"Medicine / Pharmacy" Essays 71-139

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Third Class of Drugs Term Paper

… Pharmacists therefore note that consumers would save enormous amounts of money with a third class of drugs: "Granting pharmacists control over a specific group of prescription medications might serve to improve care in a cost-effective manner," (Labbe). Many patients can easily treat minor ailments by simply consulting with a pharmacist rather than visiting a physician.

Moreover, pharmacists would not be taking the place of the physician but would be able to offer consumers educated guidance regarding side effects and treatment options. The third class of drugs affords more control to the consumer and strips some power from the medical community. However, pharmacists would still refer patients to physicians whenever necessary, such as when contraindications or other concerns might be a problem. Pharmacist groups also avow that there would be "little negative impact on corporate profit margins or on physician ability to provide medical care," (Labbe). The third class of drugs, also known as "pharmacist only" drugs has been in effect in many other nations, including Canada and most European Union nations. In fact, according to the United States General Accounting Office (GAO), "the classification of drugs in the United States into one of two classes, prescription or nonprescription, is unique," (Chan 2).

Although pharmacists paint a rosy picture of the third class of drugs, the concept is met with major mistrust and disapproval by most major regulatory bodies, including the FDA, the United States Justice Department, and the American Medical Association (AMA). A report by the GAO called "Value of a Pharmacist-Controlled Class Has Yet to be Demonstrated" is based partly on research into the third class system in other countries. According to the report, "Little evidence supports the establishment of a pharmacy or pharmacist class of drugs in the United States as either a fixed or transition class," (3). The AMA opposes the third class of drugs because of the potential for loss of revenue for doctors. If patients with minor ailments consult their pharmacists about their health care options, the number of visits to physicians would be significantly reduced. Furthermore, the pharmaceutical industry would market their third class of drugs to pharmacies and pharmacists more than to practicing physicians, which could also entail loss of revenue for medical doctors.

The Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA) states that the third class of drugs "doesn't make sense," (CHPA website). Opponents of the third class of drugs claim that it would result in higher costs of medication; the CHPA claims that the third class is "anti-competitive and anti-consumer" because the third class of drugs would only be sold in pharmacies and not in convenience stores. However, pharmacists insist that the third class would "not restrict access to over the counter products," and would have "little negative impact on corporate profit margins or on physician's ability to provide medical care (Labbe). In addition to retail pharmacies and pharmacists, consumers would benefit from a third class of drugs, especially if it were a transition class: although the costs of the third class drugs… [read more]

Statement of Goal Term Paper

… Proudly clutching my shiny new degree, I stared at the faces in the crowd. Although the audience at the graduation ceremony in May was loud with their clapping hands and whistling, I suddenly became besieged by silence. Looking for a familiar face to stabilize me, I instantly knew the source of my panic attack. For years I had pursued a degree in business because as an international student, I felt it would offer me the best opportunities for advancement and for networking with people in my new surroundings. Furthermore, business degrees apply to a wide range of industries and I knew that with a little experience and a lot of soul-searching that I would eventually discover a path on which I could tread joyfully. A few of my internships broadened my horizons but until recently I had not found my calling. My friend came over to me and said, "What's wrong?" I replied, "What am I going to do now?"

She laughed. My undergraduate career was enriching, as I overcame a slew of obstacles living and studying amid people who spoke different languages and who ate different foods. Like many of my classmates, now was the moment of reckoning: we were walking the plank when we stepped off of that stage. It was time to plunge into the real world.

A realized that my business degree wasn't an automatic ticket to self-fulfillment long ago. However, as I stood starkly on that stage I knew that I would have to apply my newfound skills through career development. Quite by accident, I came across a job opening in an oncology specialist's office. Having a keen interest in medicine but little confidence in my ability to pursue a medical career, I applied for the position and was soon working as an office assistant.

My job instantly sparked in me a passion for health care. When…… [read more]

Drugs and Human Health Term Paper

… Pharmacy

Patients in life or death situations often can not swallow and also drugs given intravenously often act more rapidly, and some drugs are or can be destroyed by gastric acids.

Nitroglycerin tablets are given sublingually because the blood under… [read more]

Forbes Magazine Entitled Term Paper

… (Lambert) Still others argue that receiving prescriptions by mail is more cost effective for customers.

Finally, the article explains that Walgreen's and other drug stores have decided to take a firm stand against PBM's and mail order prescriptions. The article asserts that Walgreen's is now "blacklisting customers whose health plans force them to use mail for long-term drugs but steer them to stores for the one-time drugs. That is, it will to accept insurance cards as payments for one-time orders from these patients."(Lambert)

Opposing Views/Opinion

The issue of PBM's and mail order prescription is certain to be an issue for years to some. The drugstores and pharmacies fear that the mail order prescription business will be detrimental to their survival. They seem to believe that PBM's are only on the side of the drug company and that they are lying to consumers. The drugstores believe that mail order prescriptions are not cost effective while the PBM's argue that consumers can save up to 27% if they order their prescriptions through the mail

At the other end of the debate there are consumers who like to order their prescriptions through the mail. Some consumers do this even if it is not mandated by their insurance providers. In many cases consumers just find it more convenient to order prescriptions through the mail. In any case, the PBM's and the drugstores will continue to quarrel over which method is less expensive.

In my own opinion, it seems that Walgreen's should not have the right or ability to blacklist customers because of the decisions that are made by their healthcare providers. In many cases people are in dire need of receiving their medication and may not have time to ride around to different pharmacies just to get a prescription fulfilled. It is apparent to me that all Walgreen's is concerned with is its bottom line and they are willing to sacrifice the health of customers just to prove a point to PBM's. The fact of the matter is that consumers have a right to purchase prescriptions in any way that they see fit. Some people prefer going to a traditional pharmacists, while other prefer for the prescriptions to be brought to their homes. Walgreen's has to be careful not to ignore the needs and desires of consumers in the quest for…… [read more]

Medicine and Culture Payer, Lynn Term Paper

… This observation is extended by Payer to include medical training and the general population within each country. Therefore the book emphasizes the differences, not only between the medical staff, but also between the patients of each country.

Medicine & Culture's primary argument is directed at American doctors and patients, and their general tendency to regard their country's medicine as the most scientifically correct manner in which to diagnose and treat disease. Payer suggests that the American medical profession, and the public, should adopt a wider perspective and consider the way in which their country's medical practices are established and influenced by historical traditions and cultural biases. By devoting a seperate chapter to each of the four central countries, Payer's expands upon her theories and ideas, and examnines specific medical conditions and the manner in which the doctors of each country approach the areas of diagnosis and treatment.

Considering the rapid advances made in recent years, within the field of medicine, it is likely that many of the claims and conclusions made by Payer will now be out of date. However, the central message remains as valid and thought-provoking today as it did back in 1985. It is important for doctors, and patients, to avoid taking a narrow, cultural specific view of disease, diagnosis, and treatment. As everyone's lives become increasingly influenced by globalization and multiculturalism, Payer's message is that the medical profession of each country should continually look beyond the limitations and accepted truths of its own culture, and keep its mind open to the ideas and theories of…… [read more]

Holistic Medicine Term Paper

… While holistic medicine may not be the best solution for everyone, it definitely seems to have its benefits. Holistic doctors aim to treat their patients or clients psychologically, spiritually, emotionally and socially, as well as meet their physical needs. This enables people to be more active in self-healing.


ICPAC. (2003). Interview with a Chiropractic Physician. Indiana Career and Postsecondary Advancement Center. Retrieved on the Internet at http://icpac.indiana.edu/careers/health/chiro.xml.

Charlton, Bruce G. (November, 1993). Holistic medicine or the humane doctor? British Journal of General Practice, pp. 475-477.

Keller, Edmund. (November, 1998). Homeopathic Solutions. Journal of the American Medical Association, pp. 182-189.

Bentley, Charles. (Sept. 2, l998). The Alternative of Holistic Healing. Journal of the American Medical Association, pp. 45-49.

Dworkin, Norine. (November, 1999). The Holistic Medicine Cabinet. The Vegetarian Times.

Gareth, Kathleen. (2002). Healing with Homeopathy. The Standing Post. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.standingpost.com/homeopathy.html://www.standingpost.com/homeopathy.html.

Wolff, Amy. (2001). Holistic Medicine Trends. PetPlace. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.petplace.com.

Aromatherapy: A Complete Guide to the Healing Art, by Kathi Keville and Mindy Green (The Crossing Press, 1995). Explains how to enhance health and well-being with essential oils.

Bach Flower Therapy, by Gotz Blome, M.D. (Healing Arts Press, 1999). Promotes the use of floral essences for treating ailments.

The Consumer's Guide to Homeopathy, Dana Ullman, M.P.H. (Putnam, 1995). Offers well-organized explanations of appropriate remedies for various medical conditions.

The Way of Herbs, by Michael Tierra, LAc., O.M.D. (Pocket Books, 1998). Outlines the therapeutic use of herbs.

Vaidya, Prabha. Gore, Jerry. (2001). Holistic Medicine; Body-Mind-Spirit. Retrieved on the Internet at http://www.yogachicago.com/sep00/holisticmedicine.shtml.

Smith, Robert. "The Magic of Homeopathy" Total Health vol. 15 August 1993 p.10.

Deliman, Tracy. Smolowe, John. (1982). Holostic Medicine: Harmony of Body Mind Spirit. Virginia: Reston Publishing Company.

Ten Most Commonly Asked Questions About Alternative Medicine. http./ / www.healthy.net/library/articles/morton/ten.html1998.

Weston, Walter. (2002). Cancer and Holistic Medicine. Optimal Life Center. Retrieved from the Internet at http://4optimallife.com/index.html.

Holistic Medicine… [read more]

Tylenol to a Friend Admission Essay

… I have worked in summer camps, and volunteered in after school programs. I have volunteered at the YMCA with programs for the elderly and have visited nursing homes. These experiences have not only helped to develop leadership skills within me, but they have shown me the vitality of the human spirit, and have given me the desire to work in a profession that can heal the body.

While none of these activities related directly to pharmacy, I feel that the experience I have gained, paired with the academic programs I have completed, will make me successful in the Pharmacy program, and as a professional pharmacist. I am hard working and have a desire to help people in their time of fear and pain, to ease their fears and help to heal their bodies. These experiences do indeed, I believe, reflect the underlying qualities that are not only desirable in a pharmacy student, but necessary.

I believe that I will be an asset to the program. My qualifications and my desire, coupled with my experience will make me an excellent pharmacist. It is my anticipation that the experience I gain in the program will serve accelerate my goals, and to provide focus and refinement of the skills I already possess. I look forward to being a part of such a respected and highly esteemed group of professionals and I hope that the path to such a goal includes…… [read more]

Business Sustainability Research Paper

… ¶ … Strategic Multilateral Partnerships Help Address the Limitations of Access to Essential Medicines in Emerging Markets?

The Case of Anti-Malarial Drugs in Nigeria.

Business Case Background

The Company Challenge


Business Case Analysis

Wider Sustainability Context

Conceptual framework

Stakeholders… [read more]

Creating Urgency in the Field of Medicine Essay

… ¶ … Chaos, & Complexity

Change, Chaos, and Complexity

One of the most profound changes that I have experienced in my nursing practice is the implementation of remote digitally supported medicine that is commonly referred to as telemedicine. Although the changes that support the eventual universal application of telemedicine have occurred in bits and pieces, so to speak, taken together, these changes have the potential to transform medical practice. Already, there are hospitals equipped to let parents of premature or acutely ill babies observe their infants -- and the care that they receive -from their own homes at all hours of the day and night. This enables the parents and practitioners to engage in close communication about the infant's care and to establish trust to reduce parental anxiety and induce confidence in the provision of care. Telemonitoring also fosters high levels of adherence to medication and health regimens by using mobile phone technology to communicate via text messages. This version of telemedicine ramps up the quality of care that patients living in remote areas can receive, and also reduces the cost of care by reducing the frequency of trips to centralized medical facilities.

