband, was the knowledge that something possibly could have been done to ease or even prevent some of the effects of his stroke.

When my grandfather was first rushed to the emergency room immediately following his stroke, the attending physician mentioned a new drug that he wanted to inject my grandfather with. This drug, he explained, was believed to reduce the severity of the stroke and its short- and long-term effects. Being still in the experimental phase, however, there was no guarantee of the drug's efficacy, nor was there complete knowledge about the possible side effects. The physician needed my grandmother's permission to administer the injection, and he needed a quick decision for the drug to have any chance of being effective. With the extremity of the stress in the situation and the lack of knowledge regarding the drug, my grandmother decided it wasn't worth the risk.

The next three years convinced…… [read more]

Benefits of Alternative Medicine Versus Conventional Medicine From an Economic Perspective Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (935 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Alternative medicine vs. conventional medicine

Benefits of alternative medicine vs. conventional medicine from an economic perspective

Alternative medicine vs. conventional medicine: An economic perspective

Alternative medicine: Pro

One common contention in favor of alternative medicine is that it is not so 'alternative' after all -- for hundreds of years, many forms of alternative medicine have been proven effective, such as acupuncture and yoga. For a fraction of the cost of drugs with debilitating side effects (which often results in the need for more drugs to treat the side effects) individuals can use time-tested methods to heal themselves. Many legitimate health organizations have recognized this fact. For example, the highly respected World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the technique of acupuncture for treatment of various health problems, such as arthritis, sinus problems, and even chronic fatigue (Benefits of acupuncture, 2009)

Alternative medicine is holistic -- it treats the whole person and stresses preventative care. Proper diet, exercise, and leading a balanced and relaxed life are important to prevent diseases that result in a loss of social and economic productivity as well as a loss of quality of life. Ayurvedic medicine, macrobiotic diets, and raw foods are all examples of using alternative means to promote health. Alternative medicinal practitioners stress: "the body needs the support of some basic dietary and lifestyle good health habits, such as a full body detox and a proper understanding and application of nutrition" (Health benefits of acupuncture, 2009, all4naturalhealth) Conventional medicine merely treats the symptoms of an unhealthy lifestyle. Preventative care is also less costly than treating chronic disease or providing acute care.

Alternative medicine can be used in conjunction with conventional medicine, while conventional medicine often strives to deny any use for alternative methods, despite the proven health benefits of once 'quirky' methods as acupuncture, a vegetarian diet, and yoga. In this form, alternative medicine is usually called complementary or integrative medicine. Through stress reduction and reducing one's exposure to highly processed foods and toxins, the need for more extreme interventions through conventional means is likely to be reduced, a development welcomed by many medical doctors as well as alternative medicine practitioners (What is CAM, 2009, NCCAM)

Conventional medicine

Advocates of conventional medicine would point out that while many alternative medicinal techniques may be older than conventional medicine, people had far shorter lifespans hundreds of years ago! Healers may have used Ayurvedic medicine and homeopathy because they were the best techniques at healer's disposal in the past, but that is no longer the case. Antibiotics and vaccines have saved countless numbers of lives. Despite claims about the dangers of such substances, most of these have been 'scare'-related, with no real supportive data. Consider the current vaccine debate: "The CDC, American Academy of Pediatrics, Institute of Medicine and other prestigious medical organizations maintain there…… [read more]

Traditional Chinese Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,007 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Traditional Chinese Medicine

Moxibustion or Moxabustion is a form of traditional Oriental medicine where herbs are burned at or near acupuncture points to elicit improved balance and healing and remove or reduce blockages that may be present there as a result of fatigue and/or age. The acupuncture point Stomach 36 is frequently associated with moxibustion, in ancient and modern literature as well as modern clinical trials. This work will test the effects of direct moxibustion (burning of "moxa" on the head of an acupuncture needle) placed at Stomach 36 to derive restorative effects during fatigue associated with physical activity involving prolonged running or walking.

One particular acupuncture point frequently associated with this treatment is Stomach 36 (St. 36) as it has been linked in ancient literature as well as in modern clinical trials to a reduction of or elimination of fatigue through various sited mechanisms. In ancient literature the St. 36 moxibustion link is repeated as a treatment to avoid disease and improve longevity. (Yo*****o) in more modern clinical trials, acupuncture and/or moxibustion on this point has been studied for effectiveness for improving maximum oxygen uptake (Yo*****o) as well as to reduce hypertension through what is believed to be created by improved nitric oxide synthesis. (Kim, Pica, Duran & Duran) the location of St. 36 is as follows: "On the front of the leg, one hand width (four fingers) below the kneecap, on the outside, in the depression between the shinbone and the leg muscle. What can go wrong is that you may be locating it somewhat too low on the leg. The point is immediately one hand breadth below the kneecap, so if you'd use something thick, like a finger, you might get half a finger breadth to low. it's at the outside of the bone that's on the front of the lower leg, one finger breadth from the crest of that bone." (Yo*****o) This clinical trial will be an attempt to document courses of treatment using St. 36 and direct moxibustion after prolonged running, such as that which is present after training for cross country running. The hope is that marked improvement of symptoms of fatigue will be decreased in the study group as compared to two control groups one who will not receive treatment but will use standard methods of rest and continued training and a second who will receive St. 36 acupuncture without direct moxibustion. Moxibustion is actually thought of by Oriental Medicine practitioners as not a compliment to acupuncture but a stronger clinical treatment, associated with the use of warmth to restore circulation of the Qi along meridians.

Specific Aims:

To determine the validity of direct moxibustion in the treatment of fatigue caused by prolonged training in the form of long distance running in young healthy adults.

To determine the comparative effects of non-moxibustion acupuncture on St. 36 for treatment of fatigue from prolonged training in the form of long distance running in young healthy adults.

To determine the comparative effects of standard suggestions of… [read more]

George Washington University's Sonography Bachelor's Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … George Washington University's Sonography Bachelor's Program has much to do with how much the field of sonography has expanded in the last several years. Personally, due to my abilities, qualifications and experiences, I feel that this field of study as a diagnostic medical sonographer will greatly assist in my future development and career as a highly-trained medical specialist. In addition, since this program places a heavy emphasis on both practical and didactic education, I am convinced that the training I will receive in this program will enrich my future prospects, not to mention that classes are small in size which allows for personal interaction between the student and the instructor. Also, this degree program is accredited by the Commission for the Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs which guarantees that all credit hours accumulated during the program will be applied to my credentials.

My initial interest in pursuing a degree in the medical field came about when my brother developed a very serious disease. This event prompted me to wonder about his medical future regarding treatment in the form of surgery or chemotherapy, and due to the fact that we were living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where I was born and raised, the prospects of my brother finding adequate treatment and care for his disease were rather poor. As a result, I decided to create the foundations for a career in medical science. Part of this required that I take the Ethiopian School Living Examination. In 1994, after competing against 167,000 other high…… [read more]

Duties of the Pharmacy Technician Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,005 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Pharmacy Technician Today

One of the realities of life in the United States today is that there are a lot more old people around, and their numbers are expected to continue to grow as the Baby Boomers continue to retire in ever-greater numbers in the years to come. In this environment, it is reasonable to assume that many Americans will continue to seek out the best values in prescription costs and service, and that jobs in the allied healthcare professions such as pharmacy technician are going to experience significant growth in the coming years. Therefore, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to develop an appropriate background including an overview of the typical duties and responsibilities of pharmacy technicians, and what type of training and education are required for this profession. A summary of the research and salient findings are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Background and Overview. The modern pharmacy is a busy and complex work environment, and pharmacy technicians must possess a wide range of communication and technical skills to be successful. Furthermore, the importance of these activities to healthcare consumers is abundantly clear. According to Bandow (2003), "Few sectors of the economy have provided more benefits to consumers than the pharmaceutical industry. More important, prices for U.S. pharmaceuticals are not excessive relative to the benefits they offer. Drugs have contributed to the sharp reduction in mortality rates from many diseases, including AIDS" (30). The most recent encyclopedic entry (2006) for the profession shows that there are a number of laws that govern pharmaceutical practice in the United States, including regulations for the practice of pharmacy, the sale of poisons, the dispensing of narcotics, and the labeling and sale of dangerous drugs (The practice of pharmacy 5).

Typical Duties and Responsibilities of Pharmacy Technicians. Many tertiary and larger healthcare facilities provide some type of incremental steps in their career paths for pharmacy technician that provide for increasing levels of responsibility and compensation (Mckelvey & Peters 144). Although every healthcare setting is unique, there are some common duties and responsibilities that many pharmacy techniques can be expected to be required to carry out as part of their daily responsibilities and these are described further in Table 1 below.

