"Medicine / Pharmacy" Essays

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Penicillin Slinn, Judy. (2009). "Penicillin: Triumph Article

Article  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Penicillin

Slinn, Judy. (2009). "Penicillin: Triumph and Tragedy. -- Review of Robert Bud

Book." Medical History. 53 (1): 2009. 133.

Penicillin is a group of antibiotics (the "cillin" group) based on the Penicullium fungi. They are historically and culturally significant because they are the first antibiotics that were effective against numerous diseases that plagued humans for thousands of years (syphilis, staph, etc.). Particularly in the developing world, the cillin group is still widely used -- they are inexpensive, fairly effective, and typically well tolerated. However, there are a number of individuals who, for whatever reason, have developed a resistance to penicillin -- whether that be an allergic reaction or sensitivity. In addition, some say because of overuse, many types of bacteria are now resistant to penicillin (Bellis, 2010).

Like other Beta Lactam antibiotics, penicillin works by inhibiting a peptid that links on the cell wall of a bacteria, which weakens the bacteria cell and causes it to die due to osmotic pressure. The reason penicillin is so much more effective with gram-positive bacteria is this very action; gram-negative bacteria do not lose their cell walls as completely, and therefore the numbers tend not to die off as quickly. The cillans also block the division of bacteria and of the cyanelles, which explains the need for a loading dose to occur before many symptoms disappear (Silverthorn, 2004).

Although up to 20% of people sometimes believe they have an allergy to penicillin, actual numbers are far less, but can be quite serious. It is, nevertheless one of the most important medical innovations ever produced, saving countless lives, particularly in war or trauma situations. In addition, according to Slinn, the aura surrounding penicillin was one of scientific methodology and inquiry. Modern society does not realize what it means to find something that could act against infection -- but then acted accordingly and began to overprescribe the drug for issues with marginal effect -- "which led directly to the growth and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics."

Really, in a dual…… [read more]


National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research Reports Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research reports that approximately 12 to 18 million middle-aged Americans have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), comparable in prevalence to the levels of asthma or diabetes, and that OSA is a likely cause of about 38,000 cardiovascular deaths annually. Those afflicted with OSA are also at greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, arrhythmias, and coronary artery disease. Despite being a common disorder, OSA remains overlooked by many primary care providers. Polysomnography is the definitive diagnostic test, which provides objective documentation of apnea and hypopnea.

As cited in Brogram, Files and Zeigler, (2010), mild forms of OSA affect one in five American adults and moderate to severe forms, one in fifteen, not including elderly or children. Of these, as many as 90% of those affected are not presently diagnosed. Recently, due to the common comorbidity with cardiovascular disease, the healthcare community has been placing a greater emphasis on OSA, yet still many physicians do not recognize the importance of sleep for general well being and are not knowledgeable about the biochemical conditions or risk factors of interrupted sleeping patterns. Patients are not routinely asked about the quantity and quality of their sleep. Conducting a thorough examination and obtaining a detailed history of sleeping habits help form a basic clinical impression of a person's possible OSA, but a polysomnography in a clinic or lab is required to confirm the diagnosis.

The term polysomnography is derived from the Greek "poly" or many, "somno" or sleep, and "graphy" or to write, and refers to a number of overnight tests performed on patients to evaluate sleep disorders. It normally consists of analyzing a person's oral and nasal airflow, blood pressure and oxygen level, electrocardiographic activity, brain wave pattern, and movement of the eyes, respiratory muscle and limbs. Overnight polysomnography is the only diagnostic modality recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Overnight pulse oximetry and home sleep studies are helpful in ruling out OSA, but are not recommended for diagnosis.

Polysomnography helps diagnose and evaluate sleep apnea, a common disorder in middle-aged and elderly obese men where the muscles of the soft palate in the back of the throat relax and close the airway during sleep. This may cause loud snoring and gasping for air at night an excessive sleepiness during the day. The results are expressed using the number of apneic and hypoapneic (AHI), episodes that a patient experiences each sleeping hour. Apnea is defined as airflow cessation lasting for ten or more seconds. The definition of hypopnea has varied over time. The Clinical Practice Review Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services define hypopnea as airflow reduction of at least 30% lasting for at least ten seconds and resulting in 4% or more oxygen desaturation. Some laboratories also require an associated arousal (Mendez & Olson, 2006). Narcolepsy, when people have sudden attacks of sleep and/or cataplexy, sleep paralysis or hallucinations at sleep… [read more]


Animal Testing the Use of Animals Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Animal Testing

The Use of Animals in Drug Testing

Animal testing extracts strong opinions from both those for and those against the practice. There are two main reasons why animals are used in scientific experimentation for drug testing. The first is to make sure the safety of new drugs and other pharmaceutical products. The second is to see how these drugs might be effective in humans (De Boer, 2009). The testing of drugs on animals is a very important process that is necessary in order to facilitate the research and development of new drugs for humans.

The testing of drugs on humans typically comes at the end of a long process of safety data collection. This may include testing the product in a test-tube and using a computer program to simulate what might happen to the drug inside the body and the testing of the drugs on animals. The policies on what safety data…… [read more]


Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology

For prescription drugs, what is advertising and what is labeling under the FD&C Act? What are FDA's requirements for prescription drug advertising? Please discuss both print and broadcast advertising.

Congress passed the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (FD&C) in part as a reaction to the dangerous claims manufacturers were attaching to the medicines and potions of the day, and to safeguard the public from dangerous products. False labeling of drugs and cosmetics was prohibited, and labeling materials were identified as "written, printed or graphic matter accompanying the product" (21 CFR Part 201).

The FD & C. Act and subsequent Code of Federal Regulations restrictions on labels include misbranding of consumer products. The barred actions are use of a label that lacks accurate and full descriptions of the ingredients, or a label not properly displayed on the actual product, or a label that fails to meets the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970, by omitting toxic information. The FD&C Act also does not allow FDA "approval" of cosmetics before they are manufactured and marketed, and any labeling claim of such FDA approval for any cosmetic is also a labeling offense. (Dunn 1938)

Years later, The Drug Amendments of 1962 (Kefauver-Harris) established pre-marketing testing requirements, mandated "Good Manufacturing Practices," expanded the FDA's role, and regulated advertising -- materials and claims issued apart from those regulated as labeling. Under these amendments and the CFR sections written to enforce them, the FDA reviews and regulates prescription drug advertising and promotion (21 CFR Part 202). By contrast advertising for over-the-counter drugs is under the jurisdiction of the Federal Trade Commission. (Hutt and Merrill 1991)

These drug advertising rules have two central tenets: under most circumstances, a company may only advertise a drug "for the specific indication or medical use for which it was approved." The second requirement is that ads and promotion must contain a "fair balance" of warnings regarding the risks of a using a particular drug, and the so called beneficial uses touted by the vendor.

When manufacturers of prescription drugs (product sponsors) target the general population of consumers and patients, it is referred to as "direct-to-consumer" promotion or DTC. The manner these audiences are reached may include television and radio advertisements, print, telephone, direct mail, video or brochures. Section 502(n) of the FD&C Act specifies that prescription drug advertisements must contain "a true statement of . . . information in brief summary relating to side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness" of the advertised product.

CFR part 202 makes a distinction between print ads and TV/radio commercials (broadcasts). For print advertisements, it is set out that that "every risk addressed in the product's approved labeling" has to be included in the advertising copy. By contrast all broadcast advertisements need only to disclose the "most significant risks" those actually appear in the labeling, as long as they also include a summary of all necessary information related to "side effects and contraindications." Obviously this advantage has encouraged… [read more]


How Effective Is the Influenza Vaccine Among Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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¶ … Children

PUTTING to a TEST

How Effective is the Influenza Vaccine among Children?

The purpose of this paper is to discover and discuss the effectiveness of the Influenza vaccine in children. Children and the elderly are the two age groups, which experience most of the complications of an influenza infection, which can reach epidemic proportions. Efforts to contain… [read more]


Elena Bohomol, Lais Helena Ramos and Maria Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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¶ … Elena Bohomol, Lais Helena Ramos and Maria D'Innocenzo entitled "Medication errors in an intensive care unit" (Bohomol, Ramos, & D'Innocenzo, 2009). This article represents a quantitative survey that looks at rates of medication errors in an intensive care setting that studies 44 patients for 30 days. The actual exploratory survey was conducted in 2006 in Brazil.

Medication errors… [read more]


Responsibility to Linda Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … responsibility to Linda is to provide her with the information she needs to make her own decisions. As her case worker, I cannot tell her what to do, but I can use this opportunity to build her internal motivation to make the right lifestyle changes. As such, I need to ensure that I provide her with a compelling argument that draws links between her behaviors and her current health problems. The approach I want to take is supportive and information -- she has already been told what to do and is not motivated to follow those instructions, so my role here is to address her sense of motivation and perhaps help her to implement structure in her life that will allow her to follow the path set out by the physician.

While Linda is aware that she has diabetes, she has refused all treatment. I do not want to focus on her past refusals for treatment, but rather to focus on helping her understand how she can solve the problems that she currently faces. I will explain to her that her lack of treatment has led to high blood sugar levels and the pain that she is currently experiencing. I will also explain that such pains are going to become more common and more intense if she continues to refuse treatment. The pain has motivated her to seek help from me now, so hopefully the pain will continue to serve as a motivator for Linda to begin treatment.

One of the biggest challenges that Linda will face is that if she begins treatment, her pain will subside. This could reduce her motivation and she may slide back to her old behaviors. To address this, I will need to make sure that she is comfortable coming back to me if the pain comes back. I want her to know that I am always available to help, because I believe that there is a high risk that Linda will stop her treatment once she starts to feel better. Linda may not be able to draw the connection clearly between preventative medicine and a lack of symptoms.

While I can see that there is a…… [read more]


Administering Pre-Transfusion Medications Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  2 pages (476 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … administering pre-transfusion medications as a means of preventing post-transfusion reactions, examining the literature for support of current practices and for alternative practices that might prove more beneficial. In the initial phase of this project, the problem that was identified was not specifically an abundance of post-transfusion reactions, but rather the administering of medicines -- specifically acetaminophen and diphenhydramine -- as a prophylactic treatment meant to prevent post-transfusion reaction despite a lack of empirical evidence that this practice actually worked. A single article concerning the fact that these medications remain commonly prescribed as pre-transfusion prophylactics without real evidence supporting this practice, and that a possibly more effective pharmaceutical prophylactic existed, served as the spark for instigating this project, and spurred further investigation.

After the problem and a potential solution was identified, a specific research question was developed in order to guide a more extensive investigation. The population of patients being studied was identified as those receiving blood transfusions in hospital settings, with the intervention proposed being antipyretic medications. The comparison that this intervention was placed against in this research question was the current standard practice of prescribing acetaminophen and diphenhydramine, with the desired outcome being the reduction of post-transfusion reactions in terms of both their severity and the rate at which they occurred. With these parameters of the research question defined, the project could progress.

The next step of the project was conducting a more extensive literature…… [read more]


Kennedy, Case, Hurd, Cruz, and Pomper, 2008) Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  4 pages (1,327 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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¶ … Kennedy, Case, Hurd, Cruz, and Pomper, 2008) was to prospectively compare the risk of transfusion reactions in hematology/oncology patients who receive acetaminophen with diphenhydramine or placebo before transfusion. This study hypothesized that patients who were given acetaminophen with diphenhydramine were less likely to show transfusion related reactions. This should show up in those given the actual drug, using those with the placebo as the control group.

Study research variables are as follows, Independent: The dosing of the patients with the drug or the placebo and Dependent: The patient reaction and metabolization of the dosing. This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind study intended to show whether or not the inclusion of specific drug dosings would alter the effect of transfusion related reactions. This study represents a Level II correlational survey/comparative survey. The sample number was 315 active patients from a total of 334 initial patients admitted for the study. Patients' ages ranged from 18-65 years of age and there were no gender limitations. The health status of the sample population were all admitted to leukemia or bone marrow transplant services the study took place in a hospital setting located in the Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University (Kennedy, Case, Hurd, Cruz, and Pomper, 2008).

The major findings of the study include, as worded in the final report, "Pretransfusion medication of leukemia or BMT patients without a history of transfusion reaction does not decrease the overall risk of transfusion reactions. However, pretransfusion medication may decrease the risk of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions to leukoreduced blood products." (Kennedy, Case, Hurd, Cruz, and Pomper, 2008). The quality of the study evidence is relatively high, given that 154 of the 315 patients were dosed with the drug and the remainder was given the placebo. The correlating graphed information relative to the study also shows a direct correlation between the number of transfusions and the risk for reaction. The study results were significant in showing that the drug had no real value in helping to reduce the risk of transfusion related reactions, at least in the method in which was studied.

Analysis and Arguments

According to the editorial which appeared in the same issue of Transfusion (Tobian, King, and Ness, 2008), the study conducted relative to the use of acetaminophen and diphenhydramine pretransfusion medication vs. placebo for the prevention of transfusion reactions was a direct answer to the fact that much of what is known about these drugs helping to prevent a reaction in a transfusion came from 60-year-old information that was not correlated at all with any study or scientific analysis of whether or not these drugs did anything at all to reduce the prevalence of reactions in the populations must susceptible to them. The editorial does much in exposing some of the weaknesses and points of contention within the medical field pertaining to the use of such drugs for reducing reactions in transfusion.

The editorial (Tobian, King, and Ness, 2008) also mentions that in 3 out of 4 studies… [read more]


New Drug Development Steps Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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New Drug Development and Approval Process

Word Count (including title and citations): 932

The development of new medicines is an arduous process. Identifying a new compound for drug use in a research laboratory is the seminal step which proceeds through the drug development process. Before a drug is approved marketing for general public use, the sponsor of the drug (e.g. The pharmaceutical company), must show that the drug is safe and effective for the proposed use.

This is done through the support and carefully documented scientific evidence. Furthermore, the sponsor must assure that production processes and controls, including manufacturing, packaging, and labeling, meet established standards of quality. The development process for new drugs includes five basic steps: Preclinical Studies, Investigational New Drug Application, Clinical Trials, New Drug Application, and Approval.

Prospective new drugs must complete preclinical testing to be evaluated for potential therapeutic usefulness. In the preclinical studies, the new chemical compound is tested for safety and effectiveness in research laboratory and animal studies. These tests offer empirical data on how it is absorbed, distributed, stored, metabolized and excreted in living organisms. Its effects on cell structure are also evaluated. These tests involve careful evaluation in several disciplines including pharmacology, toxicology, and formulation.

Pharmacology is a branch of medicine that is concerned with drug action. More specifically it examines interactions that affect biochemical function between chemicals and living organisms. This discipline is further divided into Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics studies. Pharmacodynamics can be summed up as a study of effects the drug has in the body; while pharmacokinetics is the study of what the body does to a drug. Studies in pharmacokinetics essential evaluate the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and their mechanism of action. It considers the extent and rate of distribution, absorption, excretion, and metabolism. The purpose of these studies is to verify the safety and usefulness of the chemical compound in order to determine the value of continued development. Pharmacodynamics studies the biochemical and physiological effects of drug substances on living organism. It also evaluates the mechanism of drug action in the body.