Digital mobile devices and the platforms on which they operate have been described as disruptive technology because they disrupted the existing technological systems and practices. In their study of complexity, Snowden and Boone (2007) argue that in a dynamic system, "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and solutions can't be imposed, rather, they arise from the circumstances" (p. 3). This phenomenon, called emergence, is what made it possible for physicians to utilize videotelephony to communicate with parents of premature babies while providing care in the newborn intensive care units (NICU). As a leader in nursing, I believe it is crucial to remember this point made by Snowden and Boone (2007): "…best practice is, by definition, past practice…since hindsight no longer leads t foresight after a shift in context, a corresponding change in management style may be called for." (p.4). In complex contexts, best…… [read more]

Drug Business Case Study

… Health Care

The pharmaceutical industry is defined as "all enterprises that were involved in the invention of drugs, the production of the active substances in drugs, the formulation of drugs and the promotion of them to the public, as well… [read more]

Treatment Plan for Cardiomyopathy-Congestive Heart Failure Patient Case Study

… Education Plan as Part of Treatment

The heart failure screening plan has shown to be effective in teaching evidence-based treatment and adequate intervention and patient education to practitioners (Packard et al., 2010). It increases practitioner knowledge and confidence in administering therapy management to CHF patients. Its guidelines have demonstrated successes in administering and managing medication and patient education. These guidelines enable hospitalized CHF patients to understand indications, dosages, effects of drugs, and recognize common side effects. They also help patients understand the importance of taking medications regularly and as prescribed. New guidelines were created in 2009 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association. These new guidelines are adjusted to individual patient conditions, with emphasis on the six aspects of care, diet, discharge medication and adherence, persistence and dose filtration, follow-ups, daily weight monitoring, and measure to take when symptoms get worse (Packard et al.).

Teaching Plan

In the case of Mr. P, this teaching plan consists of the 6 aspects of diet, discharge medications and adherence to them, activity balanced with rest, regular follow-ups, daily weight monitoring and actions to take if symptoms worsen. The multidisciplinary team to handle his case should include a counselor or psychologist and a social worker. The counselor or psychologist shall manage the resistance and negative attitude of the patient and his wife towards Mr. P.'s condition. And the social worker will assist in locating foundations and other non-government organizations providing financial medical assistance to ailing senior citizens.


Jaarsma, T. (2005). Interpersonal team approach to patients with heart failure. Vol. 91 #

6, Heart: BMJ Group, Inc. Retrieved on July 13, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1768956

MedicineNet (2014). Definition of congestive heart failure. MedTerms. Retrieved on July

17, 2014 from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6972

NHLBI (2014). Congestive heart failure. National Institute of Health. Retrieved on July

17, 2014 from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6972

Packard, K.A. (2010). Teaching heart failure treatment guidelines and assuring heart therapy. Vol. 74 # 6, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education: American

Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Retrieved on July 13, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2933012

X-Plain Patient Education (2013). Congestive heart failure. The Patient Education

Institute, Inc. Retrieved on July 13, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/congestiveheartfailure/ct129106.pdf… [read more]

Poly-Pharmacy Low Income Elderly and Social Theories Essay

… However, there needs to be a specific and laser focus on the poor as they are more likely than most to forgo medications or other treatments because they perceive that they have no other options. However, through proper medical care and the use of government programs and best practices, that is absolutely not the case.


The social safety net in the United States will be tested more and more as the next two or three decades roll on. With the solvency issues that Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid are all having, there needs to be a focus on getting the assistance to where it needs to be and to avoid sending it to where it is not needed. Best practices should always be employed to prevent unneeded or unnecessary care. Even when care is clearly needed, it should be done in an efficient and caring way that attends to the needs of the patient and the streamlining of care at the same time. Part and parcel of using evidence-based care is to use social theories, both nursing and non-nursing, to keep the process and the results as proper and efficacious as possible. Doing otherwise is a disservice to the patient and the system.


Allen, K.R., Hazelett, S.E., Jarjoura, D., Wright, K., Fosnight, S.M., Kropp, D.J., & ...

Pfister, E.W. (2011). The after-discharge care management of low income frail elderly (AD-LIFE) randomized trial: Theoretical framework and study

Design. Population Health Management, 14(3), 137-142.


Eckstein, D., Eckstein, D., & Mullener, B. (2010). Seven psychological considerations in working with elderly adults. Journal of Education & Sociology,

(4), 4-15.

Hearn, S., Saulnier, G., Strayer, J., Glenham, M., Koopman, R., & Marcia, J. (2012).

Between integrity and despair: Toward construct validation of Erikson's Eighth

Stage. Journal of Adult Development, 19(1), 1-20. doi:10.1007/s10804-011-


Sergi, G., De Rui, M., Sarti, S., & Manzato, E. (2011). Poly-pharmacy in the elderly: Can

comprehensive geriatric assessment reduce inappropriate medication

Use?. Drugs & Aging, 28(7), 509-518. doi:10.2165/11592010-

Vieira, L. (2013). The elderly and the family caregiver: Home care in the light of Imogene…… [read more]

Status of the Nation's Drug Supplies Term Paper

… The PDMA was passed in response to growing concerns over counterfeit pharmaceuticals in the United States. In this regard, Conlan advises that, "To a large degree, [the PDMA] was spurred by the discovery of two million birth control pills meant… [read more]

Docs Drugs "Doctors Often Accept Essay

… Docs Drugs

"Doctors often accept gifts from drug companies," (Chren, Landefeld & Murray, 1989). Sometimes, this issue is framed as an ethical problem. Doctors who accept money are believed to be unethical. However, the solution to the problem depends on the ethical framework being used. There is no clear reason why there is an ethical problem in this case. Doctors are highly trained professionals who are entrusted with the most intimate details of our lives. Therefore, it is unethical to assume that doctors are doing something wrong when they accept gifts from pharmaceutical companies. Doctors would not know about drugs if the pharmaceutical companies did not market the drugs they manufacture, or rebrand the drugs that are already made to be used in new ways. Therefore, the best way to tackle the ethical problems of the doctor-drug company relationship is to foster that relationship as being one of caring and compassion. The best ethical approach to take in addressing this situation is utilitarianism and libertarianism. According to the Institute for Humane Studies (2013), a libertarian is someone who believes that "people should be permitted to run their own lives as they wish." From this point-of-view, it is ethical to allow both doctors and drug companies to practice as they wish. Patients have a full responsibility to be educated about their personal health, and cannot place the burden of ethical responsibility on other people like doctors. Doctors do what they wish because they are trained professionals, which is why the government allows the pharmaceutical companies to market to them. If there was a problem with this relationship that was seriously harming people, then the government would be forced to intervene. The utilitarian maxim is doing that which causes the greatest good to the greatest number of people. Marketing pharmaceuticals to doctors could save lives, by introducing doctors to medications and interventions that might be used on patients. It is ethical to promote the doctor-pharmaceutical relationship and unethical to impede that relationship.…… [read more]

Translating Evidence Into Practice Research Paper

… Nursing Research

PICO Question -- Are Guided Imagery techniques effective in the management of pain?

The objective of this research study was to investigate the effects guided imagery sessions have on the management of pain. Nursing theory is both carative and pushing towards increased advocacy for the patient. Guided imagery is controversial, but the idea of using this as a relaxation technique within a nursing environment is quite common. Nurses, however, are beginning to use GI to assist in pain management, to promote relaxation, to accelerate wound healing, and to diminish depression.

Pain is quite individualized. Some people can tolerate extreme pain, for others, slight pain is agonizing. This is particularly frustrating in the post-surgical wards in which patients have a rather large continuum of procedures and resultant pain. Nursing research continues to look for non-invasive ways to improve or even augment pain management techniques, particularly if they can be put into place and require no pharmaceutical support (Bresler, 2010).

The challenge when working with GI as part of a pain or anxiety control program is the lack of available controls. When one gives a certain medication, there is a dosage amount and a way to determine cause and effect. With GI, the client brings different past knowledge and emotions to the situation, which it is difficult to determine a specific therapeutic approach that can be quantified. Within the articles surveyed, most of the research found that GI did have a positive therapeutic approach to most situations involving stress, pain, and/or anxiety. In many ways, this makes a great deal of sense from a basic psychological model. When one is anxious, in pain, nervous, or feeling lonely or out of sorts, relaxation connects them back to the world, in particular if someone is expressing empathy for them.

Literature Review Summary -- Guided imagery is simply self-visualization and control of thoughts for a specific time. Research shows that patients not only receive systematic relief from pain using GI techniques, they actually receive physiologic healing. Incorporating these techniques, typically that involve sending the client home with a guided imagery tape or utilizing such tapes in post-surgical wards, are far less expensive and dangerous than pharmaceutical solutions (Bresler). Pain may be debilitating or irritating, chronic or occasional. The use of GI, though, may help in all types of situations; from discomfort from a mild headache to the intense pain of cancer, and everything in between. These techniques work well with patients of all ages -- even the elderly report an increase in quality of life and well-being (Ferrell, B., et al., 1994). Further, the technique can easily be adapted to children even as young as five. Using breathing exercises and GI techniques, children had a significantly lower amount of days with pain and less missed activities (Weydert, J., et al., 2006)

Using GI techniques at home 1-2 times per day for weeks shows a marked improvement in the ability to relax, manage pain, and perceive ways to work through the pain. Further, patients… [read more]

Transcultural Nursing Essay

… CAM Therapy:

According to the findings of the National Health Interview Survey in 2007, many Americans i.e. 38% of adults tend to use Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in their efforts to be healthy and promote their well-being ("What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine?" 2012). One of the major types of complementary and alternative medicine is natural products that incorporate the use of various herbal medicines or botanicals, minerals, vitamins, and other natural items. While this CAM therapy also includes probiotics, most of the natural products are sold over the counter as dietary supplements. Probiotics are live microorganisms or bacteria that are akin to microbes usually found in the human digestive tract that have beneficial impacts. The origin of this CAM therapy can be traced back to the first attempts by people to use botanical medicines to enhance the human condition. In 1991, during the prehistoric ice man, one of the personal effects found in the Italian Alps was medicinal herbs.

While the use of natural products has become very popular in America, patients considering using this CAM therapy should discuss the decision with their nurse of physician and seek for information regarding the therapy. This is an important step because the therapy may interfere with standard treatment or be detrimental when incorporated with traditional medicine. However, the use of natural products in treatment of health issues is usually surrounded with concerns regarding the safety and effectiveness of the practices. Therefore, the nursing implications for patient assessment for this CAM therapy involve addressing the myths and concerns associated with the effectiveness and safety of natural products. Health care providers should include the issue of natural products as part of patient assessment because many patients use the therapy without informing their physicians or nurses. Such discussions would help to ensure a personalized effective and secure integrative health care plan.

Religious/Spiritual Organization:

Religion or spirituality is a major concept that has significant impacts on the physical and mental health of…… [read more]

H1N1 Executive Summary and Issue Statement Tennessee Term Paper

… H1N1 Executive Summary and Issue Statement

Tennessee had multiple reported cases within less than one month of the virus reaching the United States. In order to mitigate the spread of the disease, Tennessee formed a network of politicians and experts to coordinate and advise all sectors of the state and ensure timely organization and distribution of medicines and vaccines. In order for the panel's goals to be met, the state had to usurp much of the power that was given to local governments and in doing so ensure united policies and strategies to stop the spread of the virus. While Tennessee's overall results far exceeded the national results in both vaccine distribution and disease prevention, there are still many measures that must be improved before the next outbreak. A successful response to future influenza outbreaks requires increased devolution of power to states, localities, and businesses.

During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, there were six actors selected to aid in mitigating the spread of the disease: the state of Tennessee, the World Health Organization, the United States Federal Government, local health departments, non-government organizations including private businesses, and organizations in charge of at-risk populations. These organizations came together and formed two successful strategies that mitigated the outbreak in Tennessee: the for-profit drug distribution program and the preparedness coordination with the Tennessee Hospital Association. Additionally, the state's response revealed the dangers of depending upon foreign nations for vaccine purchases. Once this issue was overcome and vaccines were made available, the state had already prepared the proper lines of communication and distribution allowing higher vaccine rates than the rest of the country.

Issue Statement

Taskforce Purpose and Charge

When the 2009 H1N1 outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization, the state of Tennessee formed a taskforce to combat and prepare for the oncoming spread of the virus. The Governor's Taskforce on Disaster Preparedness for Pandemics was tasked with thinking ahead to the next event and making recommendations to the Governor on how to prepare for and manage the next pandemic threat to the great state of Tennessee.