Table 1.

Typical Pharmacy Technician Activities and Required Concepts.


Required Ability

Working with staff in the dispensary by unpacking supplies received, checking stocks of drugs held on the wards, updating computer records.

Understand how drugs are managed in the hospital.

Working in out-patients in the associated non-teaching hospital in order to build up experience of working under pressure during clinic sessions. Learning how to catch up with routine tasks during quiet periods

Competence in managing a range of different activities

Working alongside experienced staff dealing directly with patients in order to observe how to communicate: using clear language, checking that each patient has understood instructions, not being patronizing, etc.

Wide range of communication skills

Being given specific instruction by an experienced worker on how… [read more]

Pharmacy What Are the Most Difficult Challenge Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



What are the most difficult challenge pharmacists will face in the future? What would you do to overcome this challenge? Why would you want to go to the two-year pharmacy school in California?

The central challenge of every pharmacist is to ensure that the correct medication for each and every patient who walks through the door of the pharmacy is dispensed in the appropriate manner, and that the patient leaves the pharmacy with the confidence that he or she is receiving quality care. With the increasingly bureaucratic nature of modern medicine, this mission of modern pharmacy has become more and more difficult.

Patients, depending on their health insurance plans, may be prescribed generic rather than brand name drugs, and not understand if these drugs are better or worse for their bodies. Hospitals and doctors are understaffed and have less and less time to explain how to take prescribed medicines correctly to their patients. A medicine taken incorrectly can be just as bad, if not worse, than a medication that is not taken at all. Also, the more impersonal nature of doctor patient relationships means that…… [read more]

Pharmacy My Personal Statement of Purpose Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



My Personal Statement of Purpose: Why I want to be a Pharmacist

To be an effective pharmacist, an individual must not simply possess a sense of personal interest in the scientific aspects of the medical field. A pharmacist must also be a compassionate and concerned human being. An effective pharmacist must be willing to extend a patient ear to the concerns of the individual seeking appropriate medical advice regarding his or her medication.

A majored in biochemistry in college and excelled academically, except for my senior year, due to difficult family circumstances. I was and a member of the Golden Key International Honor Society. Thus, my passion for medical and pharmaceutical science is evident from my resume and my transcript. But I am also a human being who has learned from adversity. My senior year's grades were affected by my parent's divorce. The divorce plunged both my father and mother into states of clinical depression and forced me to work in my family's restaurant to keep my family financially afloat, I found reserves of…… [read more]

Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is the pharmacist's duty and ethical obligation to be sensitive to such natural uncertainties, and to be a teacher as well as a technician and scientist. A good scientist must bring patients into a state of better mental comfort and awareness of the patient's physiology and how the prescribed treatment may alleviate the patient's illness. Only by doing so can a pharmacist be certain that a drug treatment plan, particularly if self-administered by the patient at home, will prove efficacious. My own adjustment to the United States has taught me sensitivity, compassion and an awareness of the diversity of cultural attitudes towards drugs, healing and medicine.

My own cultural and linguistic background also provides me with unique additional competence for the pharmaceutical profession. In addition to the strength and humility I have gained from my life experiences, I believe I have a strong grasp of the medicine and healing philosophy of traditional Southeast Asian medicine, combined with the scientific methodology of Western medicine. This can prove to be a powerful blend of different yet complementary attitudes.

Understanding different cultural attitudes and traditions in general is also critical for a pharmacist to speak the language, not just the literal language, but also the cultural language, of the pharmacy's patients. I was raised in a bicultural household rooted in both the Chinese and Vietnamese traditions. I spent much of my youth in Germany and later lived in Lyon, France. In addition to my native Cantonese and Vietnamese, over the course of my life's travels, I became fluent in English and French, as well as Latin. Thus I am versed in the languages of many potential patients, and also the ancient language of medicine.

I am aware of the existence of different cultural and medicinal outlooks regarding potential treatments. I can approach explaining a drug or treatment plan from the patient's own cultural perspective, rather than simply a highly technical or Western perspective. I know there is never any one correct answer to healing the human body. Rather I look forward to relying on this cultural and linguistic adaptability when interacting with patients and costumers from around the world. I hope to aid all of my patients, of many different backgrounds, to understand how and why they must become an active partner in taking responsibility for their health. I decided upon my career path in life many years ago, in my childhood land many miles away. This dream has become cemented in my academic experiences, my careful deliberation and my extensive research of the current state of modern pharmacology in America. When my professional knowledge, acquired from the graduate school is combined with my passion to genuinely care for each of my patients, I am certain of my future success in the pharmaceutical profession.… [read more]

Personal Statement I've Had a Life Tougher Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (996 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Statement

I've had a life tougher than most. A woman born and raised in Afghanistan, I have been a refuge more than once. In pre-Taliban Afghanistan, I eagerly finished high school with a clear and decisive career objective: to become a pharmacist. When I was still in grade school, I thrived in chemistry classes. Because of positive personal experiences with medicines and pharmaceuticals in general, I had no other dream than to pursue pharmacy as a career. Before the Taliban came to power, such a dream was realistic for a young woman, and I did not foresee that political situations might somehow prevent me from fulfilling my goal. I entered pharmacy school in Kabul, a freshman with eager eyes and an energetic heart on her way toward becoming a pharmacy professional. Still young and just beginning my studies at the academy, I was suddenly barred from continuing my studies at the pharmacy school in Kabul, as were all of the other females in my class. Like many, I fled with some family members to neighboring Pakistan, where we could find refuge and solace we thought would be temporary. While we appreciated the relative peace in our lives, we had little money. Bereft of our jobs, our schools, our homes it was as if we were starting over with blank slates. I did not have enough money to enroll in a local pharmaceutical school in Pakistan. To keep my mind stimulated and my goals on target, I enrolled in all the classes that I could afford: English language, computer skills, and other practical classes that would serve me well, if not indirectly, to eventually picking up where I left off with pharmacy. My dream never died; I never once considered changing life paths because I had hoped that my living situation would change and I would eventually be able to pursue pharmacy as a career once again. That time has come.

While in Pakistan I fell in love with my current life partner, my husband Jamil Faryadi. An American resident who had lived in Virginia for almost twenty-five years, Jamil soon encouraged me to move with him to the United States. I did, as I wanted to be with him and also envisioned new opportunities to get back on track with my career. For the second time, I found myself to be a stranger in an unfamiliar territory, starting my life anew. For years I felt acute anxiety, fear, and even despair. With my husband's support, I began taking college classes here in the United States. I was forced to repeat many of the core courses I had already taken in Afghanistan, on track for the pharmacy college. It felt like I was on a treadmill: running furiously but getting nowhere. Knowing I would have been halfway toward my professional degree if I had not been forced out of school in Afghanistan, I found it nearly impossible not feel frustrated. I eventually decided to quit school entirely because…… [read more]

Motivation for Pursuing a Career Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (330 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … motivation for pursuing a career in the field of Pharmacy

In writing this essay, I realized that my motivation for pursuing a career in the field of Pharmacy is an unusual one. I did not learn to value the importance of being a pharmacist until my grandmother was diagnosed to with Alzheimer's disease. My family's fight with my grandmother's illness further worsened with the inadequate medical expertise and supplies of medicine in Iran that my grandmother needs. Hence, I became her 'personal assistant,' taking care of her everyday, which includes, among others, keeping track of her medication schedules. Like a medical student learning the wonders of science through the medicine that it produces, I also began to appreciate the importance of medicine and the process of medicating, even going so far as to research about them and how they help improve the condition of my grandmother. Ironically, in a moment where our family is experiencing deep socio-emotion (even financial) crisis, I have found…… [read more]

Pharmacy Career Info Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,361 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


RFID places electromagnetic chips and tags containing a unique serial number onto cartons and individual drug products.

Stricter licensing requirements. The FDA and the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy are revising state rules for licensure of wholesale drug distributors to make it more difficult for illegitimate wholesalers to get into business.

Tougher penalties. The task force found that penalties for counterfeiting drugs are substantially less than for other counterfeiting such as that for registered trademarks. Counterfeiting a prescription drug label with a registered trademark is punishable by up to ten years in prison, and the drug itself, three years.

More secure business practices. Effective protection requires everyone in the drug supply chain to adopt safe practices and refuse doing business with unknown people. The FDA also intends to increase inspections of repackagers with procedures placing them at increased risk for the introduction of counterfeit drugs.