Toxicology would measure any adverse effects of the new compound on living organisms in this stage of evaluation the living organism are observed carefully for any signs of adverse symptoms or detection of poisoning of any kind. Toxicologists observe and measure both acute and chronic toxic effects. The new drugs are also tested for carcinogenicity, cancer causing, and Mutagenicity, effect on gene mutation.

While pharmacology, toxicology assess new drugs for biological activity, steps in formulation evaluate the chemical and physical properties. Formulated proceeds in two stages: pre-formulation and formulation. The pre-formulation stage addresses the chemical and physical traits of the new drug to assure a stable formulation and optimum drug delivery. Such things as drug solubility, partition coefficient, dissolution rate, physical…… [read more]


Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,459 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Henrietta Lacks

An Unasked-for Immortality

Most of us dream about immortality at some point. Depending on our beliefs about human nature and the existence of a human soul, we think with more or less certainty about what it would be like for our essence to go on forever. We try to understand what it would mean if what is unique… [read more]


Chemical Burns Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (864 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Song Reaction

Healthcare practitioners classify burns based on their depth and surface area of skin layers affected and location, the patient's age, and the presence or absence of coexisting conditions. Most burns are minor and are easily treated by the person injured. Other burns, often those by chemicals, or when the injury is caused from the interaction of a chemical agent with the tissue (Singer & Dagum), are not as readily treatable. Every year, chemical burns account for 3 to 6% of burn center admissions. Some of these may occur in the home from accidental exposure, but most happen in the workplace. Although chemical burns are usually not fatal, they can result in serious injury (Merck Manual). First aid must be immediately administered in instances of these chemical burns (Metzgar).

For treatment, it is important to be able to determine the different level of injury. First-degree burns are red and painful and will swell a little. They turn white when pressed on the skin. The skin over the burn may peel off after a couple of days. Second-degree burns are deeper into the skin; they are very painful and typically produce blisters. The skin becomes very red or splotchy, as well as considerably swollen. Third-degree burns damage all layers of the skin. The burned skin looks white or charred. At first, these burns may cause little or no pain because of damage to the nerves and tissue. Before treatment, the person applying first aid has to thoroughly wash his or her hands with soap and water. First-degree burns need to be cooled in water for a minimum of five minutes. This helps reduce swelling by cooling the burned skin. The burn should then be treated with a product for skin healing and protection, such as aloe vera cream (or an aloe vera plant) or an antibiotic ointment. A dry gauze bandage can be put loosely around the burn to protect the area and keep it from the air. If necessary, an over-the-counter medicine, such as acetaminophen can be taken to relieve the pain. Ibuprofen and naproxen will help with swelling. (Morgan).

Second-degree burns need to be soaked in cool water for at least 15 minutes and then antibiotic cream or similar ointment must be gently applied. The burn should be covered with a dry nonstick dressing that is held in place with gauze or tape. The injured person should call the doctor to make sure that he or she is up-to-date with tetanus shots. If the burned area is small, cool cloths should be placed on the area for a few minutes…… [read more]


Bioethical Dilemma: Research With Embryonic Stem Cells Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Bioethical Dilemma: Research With Embryonic Stem Cells

One of the most controversial issues to emerge in modern medicine has been the question of whether it is ethical to use embryonic stem cells in biomedical research. The issue touches upon one of the most basic ethical debates of all: when does human life begin? Even the Book of Genesis merely states: "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them" (Genesis 1:28). In terms of when life begins, theologians and doctors continue to debate where to draw the line in the developmental process.

Since abortion became established as a constitutional right, the individual's ability to choose to have or not carry a fetus to term has defined the parameters of the question of when life begins -- until now. The use of human embryos in medical research has made the ethics of the question of when life begins even more complex. The ramifications of banning the practice of or even banning federal funding for embryonic stem cell research has ramifications beyond the individual, and could affect the ability of humankind to treat some of the most mysterious and debilitating illnesses that currently elude medical treatment.

Embryonic stem cells are "derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro, in an in vitro fertilization clinic. They are donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors" (Eustice & Eustice 2006, p.1). The effectiveness of the use of these cells in research was first discovered in 1995, but stem cell research was ineligible for federal funding until March 2009 because of the ban on (National Institute of Health) NIH-funded human embryo research. This prohibition was only recently lifted by President Barack Obama (AAAS, 2009).

Opponents of stem cell research state that "human life begins as soon as an egg is fertilized, and they consider a human embryo to be a human being. They therefore consider any research that necessitates the destruction of a human embryo to be morally abhorrent" (AAAS, 2009). Opponents of stem cell research also oppose reproductive technology that assists the infertile, if any embryos are destroyed in the process. However, supporters of stem cell research note that embryonic stem cells are uniquely beneficial for researchers who are seeking to find cures for serious diseases, particularly conditions which involve the destruction of vital organ tissues. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, arthritis and lupus are just…… [read more]


Cam Persuading a Hospital to Adopt Complementary Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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CAM

Persuading a hospital to adopt Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

As a masters prepared nursing leader, how would implement CAM?

My first step as a nurse would be to get the rest of the staff 'on board' to include CAM. One of the most frequent criticisms of Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) is that there is no proof that CAM really 'works,' unlike scientifically validated, evidence-based medicine. Its harshest critics often attribute its apparent successes to the so-called 'placebo effect,' or the idea that because someone thinks a cure is helpful, they believe they show signs of improvement. However, many CAM techniques have been shown to be beneficial in controlled, scientific studies.

For example, in one study of 50 patients with herniated disks, half the patients took daily doses of the anti-inflammatory drug Celebrex along with Vicodin while the second group was prescribed back-building yoga and Pilates exercises. After three months, 80% of patients in the yoga group reported that their pain was reduced, while in the Celebrex group only 44% of the patients showed signs of improvement. "Three patients, or 12% of the yoga group, re-injured their backs during the period; that compares with 14 or more than half of patients in the medication group" (Parker-Pope 2002). Another movement-based alternative therapy called the Alexander Technique, according to a 2008 British Medical Journal study, was found to be more effective than drug treatment. Acupuncture, meditation, and a variety of treatments outside of the traditional scope of Western medicine have been shown to be more or equally beneficial than drug treatments through scientifically-validated studies (Varney 2011). These treatments are often more cost-effective than traditional therapies alone. Furthermore, they can empower patients to take control of their own health by encouraging healthy movement and eating habits, which can reduce the risk of re-injury.

2. What financial concerns do you have and what strategies would you use to solve them ?

Another frequent objection raised to CAM is that insurance companies may not cover the treatments. However, given the mounting empirical evidence of CAM's benefits, some insurance companies are offering coverage for these treatments. Unfortunately, coverage is seldom complete or is extremely limited in terms of number of sessions. "Chiropractic, massage therapy and acupuncture are the three most-covered therapies" (Wong…… [read more]


Biological Equipment Utilized to Detect Biological Weapons Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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1st Responders

A first responder can be anyone with medical knowledge or training who shows up on a scene of disaster before anyone else. This individual may have attained advanced medical training, although it would also describe someone who has only participated in basic medical courses. The term first responder is a generic term that applies to any one of the above mentioned individuals. Oftentimes these first responders are people who work in the traditional 'first response' categories such as fire, police and medical emergency personnel, but other responders can include people that might not otherwise be considered. These individuals may participate in first response training due to their remote locale, their job or their desire to be prepared. Some of the individuals who fall into non-traditional first responder category include; teachers, flight attendants, security and prison officers, hunting or fishing guides, and the ultimate 'be prepared' individual might be boys and girl scouts who live

Training for these individuals is diverse and can consist of relatively simple first aid to complex setting of bones, treating of radiation and burns, as well as other medical emergency responses. Medical training is not the only training these individuals receive; they also receive training in a variety of other areas as well. With the wide array of natural and other disasters (Japan's recent earthquake is a prime example) that take place around the world on a regular basis, the first responder training acquired by these individuals is of utmost importance. A number of organizations provide training but a recent 2002 report on detecting biological weapon use decried the lack of knowledge for first responders regarding biological warfare. The report showed that "diagnosis may be delayed given clinicians unfamiliarity with these diseases" (Borio, et al., 2002).

The Borio et al. study determined that clinical manifestations could include body rashes, hemorrhagic diathesis, fevers, sweating and shock.

First responders would not necessarily be able to determine that these symptoms, on an individual level, were necessarily derived from a biological attack, but other circumstances may assist in that determination. Those circumstances could include a large number of individuals with very similar symptoms, or an entire area being effected at roughly the same time frame.

Basic and advanced medical training are now being offered by a number of organizations.

An example would be the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) that provides a wide array of training for firemen and first responders. Training supplied by the NFPA includes certification in a number of areas such as; Certified Fire Protection Specialist,

Certified Fire Inspector (I and II) and Certified Fire Plan Examiner. These are advanced courses in how to prepare for fire emergencies; more basic training for first responders might include courses on CPR and emergency first aid.

Basic courses can be found through organizations such as the American Red Cross. The Red Cross website states that "Red Cross first aid, CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation) and AED (Automatic External Defibrillators) training meets the needs of workplace responders, schools, professional responders… [read more]


Assessing Reliability and Credibility of Cam Resources Presentation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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CAM

Assessing Reliability and Credibility of CAM Resources Presentation

Assessing reliability and credibility of CAM

(Complementary Alternative Medicine) resources

Just Google it?

Not so fast!

BEWARE!

Speaker's Notes: 'Just Google it.' A common response to so many modern problems -- including health-related ones. This can be problematic -- even dangerous.

This website is brought to you by Watch for sponsorship

Carefully review website authorship

Speaker's Notes: More and more people are relying upon websites and 'sponsored' information (such as advertisements for drugs and herbal supplements) when making decisions about their health, and not relying upon their physician's advice. This is particularly true of individuals seeking to explore CAM (complementary alternative medicine) to supplement or replace conventional treatment.

Slide

Does this mean I can't use the Internet at ALL?

You can

But do so with care

Speaker's Notes: The Internet can provide valuable information -- if you know where to look.

Slide 4:

Obey the Three Cs':

Credibility,

Compatibility

And Common Sense

Speaker's Notes: When evaluating an alternative health website or other source of information, apply the 'Three Cs': Credibility, Compatibility, and Common Sense

Slide 5:

Credibility

Is the website credible?

What are the author's credentials?

Speaker's Notes: Is the website credible? Ask yourself: Who authored this website? What are the author's credentials? If the author is a layperson, remember that one person's anecdotal experience does not have the weight of a scientific study, and correlation between a single person's alleged recovery and a particular treatment does not equal causation.

Also there is the issue of bias -- is the website author selling a particular kind of supplement or treatment? If they have legitimate credentials, do they back up their claims with footnotes, links to legitimate resources such as the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Journal of American Medicine) or websites of professional associations such as the American Medical Association? (Benedetti, 2010)

Broken 'links,' grammatical and spelling errors, strange fonts in odd colors, and exclamation points, are obvious red flags. However, it is important to remember that even drug companies that sell supplements have sophisticated advertising budgets that can present their claims in a biased but slick and highly persuasive manner.

Slide 5:

Compatibility

Does the website provide 'only one answer?'

Does it discredit conventional medicine?

Speaker's Notes: Always remember that you are researching alterative complementary medical treatments -- treatments designed to be used in conjunction with scientifically-validated 'conventional' medicine. Websites that promise to be the 'only' needed cure for a disease or are devoted to debunking basic aspects of conventional medical treatment are suspect. Anti-vaccination websites that promote nutritional therapy to 'cure autism,' websites that suggest herbal remedies can be used in lieu of chemotherapy, or that magnets can eliminate chronic pain are examples of how promoters of certain techniques may debunk more legitimately-accepted practices and treatments in a dangerously misleading fashion.

Slide 6:

Common Sense

Trust your gut

If it sounds 'suspicious' -- look elsewhere

Speaker's Notes: Even a layperson must be an informed consumer about his… [read more]


Can Strategic Planning and Managing Help the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … strategic planning and managing help the pharmaceutical industry?

Q1.What goals and objectives arise from a SWOT analysis of the pharmaceutical industry?

Strengths: The pharmaceutical industry sells vitally necessary products. Many individuals are dependent upon insulin, heart medication, and other treatments to be able to function normally. Also, because of the wide number of diseases for which there are no cures, there is clear future 'demand' for further treatment with as-yet undeveloped medications.

Weaknesses: When drug patents expire and medications 'go generic,' people often select the less costly generics or are pressured to do so by their insurance companies. This cuts into the profits of the drug companies, who incur considerable initial expenses to develop such drugs. Some of the illnesses for which there is the greatest need and demand for effective treatment, such as dengue fever and AIDS, afflict the poorest regions of the world in disproportionate numbers, and sufferers are unable to afford or obtain even the medical treatments that currently exist for these complaints.

Opportunities: Pharmacological treatment for many conditions, such as depression, is now more readily accepted than ever before. There is an expanding need for medical treatments amongst the rapidly aging population of the affluent Western world. The obesity crisis has also created a greater need for pharmacological treatments of diabetes, heart disease, and other complaints related to excess weight.

Threats: There has been government, regulatory push-back against drug advertising targeting lay consumers. A number of cases where respected drug firms deemphasized the side effects of common medications (such as some anti-psychotics like Zyprexa and the painkiller Vioxx) and over-emphasized the efficacies of others (such as antidepressants) have been highly-publicized.

Goals: Restore the public trust in the industry. Continue to develop new medications for untreated illnesses.

Objectives: Extend aid to the developing world to circumvent criticism at home that companies are only treating 'non-illnesses' or over-treating Americans in general without improving human health.

Q 2. Does the pharmaceutical industry need any change? If not,…… [read more]


Clinical Trial Development of Drugs and Biologics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Clinical Trial

Global clinical development of drug and biologic products

At some point, all prospective drugs must be tested upon a human population. This always raises profound ethical questions regarding the safety of the drug for volunteers. There is also an additional question of the use of controls: if a drug is found early on to be extremely helpful in mitigating the effects of a deadly disease, should the study's results be compromised by offering the drug to the members of the trial that are known to be getting a placebo?