The first goal appointed to the taskforce was to work with other members for the Public Affairs community. This goal was accomplished through clear and detailed public speeches where questions were answered freely and information was readily given. At the start…… [read more]

Flooding Lessons Learned Essay

… Flooding Lessons Learned

One of the more serious natural disasters that affected the United States in recent years was that of Hurricane Katrina, a 2005 disaster that had over a $100 billion effect on the U.S. Economy, interruption of the Gulf oil supply, ruin of exports and forestry, thousands unemployed or displaced, and a huge impact on tourism in the Gulf States (Reidy, 2005, Cooper, 2007). Katrina was a call to action for the system of crisis management, whether public or private, and changed the approach to natural disasters; hopefully allowing for firm and structured plans and a robust communication and cooperation paradigm.

Emergency Prescription Assistance Program

EPAP is designed to assist individuals in Federal -- identified disaster areas who are in need of prescription medication. Pharmacies are part of society's infrastructure in public health and healthcare, and after a disaster, many are closed, destroyed, or unavailable. In addition, the distribution system to delivery drugs to individuals is usually compromised. As part of the Robert T. / Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, EPAP activities provide essential assistance to support state, regional, and local jurisdictions in getting both Durable Medical Equipment and at least a 30-day supply of medication to treat an acute condition or to replace maintenance programs that were affected by disaster (Emergency Prescription, 2012).

Benefits -- the benefits to the program are many. The program will allow life-saving drugs to be delivered even if local hospitals and pharmacies are shut down, as well as delivering new medications or equipment for those severely affected by the disaster. The program is set up so that there is no cost to individuals for this service, and the service will network into other pharmacies in other areas (for those evacuated) so that they, too, can continue with their needed medications.

Barrier to Effectiveness- as of October, 2012, no Presidential Emergency Declaration or Major Disaster Declaration has been issued and EPAP remains inactive (Emergency). Therefore, the barrier to effectiveness is approval for funding and ensuring that the infrastructure will support the program.

State Social Media Sites

Forty million people use social media on a…… [read more]

Pharmacist.In This Case, Case Study

… ¶ … pharmacist."In this case, the pharmacist is faced with a moral and ethical dilemma of informing one Mr. Ramirez's (a congestive heart failure patient) doctor, the risks that he might be exposing himself to by his tendency/trend of increasing… [read more]

Alternative and Complementary Healing Practices Research Paper

… Alternative and Complementary Healing Practices

Many people around the world are spending huge amounts of money on alternative and complementary medicine treatment options every year. The reason for this is that these alternative treatment options do provide quick recovery options for patients, and they help to manage their conditions with ease. In order to understand why alternative medicine works, it is first important to define alternative medicine.

Ramsey et al. (2012)

define alternative medicine as the practices outside the conventional medicine practices which are used to treat or manage the symptoms of the patients. They include practices such as diet, changes in lifestyle, nutrition, herbal remedies, mind-body control and other biological treatments such as bio-field therapies and bio-electromagnetic-based therapies. They have been shown to be effective for the treatment of various diseases such as flu and various forms of cancer.

Reasons for use of alternative medicine

Many patients feel more comfortable with alternative medicine than conventional medicine for various reasons. The first, and probably the most important reason is that people are more comfortable with the natural compounds used in these alternative treatment methods than the man-made ones. These man-made compounds have been found to have among other negatives, side-effects and adverse reactions.

A survey that was conducted by the CDC (National Center for Health Statistics) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine found that 54.9% of the respondents used various forms of complementary and alternative medicine to treat their conditions. The patients first went to see a doctor to get confirmation of their diagnosis, but in terms of treatment, they prefer to use alternative and complementary medicine. The respondents stated they feel that alternative and complementary methods are safer than conventional methods. Some reported that they feel alternative and complementary methods are much safer. This is as a result of most of these practices being there for thousands of years, longer than the presence of conventional medicine. One particular respondent stated that the use acupuncture has never been reported to kill or maim a person, and that is why they prefer these alternative methods. When asked about why they felt they first need to see a doctor, the patients stated that they do not believe that either conventional or alternative treatment is superior to the other. They just feel that conventional medicine gives a more accurate diagnosis while alternative medicine serves to treat and manage these symptoms better Barnes, Powell-Griner, McFann, & Nahin, 2004()

Alternative methods and complementary medicine are preferred because some people may have had a bad experience with conventional methods. People take personal experiences seriously, and why they do have a bad experience with a particular thing, they tend to shy away from it. For example, one patient who was surveyed said that when they were pregnant, the patient had a constant feeling of nausea that just would not go away. The patient had tried various conventional medicine methods, but one day decided to try acupuncture. When pressure was applied to the patient's wrists,… [read more]

Aspirin Usage in Patients Research Paper

… Aspirin Usage in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Aspirin Usage in Patients

Should aspirin be used in primary prevention of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with Type 2 diabetes?

Should aspirin be used in primary prevention of cardiovascular mortality… [read more]

Drug Monograph Essay

… Drug Monograph


Drug Monograph: Vancomycin

Drug Name -- Vancocin (brand), Vancomycin HCL -- oral (generic)

This is a time-dependent bactericidal antibiotic, which inhibits cell wall synthesis (Levinson, 2009).


VA Class - AM900

CAS Number 1404-93-9

Therapeutic Category -- a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic


Vancomycin is not too well-absorbed from the GI tract after oral administration (Levinson 2009). When given parenterally, it penetrates the bile, pleural, pericardial, synovial and ascitic fluids. It is excreted unchanged by glomerular filtration (Levison).

When taken orally, Vancomycin is not absorbed in the intestines so that it can stop the growth of a severe intestinal condition known as Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (Medicine Net, 2012). When vancomycin is given by mouth, it is not absorbed by the body but remains in the intestines. This is to allow it to stop the growth of the Clostridium difficile bacteria. Vancomycin is intended as treatment only for bacterial infections of the intestines. It is not effective for other bacterial infections or infections caused by viruses. Its overuse can decrease its effectiveness (Medicine Net).


Vancomycin is intended for the treatment of serious or severe bacterial infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (PDR, 2012, Drug.com, 2012). It is indicated for use by patients who are allergic to penicillin and cannot or fail to respond to other drugs. It is for infections caused by Vancomycin-susceptible organisms resistant to other anti-microbials. It is indicated as initial therapy when methicillin-resistant staphylococci infection is suspected. It is also effective in the treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis. It has been successfully used in combination with either rifampin or an aminoglycoside or both for early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis, caused by S. epidermidis or diphtheroid. Its parenteral form may be administered orally in treating antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis caused by C. difficile and for staphylococcal enterocolitis (PDR, Drug.com).

Vancomycin is the drug of choice against serious infection and endocarditis caused by Methicillin-resistant S. aureaus, Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, B-Hemolytic streptococci, Corynebacterium group JK, Viridans streptococci and enterococci (Levinson, 2009). It has been used as an alternative drug for pneumococcal meningitis caused by strains with reduced penicillin sensitivity. But its erratic penetration into the CSF and reported clinical failures make it not advisable for use alone to treat pneumococcal meningitis.


For Adults

The usual is 500 mg by IV every 6 hours or 1 g by IV every 12 hours (PDR, 2012). It should be administered no more than at 10 mg per minute or at least 60 minutes, whichever is longer. For those with renal impairment, the initial dose is not less than 15 mg per kg. The daily dosage is about 15 times the GFR in ML per minute. For elderly patients, the dose should be reduced. The initial dose for anephric patients is 15 mg/kg then 1.9 mg/kg/24 hours. The dose for those with marked renal impairment is 250-1,000 mg once every several days and for those with anuria, 1,000 mg every 7-10 days. For PO administration, divided doses… [read more]

Grant Proposal on Outcomes Grant Proposal

… Yet, it must also be made clear that Fibrinolytic therapy is a good alternative in situations where PCI is not rapid and/or even effectively available in the acute setting. The work proposed in this grant request will first review existing scholarly medical research associated with the outcomes of exclusive fibrinolytic therapy vs. primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), looking specifically at timely vs. later administration of PCI in STEMI.

The work will then move on to look at historical outcomes data regarding patient intervention of exclusive fibrinolytic therapy vs. primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patient cases at a major cardiac center and then comparatively at a rural hospital dealing with STEMI on a regular basis. The work will attempt to review the outcomes of fibrinolytic therapy vs. primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in situations where the door-to-balloon window is more likely to be bridged beyond the 90 minute window.

The work will look at cases of STEMI that have occurred within the last 3 years to judge outcomes of these two therapies in cases where they are used independently of one another during acute STEMI presentation, i.e. within the first 4 hours of acute intervention. The analysis will then calculate variances in outcomes over the year following the acute STEMI event looking for repeat occurrences of acute cardiac and/or thrombolytic events.


This work will serve as a basis for a greater understanding of outcomes associated with the training, availability and acute application of PCI in STEMI and look at fibrinolytic therapy as a viable treatment response to STEMI in cases where PCI is not available or administered in a timely manner. Even most small and rural hospitals have at least some availability for trainin in acute cardiac crisis, associated with the use of PCI but it is not clear that its application has been adopted as the only and best treatment for STEMI and other acute cardiac events. This work will look at the varied outcomes and also the tendency of less sophisticated treatment sites to use fibrinolytic therapy as a viable alternative with positive outcomes sand at the very least as a stabilizing treatment associated with identified need to transfer STEMI patients to more specialized facilities often over significant distances in time and miles.

Rural hospitals with limited response alternatives often must seek the least invasive and least damaging treatment options for patients who present with conditions they are poorly equipped to deal with. In the case of STEMI this is sometimes assumed to lead to less than favorable outcomes, yet the research needs to be much more thorough and ongoing to determine if these less invasive and less specialized responses allow for outcomes that give the patient time to reach more advanced care. Best practices for alternative responses are to STEMI need to be well established, especially in places where PCI is not an alternative for rapid response treatment, regardless of the desire to provide the best possible and most advanced emergency treatment at all times.

Resources… [read more]

Macpherson, Thorpe, and Thomas ) Article Review

… This type of research concerning acupuncture's effectiveness could be designed around a depiction of the treatment that transcends just the process of needling and incorporates the associated diagnostic, treatment, and the therapeutic relationship components that are specific to acupuncture as… [read more]

Clinical Decision Making Process Essay

… " (Mangoni and Jackson, 2004) The elderly patient experiences changes in their stomach and primarily in regards to changes involving "the secretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, which are decreased under basal conditions." (Mangoni and Jackson, 2004) The liver is also affected by aging in regards to a "progressive reduction in liver volume and liver blood flow." (Mangoni and Jackson, 2004) Finally, there are body composition changes that are significant in the elderly in that there is reported to be a "progressive reduction in total body water and lean body mass, resulting in a relative increase in body fat." (Mangoni and Jackson, 2004)

IV. Pharmacodynamics and Pharmokinetics of Common Medications

Pharmacodynamics refers to what medication does when administered and pharmokinetics refers to what the body does with the medication. In the elderly, impact of the advances of aging results in the body's functions becoming impaired in the regulatory processes providing "functional integration between cells and organs." (Mangoni and Jackson, 2004) The result is a "failure to maintain homeostasis under conditions of physiological stress." (Mangoni and Jackson, 2004) This reduction in homeostatic ability is reported to negatively impact various regulatory systems in the elderly individual's body resulting in significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Included in pharmokinetic changes is a reduction in "renal and hepatic clearance and an increase in volume of distribution of lipid soluble drugs" and the prolonging of elimination half-life. (Mangoni and Jackson, 2004) Pharmacodynamic changes are reported to be such that "involve altered sensitivity to several classes of drugs such as anticoagulants, cardiovascular and psychotropic drugs. " (Mangoni and Jackson, 2004)

Summary and Conclusion

The nurse plays a significant role in the administration of medication to the elderly and therefore must be aware of the legal and ethical issues related to medication administration to those who are advancing in age. As well the nurse must necessarily be aware of the changes that the body of the elderly person is undergoing in order to safety administer medicine to this specific patient group.


Harris, H. (2012) The Nurse's Role in Geriatric Medication Safety. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/about_6544279_nurse_s-role-geriatric-medication-safety.html

Hauswirth, K (2012) Administration of Medication. Healthline. Retrieved from: http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/administration-of-medication

Mangoni, AA and Jackson, SHD (2004) Age-Related Changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: basic principles and practical applications. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 2004 January…… [read more]

Drugs and Medicine Term Paper

… Chemistry is doing more than simply turning liquids different colors in vials. In fact, one of the most cutting edge areas of modern chemistry is drug innovation. Chemists within drug pharmacology are discovering drugs that do everything from reducing inflammation of human tissue to targeting specific cancer cells without harming the rest of the body. Discoveries are being made that extend life, regrow cells, and kill some of the world's most deadly diseases. All of this is done through the innovation of chemistry.