Increased education. The FDA will increase counterfeiting education for consumers and health professionals and develop educational materials, partner with organizations, and deliver public service announcements and releases.

International collaboration. The FDA does not have legal authority to assure the safety of international drugs. It intends to work with organizations such as the World Health Organization and Interpol on global strategies.

Improved reporting systems. Procedures should quickly alert the public of problem drugs. Last year, the pharmaceutical industry agreed to notify the FDA's Office of Criminal Investigations of suspected counterfeiting within five working days. FDA also created a Counterfeit Alert Network.

Based on this report and other factors, many pharmaceutical companies have recently instituted radio frequency identification (RFID) program, where each bottle has a tag attached to it that keeps track of the drugs from the manufacturing plant to consumer distribution. This is a very similar technology that is used RFID technology is not new: Drivers already use it to beep their way through tollbooths, and veterinarians embed chips containing individualized information in dogs and cats for easy identification by a scanner-wielding shelter worker should the pet become lost. The chip communicates with scanners posted at warehouse doors. A product's retail price and the ease of stealing it will likely determine which products are eventually tagged: An item that is both easily stolen and commands a high-enough profit margin is more likely to warrant the cost of a tag.

For example, in November of this year, the manufacturers of the impotency drug Viagra and the painkiller OxyContin said they will add radio transmitters to bottles of their pills to fight counterfeiting (Medical Devices, p. 289.) If a police officer catches someone with a couple of bottles, we can trace them back to the pharmacy from where they were stolen.

In 2002, the Auto-ID centre, a partnership between academic researchers and a business based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, developed the standard for a new, stripped-down RFID chip that stores just 96 bits of information -- enough to give every object in the world a unique number. With tag readers plugged into a computer network, this number can… [read more]

Egyptian Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Basil- excellent for the heart.

Balsam Apple or Apple of Jerusalem -- laxative, skin allergies, soothes headaches, gums and teeth, for asthma, liver stimulant, weak digestion.

Bayberry -- stops diarrhea, soothes ulcers, shrinks hemorrhoids, repels flies.

Belladonna -- pain reliever

Camphor tree -- reduces fevers, soothes gums, soothes epilepsy.

Caraway -- soothes flatulence, digestive, breath freshener.

Cubeb pepper -- urinary tract infections, larynx and throat infections, gum ulcers and infections, soothes headaches.

Dill -- soothes flatulence, relieves dyspepsia, laxative and diuretic properties.

Frankincense -- throat and larynx infections, stops bleeding, cuts phlegm, asthma, stops vomiting.

Garlic -- gives vitality, soothes flatulence and aids digestion, mild laxative, shrinks hemorrhoids, rids body of 'spirits'.

Henna -- astringent, stops diarrhea, close open wounds

Honey -- a natural antibiotic, used to dress wounds and as a base for healing unguents.

Licorice -- mild laxative, expels phlegm, soothes liver, pancreas and chest and respiratory problems.

Mustard -- induces vomiting, relieves chest pains.

Onion -- diuretic, induces perspiration, prevents colds, sooths sciatica, relieves pains and other cardiovascular problems.

Parsley -- diuretic.

Poppy -- relieves insomnia, relieves headaches, anesthetic, soothes respiratory problems, deadens pain.

Mint -- soothes flatulence, aids digestion, stop vomiting, breath freshener.

Sandalwood -- aids digestion, stops diarrhea, soothes headaches and gout.

Sesame -- soothes asthma.

Tamarind -- laxative

Thyme -- pain reliever.

Tumeric -- closes open wounds (crystalinks.com/egyptmedicine.html)."


Ancient Egyptian physicians exhibited knowledge about medicine that was extremely advanced for their time. These physicians can be credited for developing a number of treatments and procedures which continue to be used in the modern medicine of today.


(3,500-year-old holistic remedy said to extract ear wax. (accessed 18 November, 2004).

< healing.about.com/cs/earcandling/>).

(Ancient Egypt: Ancient Egyptian Medicine. (accessed 18 November, 2004).


(Ancient Egyptian Medicine. (accessed 18 November, 2004).


(Ancient Egyptian Medicine. (accessed 18 November, 2004).


(Ancient Egyptian Medicine. (accessed 18 November, 2004).


(Ancient Egyptian Medicine: Egyptian Physicians. (accessed 18 November, 2004).


(Medicine. (accessed 18 November, 2004).


(Medicine-Smith Papyrus-Ebers Papyrus. (accessed 18 November, 2004).

).… [read more]

Pharmacy Career Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … pharmacy as a career, and how does the doctor of pharmacy relate to you short- and long-term professional goals?

Imagine yourself not so long ago in a pharmacy called St. Takla in the land of Lebanon. There I am, behind the desk, learning about the drugs I dispense, their interactions and side effects, and interacting with patients. All the while, my heart is filled with dreams of studying in America to become a licensed pharmacist with a doctorate of pharmacy.

At the time, my future was only a dream, but I believed strong skills in math, chemistry and biology made my career path a certain one. My record of achievement in, and, just as importantly my enjoyment of my two years of pre-pharmacy study further convinced me that my dream of becoming a PhD in pharmacy. My love of communicating with customers during my work experience, only confirmed my desire.

A thrived upon the daily routine of the…… [read more]

Moral Medicine, and a Doctor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,188 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In this version, ethics appear to be based on faith and saving transformation, which cannot be assumed to always exist. Yet would be blatant discrimination to say that only men of great faith could be doctors (who would judge their faith?), especially since many atheists are deeply moral. Additionally, having covenants be based on faith and on the sense that this patient deserved care because (a) of their connection with this god and (b) because they were a part of the society to which the doctor owed a social debt, might mean that disenfranchised patients were taken less seriously. Already many religious doctors refuse to prescribe birth control pills to unmarried women, and some doctors have resisted providing treatment to people they disapproved such as homosexuals, drug addicts, welfare recipients, and so forth. What would happen if the quality of care was based not on legal contracts but on a sense of social obligation -- and then a patient came who the doctor considered to be a social burden who never contributed to the world? Covenants are a remnant of a primitive time in which gods held personal court over individual contracts, and when the only valid external code was based on the supernatural.

The only other issue that particularly stood out in reading this chapter was a very subtle undercurrent regarding the root cause of this guild-conscience and the posturing superiority of medical professionals: that an artificially created monopoly on healing was limiting the free market's regulation of bad doctors. The following facts were casually dropped over the course of the chapter, and each added to a startling picture bordering on conspiracy. The first fact was tied up in the argument that doctors owe society a debt because their social privilege and public funding enabled them to join the profession. In explaining this point, the author added that there were many candidates for medical school, and only a few were allowed in or were permitted to be licensed, and that this privilege was based on cultural privilege (e.g. ability to afford school, good social connections, etc.). This means that many potentially good doctors were not being trained because of the selective, classist schools. Yet there is more, for the author also explains that "the state sanctions a monopoly for doctors." Doctors cannot practice without a license, and cannot get a license without cultural privilege and without joining into the social "guild" of doctors during their residency periods. Those who fail to show loyalty to the guild by swearing to respect one's teachers and their children cannot become licensed. So only those who bow to the authority of the existing protectionist "covenanted" doctors can practice medicine. Yet within the same chapter the doctor laments the terrible, pressing shortage of doctors. He explains that patients may not be able to avoid bad doctors because there are not enough doctors to treat all the patients. In short, this means that patients are being forced to go to bad doctors who are protected… [read more]

Child in Taiwan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Some people might find some of these characteristics unpleasant or stressful, but because of my experience discussed below in my family's restaurant, I have learned that these things are not problems or drawbacks for me, leaving me to consider the positive aspects of being a pharmacist, and whether I am suited for the profession.

Because of the experience I have had in the hospital pharmacy, I have had an opportunity to evaluate the demands of this career well. I have also talked with the registered pharmacists at some length about what they do, and what they like and don't like about the job. The things they object to most, the paperwork and the pressure, are things I have learned to not bother me. I know this about myself because of what I have done to help my family's restaurant succeed. So, I find the prospect of a career in pharmacy an exciting one. I look forward to working with the many professionals who make up an individual patient's team of medical support, the opportunity to use my abilities in science, math, and technology, as well as the opportunity to work with other medical professionals to help patients in need.