Ethical questions grow even more troubling regarding global clinical trials. The question of using a population that is not of the same socioeconomic, ethnic, or racial background as the researchers calls to mind the infamous Tuskegee experiments in the American South, where white researchers denied penicillin to black men suffering syphilis, to see if the effects of the medicine were partially psychosomatic. At the time, there was already considerable biological evidence about the efficacy of penicillin and many men needlessly suffered damage to their health (Research ethics: Tuskegee Syphilis study, 2010)

Even though clinical drug trials may have legitimate scientific designs and be legitimately 'experimental' in nature with the ability to potentially help humanity, opponents of trials argue that many of the medications being tested are not going to benefit the communities where the tests are conducted. The drugs are too expensive and the population lacks access to even basic medical care, much less new and experimental drug treatments. Proponents of clinical trials state that "apart from a wider availability of patients" on a global scale, "for such patients, clinical trials can be seen as a means to receive medical treatment and care for free" (Kermani 2010). While it is true that a "limitation for pharmaceutical companies in emerging markets is that, at present, only a proportion of the population can afford modern medicines…this section of society is sufficiently large to offer companies a promising consumer base for the future. Companies believe that in the long-term the section of society that can afford new medicines and healthcare services will increase" (Kermani…… [read more]


Hypoglycemia Study Group in the 2010 Research Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (482 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Hypoglycemia

Study group

In the 2010 research study from the New England Journal of Medicine, "Severe hypoglycemia and risks of vascular events and death" Zounga (et al. 2010) studied 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes at risk for severe hypoglycemia and a possible correspondingly increased risk of macrovascular or microvascular events (the result of intensive glucose lowering treatment). The study was designed to example how intensive glucose lowering and the resultant severe hypoglycemia could increase the risk of a poor cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetic patients (Zounga et al. 2010)

The study compared two groups of patients, one of whom was assigned standard glucose control (the control group) and one group that was assigned intensive glucose treatment (the experimental group). "During a median follow-up period of 5 years, 231 patients (2.1%) had at least one severe hypoglycemic episode; 150 had been assigned to intensive glucose control (2.7% of the 5571 patients in that group), and 81 had been assigned to standard glucose control (1.5% of the 5569 patients in that group)" (Zounga et al. 2010). During follow-up interventions, severe hypoglycemia was found to significantly increase the risk of death from cardiac-related illnesses. Additionally, even nonvascular outcomes, including respiratory, digestive, and skin conditions were found to be associated with the severe hypoglycemia resulting for more intensive glucose treatment.

Experimental or observational

The study was experimental in nature. Patients were divided into two groups -- those experiencing standard glucose control (the control…… [read more]


Nursing Case Studies: Thomas and Mary Scenario Assessment

Assessment  |  8 pages (2,380 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Nursing Case Studies: Thomas and Mary

SCENARIO 1: Thomas Tank

Functional health pattern

Thomas Tank is a four-year-old child suffering from an acute asthma attack. His condition is currently causing his family a great deal of stress. At present, the family genogram solely consists of Thomas and his mother. Thomas states that he does not like taking his medication, and… [read more]


Cystic Fibrosis First Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Cystic Fibrosis

First, look again (this is what is already available):

Classification of the drugs selected e.g. CNS drugs, NSAIDS, steroids etc.

Drugs which affect the central nervous system.

Generic, trades names, chemical names etc.:

For a patient with Cystic Fibrosis, he or she must routinely (typically daily) take medications every day for life. These are the standard drugs assigned to patients with Cystic Fibrosis (Rubin, Bradley, 2003):

Tobi

Tobi is an antibiotic used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacteria that grows in the lungs of many people with cystic fibrosis. Learn what you need to know about Tobi, including possible side effects, safety warnings and financial assistance.

Pulmozyme

Pulmozyme (dornase alfa) is an important part of treatment for many people with cystic fibrosis. Learn what you need to know about Pulmozyme, including possible side effects, safety warnings and financial assistance.

Pancreatic Enzymes

Most people with cystic fibrosis take panreatic enzyme replacements whenever they eat to allow them to absorb nutrients and avoid the discomforts of malabsorption. Learn what you need to know about pancrelipase, including possible side effects, safety warnings and financial assistance.

4. Anti-Inflammatory Medications

Anti-inflammatory medications are sometimes prescribed to people with cystic fibrosis to help reduce swelling of air passages and improve lung function. Learn what you need to know about the different types of anti-inflammatory medications, including when and how anti-inflammatory medications are used in cystic fibrosis treatment, potential benefits and possible risks of anti-inflammatory use.

5. Bronchodilators

Many people with cystic fibrosis use medications called bronchodilators to help improve lung function. Learn what you need to know about the bronchodilators used in cystic fibrosis treatment, including possible side effects, safety warnings and where to find financial assistance.

6. Azithromycin

Azithromycin is an antibiotic that is used to treat infection in people with or without cystic fibrosis (CF). Read about the way azithromycin is used in CF treatment including how it differs from use in other infections, possible side effects, safety warnings, and where to find financial assistance.

7. Inhaled Hypertonic Saline

Hypertonic saline is a promising new treatment that can help thin secretions and reduce respiratory infections in people with cystic fibrosis. Learn what hypertonic saline is, how it works, who is using it and the potential benefits and side effects of hypertonic saline treatment.

"The Business Part"? I am unsure of how you would like this page to be aligned, then, so I will simply provide what you asked for (I would simply insert material of this sort directly within the applicable paragraph):

"the drugs that treat CF and how they work or don't at times"

Cystic Fibrosis…… [read more]


Population, and Was Primarily Aimed at Measuring Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (523 words)
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¶ … population, and was primarily aimed at measuring the efficacy of two different pharmacological interventions. The focus of the research question was further enhanced by the multitude of outcomes generated through randomization.

This randomization also made the study quite clearly a randomized controlled trial, in both its original conception and in its carrying out. The trial was both randomized and double-blind, allowing researchers to effectively address the research question without bias. Further investigation is definitely worthwhile.

The study's crossover design allowed for true randomization in allocation, in that all participants eventually underwent all phases of the study -- control, placebo, and various intervention combinations. This also minimized group and individual differences, balancing the groups and providing greater statistical relevance. The group was comprised predominantly of white males, which was not a part of the study's design that was purposeful, though age was a specific eligibility factor.

4)

All participants on the study, form the primary researchers to the staff to the patients themselves, were kept unaware of the patients' status throughout all phases of the trial. Recordkeeping and pharmaceutical administration was conducted in a manner that allowed for this blindness without sacrificing the effectiveness of the trial or the validity of its findings.

5)

Though sixty participants were initially recruited, only 47 completed the study; the others left for various reasons and were accounted for though not counted in the final results. As each group eventually went through every iteration that took place in the study, analysis based on original group is irrelevant to the study at hand, and the…… [read more]


Homeopathy "Impossible Cure" the Promise Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (936 words)
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Homeopathy

"Impossible Cure" the Promise of Homeopathy

Book report on "Impossible Cure" the Promise of Homeopathy by Amy L. Lansky.

One of the most important aspects of this book is the fact that it provides an overview of homeopathy that is based on actual human experience. The Impossible Cure: The Promise of Homeopathy by Amy L. Lansky (2003) is in the first instance a truly inspirational account of the homeopathy. This work includes a discussion of the history, philosophy as well as the science that underlies this medical discipline. This is embroidered on by verified experience of the healing potential of homeopathy.

Central to the book is that it was motivated by the author's personal experience of her son's recovery from autism through homeopathic medicine and practice. This adds a further dimension to the scientific and historical aspects of the work.

The author, Amy Lansky, received her doctorate in computer science from Stanford University in 1983. After working at various research institutions for a number of years she began to write and promote homeopathic medicine. This career change was as a result of her son's seemingly miraculous cure from autism by homeopathic medicine. Lansky states that, "It did not take long for me to realize that my son's miraculous cure from autism was far more revolutionary than any computer program or technological gadgetry" ( Review of Impossible Cure: The Promise of Homeopathy). She also soon decided that she had to write a book to let others know about homeopathy. This event changed the direction of her life and she began not only to promote and write on the advantages of homeopathy and was eventuality to become a practitioner of homeopathic medicine.

The book is not only a statement of faith in homeopathy but is also a useful guide to the disciple and practice of homeopathy. In this sense it provides a step-by-step guide for those interested in the advantages of homeopathy. In this regard the chapter on the science of homeopathy is intended to dispel much of the criticism and skepticism directed at this discipline. The author points out that while mainstream medicine still tends to view homeopaths with a skeptical eyes, her personal experience is that the science that lies behind this medical discipline proves that homeopathy is capable of seemingly "impossible" healing achievements.

The impact that this book had had on the perception of homeopathy can be discerned for the following brief review by Michael Castleman:

Amy Lansky watched in disbelief as homeopathy did the impossible -- cured her son of autism. She delved into the controversial therapy and has become an articulate, passionate advocate… The result is one of the best introductions to homeopathy I've seen. (Book review: Impossible Cure: The Promise of Homeopathy)

The book itself is also the result of her direct involvement…… [read more]


Homeopathy Law Homeopathy: A Grey Area Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Homeopathy Law

Homeopathy

Homeopathy: A grey area of legal regulation

Homeopathy: A grey area of legal regulation

Although its principles were used in ancient and patent medicine for hundreds of years, the practice of homeopathy has a somewhat tenuous and dubious legal status in the modern age. Homeopathic philosophy of 'like cures like' uses substances that are supposed to cause the patient's disease to cure the patient's disease. The practice does not use empirical, evidence-based scientific studies to support its claims. Of course, some of its advocates would suggest that homeopathy's foundational principle is not so different than using a killed virus to vaccinate a patient against the flu. However, according to the American Medical Association (AMA): "There is little evidence to confirm the safety or efficacy of most alternative therapies. Much of the information currently known about these therapies makes it clear that many have not been shown to be efficacious" (Homeopathy, 2010, Citizendum)

Homeopathy is more popular abroad and some physicians use this alternative medicine in consort with conventional, scientifically tested theories in Europe. The British Medical Society has taken a more lenient view than state or local governments in the U.S.: "The British Medical Journal in 1991 published a large analysis of homeopathic treatments that were given over the course of 25 years…The study found improvement with homeopathic treatment in most categories of problems" (Homeopathy, 2010, Citizendum). But even in Europe and the UK, concerns remain that some patients will substitute homeopathic treatments for conventional medicine, and suffer as a result.

Pennsylvania has long been one of the centers of homeopathy in the United States. Pennsylvania was the second state in which a society devoted to the practice homeopathy was established. The first American school of homeopathy opened in Philadelphia in the 19th century (Schofield 2001).…… [read more]


Year 1929 Event Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,014 words)
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1929 Event

Penicillin is one of the first discovered and widely used antibiotics. It is made from the Penicillium mold. Antibiotics are substances that are released by bacteria and fungi into their environment. They provide a means of inhibiting other organisms (Bellis, 2009). Crude penicillin got its first clinical application on January 9, 1929 at St. Mary's Hospital, in London.… [read more]


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Cervical cancer develops from a sexually-transmitted disease (STD) that can lie dormant in the body for days, weeks, months, or even years. Most people do not even know that they have the disease. These STDs can sometimes develop into HPV, and a large majority of young women now contract these STDS during their lives, making them much more vulnerable to cervical cancer. If states mandate the HPV vaccine for women, they are taking the right step in saving lives and making people's lives better, and they should mandate the HPV vaccine, just as they mandate several shots for other infectious diseases, like measles and mumps. Mandating these vaccines has virtually eradicated diseases like measles and mumps from our society, and the same should be said for cervical cancer.

Many organizations, groups, and physicians have spoken out to support the vaccine. Two authors note, "Medical and public health professional associations have endorsed the vaccine, including the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Society for Adolescent Medicine, and the American Cancer Society" (Daley & McDermott, 2007). This vaccine is making history because it is the first anti-cancer vaccine for any type of human cancer, and researchers have found it to be 100% effective in preventing this type of cancer in young women.

In conclusion, studies show the HPV vaccine is 100% effective in preventing two major types of cervical cancer. The FDA has approved the vaccine, and it could make a huge difference in cervical cancer survival the world around. States should mandate the HPV vaccine, just as they mandate vaccines for other serious, infectious diseases. The vaccine will save lives, and that should be the impetus for states to mandate the vaccine.

References

Daley, E.M., & McDermott, R.J. (2007). The HPV vaccine: Separating politics from science -- A commentary. American Journal of Health Education, 38(3), 177+.

Vamos, C.A., McDermott, R.J., & Daley, E.M. (2008). The HPV vaccine:…… [read more]


Beta Blockers Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

Beta Blockers

Invented by Sir James W. Black. beta blockers are a class of pharmaceuticals that improve the heart's ability to relax. They are primarily used for the management of hypertension, cardiac protection following myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and cardiac arrhythmias ("Heart failure," 2005) in addition, beta blockers are sometimes prescribed for hyperthyroidism, glaucoma and migraine headaches (Brygg, 2009). Beta… [read more]


History of Vaccines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,625 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Most vaccines are developed in First World countries with large healthcare systems, such as the United States, and they are developed to help treat the most threatening diseases. Malaria, for example, is a dreaded disease in many areas of the world, but largely missing from U.S. healthcare worries, and so, a vaccine has not been developed. That does not serve the world population, only the national situation. The same is true of many other diseases around the world.

What is in store for vaccines in the future? There is speculation that vaccines may be administered in food in the future. Author Link states, "Scientists have been able to bioengineer potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, and other edible plants to manufacture vaccines. Furthermore, food vaccines stimulate the immune defenses located in the lining of the intestines and respiratory tract; injections bypass this process" (Link 150). Scientists also believe that in the future, vaccines will enjoy better packaging that prolongs exposure, so booster shots would not be necessary, and there will be combination vaccines that would inoculate for several different diseases at once, which would cut down on the number of shots necessary.

In conclusion, the history of vaccines is really much longer than most people realize. Vaccines, since their inception in the Eighteenth Century, have saved millions of lives and eradicated many diseases. Even though they are controversial and some people refuse them, and they certainly are not perfect, vaccines have a positive effect on the human population. They have wiped out diseases like polio and tuberculosis, and they keep people healthier and safer as a result.

References

Editors. "What Would Happen if we Stopped Vaccinations." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2009. 21 Oct. 2009.

.

Link, Kurt. The Vaccine Controversy: The History, Use, and Safety of Vaccinations. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2005.

Skloot, Rebecca. "Under the Skin: A History of the Vaccine Debate Goes Deep but Misses…… [read more]


Financial Research Report on Wyeth Pharmaceutical Company Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,451 words)
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Financial Research Report on Wyeth Pharmaceutical

Company Overview

Wyeth Pharmaceutical is an organization publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange and recognized for its manufacturing of several medicines, such as Advil, Centrum or Prevnar. Founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by brothers John and Frank Wyeth, the company is currently headquartered in Maddison, New Jersey, but operates globally. Ever since its… [read more]


Asthma Research on Medline Using PICO Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (619 words)
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Asthma

research on Medline using PICO

Research on Medline using PICO format: Adult asthmatics

This paper will examine how a search conducted on Medline can answer a question phased in the 'PICO' formula: P (patient) I (intervention) C (comparison) O. Outcome. The research question is as follows: Does education of the patient and the family in self-care management result in improved health and functional status in adult asthmatics? P=Adult Asthmatics, I=Education of the patient and family in self-care management, C=education vs. non-education, O= Improved health and functional status.