The body's functions and reactions are all based upon chemicals. Chemicals are sent through and received by the various cells in the body. When a desired health outcome is needed, it is up to modern chemists to isolate the body's chemicals and find a way to prevent those chemicals from reaching their receptors. Some drugs do this through bonding with the chemicals, while others actually target and destroy the DNA of harmful cells, and still other drugs simply mimic other hormones to create an artificially communicated image within the body. Through forming various chemical bonds and deriving structures from nature, modern chemists are on the forefront of uncovering cures for nearly everything that ales modern man.

Introduction: Medicinal drugs are among the forefront of modern medicine and both help and hurt mankind in many ways. At the leading role in this industry are biochemists, whose specialty is to find and explain new reactions within the human body to chemicals. There are many different drugs on the market today and each does something very different to help the human body function better. However, all drugs also have side effects on the human body. In fact, one of the primary jobs of chemists in the drug industry is to discover all of the possible side effects and weight those side effects against the benefits. The most commonly used drugs can be divided into 5 categories: analgesic, antibiotics, hormones, steroids, and anticancer.

Content: The first group of drugs are known as analgesic. Analgesic drugs, or pain relievers, use chemical reactions to prevent certain neurotransmitters from being received within the body. Acetaminophen, commercially known as Tylenol, is a large organic molecule that when dissolved into the bloodstream acts as an analgesic and an antipyretic. Acetaminophen is available over the counter in oral doses of 325 mg to 650 mg. Acetaminophen is an organic molecule with a very large structure compared to most organic molecules. It is comprised of eight carbon atoms, nine hydrogen atoms, a nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms (CRC Handbook). The actual chemical weight, according to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is 151.17 g/mol. Acetaminophen is crystalline in nature and nearly impossible to vaporize. At room temperature it takes on a white, powdery form and does not melt until it reaches 338 degrees (Material Safety). Acetaminophen is denser than water with a gravity of 1.293 and dissolves at a rate of 14mg per milliliter of water. In a healthy adult, Acetaminophen reacts very interestingly to effectively… [read more]

Medication Administration Tech Policy Research Paper

… The system could also go farther if the institution decided to implement a patient bracelet system such as are found in nearly all hospitals and many other medical institutions in the U.S. This type of barcode system, referred to as a point of care system works basically like this:

The basic concept for a bar code point-of-care test is that information is encoded in bar codes, allowing for the comparison of the medication being administered with what was ordered for the individual patient (Sakowski et al.,2005). After a medication order is written (electronically or manually), a pharmacist enters, verifies, and profiles the order. Prior to administration of the first dose, the nurse confirms a match between the written and electronically profiled order. When the nurse is ready to administer a medication to a patient, he or she uses a handheld bar-code reader to scan the patient's special wristband and medication, at which time the software verifies it is the correct medication and dose as well as the correct time and patient. (Fowler, Sohler & Zarillo, 2009, p. 106)

This system would then allow the nursing staff to be assured that traditional medication errors error are rarely made, especially at the point of delivery and with the integrated inventory and manufacturer bar code system in place and accuracy of pharmacist fill and physician orders many fewer errors are made from order to delivery (Fowler, Sohler & Zarillo, 2009).

Research on bar code reading systems in both the pharmacy and at point of care is relatively new, but is very promising in its results of long-term reduction in medication errors (Fowler, Sohler & Zarillo, 2009). More research clearly needs to be done as more and more of such systems are implemented. This research is integral to a greater understanding of how the systems need to be altered to best meet the goal of excellent patient safety with regard to medication errors as well as ease of use and practicality for staff. The most important research should be focused on how to best develop and tweak bar code systems so they are both most effective in reducing medication errors and highly usable and functional for staff (Wild, Szczepura & Nelson, 2011).

There is a clear sense of the changing times associated with medical care technology and ultimately such technology has patients' safety as a priority. With a new Bar code point of delivery system the challenges of medication administration will decrease over time and allow integrated systems to create higher delivery value and more efficient operations (Fowler, Sohler & Zarillo, 2009). Though all change takes time to be integrated and accepted many changes are patient centered and therefore seek a higher quality of care. Therefore it is recommended that the Utah State Hospital adopt such technologies and integrate them to develop more timely care and safer delivery of medication to patients.


"ASHP statement on bar-code verification during inventory, preparation, and dispensing of medications: developed through the ASHP Section of Pharmacy Informatics and… [read more]

Joint 7-Year Program Provides a Unique Opportunity Application Essay

… ¶ … joint 7-year program provides a unique opportunity for the right student: a student that maintains high academic standards and is dedicated to the medical profession. For the right motivated individual, this program gives them an accelerated route to… [read more]

Robert Courtney Case Term Paper

… Robert Courtney Case

Robert Courtney was a successful pharmacist in Kansas City, MO, who got greedy and decided he would water down cancer-related drugs in order to pocket money for himself. He did not get away with his ill-gotten gains, and in fact he has admitted his guilt and has been sentenced to up to thirty years for his crimes. This paper delves into the life and crimes of Courtney, who was a minister's son and was active in the Northland Cathedral Pentecostal Church, giving large amounts of money to the church building fund, and singing in the choir.

What did Courtney do to land in federal prison? CBS News reports that Courtney admitted to watering down the drugs of thirty-four cancer victims; but authorities familiar with the Courtney case say he may have "diluted 98,000 prescriptions" that were issued through "about 400 doctors" possibly having a negative affect on up to 4,200 patients" (Freed, 2009, p. 2).

The drugs that Courtney admitted diluting were Taxol and Gemzar (drugs used for chemotherapy patients) and cancer-fighting drugs, Platinol and Paraplatin, according to Freed's account in the CBS News story. The New York Times reports that prior to Courtney's arrest in 2001, he had "amassed $18.7 million in total assets" albeit he was reporting to the IRS that he earned far less than that (Draper, 2003). The Times' article went into great depths in its investigation, pointing to Courtney's lavish lifestyle, his crude treatment of his second wife (he wanted her to be "…like a doll on a shelf"), and his habit of "fending off inquiries from pharmaceutical reps in the Kansas City region about how much of which drugs he was selling" (Draper, p. 3).

He got caught because "He was sloppy," according to Todd Graves, the U.S. Attorney who served as prosecutor in the litigation against Courtney (Draper, p. 3). The moral code that Courtney operated by "required a rationale," Draper writes. That rationale? "He most likely took comfort in what amounted to his defense in the civil proceedings against him" that regardless of the worthlessness…… [read more]

Effects of Quality Management on Domestic and Global Competition Research Paper

… ¶ … Quality Management on Domestic and Global Competition

Describe OR diagram a process or procedure that is similar between the organizations

The most important process in developing medicines is conducting research and clinical trials. This is mandatory to avoid legal problems and also is the method of ensuring that the derived drug or medicine is effective and without any side effects. The company Pfizer is into R&D for finding new medicines for challenging diseases. The clinical trials of discovered medicines are a process that is very crucial for the medicine to be approved. The regulations are such that there are regulations regarding the clinical trials and rights of the participants. While Pfizer is a research-based company that develops drugs after trial, the Par Pharmaceutical is more of a generic drug company. (Par Pharmaceuticals, 2011)

The difference is that in the case of a generic drug the clinical trials would have already been conducted by the original discovering company. The generic drugs are patent free drug formulas that become so after a lapse of the original patent. Pfizer is also a generic drug manufacturer and both are thus able to give out low cost drugs in the market. Par Pharmaceutical confines itself to the market in the United States and is recently gone global. In the case of Pfizer, it is a multinational drug company. Each company has its own policies and positions regarding the clinical trial. The process in the clinical trial is long and elaborate. (Clinical Trials. Gov, 2007)

The selective use of the medicine discovered of patient volunteers who meet the conditions are of two types-interventional and observational. In the interventional type the volunteers are subject to the treatment and the results and the reactions measured and the result shows the success of the formulation. In the second type that is the observational the volunteers are just observed without the induction of the drug and comparisons created. The protocols for the trial is common for all companies and participants and all such trials in the U.S. come under the purview of the Institutional Review Board -- IRB and thus institutions that conduct or support biomedical research involving people must have the IRB that approves the research. (Clinical Trials. Gov, 2007)

Clinical trials have different phases. In the first the experimental drug or treatment is confined to a very small group and is tested for safety, dosage range, and side effects. On establishing this, the research moves to the second step a larger group of over one hundred people to see its effect in a larger group. In the third phase the number increase to more than three thousand which can effectively provide a conclusion on the trial. In the last phase the drug is perfected and sent for market study. (Clinical Trials. Gov, 2007) This is the process by which pharmacy companies introduce new drugs.…… [read more]

Allocation of Costs Data Analysis Chapter

… Allocation of costs using ABC and Transitional costing accounting

Allocation of Costs at Jumper Hospital Takes a New Approach

As part of the Jumper Hospital Administrative Coordinator, our committee came together last week for our annually meeting for the fiscal year 2010 to determine that even though we understand the history of a traditional cost, and it has always been our way of handling and determining the allocation of costs to our departmental cost approach we are considering a transformation in to the Activity-Based Costing perspective (WiseGeek, 2011). We, The Committee, feel, after looking at the transitional and ABC approach by conducting two simple diagrams that compares the effectiveness of the accounting system we want to offer to you in this obvious and through explanation in these comparisons.

We used three main parts as part of the ABC method and could only put two of them in place within the transitional model with the example of Resources at the top of both which is used to describe as everything inside the organization which is Jumper Hospital as a whole (all the different departments in relation to the maintenance department. While the resources are everything within the organization the different approaches classify what is considered there and in the activity approach, this is the hospital as a whole and routine repairs needed in each department and in the pharmacy, and then we look at what is used in the repairs in maintenance, how it effects consumers, patients, and staff which lead up the resource development that the research box represents. In the other cost accounting, the resources traditionally include considering be considered in reducing cost and increasing overall revenue and if the services provided should be eliminated. The next box we label in the diagram below the resources box is the activity box in the new approach we are considering and the fact there is no activities listed in…… [read more]

Comparison of Spect Lung Scintigraphy and Ctpa for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism Article Review


Pulmonary embolism or PE is the sudden blockage in a lung artery by a blood clot coming from a vein in the leg (NHLBI 2009). PE can permanently damage part of the lung due to lack of… [read more]

Generic Prescription Drug Program as a Pharmaceutical Case Study

… ¶ … Generic Prescription Drug Program

As a pharmaceutical benefit manager, I have a variety of pricing strategies at my disposal, to determine the amount charged to employers for prescription drugs. This paper will briefly assess each of these strategies. Despite these tools, as Jones (2003) notes,

The primary goal of any pharmacy benefit plan-including the generic drug program should not be simply to lower the cost of prescription drugs. Placing too much emphasis on controlling costs alone will likely lead to higher medical costs, poor patient outcomes and a pharmacy benefit that provides little true value. Only by focusing on the complete array of components that comprise an effective generic drug program can employers and plan sponsors ensure that they secure both the affordable cost and quality programs that both they and their employees need and deserve (p. 18).

As such, a combination of these strategies is recommended to provide the most value to the employer, the patient, the pharmacy, and the pharmaceutical industry.

Pricing Strategies:

Pharmaceutical benefit managers utilize several strategies to determine the price that an employer is charged for prescription drugs. These pricing strategies fall into six primary categories: wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), maximum allowable cost (MAC), average wholesale price (AWP), administrative fees, dispensing fees, and rebates. Each of these categories affects the employer's cost in a different way and can vary greatly.

The WAC strategy is calculated by a national data company, according to Jones (2003). This company averages several wholesaler purchase prices to determine the WAC for each prescription drug. Similarly, the AWP is determined using wholesaler figures, this time the average price that is being charged for a drug. The AWP price can change weekly or daily and is dependent on a variety of factors, including: the exclusivity of the drug, costs for research and development, competitive climate, market demand, and the manufacturer's desire to capture market share (McClurg, 2009). These two pricing strategies are in contrast to MAC pricing which is set by the prescription benefits manager and can be used to hide costs to the employer. MAC pricing is not necessarily based on wholesaler costs or pricing. In addition to this pricing structure, additional fees may also be charged that affects the pricing of prescription benefit plans.