My cultural background will be an advantage also in a society as culturally diverse as the United States. I immigrated with my family to the United States only four years ago, when I was 18. In those four years I have learned to read, write and speak English, although I expect to continue to improve for some time. Since none of my family speaks English well, I had to do this on my own, taking English as a Second Language classes at a local community college before moving on to college-level coursework. Meanwhile, my father and aunt opened a restaurant, and I have helped them run it while going to school. Because I could speak English so much better than them, I have helped with the business end of the restaurant, doing all the paperwork including employee records and scheduling customer relationships, health department inspections, and all the other many details that go into running a restaurant. Through this experience I learned that I handle details well and can work efficiently under pressure, and that I am a team player who gets along well with a wide variety of people.

While I am proud of the work I have done with my family to help their restaurant become a success, running a restaurant does not satisfy my desire to have a career that makes an important difference in people's lives. It doesn't make use of my science and technological skills. Volunteering in the University Hospital pharmacy was an interesting contrast to the restaurant, because there is the same fast-paced environment and need to work together, but for different reasons. Those reasons that are personally important to me. Pharmacists make an important difference in people's lives. A career in pharmacy would combine my personal strengths of being able to work effectively with… [read more]

Pharmacy School After Serious Deliberation Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (345 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Related skills include administrative responsibilities such as simple record keeping and business management - including finance and budgeting; personnel administration, systems development and planning. The pharmaceutical industry today uses technology to speed up dispensing of rising prescription volumes, allowing Pharmacists to focus more on patient care and disease management.

A sincerely care about the well-being of people and believe that as a health professional I would be able to provide nurturing care to patients yet maintain a degree of emotional detachment. Although it is an advantage living in a time with impressive technological advances in medicine such as machines, medications and surgery, I believe that it is the relationships between patients and caregivers that remain one of the most powerful therapeutic tools in health care. The diversity offered by a career in pharmaceuticals assures me that I've made the right career choice. I believe that the health care industry will afford me a rewarding future and the prospect of continually expanding my abilities, education…… [read more]

Veterinary Medicine Truthfully I Believe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I feel that having had many animals throughout my childhood, I have personally developed into a warmer and more open-minded individual. When you come across an animal that is sick, has been injured or has suffered cruelty or abuse at the hands of another, you are slapped in the face with the reality that sometimes life is unfair. Animals in my mind are the truest embodiment of innocence. They neither intentionally can hurt nor maim, yet suffer sometimes these very cruelties at the hands of some owners.

I have volunteered at many shelters in an effort to expand my knowledge base regarding animal anatomy and behavior. It is my hope that by starting a career in veterinary medicine, I can reach out to the community and help people better understand their pets and animal neighbors. Animals live by instinct, yet still need to be nurtured, loved and cared for. They get sick much as people do. They seek out companionship and attention. They, like a newborn infant, are sometimes misunderstood. I believe my sensitivity to these unique animal traits make me an ideal candidate for the veterinary profession.… [read more]

Frankish and Islamic Medicine: A Comparison Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Frankish and Islamic Medicine

The objective of this study is to conduct a comparison of Frankish and Islamic medicine. Towards this end, various authors on this subject will be examined and their positions reported. It is reported that Usamah witnessed many "instances of wounds and illness." [footnoteRef:1] (Kitab, p. 213) Specifically Usamah is reported to provide the details of four specific examples of Frankish medicine, the first of which is "related to him by his father's physician Thabit, in which two patients are treated by amputation and incision on the scalp respectively." [footnoteRef:2] [1: Usamah ibn Munqidh (2000) 'Kitab al-l'tibar, trans. P.K. Hitti as An Arab-Syrian Gentlemen & Warrior in the Period of the Crusades: Memoirs of Usamah ibn Munqidh (New York: Columbia University Press, 1929, ed 2000) p. 191.] [2: Ibid]

The individual who is the amputee is a soldier with an infected wound in his leg and the second a woman with mental illness who receives an incision on her head. Both patients die instantly upon treatment and Thabit reports that he "learned of Frankish medicine what I knew not before." [footnoteRef:3] It is reported that according to Woodings that the method of treating the woman "was described by Robert of Salerno, and therefore, recognized Frankish practice." [footnoteRef:4] Mitchell agrees with this and relates that the treatment was "standard procedure for the diagnosis given by the doctor" or that the woman had a devil that was living in her head." [footnoteRef:5] According to Mitchell, amputation was used in Frankish medicine but was used only as a last attempt but Woodings relates that "arrangements in the field were poor." [footnoteRef:6] [3: Ibid, p. 162] [4: A.F. Woodings, 'The Medical Resources and the Practices of Crusader-States in Syria and Palestine, 1096-1193, Medical History, 15 (July, 1971) p.271.] [5: P.D. Mitchell, Medicine in the Crusades: Warfare, Wounds, and the Medieval Surgeon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 188] [6: Woodings, Medical Resources and Practices, p. 273]

However, Usamah relates that William of Bures, the Lord of Tiberias relates the story of a knight that is highly respected and whom is euthanized in order to provide the knight relief in lieu of actually providing medical treatment for the knight.[footnoteRef:7] It is reported that the information related by Usamah is called by Mitchell to be evidence of "didactic dichotomy" since it appears that Usamah is trying to relate that Frankish medicine is less effective than Eastern medicine and that Mitchell reports the use of poultices and diet as treatment and its effectiveness to prove this claim.[footnoteRef:8] [7: Munqidh, Kitab, p. 167] [8: Mitchell, p. 213]

It was indicated in the work of Strathern that the view of Usamah at the treatment provided might be based on the way that Muslims felt toward "invasive surgery" although Muslims did…… [read more]

Ethical Issues in Medicine Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


"If the study is successful, the physician may publish an important paper, gain academic advancement, and even make a little money on the side if he or she owns stock in the company that makes the drug in question" (Markman 2003: 1008). However, physicians alone cannot be blamed. Internet chat rooms and the media can also fan the flames of hope.

In contrast, "Phase 2 trials are designed to evaluate efficacy so they might be expected to provide participants some measure of benefit," but even this can be a questionable prospect as different drugs may be in varied stages of to-market readiness, even if technically in a Phase 2 trial (Markman 2003: 1008). In fact, a patient may be lulled into a sense of overconfidence, because he or she is technically in a Phase 2 trial, but not be fully aware of the likely efficacy of the drug. Also, during any phases, patients must forego existing treatments which may have some efficacy to test the new treatment, which actually may be less effective. "Patients in a phase 2 trial of such a novel agent given as first-line chemotherapy will be participating more to generate information to help others than to help themselves…if the tumor progresses and produces symptoms during initial chemotherapy with the experimental drug, the patient actually may have been harmed by not receiving standard therapy first, even if ultimate survival is not influenced" (Markman 2003: 1013).

In some instances, however, the criterion for being admitted to the study of a promising therapy may be too strict -- to minimize outside influences, the study designers may prohibit patients who have had more than one type of treatment. In Phase 3 trials, where participation in experiment and control groups is randomized, patients who could potentially receive life-saving treatment may instead receive a placebo. Control groups are necessary to ensure that it is the treatment rather than other factors that is causing the improvement, but constructing them can deny patients potentially life-saving therapies.


Markman, Maurie. (2003). The needs of science…… [read more]

Patients Turn to Complementary Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,001 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In line with this, they will analyze and document progress data of fellow nurses. During the implementation, the coordinator of the study will need to keenly monitor the process and be readily accessible to staff on the study units to give the needed direction. It is essential that follow-up as a reinforcement of the practice change be properly coordinated

Step 6: Integrate and Maintain the Change in Practice

In integrating combining traditional or western medicine with alternative or complimentary therapy, the research team will seek other nurses' feedback about feasibility and benefits related to the interventions highlighted above. In addition, in-service sessions concerning the new protocol will be presented to nurses caring for patients within the hospice centers. Moreover, periodic monitoring of the changes will be conducted to evaluate their effectiveness and improve upon them. It is important for practitioners to be sensitive to the cultural climate of the hospice center as an attempt to integrate these new innovations. This is because people affected by the change usually view it as disruptive.


According this PICOT worksheet, hospice nurses should have necessary skills and resources to appraise, synthesize, and diffuse a combination of traditional or western medicine with alternative or complimentary therapy in practice. In addition, patient outcomes should match discipline-specific and interdisciplinary accountabilities of hospice nurses. It is important for the intervention to increase patient symptom control, increase in patient comfort by combining conventional and alternative medicine and therapy. This program is a pilot that will follow the best practice guidelines in order to introduce and implement alternative therapy in hospice care. This program is well-structured following a simple framework for six months. There is need for ongoing and effective partnerships between researchers and hospice nursing in order to enhance the diffusion of evidence-based practice innovations.