Search items: "adult asthmatics education"

I selected these terms because they focused on adult asthmatics. The nature of asthma in adults is different, in terms of the patient's responsibility and autonomy over his or her illness, than asthma suffered by a child, and the focus of the research was to be on adult education and self-care. No limits were applied. 235 results were retrieved. Next, I tried a Boolean search: "adult asthmatics ONLY education," so that patient education for adult asthmatics would be the focus of the search. This retrieved 72 items, but was still headed by the same research study.

Two relevant Studies

The first study by Adeyeye and Onadeko (2008) from the Journal of West African Medicine, entitled "Understanding medication and use of drug delivery device by asthmatic in Lagos" was an examination of asthma education programs in Lagos, Nigeria amongst a traditionally, medically-underserved population. The study found there was an acute lack of knowledge about proper asthma treatment in the population. This study makes a useful and dramatic point of comparison, with the developed world, as it is a study of the degree of ignorance frequently exhibited in areas with little access to medical care. Fifty-two of the study subjects, or 49.1% been hospitalized for their conditions and 45.3% had gone to the emergency room in the week…… [read more]


Positives and Negatives on Herbal Regulations Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (722 words)
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Herbal Regulations Pros and Cons

Herbal regulations vary from country to country. They are mostly based on the basic guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the United States, herbal drugs cannot make any specific claim without approval from Federal Drug Administration. And for this reason most herbal products can only be promoted as food and dietary supplements. In Europe however things are different and herbal drugs are more likely to gain status of effective medicines approved by their health authorities. For one, it is less expensive in Europe to get a drug approved. In the U.S., FDA takes a long time to give approval which only makes herbal drug manufacturers hesitant. In Europe, many herbal products can be approved on the basis on their long-term history even if no scientific evidence is available. The same is not the case in the U.S. Strict herbal regulations have their pros and cons. For one, FDA is a very well respected authority and people trust a drug when it has FDA approval. Hence this lessens the risk of using some low quality herbal drugs. Secondly because herbal regulations are in place, people cannot blame anyone but themselves if something goes wrong. FDA also says it has the authority to stop the production of any dietary supplements that poses health risks.

For example there are hundreds of dietary supplements available in the U.S. each claiming to help lower weight. But since these claims are not backed by FDA, people are skeptical of these drugs and those who actually use them cannot blame anyone if they don't get any real results. Regulations help save millions of lives because they make people hesitant about using a non-FDA approved drug. However some herbal remedies with history of success behind them may find this environment rather hostile. There are thus certain cons attached to regulations too. People may be deprived of some good herbal remedies and herbal medicine on the whole is not able to flourish properly. Their research capabilities are also hampered due to strict regulations which limit the chances of better herbal drugs making their way into the markets.

In the countries around the…… [read more]


Herbs That Have Been Proven to Treat Depression and or Anxiety Successfully Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (589 words)
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Herbs as Treatment

Treating Depression and Anxiety with Herbs

Millions of Americans are prescribed prescription drugs every day to help relieve symptoms of depression or anxiety. What are usually not discussed with the patience is how prescription drugs work, whether or not they provide lasting relief safely, and alternative options.

FDA reports, warnings, and independent reports have continuously confirmed that prescription drugs cause severe side effects, may be addictive, and may not be any more effective than placebo in relieving many types of depression or anxiety.

Natural Alternative Medicines

Herbal medicine comes from an herb that is a plant or plant part used for its therapeutic properties. Herbal medicine products have been used medicinally for thousands of years to promote good health, to relieve symptoms and even cure some health ailments. Herbs for depression and anxiety can be a useful alternative to prescription medications per the studies.

Successful Clinical Studies using Herbs

Helmut Woelk, medical director, for the Remotiv/Imipramine Study Group conducted a randomized, double blind, group trial. The study represented 40 outpatient clinics and 324 participants with depression.

Objective of the study: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort extract) with imipramine (an anti-depressant tricyclic drug) in patients with mild to moderate depression.

Main outcome of the study: That the St. John's wort extract was therapeutically equivalent to the antidepressant tricyclic drug in treating mild to moderate depression, and the patients also tolerated the St. John's wort extract better (Woelk, 2000).

St. Johns wort -- SJW is one of the most widely used natural anti-depressants available.

Clinical research indicates that St. Johns wort helps to relieve symptoms of anxiety and depression over a period of 2-6 weeks. When tested head-to-head with two popular prescription medications, St. Johns wort…… [read more]


Prescription Drugs Generation RX Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (922 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Prescription Drugs / Generation RX

Generation RX Exposes the Dangers of Over-Medicating America's Children

There is a disturbing trend in the United States today. Millions of children are being exposed to, and later becoming addicted to, prescription drugs. The film Generation RX explores the ease with which many psychiatrists and physicians prescribe dangerous and potentially addictive medications for a variety of disorders. Understanding the message of this film means understanding an ugly truth within modern American culture -- the sedation of an entire generation.

It is a sickening thing to think that Western culture is reducing its children to addicts. The movie Generation RX revealed controversial issues within the habit of psychiatrists and psychologists simply handing out dangerous and addictive prescription medications. The film highlights the sometimes unnecessary use of addictive drugs which turn children into decrepit individuals who are unable to fully live a functioning life due to their sedations and growing addictions, (Miller 2008). It is a shocking glimpse into a touchy subject in American culture, which still has not fully been understood to most naive parents and children forced to endure life under constant medication. This feeding of prescriptions to young children only set them up for a later life of addiction and other issues. It stifles their true natures and cripples them into addicts. Prescription drug abuse is a major problem in our society, and one that is not going away. According to some studies prescription drug abuse is much more common than most parents would like to believe. In fact, many report it to be the "the only illicit drug that is abused more frequently is marijuana," (National Drug Intelligence Center 1). The theme of the film help cast a light on a very grim future for many who are being intentionally medicated by doctors and physicians with prescription drugs to help combat behavioral and learning disorders among other conditions. The numbers of youth now abusing prescription drugs as a result of their introduction through prescriptions are continuing to climb. Some studies report the number of teens abusing prescription drugs at about one in five, with one in teen even abusing cough medicine (Partnership for a Drug Free America 1). It is a scary thing to think of all the potential addicts who are being prescribed medications every day.

Despite the commonplace practice of over-zealously prescribing medications, it proves to have serious consequences within the lives of young addicts and their families. There comes a point where the medication becomes an addiction, and this is occurring with far too many American youth. In fact, "an estimated 4.7 million Americans used prescription drugs nonmedically for the first time in 2003," an alarming number (National Institute on Drug Abuse 1). The potential for medicated youth to begin abusing…… [read more]


Pharmacists Get Involved in Medical Ethics Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (310 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … pharmacists get involved in medical ethics-Making medical ethics decisions about medical treatments?

It could be argued that a pharmacist makes an ethical decision every time he or she dispenses a prescription. A pharmacist must make a determination if the medication is appropriate for the patient's condition, if the patient understands the risks and benefits of taking the medication, and understands how to correctly administer the medication to him or herself. If the patient seems unclear on these issues, and has no caretaker, the pharmacist may have to intervene -- or even simply if the medication seems questionable for the condition it is designed to treat. A heavy painkiller for minor pain might raise a pharmacist's ethical 'red flag.' The pharmacist might be concerned that the patient is using certain drugs, such as the stimulant Adderall, for non-medical purposes, if the patient is receiving frequent large prescriptions from various physicians. Or the patient may…… [read more]


Pain Management Chosen Topic/Patient Scenario Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,602 words)
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Pain Management

Chosen Topic/Patient Scenario

Pain Management is my chosen topic for this assessment of internet information. The scenario I looked at was is as follows: Patient's caregiver has expressed the desire to learn about non-pharmacological treatments for her mother's cancer pain in a palliative care setting. The daughter would like to be prepared if breakthrough pain occurs during the… [read more]


Medication Errors Since the Research Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,363 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

However, in a recent study by The Joint Commission, many times the patient is unable to actively participate in the process, as they may be too ill, injured, young or disabled. In this case, a family member should be available to participate. This is one example of how policies and procedures can be developed to help reduce the occurrence of medicine errors.

Medication errors have a tremendous impact on the client, healthcare industry, and the economy. In the U.S. alone, medication errors injure 1.5 million people and cost billions of dollars to the healthcare system annually (Stencel, p. 1). The committee noted that estimates on medication errors might be low due to unwillingness to report medical errors for fear of litigation or loss of public trust among healthcare institutions (Stencel, p. 1). It is estimated that the costs of these errors result in an addition $3.5 billion dollars every year (Stencel, p. 1). These numbers reflect a major problem in the healthcare industry and one that is completely preventable.

Video Summary and Response: Transdermal Patches with Metallic Backings

In March of 2009, the FDA notified the public that certain transdermal patches contained aluminum or other metals in the backing. These patches are applied to the skin and the medication dose is absorbed through the skin. The metals on these transdermal patches can overheat during an MRI scan, causing skin burns to the area of the patch. The FDA is considering changing labeling on the patches to reflect this danger. However, the MRI technician also has a responsibility to make certain that the patient is not wearing a transdermal patch prior to an MRI scan.

This video demonstrates the multiple layers that must come into play in regards to medication errors. The blame and responsibility cannot be placed on a single person. There are many levels of patient contact, from package labeling to the technician who will perform the scan. This also means that multiple layers of protection should be put in place as well.

Preventing medication errors is everyone's responsibility. A multi-layered approach must be taken to this multi-layered problem. The most important fact in medical errors is that they are completely preventable. However, no single method provides the ultimate answer to the problem. Systems must be put in place on every level of the system. However, systems will not be 100% effective without a commitment to preventing medical errors from the staff.

Everyone must hold themselves personally accountable for preventing medication errors. Systems and technological devices can only go so far in eliminating certain types of medical errors. When one examines the root of the problem, they will find a human at the end of every error, a human that should have intervened to prevent the problem. Personal accountability must be ingrained into healthcare professional and become a part of institutional culture. This is the only way to have a true impact on the reduction of medication errors in the healthcare setting.

Works Cited

Friedman AL,

Geoghegan SR,

Sowers… [read more]


Critical Thinking Science and Technology Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (361 words)
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Science and Technology

Assisting Third World nations with needed medicines and vaccines that stop the effects of starvation on their citizens is the essence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Management theorist and thought leader Peter Drucker called this "bounded goodness" and considered such philanthropic acts as contributory to an organizations' growth in terms of value (Smith, 2009). Acting as the leader of a pharmaceutical company, I would study the costs of creating a manufacturing plant in the regions of the world most in need of these vaccines and see if these potential locations could be used to distribute vaccines that used comparable production processes that could be resold to more prosperous nations. If this could not be accomplished, I would argue that the vaccines be donated to the Third World nations in the most need of them. In defining this strategy of making major donations of the vaccines and medicines, I would argue that doing well by doing good to these nations is the best type of CSR-based initiatives there are. Second, these efforts to help those nations most in…… [read more]


Antibiotic Resistant Organisms Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (964 words)
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This is described to an extent in the scenario presented above. In addition, many argue that modern medicine has contributed to an increase in the number of infections that people have. For instance, the use of chemotherapy to treat illnesses has saved many lives but people on chemotherapy are more likely to contract bacterial infections. This increases the use of antibiotics. In addition social conditions such as homelessness, also increase the number of infectious outbreaks. All these issues contribute to an increase in the use of antibiotics and as such they contribute to the increase in antibiotic resistance (Brown & Layton, 2008).

According to an article found in Clinical Microbiology and Infection mutation is one of the causes of antibiotic resistance. According to the article "Mutational resistance to rifampicin, fusidic acid and streptomycin arises readily and may pose clinical problems in some settings, limiting the use of these agents as monotherapy. Mutation is also a common mechanism of resistance to many synthetic antibacterial agents, such as the fluoroquinolones and oxazolidinones, although resistance to these classes arises less readily (Woodford & Ellington; 2006)."

Specific strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria include staph.

Among these antibiotic resistant bacteria staph infections have received the most attention in recent years. More specifically the strain of staph known as methicillin-resistant staph infection (MRSA) ("MRSA Infection"). This particular strain of staph is resistant to the most widely used antibiotics. The attention garnered has been due to the deaths of several people as a result of this particular strain of staph that is resistant to antibiotics ("Community-Associated Antibiotic-Resistant Staph Infection").

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to explain antibiotic resistance development in humans. The research also provided a general overview of specific strains, causes and effects. The research found that mutations and the overuse of antibiotics contributes greatly to antibiotic resistance. The research indicates that strains of certain bacteria such as MRSA are resistant to antibiotics. The research indicates that this will continue to be a problem for years to come.

Works Cited

About Antibiotic Resistance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from; http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/community/anitbiotic-resistance-faqs.htm

Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance." NAID. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from; http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/antimicrobialResistance/Research/basicResearch.htm

Brown G., Layton D.F. (2008) Resistance economics: social cost and the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Environment and Development Economics. 1 (3):349-355

Community-Associated Antibiotic-Resistant Staph Infection (CA-MRSA). CRS - Adult Health Advisor, 1/1/2009. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from; http://web.ebscohost.com/chc/detail?vid=4&hid=112&sid=9108f53b-bba2-429b-aedb-27b601098faf%40SRCSM2&bdata=JnNpdGU9Y2hjLWxpdmU%3d#db=cmh&AN=36257566#db=cmh&AN=36257566

MRSA Infection." The MAYO Clinic. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from; http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mrsa/DS00735

Woodford N. And Ellington M.J. (2006) The emergence of antibiotic resistance by mutation. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 13, Issue 1 (p 5-18)… [read more]


Probiotics Antibiotics Increasingly Have Become a Mainstay Research Proposal

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Probiotics

Antibiotics increasingly have become a mainstay of healthcare in the United States. So much so, in fact, there are concerns that children are starting to become less immune. Another problem with antibiotics is the side effects. It is often the case that infants and children get diarrhea or yeast infection when taking the medicine. The antibiotics used to treat… [read more]


Intuition by Allegra Goodman Research Proposal

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Intuition by Allegra Goodman: The False Promise of Science in the Marketplace

One of the most challenging questions that arise in Allegra Goodman's book Intuition is what makes a 'good' scientist. Rather than fully resolve the question, Goodman paints a picture of two individuals in the field of science who are imperfect, both of whom embody absolutes. There is Cliff, a scientist who claims to have created a mysterious cure for cancer that melts away tumors, using more intuition than technical data. On the other hand, the fact-finding Robin insists upon a rigorous demonstration of scientific truth, and believes Cliff is a fraud, after she reviews his scanty lab notes. Goodman implies that Cliff does believe that he has found a cure, but it remains an open question as to whether his determination to prove his results to be 'correct' blinded him as to the shakiness of the empirical data behind his results.

On one hand, it is hard not to admire Cliff. Everyone wants to find a cure for cancer, and the idea that intuitive leaps in logic can reveal things that are blind to otherwise logical people is appealing. Cliff's approach seems to stand outside of the ideals of big pharmaceutical corporations that labor only for profit. Corporate entities often exaggerate the severity of diseases to market their products (such as toenail fungus or 'restless leg syndrome'). However, there are many sobering reasons to view his contentions with caution. Too many people have been lured into having false hope and have actually been harmed by 'alternative' medical treatments that do not adhere to scientific protocols.