Administrative fees are often charged on a per claim basis, as a means of recapturing costs associated with basic reporting, utilization reviews and account management. According to Jones (2003), this fee can be as much as $0.70 per claim. A dispensing fee may also be charged and paid to the pharmacy filling the prescription. Rebates often too can be figured into a pricing structure. if, as a pharmaceutical benefit manager I have acquired a significant rebate for a particular drug that will be used frequently with a new employer, then it may be advantageous to pass this along as a savings to secure the benefit plan. As a pharmaceutical benefit manager, I would recommend using a combination of these pricing strategies to determine what… [read more]

Professional Goal Statement Admission Essay

… Application Goal Statement

Personal/Professional Goals

I am applying for a Masters in Clinical Research Administration because that field will allow me to apply my degree in medicine directly to scientific research. While I hope to start a medical residency in two years, I am not in a rush to do that at the expense of achieving the most well-rounded and comprehensive education and training possible. In the long-term, I would like to preserve as many options as possible for the direction of my future practice. In addition to helping me become the best physician that I can be, I believe that the Masters in Clinical Research Administration will allow me to contribute to human healthcare in a broader capacity than a scientific degree by itself.

Academic Experience

I was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from UTSA in 2000. Thereafter, I interrupted my pursuit of a Masters degree in Biotechnology Research after completing 32 of 36 hours required for that degree because I was accepted to the Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara School of Medicine in my last semester. While I regret having had to make that choice, my academic experience at ____ firmly established in me the interest in clinical research that I hope to explore more fully in connection with administrative responsibilities at

Research Experience

My research experience is limited to three semesters as a research assistant at the UTHSC in San Antonio. In that capacity, I also worked under Dr. M Gdovin in the Biology Department as a teaching assistant at UTSA. I fulfilled a UTSA Neuroscience internship funded by the NIH and another NIH internship in Abuja, Nigeria.

Work / Other Experience

At the Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara School of Medicine, I fulfilled an 8-week clinical rotation in each of the following disciplines: Internal Medicine; Pediatrics; Obstetrics, Labor and Delivery & Gynecology; Trauma and Orthopedics; Elective Rotation in…… [read more]

Medical Safety Poor Essay

… Over the past decade, efforts have been made to define and measure medical related errors. A huge problem has been indentified to the tune of $2 billion dollars a year which represents the cost of preventable medication related errors. Since identifying these serious problems, several valid solutions have been proposed and implemented in many medical establishments. Standardization and use of new technology to improve accuracy have proven to be excellent weapons in the fight against medication related errors.

Standard Protocols and Procedures

Standard protocols and procedures is an effective way to begin to eliminate common mistakes. Standardizing the way in which work is performed and managed within a medical establishment is the low-hanging fruit in the quest to improve medication-related errors. Standardizing protocols, devices and procedures amongst medical facilities across the nation will allow our healthcare provider system to run as a well-oiled machine. Reducing variation in processes, policies, procedures and devices across the board will allow for increased precision and delivery of services without defects. Standardization allows for controllable treatment procedures with predictable and repeatable outcomes.

Technology to Improve Accuracy

Dosing errors can be eliminated through the use of technology. Dosing errors include administration, prescribing and dispensing errors. Prescriptions written in one unit such as micrograms and calculated in another unit (such as milligrams) is a very preventable error. Tools such as the CPOE or Computerized Physician Order-Entry System which allows orders to be written directly into the computer and transcribed to the pharmacy and the Automated Dispensing Cabinets (ADC) which has an automated dispensing system with frequently used medications in patient-care areas have proven to be great in reducing dosing errors. Nearly 60% of hospitals in the United States use the ADC process (Grissinger & Globus, 2004). CPOE has also shown positive results and is responsible decreasing medication errors by 40% in facilities it has been used.

Unfortunately, a recent study suggests no progress in patient safety in the past decade a meager 1.5% of hospitals are utilizing methods and systems that have already shown success. What this means is 98.5% hospitals around the country have the opportunity to save lives, reduce overall costs and provide better care and they are opting out. The study conducted by The New England Journal of Medicine suggests that the rate of adverse affects due to medical errors hasn't budged since the 1999 study. What do we do? Now is the time to hold medical facilities accountable. Patient safety isn't option, it is mandatory and all medical facilities from administration to staff should be committed to the elimination of these errors. Government (both federal and state) should institute a score card which rates hospitals on their implementation and results in the reduction of medical errors. If the only way to get medication safety to be a priority to medical facilities is to force them to comply, then the government should take action. How many more people must die and be harmed unnecessarily? Our future focus should be on instituting mandatory requirements on… [read more]

Efficacy and Safety of Dabigatran Research Paper

… In terms of safety, the results are mixed. For example, increased reports of dyspepsia (Schulman et al., 2009) and major gastrointestinal bleeding (Wallentin et al., 2010) in patients taking 150 mg dabigatran twice daily suggest warfarin might be a better anticoagulant choice for patients with a history of bleeding ulcers and other forms of gastrointestinal distress. Although Ezekowitz et al. (2007) reported increased rates of "gastrointestinal symptoms" in patients receiving dabigatran at 50, 150, and 300 mg dosages, when compared to warfarin, patients taking dabigatran with or without aspirin were grouped together. The overall safety of dabigatran vs. warfarin was established in the large phase III clinical trial (Connolly et al., 2009), but this was called into question by the results of Schulman et al. (2009) and Wallentin et al. (2010) after they analyzed all adverse events or all adverse coronary outcomes, respectively. The results from these comparisons suggest warfarin is safer overall. Wallentin et al. (2010) showed that any safety advantage that dabigatran treatment might provide was erased for many adverse outcomes at centers predicted to provide higher quality of care. This could be an important consideration for clinics with suboptimal resources and funding. Any advantage that dabigatran is predicted to provide because it requires less intensive monitoring seemed to be erased by higher rates of patient non-compliance due to adverse events (Ezekowitz et al., 2007; Schulman et al., 2009), but as the authors mentioned in the phase III clinical trial the major gastrointestinal bleeding and dyspepsia problems associated with dabigatran may have to do with inclusion of tartaric acid in the dabigatran formulation to aid absorption. The general, overall conclusion is that dabigatran is at least as effective as warfarin in protecting patients against stroke and systemic embolism, but the few remaining safety concerns are serious enough to warrant further study.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Public health and aging: Atrial fibrillation as a contributing cause of death and Medicare hospitalization -- United States, 1999." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 52 (2003): 128-131. Web.

Connolly, S.J., Ezekowitz, M.D., Yusuf, S., F.R.C.P.C., D.Phil., Eikelboom, J., Oldgren, J., Parekh, A., Pogue, J., Reilly, P.A., Themeles, E., Varrone, J., Wang, S., Alings, S., Xavier, D., Zhu, J., Diaz, R., Lewis, B.S., Darius, H., Diener, H-C., Joyner, C.D., Wallentin, L., and RE-LY Steering Committee and Investigators. "Dabigatran vs. warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation." New England Journal of Medicine 361 (2009): 1139-1151. Web.

Ezekowitz, Michael D., Reilly, Paul A., Nehmiz, Gerhard, Simmers, Timothy A., Nagarakanti, Rangadham, Parcham-Azad, Kambiz, Pedersen, K. Erik, Lionetti, Dominick A., Stangier, Joachim, and Wallentin, Lars. "Dabigatran with or without concomitant aspirin compared with warfarin alone in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (PETRO Study)." American Journal of Cardiology 100 (2007): 1419-1426. Web.

Lemos, Silva R., Carvalho de Sousa, J., Calisto, C., Nogueira,…… [read more]

Pre-Medications Current Practices Capstone Project

… A further study showed that it is not only medicine that can be used as a pre-treatment, but that music could be used as well. What the study determined was that "relaxing music decreases the level of anxiety in a pre-operative setting to a greater extent than orally administrated midazolam" (Bringman, Giesecke, Thorne, Bringman, 2009, p. 759). Other studies have also determined the effectiveness of pre-medication, and perhaps that is one of the reasons why the practice of administering Benadryl or Tylenol before bone marrow transplants continues to take place. Evidence of the ill effects of such actions make this study one of importance to the BMTU across the United States.


Many of the consults that take place after investigations to a reaction to blood transfusions recommend that the practice of administering the medicines be discontinued because of the effects of doing so. What this study will seek to determine is whether the administration of Benadryl or Tylenol as a pre-medication is more harmful than beneficial in two specific aspects. Those aspects are the masking effects of the pre-medications and the mild reactions that can be produced by the pre-medications. The methodology used to determine the results will be quantitative in nature due to the fact that the study does not concern thoughts or feelings just physical reactions to the action of pre-medicating.

Numerical data will be gathered in an ongoing basis from patients undergoing bone marrow transplants. The data will be analyzed in quantitative manner with two separate groups; a control group receiving pre-medications of Benadryl and Tylenol and a non-control group who do not receive the pre-medications.


The administering of pre-medications in the BMTU may be a practice that can be terminated. It is hoped that the study will show that such a termination would lower or alleviate the incidence(s) of reaction to blood transfusions before BMTU surgeries. A quantitative analysis is proposed to determine whether the termination of pre-medicating is viable.


Bringman, H.; Giesecke, K.; Thorne, A.; Bringman, S.; (2009) Relaxing music as pre-medication before surgery: a randomized controlled trial, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 53, Issue 6, pp. 759 -- 764

Horng, H.C.; Wong, C.S.; Hsiao, K.N.; Huh, B.K.; Kuo, C.P.; Cherng, C.H.; Wu, C.T.; (2007) Pre-medication with intravenous clonidine suppresses fentanyl-induced cough, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 51, Issue 7, pp. 862 -- 865

Kennedy, L.D.; Case, L.D.; Hurd, D.D.; Cruz, J.M.; Pomper, G.J.; (2008) Transfusion: A prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of acetaminophen and diphenhydramine pretransfusion medication vs. placebo for the prevention of transfusion reactions, Tranfusion, Vol.…… [read more]

Cam Regulatory Overview Natural Products: Herbs (Botanicals) Term Paper

… CAM Regulatory Overview

Natural products: Herbs (botanicals)

Herbal supplements are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the same organization that regulates prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Herbs are subject to less stringent regulatory standards. Once it is on the market the FDA can 'pull' a product that has been demonstrated to be unsafe, as in the case of the weight loss herb ephedra. Although supplements are marketed with warning labels that the products are "not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease" it would seem to be in the public's interest to test new products to ensure that they are not actively harmful (Using dietary supplements wisely, 2009, NCCAM).

Mind-body: Acupuncture

Acupuncture is one of the best-regulated forms of CAM in the U.S. "The practitioner must hold a state acknowledged license. Different states have different rules" (Scientific acupuncture, 2011, Official Website). However, doctors and chiropractors do not have to obtain a license or additional training in the practice -- only non-physicians. Acupuncturists consider this unfair; doctors and chiropractors would counter that additional training would be burdensome, limiting the ability of individuals to find treatment. Few objections have been raised to the current system, except for opponents of the practice who dispute its validity.

Manipulative and body based: Spinal manipulation

Spinal manipulation is not a specific, regulated technique; it is "performed by chiropractors and other health care professionals such as physical therapists" (Spinal manipulation, 2011, NIH). Practitioners are policed by different regulatory bodies within their own fields. Use and competency at the spinal manipulation may vary, depending on the individual's training. As the technique is not a specific method, with a clear history…… [read more]

Compendium to Research in Cardiology Annotated Bibliography

… Sample to the study enrolled 134 out-patients from 18 centers who had existing CRT-D systems with software capable of automatically executing LV threshold measurements. Measurements were downloaded into the random access memory (RAM) of the device. Reported outcomes to the study indicate that the algorithm measured the threshold successfully in 96% and 97% of patients after 1 and 3 months respectivel, with augmentation of the data derived from the Holter monitor analysis where a subset of the test subjects revealed accurate performance of the algorithm. The test supports the claim that the new CRT-D improved ability to maintain LV capture without sacrificing device longevity.

Vasamreddy, C et al. (2006). Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 17(2), 134-139. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8167.2006.00359.x.