Bardia, A., Barton, D., Prokop, L., & Bauer, B. (2006). Efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine therapies in relieving cancer pain: A systematic review. American Society of Clinical Oncoloty, 5457-5464.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, November 16). National Health Interview Survey. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from www.cdc.gov.

Cummings, K. (2011). End of life and hospice care . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.

Forester, H. (2012). Alternative Medicine and Hospice Care for LPN/RNs. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://nursinglink.monster.com/education/articles/8397-alternative-medicine-and-hospice-care-for-lpnrns

Heath, J., Oh, L., Clarke, N., & Wolfe, J. (2012). Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with cancer at the end of life. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 1218-1221.

Kohara, M., Miyauchi, T., Suehiro, Y., Ueoka, H., Takeyama, H., & Morita, T. (2004). Combined modality treatment of aromatherapy, footsoak, and reflexology relieves fatigue in patients with cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 791-797.

Kowalski, L. (2002). Use of aromatherapy with hospice patients to decrease pain, anxiety, and depression and to promote an increased sense of well-being. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, 381-386.

Mayoclinic.com. (2011). Meditation: A simple, fast way to reduce stress. Retrieved November 25, 2012, from http://mayoclinic.com/health/meditation/HQ01070

Rosswurm, M.A.,…… [read more]

Business Plan Retail Pharmacy Business Plan

Business Plan  |  8 pages (2,186 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Business Plan

This business plan is for a retail pharmacy. The pharmacy is going to provide two distinct product lines -- pharmaceutical and retail. The organization will be designed around that model. As a small company, the organizational structure is going to be relatively flat, with a General Manager, Assistant General Manager, Head Pharmacist and Retail Manager. Duties for each… [read more]

Medical Records Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Section III (The Vendor Selection Process) -- This section covers the process employed by Dryden Family Medicine to direct the transition to EMR. The authors begin with the steering committee established in 2002, which was "composed of one physician, the office manager, the nursing supervisor, and the front-desk supervisor" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The issue of vendor fallibility is explored, as the choice of an unprepared or unskilled billing systems provider could easily undermine the practice's 50 years of record keeping. Finally, the reader is guided through the EMR vendor selection process, from the industry trade journals to consultations with fellow family practices that have previously implemented EMR systems.

Section IV (Stages of EMR Implementation) -- This section includes a detailed timeline of the EMR implementation process utilized by Dryden Family Medicine. Found in Table C3.1 and Figure C3.1 are various benchmarks in the EMR adoption process, such as "August 2003 Prescriptions generated electronically and faxed to pharmacies" and "March 2005 Patient education literature is scanned into the system and linked to EMR" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The informative tables are followed by a thorough analysis of the three-stage process used to effectively introduce EMR strategies to Dryden Family Medicine's overall system. The section concludes with a concrete example of EMR-based improvements, as the authors recount a 2005 incident involving the painkiller Bextra and a Food and Drug Administration recall that patients were notified about immediately.

Section V (Impact on Job Responsibilities) -- The purpose of this section is to determine the impact of implementing an EMR system which clearly "resulted in changes in the job descriptions and responsibilities of all members of the practice" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The authors observe several instances involving physician's problematic interaction with… [read more]

Pharmacy Personal Statement Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Going through a medical tragedy with my own family has underlined the need for caring and sensitive medical staff that can deal patients' emotions.

I am currently working at the Orange County Immune Institute and volunteer at the pharmacy within Garden Grove Hospital as well. Helping someone understand how they must take their medication, and instilling a sense of well-being and confidence in the people I see everyday as they take charge of their health and their loved one's heath underlines to me what I have always loved about the field of pharmacy. It is a field that requires in-depth technical and scientific knowledge, yet it also requires that the pharmacist is a 'people person' and understands the lifestyles of the persons taking the medication. Sometimes I must take more time to explain to an elderly person their dosage schedule or make clear to someone whose English is not strong the contraindicated foods and medications with the pills they are taking. I enjoy this, because it provides me with a human connection and a sense of efficacy. Being a great pharmacist is so much more than simply dispensing drugs.

The difficulties I have experienced have given me a sense of greater compassion and wisdom about life's fragility. Education has always been a cornerstone of my life and I long to return back to the academic arena to prepare myself for a profession for which there is great need. I bring the greater maturity of life experience to the classroom now. I feel fully confident that my sensitivity, borne of maturity, combined with the training I receive will make me an excellent pharmacist.… [read more]

Alternative Treatments: Acupuncture for Pain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (975 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Different types of acupuncture are available at this center. Chinese Acupuncture is the most common method, and it is considered to be a traditional method. It is used for all kinds of pain as well as for orthopedic conditions. Japanese Acupuncture, which focuses on the entire body and is said to be a gentler form of treatment, is growing in popularity. Other therapies are available as well. Cupping, for example is used for easing sore muscles; instead of needles, glass cups are applied to the skin and suction is used to remove blocked energy. Another type of treatment is Moxa Therapy, which uses herbs. Auricular therapy focuses on the ears as the treatment point; in this type of therapy, the ear is viewed as a microsystem for the body. It is commonly used for assistance with smoking cessation or for relaxation. Reiki is also becoming increasingly popular to help restore the body's qi from built-up stress and other energy blockages.

The rates at the center are more reasonable than most. An acupuncture visit is $70.00, although there are special rates available for students, elderly and unemployed ($45.00). The center also offers to match any discount your insurance company may offer by up to 25%. For individuals who do not have insurance, there is a sliding fee scale that is based on yearly income. According to this scale, for example, an individual with an income above $50,000 will be charged $70.00 per session, while an individual whose income is below $20,000 will be charged $50.00.

I would absolutely recommend this acupuncture center to friends and family. The entire experience felt therapeutic. It did not have the feel of a medical office, which is something that can cause tension in itself for me. The staff members were welcoming and made me feel comfortable and at home, offering refreshments (water, herbal tea), and taking the time to explain types of treatment as well as payment plans. This was done very discreetly and in a direct and clear manner. I would also strongly recommend this type of therapy to anyone who was in pain, not just as an alternative to traditional medicine, but as an initial treatment plan. Traditional medical treatments can be invasive and costly. Use of medication can have a number of unpleasant side effects that may be just as harmful as the original pain was. Surgery is invasive and requires time off of work and a disruption of one's daily activities, and there is no guarantee of pain cessation.


Acupuncture (2012). The Mayo Clinic. Retrieved electronically on May 6, 2012 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/AboutThisSite/AM00057

Koopsen, C. & Young, C. (2009). Integrative health: A holistic approach for health professionals. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.

Tran, A. Acupuncture alternative (2012). Markula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara

University, CA. Retrieved electronically on May 6, 2012 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/dialogue/candc/cases/acupuncture.html

Two views of acupuncture. (2011). Retrieved electronically on May 6, 2012 from http://www.two-views.com/Acupuncture/What.html… [read more]

Medication Changes With Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This would entail CPOE to be linked to a comprehensive electronic medical record whilst nurses would administer the medications with smart pumps that would be reinforced with bar code point-of-care units that punctiliously contain all details of the patient's treatment. Spurlock et al. (2003) see this ideal system as ranging far ahead in the future.

However useful these technologies -- and they certainly are so - hospital and medical institutions can only benefit from them when skilled professionals employ them. And used carefully.


Spurlock, B. et al. (2003) Legislating Medication Safety: The California Experience. Convergence Health Consulting.


Health Information Technology (2009) Electronic medication administration records improved communication and decision-making in nursing homes http://www.ahrq.gov/research/jul09/0709RA29.htm

Institute of Medicine (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309072808/html.

The Institute of Medicine (2006). Preventing Medication Errors. The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11623.html.

Kaufman, M. (2009) New IV smart pump technologies prevent medication errors, ADRs

Formulary Enews


Santell, John P (2004). Computer Related Errors: What Every Pharmacist Should Know (PDF). United States Pharmacopia. http://www.usp.org/pdf/EN/patientSafety/slideShows2004-12-09.pdf.

Yong Y. Han, Joseph A. Carcillo, Shekhar T. Venkataraman, Robert S.B. Clark, R. Scott Watson, Trung C. Nguyen, Hulya Bayir, and Richard A. Orr (2005). Unexpected Increased Mortality After Implementation of a Commercially Sold Computerized Physician Order Entry System. Pediatrics 116 (6): 1506 -- 1512.… [read more]

Admission for Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine Program Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Admission for Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine Program

APP: Admission for Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine Program

A number of years ago, whenever I or any of my siblings developed a cold, my mother would simply say, "there is no need of taking any medication for that…. you will shrug it off in a week or so." We may not have understood what she meant then (there was no explanation given) though her concept seemed to work most of the time. It was not until much later that I came to learn that the human body possesses an innate ability to heal itself and hence effectively, my mother was simply citing that fact. Perhaps it was this discovery that informed my keen interest on this simple concept which largely serves as the foundation for naturopathic medicine.