Even supposedly safe medications have been revealed to have serious side effects, such as antidepressants and birth control pills. These side effects were not publicized when they were introduced into the marketplace and consumers and ordinary doctors often have difficulty in truly evaluating new medication's trade-offs in terms of treatment. Many researchers are in the pay of the drug companies creating new medication, and their objectivity is suspect. Although pharmaceutical corporations and large research laboratories might be the ones to…… [read more]


Tapentadol IR for Acute Pain Research Proposal

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¶ … Tapentadol IR for Acute Pain Is Associated With Improved Gastrointestinal Tolerability Compared to Oxycodone IR. Medical News Today. 11 May 2008. Retrieved Feb 1, 2009 at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/107002.php

Nurses treating patients for acute pain need to be aware of contraindications, patient allergies, and the differences between pharmaceutical pain interventions. The Food and Drug Administration recently approved a new pharmaceutical called Tapentadol. Tapentadol is administered orally and has been proven to induce fewer side effects in patients than comparable pain medications while providing the same quality of relief. The drug is especially effective in treating lower back pain and osteoarthritis, two conditions nurses will commonly encounter. Nurses should be aware of the potential for Tapentadol to help alleviate acute (from moderate to severe) pain in patients who also suffer from gastrointestinal distress as well.

Tapentadol is currently manufactured in immediate release (IR) and extended release (ER) tablets. Recent research compared the effects of Tapentadol with oxycodone IR and found that the former caused significantly fewer gastrointestinal side effects including nausea, vomiting, constipation, or a combination thereof. Moreover, the drug was tolerated well after several weeks of administration. As a new generation of pain relief medications, Tapentadol should be added to any nurse's lexicon of pharmaceuticals. The drug will also be available in extended relief formulas for patients with more chronic pain concerns.

Initially developed by German pharmaceutical company Grunenthal, Tapentadol is distributed and manufactured in the United States by Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development (J&JPRD), L.L.C. Both Grunenthal and J&JPRD supported the phase 3 clinical research. The study was double blind and randomized, using a large…… [read more]


Holistic Nutrition Consultant Legal Boundaries in This Country Essay

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Holistic Nutrition Consultant/Legal boundaries in this country

Holistic Nutrition Consultant: Legal boundaries in the U.S.A.

Those who work in the field of western medicine - traditional doctors and nurses - know what the rules, guidelines, and legal implications of their practices are. However, for other who work in a more 'gray area' of the medical field, what is legal and what could get them into trouble is often much less clear (Wilson, 2005). This includes those who work as holistic nutrition consultants, because they give herbs and other nutritional items to their clients, but these can sometimes pose health risks. The legalities of what they do and what kinds of risks of lawsuits and other problems they are putting themselves under are important to address. Holistic nutrition consultants are not licensed as traditional medical professionals are, so whether they are practicing medicine without a license is somewhat arguable (Wilson, 2005). However, the biggest concern for these people is how they can protect themselves and their clients while still offering the largest benefit to the highest number of people.

Turning to the matter of herbal remedies and holistic medicine, there was concern at first that this would undermine the credibility of hospitals and doctors. The opposite has turned out to be the case. In fact, consumers are more likely to go to a doctor who is willing to consider and recommend herbal remedies or alternative treatment methods (Hale 1998). Originally, healthcare administrators had the same credibility concern as the doctors, but since the consumer has spoken about the interest in herbal medicines, administrators are taking another look at the matter. Women are at the forefront of this administrative interest in herbal remedies. Since women have become involved in healthcare administration, the number of doctors using or recommending herbal remedies has grown (Hale 1998). It was once thought that it would look unprofessional to use herbs to treat someone. Now it has increased in popularity to the point that some individuals who wanted to pursue medical degrees but were interested in holistic medicine are now widely accepted. Colleges are beginning to offer…… [read more]


Education in the Workplace Thesis

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Social Determinant

Poverty and the Childhood Immunization Rate

The literature appears to support that the social determinant of poverty has a detrimental impact on the level of immunization of children between 0 and 3 years of age. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) provides vaccination coverage information for all children in the U.S. aged between 19 and 35 months. A study by Klevens and Luman (2001) used this data to measure the impact of poverty on immunization rates. Defining poverty according to the federal thresholds, this study found that those living above poverty had consistently higher levels of uptake of immunization than those living below the poverty threshold. The study did however find that the difference appears to be declining, with a gap of 13.6 percentage points in 1996, reduced to 10.0 percentage points in 1999. This may be associated with differing trends in both levels of poverty and general levels of immunization take-up. Between 1995 and 2003 the level of immunization in the U.S. increased from 52.3 to 79.8%, while the number of children living in poverty dropped by 17.3% (Becton et al., 2008). This still does not explain…… [read more]


Stem Cell Research Embryonic Essay

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¶ … Stem Cell Research

EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH ARTICLE

Charges Rampant on Stem Cell Issue: Look Into Claims Reveals Facts Behind Stances of Both Sides. By Megha Satyanarayana (the Detroit Free Press, October 12, 2008)

According to the article, Michigan is preparing for a statewide vote on the issue of embryonic stem cell research. Proposal 2 is about an amendment to Michigan state law that currently prohibits any research use of embryonic stem cells. Michigan is one of the few states that actually prohibits embryonic stem cell research; the proposal, if passed on November 4, 2008, would permit the use of embryonic stem cells for research use that is permitted by federal law (Hornstein, 2008; Satyanarayana, 2008).

Under federal law, embryonic stem cell research may not be funded by federal money, but such research is not illegal. Critics of that distinction have pointed out that the federal funding ban achieves almost the same purpose as an outright ban on this valuable form of research, simply because medical research of this type is far too expensive for private institutions to conduct and relies nearly completely on federal funding (Kinsley, 2007). Most states do not actually prohibit privately funded stem cell research, but Michigan specifically outlaws some of the most potentially beneficial medical research in the field of modern medicine. Stem cells were first discovered to possess the ability to develop into almost any other form of human tissue approximately ten years ago (Satyanarayana, 2008). Since then, the Bush administration has taken up the argument put forth mainly by religious objections to research into their medical applications, resulting in a complete ban on all fetal and embryonic stem cell research use of federal funds (Kinsley, 2007; Pollack, 2007).

The Importance of Embryonic Stem Cell Research to Human Medicine:

Human stem cells come in several different varieties with different degrees of capability in terms of medical applications. While adult stem cells are able to be extracted from the bone marrow of adult patients, the biopsy procedures are considerably uncomfortable and not without dangers (Talan, 2007). More importantly, by far, adult stem cells possess only limited potential in comparison with fetal stem cells, which could be extracted from legally aborted fetuses, or from umbilical cord blood or placental tissues discarded after live births (Kinsley, 2007; Pollack, 2007).

The likely benefits of stem cell research, particularly embryonic stem cell research are so numerous that they read almost like a "wish list" of medical researchers.

So far, indications strongly suggest that the applications of stem cell science will eradicate many untreatable human diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Cystic Fibrosis, Diabetes, Sickle Cell Anemia, and Tay-Sachs Disease (Talan, 2007).

Other applications will likely allow neurologists to restore mobility and sensation to victims of traumatic paralysis, including thousands of people crippled every year in motor vehicle and swimming pool accidents, not to mention American soldiers injured on the battlefield. Experiments on paralyzed laboratory animals have already proven the viability of this application, in principle, (Talan, 2007).

Some… [read more]


Vaccinations: Making an Informed Choice Community Education Thesis

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Vaccinations: Making an Informed Choice

Community Education Program

Since the 1700s, doctors and medical practitioners have explored the use of vaccines in preventing contagious diseases. Currently, vaccinations have become a staple of modern medicine, and they exist in many forms -- preventing diseases from mumps to Human Papillomavirus. While some have become major proponents of vaccinations, the concept still brings… [read more]


Anesthesiology and Radiology Term Paper

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Radiology/Anesthesiology

Two of the fields I am most interested in are anesthesiology and radiology. Each is attractive to me in its own way, and I look forward to being granted the opportunity to develop an expertise in one of them.

To me, an anesthesiologist is an expert in pain management - a provider of comfort. The role involves the specialized study of anesthetic drugs and the ways in which they interact with the human body. This requires acute understand of all of the body's functions, and the way the total systems work together. This is one of the main challenges that attracts me to anesthesiology.

Anesthesiology is a fascinating field to me because of the ability to provide relief for pain, and for the crucial role it fills in surgery. One of the biggest reasons for me getting into medicine is to help people, and anesthesiology allows me to perform that role in a very direct manner. I also love the diversity of anesthesiology. It would allow me to work in a wide range of situations, providing a range of different pain relief services to patients.

The complexity of the field is another reason I am attracted to anesthesiology. The field demands in-depth knowledge of each of the body's systems. Then this knowledge is applied to the field of pain relief, with each situation requiring its own unique assessment. It is a demanding field and I love that type of challenge, to tailor individual solutions to individual problems.

The direct role that an anesthesiologist plays in critical care is another draw to the study. That I will have an opportunity to work in such a demanding environment, where the challenges are both unique and immediate, is something I feel is an excellent fit for my personality.

The training that is required of a future anesthesiologist takes place in a four-year residency program. Because the field is applied to so many individual areas of medicine, the program of study will be comprehensive and multidisciplinary. Throughout the program, I expect to learn and perform multiple blocks each day, as hands-on experience is critical to becoming a qualified anesthesiologist. I expect extensive training on a simulator as well, to further build my experience level. I expect to see a highly varied patient list, as I rotate through many different functional areas of the hospital. I would expect exposure to at least two different hospital environments, one a busy hospital with a focus on critical care. The other might be a hospital with a focus towards elder care, as that is one of the most complex, challenging areas of anesthesiology due to the fragility and varied overall health of the patients.

Into this hands-on experience I expect to incorporate an extensive number of lectures, readings and educational seminars. This will help ease my way from academic learning into life as a hands-on anesthesiologist. Moreover, these will supplement the rest of my daily learning.

I am also drawn by the shortage of qualified anesthesiologists. This… [read more]


Panax Ginseng Term Paper

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Panax Ginseng (Korean ginseng) has been a staple in the Eastern medical apothecary for centuries. The introduction of Eastern medicine to the Western world has raised awareness of the potential of Panax ginseng for healing. In particular, Panax ginseng has been indicated for enhancing nervous system functioning, neuroendocrine functioning, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular functioning, immune functioning, and other functions related the effects of nitric oxide (NO), which is synthesized from L-argine and catalyzed by a family of enzymes known as nitric oxide synthases (NOS).

Research has shown that specialized cells may induce NOS formation including murine macrophages, endothelial, smooth muscle cells, and cardiac myocytes. Induced NOS, known as iNOS, is associated with a series of conditions including inflammatory and infectious illnesses. iNOS is therefore a type of immune response, as NO appears to suppress T-cell proliferation. NO also helps defend against bacterial infection via the inflammatory response.

The major active components of Panax ginseng are ginsenosides. The current research investigates the possible effect of ginsenosides on iNOS as a possible explanation of the reported healing benefits of Panax ginseng. Using an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng with a standardized ginsenoside content, the researchers investigated its molecular action on iNOS in a murine microphage-like cell line. The cell line is known as RAW 264.7 and is derived from mice. As the research focuses squarely on the molecular reaction of an aqueous solution of Panax ginseng on iNOS, the results would indicate similar results on a human cell line. The researchers also clarify their choice of studying murine macrophages. Macrophages are generally associated with NO production, and detecting increases in NO output is easier with murine macrophages than with other cell lines.

The Panax ginseng used for the current study was a commercially-available powdered form manufactured by the company Nature's Way. The use of Panax ginseng in its whole root form as it is most often used in traditional Chinese medicine may therefore yield different effects than the current research, which not only used a powdered form of the root but also a fractionation. It is highly likely that the effects of Panax ginseng on the human body derive not merely from ginsenosides but from other compounds in the herb as well.

Results were based on measuring NO levels. A Western blot analysis was used. A protein determination test was also undertaken to determine the effects of ginsenosides on protein production. The authors do not clearly discuss the implications of protein expression on the immune response.

Increasing amounts of Panax ginseng were added to the RAW 264.7 cells…… [read more]


Ethics - Assisted Suicide the Legal Term Paper

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¶ … Ethics - Assisted Suicide

THE LEGAL and ETHICAL ISSUES of PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE

Suicide has always been a very controversial subject, mainly because of traditional religious teachings equating it with "sin." However, since U.S. law is not supposed to be influenced by religious beliefs, the ethical issues and legal ramifications of physician-assisted suicide must be defined by objective moral principles and legislative criteria addressing the potential for misuse and abuse.

Problematic Issues:

The Hippocratic Oath prohibits physicians from harming their patients, but it was formulated long before the era of modern medicine at a time when very few patients faced the prospect of outliving debilitating diseases. Today, modern technology, pharmacology, and surgical intervention enable physicians to treat disease and prolong patients' lives, sometimes even beyond their ability to appreciate. Particularly in the case of ailments associated with old age, such as many forms of cancer, modern medicine enables physicians to extend life even when the patient might prefer to die instead of enduring constant physical pain or continual gradual physical deterioration that ultimately leads to death, only with greater suffering in the meantime.

The easiest situations for the physician involve patients whose medical prognosis already defines their condition as terminal, in which case physician-assisted suicide only hastens the same outcome, and usually for the sole purpose of palliative relief from symptoms whose pain cannot be relieved by other means. However, many patients suffer just as much from symptoms associated with non-fatal illnesses and conditions that may not be addressed through physician-assisted suicide under Hippocratic principles.…… [read more]


Acid Base Disorders and Treatment Term Paper

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Acid Base Disorder

Regulation of normal pH is critical in Acid-Base balance. Normal pH is 7.35-7.45 and is dependent on both the function of the lungs and kidneys, and pH isa function of the ratio of HCO3- which is regulated by the kidney to Pco2 which is regulated by the lungs. This is called the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The classification therefore of acid-base disorder uses the HCO3/Pco2 relationship. Classification is generally divided into acidosis and alkalosis. Acidosis is due to gain of acid or loss of alkali which may be caused by metabolic factors, which is a fall in serum HCO3- or due to respiratory disorders, which increases Pco2. Alkalosis on the other hand, is due to the loss of acid or addition of base. This is caused either by metabolic or respiratory factors, or the increase in serum HCO3- or a decrease in Pco2.

There are mainly 4 different kinds of acid-base disorder: metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis and respiratory acidosis. Mixed disorders, on the other hand, is when there is more than one acid-base disturbance that exists.