Objectives to the investigation to "(i) evaluate the feasibility and results of monitoring patients prior to and following catheter ablation of AF with the mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry (MCOT) system and to (ii) correlate symptoms and the presence or absence of atrial fibrillation (AF)" were designed to demonstrate the potential utility of wireless monitoring systems in the follow-up of AF patients. Of a total of 12/19 consecutive patients with (63%) age 60 ( ± 6 years) with highly symptomatic drug refractory AF underwent catheter ablation, each was provided with a MCOT monitor (CardioNet, USA) for a total of 494 days (11,856 hours) of monitoring. Termination of the study concluded at the end of the study with 6/10 patients completing the test. In those subjects (70%) patients were free of symptomatic AF recurrences compared to (50%) asymptomatic AF recurrences. Some identified poor patient compliance with an intensive monitoring protocol as an important limitation.

Chow, E. et al. (2009). Toward an Implantable Wireless Cardiac Monitoring Platform Integrated with an FDA-Approved Cardiovascular Stent. Journal of Interventional Cardiology, 22(5), 479-487. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8183.2009.00483.x.

The researchers investigate the value of a miniaturized stent-based antenna system for use in wireless telemetry and power transfer for the implanted electronics. Reduced to an area of less than 1 mm2, with a thickness under 300 ?m, research studies implantation of a minimally invasive implantation procedure; allowing the delivery of the stent-based implant in nearly any major vessel of the body. Initial prototype with two stents "configured as a single dipole, a 2.4-GHz transmitter microchip and battery [that] validates transcutaneous transmission through ex-vivo and in vivo porcine" is described.

The stent-based antenna can be used in monitoring of blood pressure from a minimally invasive device inserted for tracking the pulmonary artery in diagnostic and early warning system for cardiac health. In cardiac diagnostics, the foremost challenge in using a like device is the wireless transfer of data and power from within the blood vessel to external devices; whilst maintaining unrestricted blood flow through the artery.

Paoletti, R., Suess, T., Lesko, M., Feroli, A., Kennel, J., Mahler, J., et al. (2007). Using bar-code technology and medication observation methodology for safer medication administration. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(5), 536-543. doi:10.2146/ajhp060140.

A three (3) inpatient nursing unit… [read more]

Generic vs. Brand Drugs Thesis

… Generic vs. Name Brand Drugs

Many healthcare consumers are familiar with generic drugs, but some may not realize the intense debate that has taken place in recent years concerning the manner in which generic drug manufacturers are able to provide… [read more]

Personal Statement Essay

… Personal Statement

This is a 'personal statement' by & #8230;.. To explain in detail why I am interested in studying the pharmacy course and why I am passionate about it.

I wish to present my case in four different views. Firstly, it relates to the personal goals I wish to achieve. The second is the personal background that has drawn me to the course, and the passion I have for this work. The third relates to my current qualifications and the last is my experience working with pharmacists which made me understand the profession. These four arguments show as to the reasons why I may be given the opportunity of pursuing the study.

Let me first of all start describing about my ambition of being a pharmacist. My ultimate goal in life is to open my own pharmacy and studying for this course would help me in a great way towards attaining my ambition. Thus this course would be the stepping stone to my career and my life's ambition. The reason for me choosing this particular profession can be traced to my background -- my life in Iraq and my subsequent interest and fascination towards a pharmacist's profession as will be shown in the next paragraph. To fulfill my ambition, as a first step I became a Pharmacy technician. I am aware that the work of the pharmacists is somewhat different from the technician; however there is a common thread that flows with both the work. It is only natural that the opportunity of interaction with the pharmacists enabled me to understand the profession on a deeper level. In helping me further my life goal, I submit that I be considered as a possible candidate, considering my experience and genuine interest.

2. My earlier years and personal experience while I was living in Iraq have to be recounted in detail. I have lived through troubled times in Iraq. Having lived there for twenty five years, I was a witness to the wars, and had opportunities to see the services of the pharmacists and what they could do to alleviate the sufferings of the people. My cousin was a pharmacist and she was helping not only our family but the whole community in that role. It was a role model for me. It instilled in me the desire to help people. I came to the U.S. In 2006. The fact that in the U.S. I chose to become a pharmacy technician - a step to willingly be involved in the process of helping the people with various needs show that I have taken the first possible step in realizing my goal and I was earnest about it. Given the opportunity to pursue…… [read more]

Different Ways of Preventing Medication Errors Term Paper

… ¶ … Preventing Medication Errors

Definition of Mediation Errors (National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention)

Medication Errors by Medical Staff

Right Drug

Right Dose

Right Patient

Right Time

Right Route

Medication Errors Made by the Patient at home

Preventing Medication Errors at the Pharmacy

Strategies for Hospitals to improve patient outcome and decrease medication errors.

The National Coordinating Council for Mediation Error Reporting and Prevention defines a medication error as "Any preventable event that may cause or lead to in appropriate mediation use of patient harm while the medication is under the control of the health care professional, patient, or consumer. Such event may be related to professional practice, health care products, procedures, and systems, including prescribing; order communication, product labeling, packaging and nomenclature; compounding; dispensing; distribution; administration; education monitoring and use."

Medication errors by Nurses

It is the legal responsibility of all nurses to apply the five rights of administering medication. This is known as a standard of care.

1. Right drug

Ways of preventing the wrong drug being administered include:

Verbal orders should always be repeated to the person giving them

Do not use product or dosage abbreviations

Make sure you have the "route" of administration correct

Trailing zeros should never be used (30 is correct, not 30.0)

Never guess at illegible orders

If there is any question ask the doctor or pharmacist

Check the medication label and dosage against the written order three times before giving it

Always know what the drug's intended use for the patient

2. Right Dose

Medication errors are often made due to math errors in calculation. To remedy many of these errors always have a second person verify the calculations and final dosage. Wrong dosages are often ordered if the patient's age, size and vital signs have not been properly assessed. The nurse has a responsibility to assess these prior to giving the medication.

3. Right Time

The nurse can assist in avoiding mediation problems by adhering to the appropriate schedules. Some drugs may interfere with other drugs or there may be a drug-food interaction.

4. Right Route

Medication errors occur frequently due to negligent route administration. This is especially true with IV or injected drugs that could also be taken orally. The nurse must be sure of the route of administration before giving it to the patient. This could be a deadly mistake.

5. Right Patient

Administering medication to the wrong patient happens much too often. It is essential that the patient's ID bracelet be checked; along with having the patient state his/her name. (Kathy Quan)

Medication doses should always be given at the scheduled time unless there are questions or problems to be resolved. Medicines should only be removed from their packaging or labeling immediately prior to giving it. Nurses must document as soon as drug is given.

(Davis NM, Cohen MR)

Medication Errors Made by the Patient

Some patients have a problem swallowing pills and they attempt to crush, break, chew or dissolve the pill in… [read more]

Naturopathy Herbology the Basic Foundation Thesis

… Naturopathy


The basic foundation of Naturopathy is in harmony with nature. It is a holistic medicinal philosophy using natural resources in order to achieve the perfect state of health and fitness. As long as there is an undeniable relation… [read more]

Economics of the Pharmaceutical Industry Thesis

… Economics of the Pharmaceutical Industry

The pharmaceutical industry is highly complex and segmented. The costs for bringing a new product idea to the market are high. It is a long process that is heavily influenced by government regulation, the need… [read more]

Radiologic Technology Thesis

… Radiology Careers

Modern medicine is capable of treating a tremendous range of human disease and injuries, but the usefulness of all medical specialties depends on accurate diagnosis. Virtually every conceivable medical specialty relies on radiological technologies to provide formal diagnoses, making radiology one of the most important of all medical specialties. Radiologists enjoy some of the best working conditions in modern medicine and typically experience very positive employment conditions. Consequently, their services are generally in very high demand, with many starting out with six-figure annual incomes immediately after completion of their professional training.

Within the field of radiology, there are: (1) radiologists who are physicians specializing in interpreting diagnostic images in connection with diagnosing illnesses and injuries and monitoring medical conditions in relation to many other areas of clinical medicine; (2) radiological nurses specialize in providing nursing services exclusively in connection with radiological medicine; (3) radiologist assistants are the first line of support for radiological physicians and perform many of the procedures and tests ordered by radiologists; and (4) radiological technologists operate and maintain some of the sophisticated medical imaging systems and tools and work side-by-side radiologist assistants and radiologists in conducting the diagnostic tests on patients.

Radiology is one of the few so-called "physical-science"-based fields of medicine, making it a challenging and rewarding application of an academic interest in science. It combines advanced knowledge of human physiology with principles of atomic physics and nuclear decay, electricity and magnetism, and both organic and inorganic chemistry. At the same time, radiology is directly responsible for enabling many specific treatments available from modern medicine and allows significant opportunity to work directly with patients in many clinical environments. The field is also varied enough that it provides opportunities to work primarily in a private office setting for those with the same scientific interest in radiology but a preference for working primarily with technological equipments and diagnostic testing results instead of more directly with patients. In the words of my Radiology professor, Warren Hejny, "Radiology can take you anywhere; it can be used as a starting block or stepping stone."

Specialties within Radiology

Because of its tremendously wide applications within modern medicine, radiology offers more than a dozen distinct areas of even greater specialization within the field. Some of those specialty areas involve direct medical intervention, such as in…… [read more]

Pharmaceutical Sexual Enhancements Thesis

… Sexual Enhancement

Viagra, Levitra, And Cialis

The objective of this work is to examine Viagra, Levitra and Cialis and how they work and as well this work will examine erectile dysfunction and the differences, side effects and enhancement of the… [read more]

Can Pharmacogenomics Improve Drugs Safely Research Proposal

… Pharmacogenomics

The Opportunity for Health and Safety Improvement Through Pharmacogenomics

The currently dominant tendency in Western medicine is to appeal to methods of pharmacological treatment to attack ailments, diseases and the symptoms of conditions. The degree to which this strategy… [read more]

Cva Health - Nursing Essay


Health - Nursing

A nursing overview of a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

Pathophysiology: What is occurring in the body when a patient is experiencing a CVA?

A cerebrovascular accident (CVA), more commonly referred to as a stroke, is usually caused by a blockage of blood flow to the patient's brain, and the subsequent sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen. The blockage can be caused by a build up of atherosclerosis plaque or a rupture of an artery running to the brain (Definition, 2009, Medicine net). Two primary kinds of stroke exist: an ischemic stroke that is "caused by a blocked brain artery and the resulting insufficient supply of blood to part of the brain" and a hemorrhagic stroke that is "caused by the rupture of a brain artery and bleeding into or around the brain" (Stroke, 2009, Mayo clinic)

What signs and symptoms would you observe from a patient having a CVA?

The fact that a patient is about to have a stroke is not always immediately obvious to casual or even medically-trained observers. The stroke may appear to occur suddenly, even though the conditions that precipitated the stroke have been building up over time. For example, an artery to the patient's brain can be blocked by a blood clot or as an indirect result of atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. This is called an embolic stroke: a blood clot or a piece of an atherosclerotic plaque detaches itself from the artery wall and travels through the circulatory system, plugging an artery of the brain. A blood clot can also form in a chamber of the heart when the heart beats irregularly. Bleeding in the brain from an aneurysm, a widening and weakening of a blood vessel in the brain, is another common cause of strokes (Definition, 2009, Medicine net).

The symptoms of the onset of the stroke will vary in severity and physical location in the patient's body, depending upon the cause. Some common symptoms that quickly manifest themselves to observers are weakness or paralysis of one side of the patient's body, loss of movement capabilities, and numbness or tingling in a limb or entire side of the body. There can be speech problems and signs of laxity in the facial or muscles. There may be a loss of muscular control, prompting the patient to drool. "A stroke involving the base of the brain can affect balance, vision, swallowing, breathing" and even cause unconsciousness (Definition, 2009, Medicine net).

Tests: What studies are available to confirm the diagnosis of a CVA?