As a potential student for Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine Program, I am convinced I have my priorities right based on the interest I have developed over time in the field of naturopathy. I am certain that should I be allowed to pursue the Program; I will not only have an opportunity to quench my thirst for knowledge in regard to the body's ability to combat disease but I will also have a rare chance to make a lasting contribution towards the advancement of alternative remedies in a way that benefits mankind.

In my opinion, the opportunity to pursue the Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine Program at a state-of-the-art institution will give me another rare chance to learn from some of the best minds in Naturopathic Medicine. Further, I would like to pursue the Program in a facility with an enriched study environment and a diverse student community. Your facility fits the bill. The enriched study environment and diverse student community at your institution will give me yet another rare opportunity to enhance my communication and…… [read more]

Cam Therapeutic Modalities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Alternative medicine is any medicine that is contrary to evidence-based medicine usually initiating from a historical or cultural, rather than evidence-based or scientific, background. Examples include Reiki, yoga, meditation, naturopathy, chiropractice, Ayurveda, acupuncture, biofeedback, hypnosis, homeopathy, nutritional-based practices and many other healing methods, some more controversial than others. Complementary medicine (CAM) refers to the integration of one or more approaches of alternative therapy with conventional medicine. Integrative medicine (IM), the goal being to treat mind, body, and person concurrently, focuses on treating the person not the disease and uses alternative medicine to do so. It is synonymous to CAM, but, perhaps, exceeds that by referring to the healthcare system as a whole and ensures that the approaches used are safe and effective.

Whilst CAM and IM may differ from conventional medicine in being holistic, individual centered and focusing on a spiritual approach often lacking evidence background, they are increasingly starting to adopt the conventional scientific method of testing their approach, aside from which conventional medicine (otherwise called allopathic or orthodox) is part of their structure.

The philosophy of CAM is preventative and holistic in that it aims to address all components of the person: emotional, physical, and mental. In this way, it is different to conventional Western medicine that focuses on healing (rather than preventing) and is purely physically oriented.

CAM therapies may be categorized into five major fields: mind-body interventions, movement therapies, manipulative and body-based methods, biologically based approaches, and energy therapies.

Biologically-based medicine would include what the NIH refers to as its natural approach where a variety of herbal products (also called "botanical"), vitamins, minerals, and "natural products" are supplemented to one's nutrition in order to boost health. CAM "natural products" also include a focus on probiotics (live microorganisms) found, for instance, in yogurt, echinacea, and fish oil / Omega 3.

Mind-body interventions maintains that mind and body are intricately linked in affecting physical functioning. CAM, therefore, often uses mind to heal the body. Some of the approaches reflecting this are: meditation (which via focused mental attention increases calmness), yoga (which via specific poses and mindfulness decreases stress and promotes relaxation), and acupuncture (that stimulates specific points on the body such as with needles; these areas are then electrically stimulated or massaged by hand). Other mind body modalities include deep breathing, visualization, guided imagery, hypnotherapy, tai chi, and qi gong.

Manipulative and body-based practices involve manipulating the structures and systems of the body such as the bones and joints, soft tissues, and circulatory and lymphatic systems. Two common therapies within this category are message therapy and spinal manipulation. The former involves massaging muscles and other soft tissues of the body. Its purpose includes to relive pain and stress and to enhance general…… [read more]

History of Folk Medicine Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Life before Tylenol and Prozac: A History of Folk Medicine

Brief Course Description

This course will provide an overview of the history of folk medicine from the earliest civilizations to modern times. Topics covered will include: Religious aspects of folk medicine; 'witch doctors' and 'medicine men'; Plants and herbal medicine; Animal parts for human healing; Modern natural remedies and What… [read more]

Psychotropic Medicines Are Often Prescribed to Individuals Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,100 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Psychotropic medicines are often prescribed to individuals with developmental disabilities although the reason for this is not clear in many instances. The aim of the study proposed herein this document is to assist the Department on Disability in reviewing and assessing the effects of psychotropic medications on their clients' health status. The objective of the proposed study is the determination of the effects of psychotropic medications on the health status of vulnerable clients considering age and gender, correlation of these medications to diagnoses, the rate of various diagnoses against population and whether medications for diagnoses vary according to the severity of cognitive impairment. The significance of this study is the fact that individuals with developmental disabilities are unable to communicate well information regarding the side effects and problems associated with psychotropic

Disability and Psychotropic Medications

Research Proposal


Individuals with developmental disabilities are often prescribed psychotropic medications for behavioral or psychiatric reasons however; it is not always clear whether the reasons for prescribing psychotropic medications are legitimate. Individuals with developmental disabilities may be confused with other psychiatric conditions.

II. Significance of the Study

The significance of this study is the fact that individuals with developmental disabilities are unable to communicate well information regarding the side effects and problems associated with psychotropic medication and are dependent upon others to recognize these side effects.

III. Research Questions

The research questions in the study proposed herein include the questions stated as follows:

(1) What are the side effects of psychotropic drugs?

(2) What symptoms or behavioral characteristics are associated with side effects of psychotropic drugs?

(3) What steps should be taken to identify individuals with developmental disabilities who are experiencing side effects of psychotropic drugs?

(4) What is 'best practice' in the administration of psychotropic drugs to individuals with developmental disabilities?

IV. Focus of Study

The primary focus of this study is women of reproductive age (18-45) covered by the Department of Disability and determining whether any pattern is considered in prescribing psychotropic medications for this group. This study further intends to determine whether the medications have specific health effects on these individuals.

V. Aims & Objectives

The aim of the study proposed herein this document is to assist the Department on Disability in reviewing and assessing the effects of psychotropic medications on their clients' health status. The objective of the proposed study is the determination of the effects of psychotropic medications on the health status of vulnerable clients considering age and gender, correlation of these medications to diagnoses, the rate of various diagnoses against population and whether medications for diagnoses vary according to the severity of cognitive impairment.

VI. Proposed Methodology

The methodology proposed for the study is one in which data will be gathered from the Department of Disability database including information on patient use of psychotropic medication. Statistical analysis will be conducted through use of Microsoft Excel to determine whether any relationship exists between different groups of psychotropic drugs and diagnosis and to determine whether there is a pattern for… [read more]

Medicine in Colonial America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,778 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Medicine in Colonial America

The period we can call Colonial America can be the period from 1497 to 1776. The examination of medical practices during the period, first with the original natives of the land, and then the medical practices that came in with the settlers from the various countries, and finally the establishment of an orderly and institutionalized medical… [read more]

Cranberries as an Alternative Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,750 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are indigenous to North America and have been used in traditional Native American medicine for centuries if not millennia. Related to blueberries and rhododendrons, the North American cranberry is a bog fruit commonly used as a culinary fruit. However, the small berries and leaves of the cranberry plant have also been used in traditional medicine for a… [read more]

Consent in Cam Consent and Herbal Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,463 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Consent in CAM

Consent and Herbal Medicine: A Literature Review

The topic of informed consent is important for any portion of the legal profession. Informed consent assures that patients remain an integral part of the decision-making process. The field of complementary and alternative medicine has remained on the fringes of the medical community. This branch of medicine has… [read more]

Medieval Techniques of Healing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,638 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Medieval Medicine

Many people mistakenly assume that little progress was made in the sciences during the Medieval era. Techniques of healing may have seemed crude and often associated with a connection between faith and the body the "science" or professionalism of medicine actually have origins here in the medieval era. (Newman 241) Healing began to be associated with a separate… [read more]

Interpersonal and Communication Skills Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  1 pages (309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … interpersonal and communication skills are two of the essential characteristics of any compassionate pharmacist. A pharmacist is not a mere dispense of medication. He or she is a scientist by training, but part of his or her job is to enable the layperson to understand how to administer medication correctly, with the correct dosage, at the correct time. A vigilant pharmacist checks and double-checks the patient's prescribed list of drugs, for contraindications, reminds the patient which drugs are not to be taken with alcohol or before driving, and can calm down a worried mother or a confused elderly person, so the individual can listen clearly to advice.