First to be discussed in metabolic acidosis, this is a clinical disturbance which is characterized by a relative increase in total body acid. This is considered as a sign of an underlying disease process which should be identified for appropriate therapy. This disorder is induced by 2 basic mechanisms: an inability of the kidneys to excrete dietary hydrogen load and an increase in the generation of hydrogen ion that is due to the addition of hydrogen or to the loss of bicarbonate due to inappropriate wasting by the kidney or the gastrointestinal tract. The body then responds to this change in several processes. The first process which is readily available is extracellular buffering, with carbonic acid (H2CO3) and is considered an open buffering system because compensatory mechanisms in respiratory carbon dioxide and renal HCO3- serve to maintain balance. Metabolic acidosis stimulated the central and peripheral chemoreceptors which control respiration and eventually results in an increase in alveolar ventilation, which results in a compensatory respiratory alkalosis. Besides extracelluar buffering by the lungs and kidneys, there is intracellular and bone buffering where hydrogen ions enter cells and be taken up by the cell and the bone buffers.

The goal in the treatment of metabolic acidosis is for patients with severe acidemia to raise the systemic pH above 7.1-7.2. This condition can be reversed by treating the underlying condition or by replacing the bicarbonate. But bicarbonate is unnecessary except in extreme cases of acidosis when the pH is <7.1-7.2. For patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, bicarbonate is a controversial form of treatment. In hyperchloremic acidosis the main problem in reabsorption or regeneration of bicarbonate, therefore, therapy with bicarbonate makes physiologic sense and is important in patients with severe acidosis.

Second disorder is metabolic alkalosis. This is a primary increase in serum bicarbonate concentration which occurs as a consequence of a loss of hydrogen ion from the body or a gain in HCO3-. And metabolic alkalosis… [read more]


Life Changing Event That Shaped New Career Term Paper

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Life Changing Event That Shaped New Career

Personal Statement: Life Changing Event that shaped my new Career

There is no medicine like hope, no incentive so great, and no tonic so powerful as expectation of something better tomorrow -- Orison Swett Marden

Ideally, advances in medicine should provide concrete solutions as well as hope to those who are suffering. Medicine itself is a field that must be infused with hope, the hope that tomorrow will indeed be a better day for humanity, and the hope that cutting-edge research can make new advances in medicine an accessible reality to all healthcare consumers.

The field of biotechnology, and the entrepreneurial efforts required to sustain research in the field and provide care to the ailing requires a fusion of scientific and business acumen. I believe that my education and experience has given me both, and I seek to build upon this foundation.

In many ways, my desire to pursue a degree in Entrepreneurial Biotechnology is a natural outgrowth of my undergraduate concentration. I have been commended every semester on my university dean's list for the high quality of my performance in my Bioinformatics and Computational Biology major. I also have work experience refining the databases of several financial clients.

But my passion for biotechnology is also rooted in my personal experience. Several years ago, my best friend was diagnosed with stage-three ovarian cancer. Helping her navigate the current and confusing array of treatment options, I became acutely aware of both the triumphs and the limits of the current state of modern medicine. Medicine and cancer treatment specifically has come so far -- and yet not far enough. Survival rates have increased, and treatment is less cruel, painful, and invasive than it was many years…… [read more]


Doctor, Lewis Thomas Traces the History Essay

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¶ … Doctor, Lewis Thomas traces the history of medicine from its earliest roots in the common human fear of illness and death and the superstitious practices of the ancient shaman all the way through several modern medical revolutions in the 19th and 20th centuries. He characterizes medicine as a field of knowledge that does not accumulate in layers, but rather, one that undergoes wholesale revolutions of new information that completely replace previous understandings and therapeutic philosophies based on those understandings of disease mechanisms.

Thomas describes several of the classic useless procedures employed by physicians well into the 19th century, such as leaching and bloodletting, which he suggests caused only harm, including the possible premature death of George Washington. According to Thomas, modern medicine really began with the first medical revolution in the 1830s when physicians initiated the first controlled study to compare the outcome of disease in a group of untreated patients with the outcome for patients treated with then state-of-the-art medical intervention.

The subsequent realization that most medical treatments of the day had absolutely no beneficial effect on the outcome of illnesses caused physicians to reevaluate their field beyond making simple diagnoses and providing palliative symptom relief. Curiously, the revelation that many diseases actually resolved spontaneously with the passage of time and about the limitations of medicine of the time did not substantially decrease the public's demand for medicine subsequently.

Thomas describes the second revolution of modern medicine as beginning with the post-World War II period and the introduction of antibiotics capable of effectively treating diseases that were often fatal without treatment. Thomas acknowledges that the significant advances in medical technology have dramatically increased life expectancy and quality of life in the 20th century, but still describes modern medicine as largely ignorant of many diseases. According to Thomas, modern medicine is now in the very earliest stages of the third revolution in that the newest sciences of DNA technologies whose full development in the future promise to improve human life far beyond the capabilities of medicine even today.

On the other hand, Thomas points out that the ever-increasing technological complexity of medical machinery takes certain elements of medicine out of the hands of doctors altogether when reliance on sophisticated equipment and imaging technology replaces hands-on diagnoses. Furthermore, the sheer volume of patients requiring treatment in the modern therapeutic environment requires that nurses…… [read more]


Chiropractic Field Has Become Increasingly Recognized Term Paper

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¶ … Chiropractic field has become increasingly recognized for positive health performance. What was once considered and "alternative" treatment, Chiropractic is now considered a primary choice of care by individuals of all ages and backgrounds. I look forward to gaining my Doctor of Chiropractic degree from Texas Chiropractic College and using my education and experience to help others here in the United States and in my home land of Pakistan greatly enhance their health and overall well being.

This decision to pursue my Chiropractic degree is a natural progression at this time in my life. I left Pakistan in 1990, already having an interest in the healthcare field. This is not surprising at all. Just about everyone in my family is a doctor, dentist, surgeon or optometrist. I grew up in an extended family where discussions around the table most often centered around some medical topic. As I was growing up, the subject of medicine became second nature to me; I knew all along that I would follow my family members' lead and enter this challenging field. I enrolled for a degree in biology knowing that from that point I could decide on my particular field of healthcare.

The larger question was, which healthcare field will I pursue? With so many different options from which to choose, I had to do a great deal of thinking. I also talked with my family members to get their advice and health professionals here in the U.S. while I was attending the University of Texas, San Antonio for my undergraduate degree in biology.

Rather than go into one of the medical areas being practiced by my family member, I wanted to strike out in a different direction. It knew…… [read more]


Ethics and Morality the Medical Profession Today Term Paper

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Ethics and Morality

The medical profession today is one of the establishments that ensures modern human longevity. When therefore needing medical services, the tendency is to trust doctors and nurses to do whatever is necessary to ensure the continuation or the return of optimal human health. In order to reach its current position, research is of extreme importance to develop… [read more]


MRSA What Is the Causative Agent Term Paper

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MRSA

What is the causative agent for MRSA? The British Association of Medical Microbiologists reports that MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus) is a bacterium frequently found in the noses of up to 30% of "normal healthy people." It is often found on human skin, as well. But if the Staphylococcus aureus gets inside the body it can cause "important infections such as boils or pneumonia," the report continues. The problem with this particular strain of this bacterium is that there are no antibiotics that can knock it down once it has entered the internal part of the human body. The www.link.med.ed.ac.ukBritish medical Web site points out that individuals can become carriers of MRSA in the same exact way that they can carry the ordinary Staphylococcus aureus - by "physical contact with the organism." And if the organism is on the skin, having physical contact with another person's skin means that other person is then exposed.

The British medical site points out that the MRSA bacterium, when it enters under the skin or in the lungs, can cause "important infections such as boils or pneumonia." The irony to this disease is that people who carry the Staphylococcus aureus are normally very healthy, and have no problems though they indeed are carriers.

MRSA is known to be confined to hospitals and to patients who are particularly vulnerable - such as those in intensive care units, burns units, surgical and orthopedic wards. The MRSA bacterium is normally "colonized" in the nose, on the skin, or in the back of the throat, and there is no problem. However, when a patient gets a fever, or has had a recent surgery, that patient may then begin suffering a full blown debilitating case of MRSA.

What is the problem with this disease? If a MRSA organism is passed along to a person (in a hospital or in the community) who is already ill then a more serious infection can occur. This poses a major risk for persons who have existing health problems, and for their families. If school children become infected and spread the disease among classmates, a major outbreak would be a very serious dilemma for the school and the community.

When treating an infection related to MRSA, a decision must be made between using a Bactericidal (bacteria-killing) drug or a bacteriostatic (bacteria-inhibiting) drug. In Science Daily (www.sciencedaily.com) the authors say the solution as to which to use "is not always obvious." Indeed, it is true that certain bacteriostatic drugs "may be preferable in cases of streptococcal..." infections, the article explains. Some physicians that treat infectious diseases "wrongly believe that bacteria-killing drugs are automatically preferable to those that inhibit bacterial growth," according to Dr. Robert Finberg of the University of Massachusetts. "The misperception that it's always better to use a bactericidal drug is incorrect."

In the publication of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, the authors assert that "Bactericidal antibiotics are generally regarded as superior to bacteriostatic agents" when treating most infections. To determine which of the… [read more]


Medical Memo Term Paper

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¶ … Medical Ethics Concerns

Results of requested research on medical ethics concerns; recommendation

Gracie and Keith,

You had asked me to investigate the current state of medical ethics, and to make a recommendation, based upon my research, as to whether or not we should request an affidavit from Dr. Smathers that she is not involved in ethically questionable behavior. Based on my research, which will be detailed here, I would recommend that we not request this of Dr. Smathers.

Questions Raised about Relationships to Medical Providers

Pharmaceutical and medical device suppliers depend on a close relationship with medical practitioners for new ideas, and to develop and test their new devices or pharmaceutical products. Quite apart from their ultimate commercial needs, there is a need to relate real-world clinical practice to innovation; without such close collaboration, the pace of medical innovation would slow down. This note outlines two areas of potential concern: (1) collaboration on research and clinical trials, and (2) collaboration on marketing and clinical presentations.

Research and Clinical Trials

There are a number of physicians whose opinion is sought out more than others. To some degree, this attraction is governed by the physicians' talents as researchers or in conducting clinical trials. Clinical trials and research require a good deal of record-keeping, scientific rigor and ethical probity. These requirements therefore limit close collaboration to a limited number of physicians who have both the interest and aptitude to support such research.

These physicians are generally well-respected in the medical community, are well-published, and have a reputation for presenting good work. Although a physician may have a number of projects under way with several pharmaceutical companies, it is not in the physician's interest to shade the data, or to make a device or pharmaceutical product appear better than it actually is. The reasons for this include

The recent decision of the FDA to make all data available to the public, thus allowing a 'second look' at clinical trial participants, their modes of data collection, and the accuracy of their conclusions. These standards are incorporated in government and private enterprise bodies, such as CDISD (CDISD 2007).

Clinical trial watchdogs, such as the Union of Concerned Scientists and Public Citizen (Wolfe 2006), pore over such data to insure that the trials are run in an unbiased fashion

In addition, those journals which publish the results of such studies are judged by professionals, who require any indication of sponsorship or bias to be declared by the participants in studies (NEJM 1993).

There have been exceptions to the above, where physicians have, in the opinion of their peers, overstepped their boundaries and represented the medical suppliers' interest more than their patients or the value of their science. A recent case, involving Dr. Martin Leon of Columbia, was particularly egregious. Dr. Leon revealed evidence from a clinical trial prior to its 'unveiling' date, which caused a significant movement in the stocks of several medical device companies. The response of the medical community was immediate and severe.… [read more]


Hour, the Interview Process Was an Optimal Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  1 pages (327 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … hour, the interview process was an optimal length. The two interviewers asked alternate questions, bouncing ideas off of one another and allowing me ample time to respond. They asked several personal questions too, which I had not anticipated but still appreciated because I felt they viewed me as a whole person rather than only a set of test scores. Some of the questions were standard ones, and I would have preferred more creative ones. However, I thought the interviewers also struck the perfect balance between professionalism and amicability. They were engaging, inspiring me to ask questions as well as to answer them.

I would not change much about the interview process except perhaps to extend it into two sessions. In a second session, I would use the time to create real-life scenarios for the candidate. I would include at least one scenario in which the candidate would be able to prove strong communication skills and sensitivity to diversity. Questions that relate…… [read more]


Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Company Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,231 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Fen-Phen Disaster to Top Pharmaceutical Company

Letter of Transmittal

Wyeth represents a "hidden gem" in the pharmaceutical business. This report seeks to show how difficult experiences since 1997 have resulted in Wyeth emerging as a financially successful firm with one of the deepest product pipelines in the business.

Wyeth's new strategies may have been the result of necessity:… [read more]


Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Company Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,391 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

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Wyeth (Pharmaceuticals Company)

Respected Madam/Sir

As you are aware, we are the globe's biggest pharmaceutical and healthcare company driven by research, being the leader in the discovery, development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, biotechnology products as also non-prescription medicines which enhance the quality of life for the people across the globe. It is a pleasure that our company Wyeth… [read more]


Scientific Admissibility and Merit of Published Articles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (801 words)
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¶ … Scientific Admissibility and Merit of Published Articles

CRITICAL APPRAISAL FORM

Section a: Reference of Article

Eric a. Macklin, Peter M. Wayne, Leslie a. Kalish, Peter Valaskatgis, James Thompson, May C.M. Pian-Smith, Qunhao Zhang, Stephanie Stevens, Christine Goertz, Ronald J. Prineas, Beverly Buczynski, Randall M. Zusman

Stop Hypertension with the Acupuncture Research Program (SHARP): Results of a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

Journal: Hypertension: Journal of the American Heart Association

Volume and Page Numbers: Vol. 48;

General Methodological Issues

For each criterion, check the appropriate box, according to how you think it is addressed: (Y=yes, S=substandard, N=No, NA=Not applicable, NQ=Not Qualified to Assess)

Criteria

NQ

Comments priori hypothesis clearly stated

Source population identified

Inclusion criteria described and appropriate (same in all groups)

Exclusion criteria described and appropriate (same in all groups)

Number of excluded or refusal (before study) reported

Withdrawals (during study) reported, explained, and reasonable

Withdrawals equal in groups

Sample size preplanned to provide adequate statistical power

Statistical analysis appropriate

Adjustment for multiple comparisons

Adjustment for important values

Results verifiable from raw data

Section G: Brief Summary of Paper: Descriptive information (short sentences)

Treatments being compared:

Check: [ two treatment arms [ great than two treatment arms

Design:

Check: [x] efficacy trial [ effectiveness trial

Method of assignment to treatment group: Random, stratified according to use of antihypertensives in previous six months.

Outcomes ascertained: BP increased modestly between measurements taken before and after an acupuncture session (by 2.1/0.8 mm Hg for a participant with pre-acupuncture BP of 143/88 mm Hg). No significant difference was found in the immediate effect of active vs. sham acupuncture. The risk of developing BP levels that required initiation of antihypertensive drugs did not differ significantly among participants randomly assigned to the 3 treatment groups. During follow-up, 2 STD participants experienced hypertensive urgencies, and 1 CNTL participant experienced congestive heart failure. No deaths occurred. The risk of any (n=98) or study-related (n=50) adverse events did not differ among treatment groups.