The most common test of a patient suspected of having a CVA is a CT or MRI scan of the brain, particularly if ischemic stroke is suspected (Stroke: Tests and diagnosis, 2009, Mayo Clinic). Such tests can look for bleeding in the brain to determine what areas are affected and to rule out other causes of the patient's symptoms such as a brain tumor. A stroke due to bleeding in the brain is treated… [read more]

Drug Receptor Interaction Essay

… Phenylephrine: An Alpha1 Andrenegic Receptor With Limited Effectiveness

Phenylephrine has come largely to replace pseudoephedrine as the preferred method of treatment for decongestant and other cold related symptoms. Phenylephrine is an Alpha1-adrenegic (a1 andrenegic) receptor that functions as an agonist… [read more]

Preventing Medication Errors Essay

… Preventing Medication Errors:

According to Walter D. Glanze, medication errors in a hospital or clinical setting "continues to be a very serious problem for physicians and patients," especially when one considers that medication errors can lead to prolonged stays in a hospital or even death (2001, 134). In the Brief Report issued by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, "in any given week, four out of five U.S. adults will use prescription medicines" (2006, 1) or take over-the-counter medications, and most of the time, these medications do cause some harm to the person taking them. However, when a physician or a pharmacist makes an error related to prescribing the wrong medication, "adverse drug events (ADE's). . . are inevitable" and the more powerful the medication, the more likely that the patient will experience harmful side effects, possibly even death (2006, 1).

Therefore, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services requested that a study be done to discover how widespread these medication errors are in the U.S. And to set up a national agenda for reducing and/or preventing such errors. Overall, this study revealed that medication errors are quite common and in order to decrease the prevalence of these errors, "this will require changes from doctors, nurses (and) pharmacists in the health care industry," the FDA, other government agencies, health care organizations and of course from patients who must be more vigilant when taking their medication to assure that they are not mixing together medications which may exacerbate their conditions or possibly lead to death ("Preventing Medication Errors," 2006, 1).

Within this report by the Institute of Medicine, there are three specific recommendations which will hopefully lead to a decrease in medication errors on…… [read more]

Chemistry in the News Research Paper

… ¶ … home interiors to driving to manufacturing, the talk of the world is going green. People are encouraged to drive green, live green, and even eat green. Beginning to realize that their actions have a large impact on the earth, people are trying to make every decision in an earth-friendly manner, but according to Science News, chemistry can actually make this transition easier. In fact, the article, "Water Used To Make Complicated Chain Of Chemical Reactions For Plastics And Medicines Much More Environmentally Friendly," details how one chemist might be able to change the face of certain industries known for their pollution. Professor of Chemistry at Tel Aviv University Arkadi Vigalok has discovered that the addition of water to a series of complex chemical reactions used in manufacturing can make those reactions more "green."

Traditionally, solvents, which are environmental pollutants, have been used in order to carboxylic acid, a component necessary for production the plastics industry, the oil industry, and the production of medications. But what Vigalok realized is that water can be mixed with alehydes before the oxidation process occurs. Because water and alehydes do not mix, the alehydes float on the water so that oxidation can take place. According to Vigalok, the new process can be used when producing anywhere from 10 to 20 reactions, reactions that are commonly used in manufacturing. Although scientists have long believed this could be done, according to Science Daily, Vigalok was the first who attempted it, and his contribution is certainly significant in the effort to make manufacturing more "green."

The future of Vigalok's discovery, however, is not strictly limited to a few infamous industries. Instead, Vigalok and a few other scientists have banded together to create a new fiend -- green chemistry. Vigalok states, "The plastics industry, the oil refinery business, every drug we take -- they're all parts of the chemical industry, the biggest industry in the world by far. In making certain steps of the chemical process greener, we may not have an enormous impact on the environment at present, but we certainly challenge chemists to rethink methods used in traditional chemistry" ("Water Used").

Thus, Vigalok certainly sees the long-term impact of his work on both manufacturing and the environment, as well as the study of chemistry

But Vigalok's discovery is actually much more significant than even he realizes. The industries that Vigalok mentions as being directly affected by this discovery -- plastics manufacturing, oil refineries, and medication production -- are among the industries most targeted for environmentally unsound manufacturing processes. If scientific solutions can be found that allow them to continue to manufacture their products without using those damaging processes, implications can be made for other industries. While many in the business sector have seen the struggle as one between environment and economy, Vigalok suggests that this is not necessarily true. In addition, Vigalok's discovery has implications for individuals. First, it suggests the importance of buying products that are manufactured using environmentally sound methods like Vigalok's water… [read more]

Dramatic New Scientific Discoveries Revealing the Healing Research Paper

… Dramatic New Scientific Discoveries Revealing the Healing Powers of Herbs, Vitamins and Other Natural Remedies by Jean Carper

Miracle Cures: Dramatic New Scientific Discoveries Revealing the Healing Powers of Herbs, Vitamins, and Other Natural Remedies by Jean Carper

In this book, Carper discusses herbs, vitamins, and other natural remedies that can be used to help people look and feel better at any stage of their lives and no matter what their current level of health. There have been a lot of books that have talked about these kinds of things, and there are more and more people every day who are getting into the holistic side of healing. However, that does not mean that everyone in the scientific community is in agreement as to whether these kinds of remedies actually do what they are supposed to do. Some say that they are beneficial and others say that they are nothing more than placebos - 'sugar pills' - that do no good at all. In the book, Carper addresses this and also looks at the scientific evidence and discoveries that surround these kinds of remedies.

This helps to show that there is direct and compelling evidence that these types of holistic and natural remedies do have their place in the medical field, sometimes in place of western medicine and sometimes as a complement to it, and that more doctors are becoming aware of this. There will never be total agreement when it comes to these kinds of issues, just like there will never be total agreement on issues such as religion or politics, but as long as the scientific community continues to explore alternative medicine there will be more opportunities to find vitamins, minerals, herbs, and other natural remedies that are beneficial to people who are dealing with many different medical conditions.

Whether acute or chronic, medical problems have been with society since it began. Various ways to treat these problems naturally worked well, and others did not. As western medicine evolved many doctors turned away from the natural types of medicine in favor of scientific advances, but Carper shows that science and natural…… [read more]

Stem Cell Research the Field of Regenerative Thesis

… Stem Cell Research

The field of regenerative medicine has achieved great strides in the recent years. Particularly, the research on stem cells and the promising possibilities for several degenerative diseases, cardiovascular, and neurological conditions has created a paradigm shift in… [read more]

To the Minister of Health Canada Research Proposal

… To the Minister of Health;
Canada has a serious healthcare issue on its hands. Though we
proudly proclaim ourselves a progressive nation with public healthcare
access, there remain children who today do not have the proper access to
prescription medicines and proven treatment avenues. This is a serious
flaw in our system, relating both to economic disparity and access
limitations. Based on the disposition that Ontario has historically taken
toward its publics, we have grown accustomed to expecting the kind of
compassionate treatment that saves lives.
On the matter of public healthcare, it is clear to me that the
government is interested in redressing these matters. Therefore, I feel
confident that words of my letter will be well received. According to your
website, Ontario is fortunate to have a "government committed to reforming
the public drug system through the Transparent Drug System for Patients
Act, 2006, which made changes to the Ontario Drug Benefit Act and the Drug
Interchangeability and Dispensing Fee Act." (Ministry of Health and Long
Term Care, 1) In particular, you have claimed a direct interest improving
patient access. This is an issue which is clearly of great importance to
us. Indeed, it is the purpose of my letter to contend that there is still
quite a great deal of work to be done in helping to realize that goal.
Moreover, the government of Ontario has a direct responsibility here.
There is little question that you have shown the awareness and
ability that are necessary to help address the need in the general public
for an access that defies economic divisions. Indeed, improvements in
accessibility of prescription drugs have genuinely helped to raised living
standards and life expectancy amongst Canadians. This is to note that "
'illnesses that were at one time rapid and a death sentence, we're now able
to treat with the benefits of modern medicine and we've been able to turn
catastrophic illness into chronic illness." (Gillis, 1) Our medicine has
certainly seen improvement.
However, the idea of public and universal health coverage remains
elusive, especially where drugs are concerned. As you are likely aware,
drug plans have yet to become a universal part of healthcare treatment
opportunities. You must also know that the significant social problem of
high "drug costs is particularly critical in Atlantic Canada, where 24 per
cent of the populace, or 600,000 people, have no drug plan." (Gillis, 1)
There are many families with children who fall quite problematically in a
middle ground between those who are most in need and those who have the
means to receive the highest possible care.…… [read more]

Social Interactions Between Alternative Therapists and Patients Thesis

… Social Interactions Between Alternative Therapists and Patients

The goal of the research in this work has as its focus interactions that take place among natural and social groups. This work will study a social group in its natural state and… [read more]

Off Label Drug Use Term Paper

… ¶ … Label Drug Use


Off-Label Drug Use

In November, 2003, the Knight-Ridder news service conducted an investigation on a practice called "off-label prescribing (Devitt 2006)." It found that doctors wrote up to 115 million prescriptions… [read more]

Aromatherapy Ecdriesbaugh Aromatherapy Is Considered Non-Traditional Medicine Term Paper

… Aromatherapy Ecdriesbaugh


Aromatherapy is considered non-traditional medicine and falls under "complementary and alternative medicine" also known as CAM. Many CAM therapies such as acupuncture, dietary supplements, reflexology, yoga, massage, chiropractic services, Reiki, and aromatherapy center on the concept of energy in the body (Fowler, Newton 2006). According to Fowler and Newton, nurses have a special role in supporting patients towards wholeness through the practice of CAM, but also stress how important it is to understand all the aspects. These aspects include costs, drug interactions, and the patient's knowledge and understanding of CAM concepts.

CAM is sometimes called mind-body medicine because it is an approach to healing that uses the power of thought and emotions to positively provoke physical health. Because of this approach aromatherapy is not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine; however, the purpose of CAM therapies is to heal and promote wholeness and well-being. Nurses are innate healers. Together with patients, they restore patients' minds and bodies back to health. As a result, both the quality and quantity of patients' years of life can be greater than before. CAM therapies are noninvasive, often cost far less than traditional medical care, and make use of the natural healing abilities of healthcare providers. The use of CAM therapies may be constrained by insurance companies and viewed suspiciously by healthcare providers because of limited research and the fact that CAM therapies seem so different from conventional medicine (Fowler, Newton, 2006).

When essential oils are utilized for curative effects such as during a massage, the practice is called "aromatherapy." In the United States, aromatherapy hasn't gained respect as being medically valid in mainstream culture. Many advertisements abuse the phrase to sell everything from coffee, perfume, dish soap, and laundry soap in the name of "aromatherapy." However, in France aromatherapy has been a highly esteemed practice within the medical field. The term was created in France 1937 by Rene-Maurice Gattefosse who wrote out the medicinal therapeutic uses of essential oils. Many years later, England's Robert Tisserand combined the established medical view with a more holistic approach to healing in the book the Art of Aromatherapy, which helped others to discover the use of essential oils in healing (Milivojevik, 2006).

To investigate essential oils is to discover more than just pleasant aromas. Many aromatherapy experts claim that intensely concentrated plant extracts have the power to heal mind, body, and spirit. According to Schnaubelt, essential oils interact with human biochemistry in ways that science has been able to witness and document. For example, lavender is known for its calming effects. Scientists have noted that essential oil molecules attach to cellular receptors, usually through inhalation or direct contact with the skin, and this stimulates a chemical reaction (Milivojevic, 2006). "When a scent is inhaled, the chemical components within the scent pass through the nostrils to the olfactory bulb and then to the limbic area of the brain. The limbic area of the brain…… [read more]

Beloved Grandmother Was Stricken With Alzheimer Admission Essay

… ¶ … beloved Grandmother was stricken with Alzheimer's, I spent a great deal of time incredibly frustrated by the fact that there was little I could do to help that lovely woman. From that adversity and pain, my interest in pharmacy was born. Since I spent so much time helping my Grandmother manage her medications, I realized the value of patient education when it comes to prescriptions. My desire to help others, coupled with my knowledge of the difficulties that many patients on more than one medication face, convinced me that pharmacy was the right choice for me.

Currently, I am finishing my last year for my Masters in Biomedical Science and working on a thesis dealing with the Nicotine Receptors in the Brain. I have worked incredibly hard to get to where I am today. I came to this country from Iran after high school, where I graduated as Valedictorian, and when I first began college, my English was not yet very good. As a result of this, my grades suffered during that first year. This…… [read more]

Acupuncture TMC Term Paper

… Acupuncture -- an Overview

Briefly describe the five categories of therapies as defined by the National Institutes of Health and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and specify to which category the selected therapy belongs.