I know the importance of communication all too well, because of my own past. I came to Iran after graduating as the valedictorian of my high school. However, because of the challenging courses in college I took my freshman year to prepare myself for my…… [read more]

Medical Anthropology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,299 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Alternative Medicine

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Altshuler, Larry

2004 Balanced Healing: Combining Modern Medicine & Safe & Effective Alternative Therapies. Gig Harbor, WA: Harbor Press.

A reference guide for anyone who wants to benefit from alternative healing methods, without replacing the advanced benefits of contemporary medicine. Dr. Altshuler, with 25 years of experience in alternative medicine, divides the book into… [read more]

Attending the Lecom School of Pharmacy Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  1 pages (344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … attending the LECOM School of Pharmacy because of the unique opportunities offered by the school. As a retail pharmacy technician, I have seen how important it is for pharmacists to work with patients, because many patients have multiple doctors and have not provided those doctors with complete medical histories. Therefore, pharmacists may be the only medical providers aware of possible medical interactions or other pharmaceutical contraindications, and cannot be relegated to the role of medication providers. LECOM has a reputation of teaching pharmacists how to take an active role in patient care by being actively involved in disease management, behavior modification, and drug therapy; and I believe that philosophy is one that all pharmacists should embrace.

To me, professionalism means retaining the ability to do one's job regardless of the emotional or situational context of the situation. I believe that the concept of professionalism is especially important for pharmacists, because there are some medications that many pharmacists find morally objectionable. However, professionalism means that one does not impart value judgments…… [read more]

Moral Dilemma Harvey's Wife Suffers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (318 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Moral Dilemma

Harvey's wife suffers from a deadly disease and if she does not take her prescribed medication soon she will surely die. The only way Harvey can obtain the medication is by stealing it from the pharmacy because he cannot afford to pay for it himself and no one is willing to help him. Harvey's story raises a host of moral dilemmas. First, the medical system is itself immoral because it is based on financial class rather than on humanitarian need. Second, the impetus to help others should prevail over profit and even the pharmacy might have a moral obligation to help Harvey's wife. Harvey has a moral obligation to help his wife. Third, Harvey breaks a law and a moral code by stealing but to do so he fulfills a much higher duty: to save his wife's life at the expense of no one else's.

If Harvey steals the medication from the pharmacy he does not hurt…… [read more]

Admissions First Laid Eyes on the Physician Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


admissions first laid eyes on the Physician's Desk Reference when I volunteered at a pharmacy in Iran when I was in high school there. Although I was born in Norfolk, Virginia, my family and I moved to Iran when I was still a toddler and my formative years were spent there. My interest in pharmacy arose early in life. In fact, I had little doubt or confusion about what I wanted to pursue for a career. After I graduated high school and realized that the best educational opportunities would await me in the United States, I persuaded my parents to move back to America. My parents, who were concerned about my future and supportive of my dreams, sold their home and moved here. The shift was difficult culturally and linguistically, I had to immerse myself in English classes for two solid years before I felt comfortable speaking with others. All of my English skills were actually acquired during the past several years, for I did not need to speak English at all while in Iran. My English skills improved to the point that I got admitted to an undergraduate college in pharmaceutical studies. I work part time to support my needs but my parents have been kind enough to provide for the bulk of my educational and living expenses in college. As I now seek to expand my knowledge in my chosen discipline, I am seeking admission to this esteemed program. I believe I will make a solid addition to your school. I will participate enthusiastically in the pharmacy program, and will contribute to the overall cultural diversity of the university's student body.

Medicine has fascinated me since I was very young. I can remember times when I was sick and I would ask my parents what was so magical about the pills and potions she would administer to me, from cough medicine to aspirin. Gradually I became familiar with some of the major chemical names that are common in over-the-counter and popular prescription drugs and by the time I was in high school, my pharmacological vocabulary was larger than most people twice my age.

When I had the opportunity to volunteer with the pharmacy in Iran as a high school student, my passions were deepened, as I became familiar with the day-to-day workings of various aspects of pharmacy, from research to sales. Engrossed in my work, hours would pass and I would lose track of time. I had found my niche, and had already begun to network with other like-minded people through my volunteer work. My mentor, who was the head pharmacist, allowed me to participate in and oversee many of his research projects. His encouragement and support prompted me to hold tight to my goals; he told me how he became a pharmacist and therefore helped me to begin planning for my future. After talking as well with my teachers, it was then I decided that I would like to become a laboratory researcher who investigated emerging medicines…… [read more]

Third Class of Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,359 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pharmacists therefore note that consumers would save enormous amounts of money with a third class of drugs: "Granting pharmacists control over a specific group of prescription medications might serve to improve care in a cost-effective manner," (Labbe). Many patients can easily treat minor ailments by simply consulting with a pharmacist rather than visiting a physician.

Moreover, pharmacists would not be taking the place of the physician but would be able to offer consumers educated guidance regarding side effects and treatment options. The third class of drugs affords more control to the consumer and strips some power from the medical community. However, pharmacists would still refer patients to physicians whenever necessary, such as when contraindications or other concerns might be a problem. Pharmacist groups also avow that there would be "little negative impact on corporate profit margins or on physician ability to provide medical care," (Labbe). The third class of drugs, also known as "pharmacist only" drugs has been in effect in many other nations, including Canada and most European Union nations. In fact, according to the United States General Accounting Office (GAO), "the classification of drugs in the United States into one of two classes, prescription or nonprescription, is unique," (Chan 2).

Although pharmacists paint a rosy picture of the third class of drugs, the concept is met with major mistrust and disapproval by most major regulatory bodies, including the FDA, the United States Justice Department, and the American Medical Association (AMA). A report by the GAO called "Value of a Pharmacist-Controlled Class Has Yet to be Demonstrated" is based partly on research into the third class system in other countries. According to the report, "Little evidence supports the establishment of a pharmacy or pharmacist class of drugs in the United States as either a fixed or transition class," (3). The AMA opposes the third class of drugs because of the potential for loss of revenue for doctors. If patients with minor ailments consult their pharmacists about their health care options, the number of visits to physicians would be significantly reduced. Furthermore, the pharmaceutical industry would market their third class of drugs to pharmacies and pharmacists more than to practicing physicians, which could also entail loss of revenue for medical doctors.

The Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA) states that the third class of drugs "doesn't make sense," (CHPA website). Opponents of the third class of drugs claim that it would result in higher costs of medication; the CHPA claims that the third class is "anti-competitive and anti-consumer" because the third class of drugs would only be sold in pharmacies and not in convenience stores. However, pharmacists insist that the third class would "not restrict access to over the counter products," and would have "little negative impact on corporate profit margins or on physician's ability to provide medical care (Labbe). In addition to retail pharmacies and pharmacists, consumers would benefit from a third class of drugs, especially if it were a transition class: although the costs of the third class drugs… [read more]

Statement of Goal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Proudly clutching my shiny new degree, I stared at the faces in the crowd. Although the audience at the graduation ceremony in May was loud with their clapping hands and whistling, I suddenly became besieged by silence. Looking for a familiar face to stabilize me, I instantly knew the source of my panic attack. For years I had pursued a degree in business because as an international student, I felt it would offer me the best opportunities for advancement and for networking with people in my new surroundings. Furthermore, business degrees apply to a wide range of industries and I knew that with a little experience and a lot of soul-searching that I would eventually discover a path on which I could tread joyfully. A few of my internships broadened my horizons but until recently I had not found my calling. My friend came over to me and said, "What's wrong?" I replied, "What am I going to do now?"

She laughed. My undergraduate career was enriching, as I overcame a slew of obstacles living and studying amid people who spoke different languages and who ate different foods. Like many of my classmates, now was the moment of reckoning: we were walking the plank when we stepped off of that stage. It was time to plunge into the real world.

A realized that my business degree wasn't an automatic ticket to self-fulfillment long ago. However, as I stood starkly on that stage I knew that I would have to apply my newfound skills through career development. Quite by accident, I came across a job opening in an oncology specialist's office. Having a keen interest in medicine but little confidence in my ability to pursue a medical career, I applied for the position and was soon working as an office assistant.

My job instantly sparked in me a passion for health care. When…… [read more]

Drugs and Human Health Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,497 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Patients in life or death situations often can not swallow and also drugs given intravenously often act more rapidly, and some drugs are or can be destroyed by gastric acids.

Nitroglycerin tablets are given sublingually because the blood under the tongue acts to disseminate the medicine almost as effectively as if the drug was given intravenously.

In both open… [read more]

Forbes Magazine Entitled Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(Lambert) Still others argue that receiving prescriptions by mail is more cost effective for customers.