Main Source of Subjects: Subjects were recruited from outpatient clinics, referrals from Boston-area physicians, advertising in local periodicals and public transportation, and through mass mailings.

Inclusion Criteria: Untreated blood pressure (BP) of 140/90 to 179/109 mm Hg. No acupuncture in the previous six months.

Exclusion Criteria: Less than 18 years of age. Medical contraindications to acupuncture. Those individuals lacking follow-up data were subsequently excluded.

Main Source of Data: TCM individualized (IND), TCM standardized (STD), or…… [read more]


Radiation Safety in Radiology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,280 words)
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¶ … history of radiation and complications with it through the years, along with the safety precautions developed today. Today, it is difficult to imagine any branch of medicine that does not rely on some form of radiology for diagnosis and ultimate treatment. Early X-rays were dangerous, and doctors quickly discovered repeated exposure could cause radiation poisoning and even death in extreme cases. However, today's safety precautions make X-rays safer, more useful, and even more detailed, which aids in diagnosis and treatment for a wide variety of diseases and conditions. X-rays changed the face of medicine, and they continue to influence it in many vital areas.

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered X-rays quite by accident in 1895. In his laboratory shortly before Christmas, Roentgen noticed a barium platinocyanide screen fluorescing in his laboratory as he generated cathode rays in a Crookes tube some distance away" (Assmus 10). Leaving his other work, he concentrated on this new discovery, and after perfecting it, he announced it shortly after Christmas. By January 1896, the news had quickly spread around the world that Roentgen's machine could view the bones of the body through the skin and muscles (Assmus 11). At first, because the rays could penetrate wood and metal, and resulted in what looked like a photographic image, they were classified as a type of photography (Assmus 14). However, Roentgen discovered the rays did not refract, and maintained "longitudinal vibrations" caused them (Assmus 14). It was not long that doctors were using X-rays to photography humans for removing everything from bullets to setting broken bones (Assmus 14).

In 1897, the first dangerous side effects of X-rays began to emerge, which included hair loss and burns on the skin (Assmus 15). After much research, scientists discovered X-rays actually combine the actions of waves and particles to produce their images (Assmus 23). Physicians and others in the medical community comprehended the importance of X-rays almost immediately, and began using them to diagnose broken bones, internal organ diseases, and even treat some forms of cancer. Antoine Beclere, a French physician was the first to introduce lead gloves and aprons to help protect the radiologists producing images with early X-ray machines, soon after their discovery, in fact (Assmus 24). X-rays would become one of the most important tools for doctors around the world, and they have branched into many different forms of imaging of the human body today, including mammography, digital scanning, MRI's and ultrasounds. It was in the 1950s that doctors began to specialize in reading X-rays and using other forms of the technology, such as ultrasounds, and it was really then that the field of radiology began to take shape and become much more popular.

Today, there are two types of radiologists, the diagnostic, and the interventional. Diagnostic radiologists help diagnose a wide variety of diseases and conditions, and often consult with physicians in interpreting the meaning of digital images, while interventional radiologists use radiation to treat patients directly. Diagnostic radiologists seldom interact with patients, while interventional… [read more]


Natural Healing in Pain Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,617 words)
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¶ … Healing in Pain Management Analysis

Annotated Bibliography

The Use of Natural Healing Methodology in Pain Management: A Realistic and Acceptable Alternative to the Use of Traditional Pain Medications in Today's Society

The problem to be considered in this study concerns identifying efficacious natural healing methodologies that can be used to manage pain. Virtually everyone suffers from various amounts… [read more]


How Race Effects Hypertensive Medications Ace Inhibitors and Blacks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,151 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Race and Anti-Hypertensive Medications

Hypertension is a prevalent cardiovascular condition among American adults, with one third of adults in the United States being afflicted (Ferdinand & Saunders, 2006). The prevalence of hypertension varies across racial groups, with African-Americans being the most disproportionately affected in comparison to Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites (Ferdinand & Saunders, 2006). In general, African-Americans experience a shorter life expectancy than whit Americans, and this may be due to the greater organ damage experienced by this population as a result of earlier onset of high blood pressure and high severity of hypertension among this population (Ferdinand & Saunders, 2006). Due to the greater prevalence of hypertension among the African-American population, it is crucial that attention be paid to treatments and preventions that are most optimal for this population.

Research has indicated that certain anti-hypertensive medications work more effectively with African-Americans than other medications. For instance when administered alone, calcium channel blockers and diuretics have been demonstrated as more effective in lowering blood pressure in African-Americans than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), beta blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (Ferdinand & Saunders, 2006). However, evidence has demonstrated that when combined with a diuretic, all off these treatments are as effective with African-Americans as they are with other racial groups. Therefore, combination therapy is often recommended as the most effective mode of treatment for African-Americans with hypertension, especially those experiencing comorbid renal disease and diabetes, which are common among this population (Ferdinand & Saunders, 2006). The prevalence of these comorbidities and hypertension in general among the African-American population has indicated the potential need for the development of a single dose treatment that contains more than one therapeutic agent (Ferdinand & Saunders, 2006).

There are distinct similarities between African-Americans and individuals with diabetes as hypertensive populations that are difficult to treat (Flack & Hamaty, 1999). These similarities include high prevalence of hypertension, high levels of target-organ damage that is related to high blood pressure, and the existence of reduced natriuretic capacity, which contributes to reduced effectiveness of single-agent anti-hypertensive drug therapies among this population (Flack & Hamaty, 1999). Most single anti-hypertensive medications or effective in controlling blood pressure in only 50-60% of patients, and this effectiveness rating greatly declines among individuals with stage 3 hypertension and renal insufficiency, which is common among both African-Americans and those with diabetes (Flack & Hamaty, 1999).

Furthermore, hypertension is experienced more frequently and more severely among African-Americans than in other racial populations, which inevitably has led to greater morbidity and mortality among this population (Brewster, van Montfrans, Kleijnen, 2004). Brewster, van Montfrans, and Kleijnen (2004) systematically reviewed the effectiveness of various antihypertensive drugs in the reduction of blood pressure, morbidity, and mortality among African-American adults with hypertension. Their investigation was conducted through a search of medical research databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PubMed, African Index Medicus, and the Cochrane Library. The results yielded from this investigation indicated that the effectiveness of beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors in reducing hypertension did not differ significantly from effects of… [read more]


Prescription Drugs and the Health Care Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,724 words)
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Prescription Drugs and the Health Care Industry

The cost of health care in the developed world and in the United States has risen rapidly in recent years. Total U.S. health care expenditures are projected to "...increase from $2.17 trillion in 2006 to $2.88 trillion in 2010, with annual increases averaging about 7%" (Introduction to the Health Care Industry...). Furthermore experts… [read more]


Merck Pharmaceuticals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (699 words)
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Merck Pharmaceuticals

Rofecoxib, or Vioxx, is a non-steroid, anti-inflammatory drug developed by Merck Pharmaceuticals as a treatment for osteoarthritis, acute pain conditions and dysmenorrhoea. The drug received FDA approval in 1999 and began being marketed after that. However, in 2004, Merck voluntarily withdrew the drug from the market due to concerns that the taking of Vioxx actually increased the risk of having a heart attack and stroke.

The withdraw of Vioxx began following the Vioxx GI Outcomes Research study (VIGOR), a scientific study comparing the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of the drug. The results indicated a remarkable increase in risk for heart attack in individuals taking Vioxx. When made aware of the study, Merck argued that the results only showed that naproxen (the other drug used in the study) had a protective effect on preventing heart attacks. However, many scientist warned that this was an implausible argument since naproxen would have to be three times as effective as aspirin to account for the difference in the study. Further, Merck took no steps to research this claim. The results of the VIGOR test were given to the FDA, who thereafter ordered that all Vioxx come with warning labels regarding the "increased risk of cardiovascular events." preliminary version of the VIGOR results were later published by the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). However, after the article's preliminary publication, it was discovered by the publication's editors that some data reported to the FDA was not included in the NEJM article. It was later discovered that this information was clearly available to the article's authors. This data was in regarded to three additional heart attacks related to Vioxx use, which therefore would increase the relative risk of Vioxx from 4.25 fold to 5-fold. The articles authors were both independent and Merck hired writers.

A subsequent FDA study that Merck played no part in showed that Vioxx did indeed increase risk of hear attack. The FDA estimates that between 88,000 and 139,000 heart attacks, 30 to 40% of which were fatal, occurred as a result of Vioxx during its five-year market run.…… [read more]


SWOT Analysis of Pfizer, Inc SWOT

SWOT  |  2 pages (679 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Pfizer SWOT

Pfizer -- a SWOT Analysis

Strengths

Pfizer is one of the world's leading research pharmaceutical companies and also one of the world's most profitable companies. It has a well-respected name known all over the world and commands some of the top research, advertising, financial, and marketing talent. It produces two of the most well-known name-brand drugs, Viagra and Lipitor in America today. Even the American Heart Association recommends the use of drugs such as Lipitor to reduce cholesterol when diet and exercise fail to reduce this common health problem. High cholesterol as a common health problem is only likely to increase with the rapidly aging population -- and the rise in obesity levels (Berenson, 2007).

Weaknesses

Unfortunately, "while the company remains highly profitable, its financial health is increasingly tied to Lipitor" which is dangerous for the company in the future as Lipitor's patent will expire in several years, which means it will face competition from cheaper, generic drugs (Berenson, 2007). Pfizer's reputation has also been tainted by its association with Celebrex, a pain medication that has been tied to increased risk of heart problems, in comparison to over-the-counter painkillers. The prominence of the Pfizer advertising campaign for this drug, followed by its rapid fall from grace undoubtedly damaged the company's trusted name.

Pfizer also manufactures Zoloft, an antidepressant that was widely criticized for its over-prescription to teenager, and possibly causing increased suicidal thoughts in this population. The company website now states that the drug is not advised for people under the age of 17. Antidepressants and 'lifestyle' drugs like Viagra have come under increased media scrutiny and used as examples of the over-prescription of medication in the American healthcare system in general. Healthcare in America is growing more and more expensive, and insurance companies are being pressured to cut costs, including scaling back how much they pay for drugs.

Now, Exubera, "the first and so far only commercially available inhaled-insulin diabetes treatment," is on the verge of turning into an "expensive failure" as Pfizer "has been dogged…… [read more]


Bar Scanned Medications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (747 words)
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Barcode Scanning Medications

The Case Against Barcode Scanning of Medications

This paper argues the use of barcode scanning for medications used in hospitals is unnecessary and burdensome, because it requires more work and additional training for nurses entering the information, and does not provide an effective solution in the event technology would fail and nurses or doctors could not access a patient's medication database.

Recently researchers and healthcare organizations have proposed barcode scanning of medications as an effective solution to medication errors in hospital settings. Typically this information is recorded by hand and entered into patient's charts. The FDA in 2002 proposed a rule requiring bar codes for certain product labels, and suggested healthcare professionals use scanning equipment to ensure drugs are administered in proper amounts to patients and given to patients in appropriate time frames (Meadows, 2003).

Unfortunately as technology advances so too does the burden placed on nurses to learn new protocols and procedures for delivering medications to patients. Stephens (1992) suggests that entering medications into a scanning system will increase, not decrease the risk for error and possibly represent an invasion of patient's rights to privacy. This argument is soundly based on recent reports of stolen computers and other problems that could result in a leaking of a consumer or patient's private health information. Files stored on paper are less likely to be stolen "en masse" than files stored electronically. Further, technology often fails, and there are not any defined systems in place that will help nurses administer medication properly in the event the medication database failed.

Implementation of codes may also suggest a false sense of security that medication errors will not happen (Bayley & Berlinger, 2006). Thus, nurses may be subject to even more error or careless activity due to this false sense of security.

Meadows (2003) and others (Virtual Medical World, n.d.) argue that barcode scanning of medications in hospitals could reduce the risk of medication errors by requiring nurses and doctors to enter orders into a computer system instead of recording them on paper. As of the time of her analysis, only 3% of hospitals were using this method to regulate medication practices. Despite this "promising" observation, other studies including a study conducted by Brigham Women's…… [read more]


Ethical Practice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,674 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

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Ethical Practice

The foundations of biology and medical ethics are historically tied to each other through pioneering scientific research that frequently bordered on the macabre. The manner in which much was learned about the human body, and its various intricacies and functions was learned through direct observation, often direct observation of corpses, and often corpse that were gained through dark… [read more]


Ethics Behind Stem Cell Research Into New Term Paper

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Ethics Behind Stem Cell Research

Research into new means of curing diseases heretofore untreatable, and research into preventing conditions that damage and destroy life are all dependent upon the discovery that embryonic stem cells promise to hold the answer to many of these problems. Embryonic stem cells were isolated from inner cell masses of mouse blastocysts in the early 1980s.… [read more]


Sodium Bicarbonate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sodium Bicarbonate is, in general, a non-hazardous substance found in a number of household and industrial applications. The formula for Sodium bicarbonate is NaHCO3. Its molecular weight is 81.01 (1). It is also known by the common names Sodium hydrogen carbonate; sodium acid carbonate; baking soda; and bicarbonate of soda (1). It appears as a white, solid crystalline form, but sometimes as a fine, white powder (1). It can be purchased from a number of scientific and general population sources.

Sodium bicarbonate is manufactured by a process called the Solvay Process (2). The Solvay process involves a reaction of sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in an aqueous atmosphere. Sodium is a mineral salt that contains the ion Na+ and a bicarbonate anion, HCO3- (3). Sodium bicarbonate decomposes into its original elements sodium carbonate, water, and carbon dioxide. The reaction occurs most efficiently at 200°C (3). As the reaction proceeds, the bicarbonates continue to convert carbonate into Sodium oxide. This decomposition results in its use as a reactant in some dry fire extinguishers (3).

Health and Safety Issues

Sodium bicarbonate is considered to be relatively safe. Only large quantities are considered to be harmful in humans (1). Common lab equipment such as goggles and a lab coat are sufficient to protect one from hazards. However, it might be noted that this compound can be purchased in grocery stores with no health warnings or precautions listed for home use. It requires no special storage when used either in the lab or in the home. It is relatively non-reactive, non-flammable, and only poses a slight health risk (1).

High concentrations of Sodium bicarbonate dust might cause coughing and sneezing. Extremely large ingested doses might cause gastrointestinal disturbances. It might cause irritation if it comes in contact with the eyes (1). No reactions are noted from dermal contact. In case of dust exposure, it is suggested that the person be removed to a fresh air source. Large ingested doses require the consumption of several glasses of water to dilute the compound in the stomach. If one gets Sodium bicarbonate in the eyes, they should flush them according to the MSDS sheet. Other than these actions, no other adverse reactions are reported from exposure.