According to its official website, the National Institutes of Health and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NIH/NCCAM divides alternative therapies into five categories. The first are biologically-based practices that focus on herbs and food, the second are energy-focused treatments that treat energy imbalances in the body, the third are manipulative and body-based practices like massage and chiropractic therapy that treat the body through touching, the fourth is psychologically oriented mind-body medicine, and finally, there are 'whole' medical systems. While acupuncture is specifically an energy-based treatment to heal imbalances of ying and yang that affect a sufferer's qi or energy, it is important to remember that it is part of the whole medical or whole cultural body of practice known as Traditional Chinese Medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine treats sufferers with a variety of herbs, pressure points, and counseling in Chinese thought, as well as acupuncture.

Explain the philosophy, purpose, and treatment principles of the therapy.

Although usually thought of as 'needle therapy,' the term acupuncture actually refers to the stimulation of various pressure points on the body through a variety of techniques, including but not limited to needles. Heat, pressure, cupping with a glass, or small electrical impulses are also used to stimulate physical pressure points (Singer, 2007) However, the acupuncture techniques familiar to most Westerners and which have the greatest research-based scientific support involve penetrating the epidermis of the skin with "thin, solid, metallic needles that are manipulated by the hands or by electrical stimulation" ("Acupuncture," 2006, NIH). Most Westerners use acupuncture for the purpose of non-pharmaceutical pain alleviation and it became more widely known in the U.S. In the 1970s when New York Times reporter James Reston wrote about how doctors in China used needles to ease his pain after surgery ("Acupuncture," 2006, NIH). Nerve pain is the most common reason people turn to acupuncture, although it has been used for all chronic pain conditions, including post-operative pain, fibromyalgia, arthritis, etc.

Acupuncture's philosophy is rooted in the assumptions of traditional Chinese medicine that disease is called by a blockage in the flow of qi or energy which causes an imbalance of yin and yang, the hot and masculine and cold and feminine principles. Vital energy exists along pathways known as meridians. It is believed that acupuncture through the use of pressure points can help restore the correct energy balance between the twelve main organ meridians and eight secondary meridians ("Acupuncture," 2006, NIH).

Briefly summarize the historical development and evolution of the therapy.

Although it is commonly described as a 'New Age' therapy, acupuncture was first used in China more than 2,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest and most commonly used medical procedures in the world ("Acupuncture," 2006, NIH). The American…… [read more]

Consent the Most Important Statement Term Paper

… Consent

The most important statement included in the NCCAOM related to the practice of Traditional Chinese medicine is the statement referring to the obligation of "keeping the patient informed by explaining treatments and outcomes." This statement is basically valid in any treatment, but, given the fact that traditional Chinese medicine is less of a custom in Western treatment, it is thus even more in this particular case.

The patient needs to have explanations, first of all, on the meanings of Chinese medicine, on the principles it is based upon. These will help him understand why acupuncture can be helpful in delivering certain illnesses and how a general equilibrium can be reached in the body. Further more, the patient needs to be fully informed on the expected outcome and be convinced that this is a long-term process rather than a quick recovery.

On the other hand, issue #5 from the basic principles of the AMA makes reference to similar ideas. The physician not only has the duty to inform, but to remain continuously informed by a continuous research in any medical segments, including the Traditional Chinese medicine.

Finally, the AOM Code of ethics makes again clear reference to the necessity of constantly informing the patient about the techniques used and the potential outcome.

2. The two main problems that generally may appear are related to (1) obtaining consent and (2) communicating consent and information. In the first case, the patients may be physically unable to give consent, because of the physical condition they are in. In this case, it is generally up to the closest relatives to do so, but what happens if we are not 100% sure that they are most likely to have the patient's best interest at heart? In other…… [read more]

Gerontology and Gerontic Nursing Practice Term Paper

… 1. As she suffers from osteoporosis, several mechanisms are at play in
Mrs. Wood's condition. The basic elements result from poor bone mass
accumulation during childhood combined with an acceleration of bone loss
adulthood, when peak bone mass has been… [read more]

Acupuncture Is a Traditional Chinese Medical Technique Term Paper

… Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medical technique that has been practiced in that country for more than 2,000 years. (Acupuncture) the theory that underlies this form of medical treatment is based on a very eastern perception of the function of… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Buying Prescription Drugs From Canada Term Paper

… ¶ … Consumers to Import Drugs from Canada

Importation or smuggling? As drugs become more and more costly, the possibility of importing drugs from Canada has seemed increasingly attractive to many American consumers. Internet pharmacies offer cheap drugs from Canada-based online pharmacies and prescriptions can be obtained online without patients actually seeing a doctor in person. Such situations certain skirt the edge of legality, as do some persons who merely stroll across the border and stroll back with their medications without reporting this to customs agents. ("It's Easy to Get a Prescription Online but is it Legal, 2005, Healthy Place) But many of these Canada-bound shoppers are not looking for a ready supply of Prozac or a quick weight-loss pill, but are in search of medications such as insulin or heart medication that they cannot otherwise afford, or at least believe they cannot afford on a fixed income. Drugs in Canada typically cost one-third as much as drugs in the U.S. (Bast, 2005) And sales from such pharmacies have only been growing in the past several years. (Frederick, 2003) The issue of Canadian pharmacies' making available discount drugs to American consumers dramatizes the tension between the altruistic nature of medicine and the need for pharmaceutical companies to remain profitable enterprises. It highlights what constitutes fair medical practice in terms of the ethics of patients taking their healthcare into their own hands, versus allowing their health to rest in the hands of a physician.

Advocates of importing drugs argue that currently people are paying too much for necessary prescription drugs or cannot afford them at all in the U.S., and must pay unfairly high prices. They argue that the drug companies are making large profits from drugs that are unfairly marked up in the United States, in comparison to Canada, which has a national health care system and makes drugs affordable to all of its citizens. (Bast, 2005) Advocates for the drug companies counter that drug companies have a legitimate right to profit from their research and development, and if they did not, then new and better treatments would cease to be available. Even if drugs seem expensive, companies must make money before the drugs they have strived to develop run out of their patents. They also point out that drug prices are only about ten percent of total health care spending in America. (Bast, 2005) How much can consumers be saving?

Of course, merely because there are more overpriced arenas of American medicine does not mean that it is acceptable to overcharge for drugs. Still, most drug companies offer discount cards that offer significant discounts on their drugs to low-income consumers and while the industry's median profit of eighteen percent in 2001 may have been higher than any other industry, drug company investors and shareholders take on more risk than because they must make considerable expenditures to invest in experimental medical research that may or may not pay off in the long run. (Bast, 2005) Advocates for patients state that… [read more]

Allergy in Human Term Paper

… Allergy in Humans

Allergy was first recognized in 1906 by Clarens Von Pirquet, a pediatrics professor in Vienna, as a group of early skin reactions to cowpox vaccination (Kim and Drake-Lee 2002). Today, allergy is applied to more specific IgE-mediated… [read more]

Genome Project on Drug Design and Discovery Term Paper

… ¶ … Genome Project on Drug Design and Discovery

The advances that have been made due to the mapping of the human genome are substantial and along with this are substantial advances in medicine and most specifically in pharmacology. It was reported recently that "a further human homolog of ACE, referred to as ACE 2, was identified and shown to be an essential regulator of cardiac function. It differs from ACE in that it contains a sing zinc-binding catalytic domain, is a carboxypeptidase with preference for carboxy-terminal hydrophic or basic residues, and is not affected by ACE inhibitors." (Riordan, 2003) These ACE inhibitors are now the chosen treatment for treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and myocardial infarction.


Time Asia reports that "sifting through the human genome for therapeutically useful gems...requires a well-designed search strategy combined with powerful technology. At Millennium, housed in a factory that once stamped out heart shaped candy boxes for Valentines' Day, that strategy is embodied in Zeus, whose job is to find the handful of genes among the genome's tens of thousands that are key to individual diseases and thus key to making effective medications." (Lemonick, 2001)


In 1998 a team used the reasoning of other drug companies who have "often found new medicines by seeking compounds similar to ones they already know, and since most pharmacologically active compounds are based on proteins" or in actuality "chemicals manufactured naturally from genetic instructions" to attempt improvement on the drugs used for lower blood-pressure which are known as 'ace inhibitors'. The researches went to work and "plugged in some genetic sequences found in the gene for ace and came up with 10,000 genes that might have comparable activity." (Lemonick, 2001) Then Zeus was used in the initiative of setting up microarray analyses "and winnowed the 10,000 down to one promising protein they call ace-2." (Lemonick, 2001) Stated in a separate article entitled: "DNA Microarrays: The Workhorse of Genomic Medicine" is the explanation of the use of Microarrays. Stated is that: "Microarrays detect active genes by exploiting the fact that when the two strands of a gene in the double-stranded DNA molecule are separated, each can readily pick its partner out of a crowd of similar molecules." (Kher, 2001)


Stated in the Time Asia publication is that: "Testing the enzyme on tissue cells from different organs in the body, the scientists showed that whereas the original ace acts broadly on many tissues in the body, ace-2 is particularly active in heart and kidney cells, where it might be more effective in controlling high blood pressure." (Lemonick, 2001) Since the team was already knowledgeable of how ace worked on the molecular level they knew which test to use to determine whether the same effects came from ace-2 and it was found that it did.


The research team and scientists worked their way… [read more]

Mr. Everett Is Diagnosed With Tinea Pedis Term Paper

… Mr. Everett is diagnosed with Tinea Pedis and Tinea Corporis. What is his problem? How might he have acquired this problem? What classification of anti-infective drugs would be ordered for his treatment? Name three drugs and dosages. Are the drugs… [read more]

Cardiac Problems, Gi Issues and Anticoagulants Term Paper

… ¶ … cardiac problems, GI issues and anticoagulants as discussion topics the writer illustrates medical understanding. There were two sources used to complete this paper.


In the world of cardiac events most people immediately think about heart attacks however there are many other disorders that can place stress on the heart and the patient.

Supra ventricular tachycardia is a disorder in which the heart rate begins to beat rapidly with no notice. Heart rates can jump from 60 to 320 beats per minutes without acceleration. While SVT is rarely life threatening a sustained AVT attack can create potentially dangerous situations including ventricular fibrillation that can cause sudden cardiac death.

Three medications that are commonly used for SVT include Verapamil, Betapace and Calan SR. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker designed to reduce the calcium signal for electrical conduction of the heart. Betapace is a beta blocker that helps control the electric conduction of the heart. Calan is another calcium channel blocker that works in a similar manner to Verapamil.

Each of the medications used have precautions and possible side effects that can vary from nausea to fatigue to more serious issues such as heart rate problems. Side effects usually are not severe enough to stop the medication but should be reported to a doctor. Betapace is the exception. It can cause very serious side effect during the loading dose including sudden cardiac death therefore patients are admitted into a hospital before being started and for the first three days of taking it so they can be closely monitored.

There are no herbal treatments recommended however, the reduction of caffeine, quitting smoking, getting enough rest and reducing stress are all believed to be helpful with these conditions.


When receiving anticoagulants, there are four areas of education that should be addressed with the patient and the patient's family.

Anticoagulants are powerful medications that can have life saving results, however, they also have several important issues that should be addressed with the patient and their family. The first area of education that the family needs to be aware of is the instruction to tell all medical doctors, dentists and pharmacists that they are on that medication. The medication has other medications that it cannot be mixed with. In addition before surgery or dental work is performed precautions must be taken so that the patient does not hemorrhage (Precautions While Using This Medicine http://www.healthopedia.com/drugs/detailed/anticoagulants/precautions.html#).

The second thing that must be addressed is to tell the doctor before taking any over the counter medications as they can create the same problems as above.

It is important that patient carry identification…… [read more]

How Does the Pharmaceutical Industry Affect the U.S. Economy? Term Paper

… Pharmaceutical Industry

How does the Pharmaceutical industry affect the U.S. economy

In the September 01, 2005 issue of Pharmaceutical Executive, it was reported that the overall global industry growth has to slowed to single digit rates: 2004 global dollar volume… [read more]

Moxifloxacin Pharmacology Term Paper

… Moxifloxacin (Pharmacology)

Composition/formulation & structure/nomenclature a) What is in the drug?

The drug is an antibiotic, and it comes under the classification of fluoroquinolones. It is primarily used to fight bacteria in the body, and to treat bacterial infections, including… [read more]

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