Finally, the article explains that Walgreen's and other drug stores have decided to take a firm stand against PBM's and mail order prescriptions. The article asserts that Walgreen's is now "blacklisting customers whose health plans force them to use mail for long-term drugs but steer them to stores for the one-time drugs. That is, it will to accept insurance cards as payments for one-time orders from these patients."(Lambert)

Opposing Views/Opinion

The issue of PBM's and mail order prescription is certain to be an issue for years to some. The drugstores and pharmacies fear that the mail order prescription business will be detrimental to their survival. They seem to believe that PBM's are only on the side of the drug company and that they are lying to consumers. The drugstores believe that mail order prescriptions are not cost effective while the PBM's argue that consumers can save up to 27% if they order their prescriptions through the mail

At the other end of the debate there are consumers who like to order their prescriptions through the mail. Some consumers do this even if it is not mandated by their insurance providers. In many cases consumers just find it more convenient to order prescriptions through the mail. In any case, the PBM's and the drugstores will continue to quarrel over which method is less expensive.

In my own opinion, it seems that Walgreen's should not have the right or ability to blacklist customers because of the decisions that are made by their healthcare providers. In many cases people are in dire need of receiving their medication and may not have time to ride around to different pharmacies just to get a prescription fulfilled. It is apparent to me that all Walgreen's is concerned with is its bottom line and they are willing to sacrifice the health of customers just to prove a point to PBM's. The fact of the matter is that consumers have a right to purchase prescriptions in any way that they see fit. Some people prefer going to a traditional pharmacists, while other prefer for the prescriptions to be brought to their homes. Walgreen's has to be careful not to ignore the needs and desires of consumers in the quest for…… [read more]

Medicine &amp Culture Payer, Lynn Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This observation is extended by Payer to include medical training and the general population within each country. Therefore the book emphasizes the differences, not only between the medical staff, but also between the patients of each country.

Medicine & Culture's primary argument is directed at American doctors and patients, and their general tendency to regard their country's medicine as the most scientifically correct manner in which to diagnose and treat disease. Payer suggests that the American medical profession, and the public, should adopt a wider perspective and consider the way in which their country's medical practices are established and influenced by historical traditions and cultural biases. By devoting a seperate chapter to each of the four central countries, Payer's expands upon her theories and ideas, and examnines specific medical conditions and the manner in which the doctors of each country approach the areas of diagnosis and treatment.

Considering the rapid advances made in recent years, within the field of medicine, it is likely that many of the claims and conclusions made by Payer will now be out of date. However, the central message remains as valid and thought-provoking today as it did back in 1985. It is important for doctors, and patients, to avoid taking a narrow, cultural specific view of disease, diagnosis, and treatment. As everyone's lives become increasingly influenced by globalization and multiculturalism, Payer's message is that the medical profession of each country should continually look beyond the limitations and accepted truths of its own culture, and keep its mind open to the ideas and theories of…… [read more]

Holistic Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


While holistic medicine may not be the best solution for everyone, it definitely seems to have its benefits. Holistic doctors aim to treat their patients or clients psychologically, spiritually, emotionally and socially, as well as meet their physical needs. This enables people to be more active in self-healing.


ICPAC. (2003). Interview with a Chiropractic Physician. Indiana Career and Postsecondary Advancement Center. Retrieved on the Internet at http://icpac.indiana.edu/careers/health/chiro.xml.

Charlton, Bruce G. (November, 1993). Holistic medicine or the humane doctor? British Journal of General Practice, pp. 475-477.

Keller, Edmund. (November, 1998). Homeopathic Solutions. Journal of the American Medical Association, pp. 182-189.

Bentley, Charles. (Sept. 2, l998). The Alternative of Holistic Healing. Journal of the American Medical Association, pp. 45-49.

Dworkin, Norine. (November, 1999). The Holistic Medicine Cabinet. The Vegetarian Times.

Gareth, Kathleen. (2002). Healing with Homeopathy. The Standing Post. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.standingpost.com/homeopathy.html://www.standingpost.com/homeopathy.html.

Wolff, Amy. (2001). Holistic Medicine Trends. PetPlace. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.petplace.com.

Aromatherapy: A Complete Guide to the Healing Art, by Kathi Keville and Mindy Green (The Crossing Press, 1995). Explains how to enhance health and well-being with essential oils.

Bach Flower Therapy, by Gotz Blome, M.D. (Healing Arts Press, 1999). Promotes the use of floral essences for treating ailments.

The Consumer's Guide to Homeopathy, Dana Ullman, M.P.H. (Putnam, 1995). Offers well-organized explanations of appropriate remedies for various medical conditions.

The Way of Herbs, by Michael Tierra, LAc., O.M.D. (Pocket Books, 1998). Outlines the therapeutic use of herbs.

Vaidya, Prabha. Gore, Jerry. (2001). Holistic Medicine; Body-Mind-Spirit. Retrieved on the Internet at http://www.yogachicago.com/sep00/holisticmedicine.shtml.

Smith, Robert. "The Magic of Homeopathy" Total Health vol. 15 August 1993 p.10.

Deliman, Tracy. Smolowe, John. (1982). Holostic Medicine: Harmony of Body Mind Spirit. Virginia: Reston Publishing Company.

Ten Most Commonly Asked Questions About Alternative Medicine. http./ / www.healthy.net/library/articles/morton/ten.html1998.

Weston, Walter. (2002). Cancer and Holistic Medicine. Optimal Life Center. Retrieved from the Internet at http://4optimallife.com/index.html.

Holistic Medicine… [read more]

Tylenol to a Friend Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I have worked in summer camps, and volunteered in after school programs. I have volunteered at the YMCA with programs for the elderly and have visited nursing homes. These experiences have not only helped to develop leadership skills within me, but they have shown me the vitality of the human spirit, and have given me the desire to work in a profession that can heal the body.

While none of these activities related directly to pharmacy, I feel that the experience I have gained, paired with the academic programs I have completed, will make me successful in the Pharmacy program, and as a professional pharmacist. I am hard working and have a desire to help people in their time of fear and pain, to ease their fears and help to heal their bodies. These experiences do indeed, I believe, reflect the underlying qualities that are not only desirable in a pharmacy student, but necessary.

I believe that I will be an asset to the program. My qualifications and my desire, coupled with my experience will make me an excellent pharmacist. It is my anticipation that the experience I gain in the program will serve accelerate my goals, and to provide focus and refinement of the skills I already possess. I look forward to being a part of such a respected and highly esteemed group of professionals and I hope that the path to such a goal includes…… [read more]

Business Sustainability Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (3,768 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Strategic Multilateral Partnerships Help Address the Limitations of Access to Essential Medicines in Emerging Markets?

The Case of Anti-Malarial Drugs in Nigeria.

Business Case Background

The Company Challenge


Business Case Analysis

Wider Sustainability Context

Conceptual framework

Stakeholders and Community interest

Challenges for the Organization

Critical Analysis of Data Collected

Business Case Background

The organization known as Cure… [read more]

Creating Urgency in the Field of Medicine Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Chaos, & Complexity

Change, Chaos, and Complexity

One of the most profound changes that I have experienced in my nursing practice is the implementation of remote digitally supported medicine that is commonly referred to as telemedicine. Although the changes that support the eventual universal application of telemedicine have occurred in bits and pieces, so to speak, taken together, these changes have the potential to transform medical practice. Already, there are hospitals equipped to let parents of premature or acutely ill babies observe their infants -- and the care that they receive -from their own homes at all hours of the day and night. This enables the parents and practitioners to engage in close communication about the infant's care and to establish trust to reduce parental anxiety and induce confidence in the provision of care. Telemonitoring also fosters high levels of adherence to medication and health regimens by using mobile phone technology to communicate via text messages. This version of telemedicine ramps up the quality of care that patients living in remote areas can receive, and also reduces the cost of care by reducing the frequency of trips to centralized medical facilities.

Digital mobile devices and the platforms on which they operate have been described as disruptive technology because they disrupted the existing technological systems and practices. In their study of complexity, Snowden and Boone (2007) argue that in a dynamic system, "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and solutions can't be imposed, rather, they arise from the circumstances" (p. 3). This phenomenon, called emergence, is what made it possible for physicians to utilize videotelephony to communicate with parents of premature babies while providing care in the newborn intensive care units (NICU). As a leader in nursing, I believe it is crucial to remember this point made by Snowden and Boone (2007): "…best practice is, by definition, past practice…since hindsight no longer leads t foresight after a shift in context, a corresponding change in management style may be called for." (p.4). In complex contexts, best…… [read more]

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