Medical Uses

Sodium bicarbonate is prescribed as an antacid to relieve heartburn and acid indigestion in humans (4). It is also used under certain conditions to make the urine or blood less acidic. When used in this manner, the most common form or ingestion is in pill form, by mouth (4). Sodium bicarbonate can be dissolved in water and consumed as a liquid as well (4). As with any medicine, it is important to use Sodium bicarbonate exactly as prescribed by the physician.

Sodium…… [read more]


Western Holistic Systems and Ayurveda Comparison and Contrast Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Ayurveda and Western Science: Compare and Contrast

WESTERN HOLISTIC SYSTEMS and AYURVEDA

COMPARE and CONTRAST

The objective of this work is to compare and contrast Ayurveda and Western Holistic Systems and further to answer the questions of: (1) What is unique to Ayurveda? (2) How does Ayurveda work harmoniously with other holistic approaches?; and (3) Which approach to health and… [read more]


Effect of Drugs on Stress Perception and Stress Adaptation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,426 words)
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¶ … Drugs on Stress Perception and Stress Adaptation

This paper addresses the dual effects of drugs and stress: drugs may change the perception of stress or activities under stress, and drugs affect adaptation to stress. The brain under stress functions in a highly active, yet limited capacity. This "flight or fight" mechanism is referred to as "stressors" and is… [read more]


Crystal Therapy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,700 words)
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Crystal Therapy

Crystal healing and crystal therapy has a long history and has been used in various periods and cultures for healing and meditation.

In essence crystal healing is a "... non-invasive therapy which can be used in conjunction with other complementary therapies and with orthodox medicine." (Inside track: Crystal healing - Clear way to relax.) Crystal therapy encompasses the… [read more]


Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,115 words)
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¶ … Bioengineer - Biomedical Engineering & Biotechnology Application

In today's world, biotechnology and engineering play a very important role in man's day-to-day lie. Biotechnology, engineering coupled with medical sciences are seen as the new key to have a safe and comfortable life.

With biotechnology, research and breakthroughs over food, nutrition, human health and human aspects will pave the way. Even from the start of the 21st century, the benefits of maximizing research over biotechnology have put the overall science and technology aspect into the limelight. Biotechnology is the reason for the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the likes. Biotechnology is seen to provide high potential in positively affecting human health. Health professionals can either facilitate or diminish this process, according to their level of understanding about the technology and their ability to communicate it effectively. Indeed, Biotechnology is receiving much attention these days amid predictions that an increasing portion of the world's drugs, food, and chemicals will be produced using biotechnology processes and that biotechnology will lead to a cure for cancer, the common cold, and many other diseases. In medicine, biotechnology is hoped to lead to new, better, and cheaper drugs. The use of human insulin produced by recombinant DNA is an example.

Meanwhile, with biomedical engineering, the combination of engineering in the medical field paves the way to better understanding of human health, medicines and equipments thereby providing better life and better medical procedures for man. The degree related to Biomedical engineering, degree offers students a foundation-level understanding of biological processes and skills in both engineering software and hardware for solving problems in biology and medicine. Biomedical engineers work with physicians, therapists and technicians in the design, construction, implementation and maintenance of equipment and medical and manufacturing facilities. This need exists at inpatient and rehabilitation hospitals and clinics, biotech companies, government agencies and universities, and in sales and marketing and other areas of the medical and manufacturing industry. With the continuous use of biomedical engineering, there will surely be more things that will be discovered and will help solve various medical problems.

These are the aspects and ideas which John Doe has been contemplating for a while. These are the thoughts that made him decide to pursue a graduate study related to Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. His has a very strong desire to make use of his interest to sciences to a further level. He is very optimistic that the knowledge and skills he have gained in the university when he took Computer Science will serve as a very valuable starting ground for this graduate study.

With the combined knowledge in Computer Science, Biotechnology and Biomedical engineering, John Doe is hoping that he can prove himself beneficial to the society, particularly in the line of research.

Goals

John Doe has carefully laid down his short- and long-term goals with regards to taking up a graduate study related to Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. Part of his short-term goal is to be able to develop a research… [read more]


Drug Panic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,434 words)
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Drug Panic

It used to be that drug companies could not advertise prescription medications, but now that they can it seems as though there are more and more commercials every day for medications that cure or help with the symptoms of some disease or condition, but yet the side effects of many if not all of these medications can be… [read more]


Testable Hypothesis. That Residents Spend Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

1. The authors' hypotheses was that a simulation-based educational program would improve the resident's Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) skills; and that the resident needed periodic training for improvement.

Question 2 What research subjects or data sources did the researchers use in the study?

2 nd-year residents from Chicago's Northwestern University's internal medicine residency program. 38 students. They received four 2-hour practice-training sessions in simulator intervention and ACLS skills, and practiced on a computerized dummy.

Question 3 What are the specific variables of interest, as well as the possible confounds and covariates the researcher should consider? What are the data types and levels of these variables?

The independent variable was the simulated-based educational program with practical component. The dependent variable was the resident's skill level and improvement in ACLS. This was measured by three tests including one at the outset to assess initial skills.

Covariates were nominal data and included demographics such as age, gender, ethnicity, medical school, and scores on the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Gender was 2 levels; Ethnicity - 5 levels; and ACLS situations that residents experienced during their first year of training was 4 levels (0-5; 5-10; 10-15; 15+). Confounds include the fact that the dummy was used for education and testing and the fact that testing and training were both applied only to one sample, that was not only small but also relatively non-diversified.

Question 4 What statistical tests were used? Were they inferential or correlational? Were they parametric or non-parametric? Give the specific names of these tests.

All tests were parametric. The statistical tests were descriptive and inferential. Although not stated, a t-test was used to assess contrast between the two groups (t-tests are always used to form comparison between 2 groups). Pearson correlations (a correlational / regression test) were used to evaluate correlation of ACLS performance with United States Medical Licensing Examination scores. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was used to assess reliability between the groups (interrater reliability), whilst Cronbach's coefficient was measured internal consistency of study.

Question 5 How are the results of the statistical analysis shown to be statistically and/or practically significant, or not significant? What was the p value mentioned

Significance was shown by the comparison of the crossover groups on their 2nd and 3rd test and the results of these two tests when compared to the baseline score.

There was a significant difference in the scores of Group A (experimental group who had first received when compared to scores of their baseline test (p<.0001). and, a similar statistical difference was found between scores of cross-over…… [read more]


Natural Health Care Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Health

Natural Health Care

Homeopathy, also known as homeopathic medicine, is a complete medical arrangement that was developed in Germany more than two hundred years ago. It has been practiced in the United States since the early 19th century. Homeopathy is utilized for wellness and avoidance and to care for a lot of illnesses and circumstances (Homeopathy: An Introduction, 2011).… [read more]


Gene Therapy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Ethics

Gene Therapy

The Dangerous Promise of Gene Therapy

Gene therapy research

Need for more effective regulation and oversight

Tragic case of Jesse Gelsinger

Problems with gene therapy

Safety of gene therapy

Review of NIH's RAC and FDA approval ineffective

Several deaths in human clinical trials

Commercial interests in gene therapy

Creates conflicts between business decisions and medical decisions

Recruitment of research subjects for gene therapy protocols

Gene therapy gives promises to people who are desperately searching for hope

Subjects often recruited in coercive ways

Germ-Line Gene Therapy

Germ-Line Gene Therapy

If available would be very helpful

Arguments for Germ-Line gene therapy

May be the only to prevent damage to people with certain genetic defects

B. Hard decisions for parents could be avoided later on C. Germ-Line intervention is more efficient than repeating somatic cell gene therapy

D. Gives researchers the freedom to explore new mode of treating or preventing disease

E. This kind of intervention best accords with a health professional's role of healing

III. Arguments against Germ-Line gene therapy

A. Unanticipated negative effects

B. Unnecessary

C. Too expensive to be a viable option

D. Limited utility in preventing disease

E. Issues of appropriate respect

F. Potential perils of concentrating great power in the hands of people

G. Possible malevolent use

H. People have a moral right to not have their genes tampered with Anytime that medical advances require human testing there are many ethical questions that come up. There will always be people who are on the side that human clinical testing is too dangerous and thus unethical. It may be true that there is an element of danger associated with this kind of testing, but it is something that is absolutely essential if modern medicine is to progress at all. There have been many developments in medicine over the years that have had to undergo human clinical testing that have been more than dangerous to those involved but were necessary for the good of everyone. If not for this testing and the trials that were involved there might be many people today who would not be alive or would be living very different lives than the ones they are living today.

Unfortunately the price for advancement is often danger. Because of this it is more important than ever to make sure that…… [read more]


Counseling the Ethical Dilemma Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (857 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

But shortly after I left my job and started college, I wrote a letter (to a county supervisor with a "CC" to our state senator) exposing the wrongs I had seen in terms of the lack of healthcare offered to these men. There was the medications issue and also some of these poor souls would sit all day in underwear that had been peed in, or worse, and I had been asked not to deal with it until they went to bed. My challenge resulted in a state investigation of the whole facility. Other employees came forward and there was a major overhaul of the administration. I had challenged the status quo, and I felt good about that, but I still harbored guilt deep down because I let the abusive policies go on through the summer.

On page 127 of Chapter 7 (Ethics and Power) the authors assert that by harming clients we act "unethically." I believe I did allow harm to come to those old men (clients, if you will). And in this case the harm I caused came from "acts of omission" (failing to report unethical behavior) and from "acts of commission" (dispensing medications illegally). This was actually a case of professional malpractice. In Chapter 8 (Engage) the authors discuss how counselors engage someone, and I actually feel a little less guilt knowing that I did treat the men with dignity and when they were up to it, I would engage them in conversation. One man in particular, John, always wanted to talk baseball and he shared the same story over and over about the beer truck he used to drive "back in the day."

Conclusion

If I were in the presence of a counselor, I would state that at the end of the day, I did act ethically by exposing (whistle-blowing) the wrongful behaviors and policies I witnessed and participated in. But I would also be quick to admit that in those two plus months that I worked there, I resisted doing the ethical thing, mostly to protect my job. Do I bear responsibility for the harm done to those men during the time I was employed there? Yes. But though I was accountable for that time frame, I do believe that because I blew the whistle on improper policies that remove to some extend my culpability.

Works Cited

Ungar, Michael. (2010) Engage (Chapter 8) in Counseling in Challenging Contexts. Florence,

KY: Cengage Learning.

Ungar, Michael. (2010). Ethics and Power (Chapter 7)…… [read more]


Web Evaluation Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Stem Cell Website

Stem Cell Research: Comparative Web Portal Analysis

Stem Cell research is a highly controversial issue in public life today. A process which carries the promising implications of treatment for health maladies that presently have no cure such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, stem cell research also invoked emotionally charged debate with roots in the 'right to life' issue often raised by conservatives and religious advocacy groups. Any legitimate philosophical consideration of stem-cell research must proceed from an elaboration over the scientific implications of such a process, as these advances in our understanding of genetics and human physiology have precipitated the ambitions for such capacities as cellular reproduction and the elimination of genetic and neurologically degenerative diseases. The scientific debate over stem-cell research is comprised of both matters of scientific feasibility and medical ethicality, with either facet still as yet unsettled. The term cloning is often used within the framework of the scientific discussion, working from a generally accepted definition of rendering a genetically identical copy of an organism from its own cellular sample. The dichotomy of perspectives on stem cell research as well as the sheer scientific and medical complexity of its implications has produced a bevy of available online sources elucidating the subject. As a result, there is a distinct challenge present in researching the subject objectively. With the glut of information available and the wide range of political and ideological agendas that might underscore said information, it is important to evaluate in depth one's chose informational resources. This is the understanding that precedes the present evaluation of two exhaustive web portals relating to the subject of stem cell research. The following discussion offers a comparative analysis of Research America: An Alliance for Discoveries in Health and Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, with the intent of determining which is ultimately the more valuable research instrument.

Before investigating each site's particular handling of the stem cell issue, it is essential to gain a grounded understanding of the identity and credentials offered by each. Accordingly, we review the 'About Us' link from each site. Research America describes itself as the largest non-profit group in America working to create 'research to improve health.' Its cited goals are the courtship of funding for medical research, to improve public knowledge of the benefits of such funding, to parlay this into public support for expanded research objectives and to empower the public to engage its public health system more actively through community action and a greater body of shared public knowledge. Now, prior even to investigating its discussion on stem cell research, we recognize that Research America is highly likely to take a strong position of advocacy for research furthering our understanding of stem cell research and for funding of this research to be derived from public funding.

By a slight contrast, the Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute describes itself into distinctly apolitical terms. In its 'About Us' statement, Sanford Burnham identifies itself as seeking "to understand the underlying biological mechanisms that… [read more]


Medical Imaging Drugs From Lab to Human Exposure Grant Writing

Grant Writing  |  2 pages (882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Prostate Cancer

Medical Imaging Drugs from Lab to Human Exposure

New techniques: Medical imaging drugs

Currently, drugs used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are subject to additional regulations by the FDA. "PET images show the chemical functioning of an organ or tissue and are unlike X-ray or MRI images, which show only body structure" (PET: Q&A, 2011, FDA). These drugs have been deemed to be sufficiently distinct by the FDA from traditional pharmaceuticals, regarding their potential for complications, that they warrant their own regulations due to the fact that "PET drug exhibits spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei by the emission of positrons" (Guidance, 2009, FDA). All drugs must proceed through a series of phases of testing from lab to market. Clinical trials must demonstrate that PET drugs are harmless despite the fact that the drugs contain small amounts of radioactive materials.

According to the FDA a "diagnostic radiopharmaceutical means: (a) An article that is intended for use in the diagnosis or monitoring of a disease or a manifestation of a disease in humans and that exhibits spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei with the emission of nuclear particles or photons; or (b) Any nonradioactive reagent kit or nuclide generator…. The amount of new safety data required will depend on the characteristics of the product and available information regarding the safety of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, and its carrier or ligand, obtained from other studies and uses. Such information may include, but is not limited to, the dose, route of administration, frequency of use, half-life of the ligand or carrier, half-life of the radionuclide, and results of clinical and preclinical studies. (CFR, 2010, FDA)

Before testing on humans, PET drugs are commonly tested on rats. Because PET drugs involve submitting the patient to a specific procedure, the pre-human clinical trials must not simply test the drugs, but also examine the drug's utility and safety over the course of the procedure. More sophisticated tests have been enabled by new technology. Now "in pre-clinical trials, it is possible to radiolabel a new drug and inject it into animals. The uptake of the drug, the tissues in which it concentrates, and its eventual elimination, can be monitored far more quickly and cost effectively than the older technique of killing and dissecting the animals to discover the same information. A miniature PET tomograph has been constructed that is small enough for a fully conscious and mobile rat to wear on its head while walking around" (PET, 2011, New World Encyclopedia). The animals can then be tested for short-term and long-term health effects as a consequence of the drug's administration and the trials have the advantage of featuring the…… [read more]

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