Study "Medicine / Pharmacy" Essays 111-161

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Generic vs. Brand Drugs Thesis

… Generic vs. Name Brand Drugs

Many healthcare consumers are familiar with generic drugs, but some may not realize the intense debate that has taken place in recent years concerning the manner in which generic drug manufacturers are able to provide… [read more]


Personal Statement Essay

… Personal Statement

This is a 'personal statement' by & #8230;.. To explain in detail why I am interested in studying the pharmacy course and why I am passionate about it.

I wish to present my case in four different views. Firstly, it relates to the personal goals I wish to achieve. The second is the personal background that has drawn me to the course, and the passion I have for this work. The third relates to my current qualifications and the last is my experience working with pharmacists which made me understand the profession. These four arguments show as to the reasons why I may be given the opportunity of pursuing the study.

Let me first of all start describing about my ambition of being a pharmacist. My ultimate goal in life is to open my own pharmacy and studying for this course would help me in a great way towards attaining my ambition. Thus this course would be the stepping stone to my career and my life's ambition. The reason for me choosing this particular profession can be traced to my background -- my life in Iraq and my subsequent interest and fascination towards a pharmacist's profession as will be shown in the next paragraph. To fulfill my ambition, as a first step I became a Pharmacy technician. I am aware that the work of the pharmacists is somewhat different from the technician; however there is a common thread that flows with both the work. It is only natural that the opportunity of interaction with the pharmacists enabled me to understand the profession on a deeper level. In helping me further my life goal, I submit that I be considered as a possible candidate, considering my experience and genuine interest.

2. My earlier years and personal experience while I was living in Iraq have to be recounted in detail. I have lived through troubled times in Iraq. Having lived there for twenty five years, I was a witness to the wars, and had opportunities to see the services of the pharmacists and what they could do to alleviate the sufferings of the people. My cousin was a pharmacist and she was helping not only our family but the whole community in that role. It was a role model for me. It instilled in me the desire to help people. I came to the U.S. In 2006. The fact that in the U.S. I chose to become a pharmacy technician - a step to willingly be involved in the process of helping the people with various needs show that I have taken the first possible step in realizing my goal and I was earnest about it. Given the opportunity to pursue…… [read more]


Different Ways of Preventing Medication Errors Term Paper

… ¶ … Preventing Medication Errors

Definition of Mediation Errors (National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention)

Medication Errors by Medical Staff

Right Drug

Right Dose

Right Patient

Right Time

Right Route

Medication Errors Made by the Patient at… [read more]


Naturopathy Herbology the Basic Foundation Thesis

… Naturopathy

Herbology

The basic foundation of Naturopathy is in harmony with nature. It is a holistic medicinal philosophy using natural resources in order to achieve the perfect state of health and fitness. As long as there is an undeniable relation… [read more]


Economics of the Pharmaceutical Industry Thesis

… Economics of the Pharmaceutical Industry

The pharmaceutical industry is highly complex and segmented. The costs for bringing a new product idea to the market are high. It is a long process that is heavily influenced by government regulation, the need… [read more]


Radiologic Technology Thesis

… Radiology Careers

Modern medicine is capable of treating a tremendous range of human disease and injuries, but the usefulness of all medical specialties depends on accurate diagnosis. Virtually every conceivable medical specialty relies on radiological technologies to provide formal diagnoses, making radiology one of the most important of all medical specialties. Radiologists enjoy some of the best working conditions in modern medicine and typically experience very positive employment conditions. Consequently, their services are generally in very high demand, with many starting out with six-figure annual incomes immediately after completion of their professional training.

Within the field of radiology, there are: (1) radiologists who are physicians specializing in interpreting diagnostic images in connection with diagnosing illnesses and injuries and monitoring medical conditions in relation to many other areas of clinical medicine; (2) radiological nurses specialize in providing nursing services exclusively in connection with radiological medicine; (3) radiologist assistants are the first line of support for radiological physicians and perform many of the procedures and tests ordered by radiologists; and (4) radiological technologists operate and maintain some of the sophisticated medical imaging systems and tools and work side-by-side radiologist assistants and radiologists in conducting the diagnostic tests on patients.

Radiology is one of the few so-called "physical-science"-based fields of medicine, making it a challenging and rewarding application of an academic interest in science. It combines advanced knowledge of human physiology with principles of atomic physics and nuclear decay, electricity and magnetism, and both organic and inorganic chemistry. At the same time, radiology is directly responsible for enabling many specific treatments available from modern medicine and allows significant opportunity to work directly with patients in many clinical environments. The field is also varied enough that it provides opportunities to work primarily in a private office setting for those with the same scientific interest in radiology but a preference for working primarily with technological equipments and diagnostic testing results instead of more directly with patients. In the words of my Radiology professor, Warren Hejny, "Radiology can take you anywhere; it can be used as a starting block or stepping stone."

Specialties within Radiology

Because of its tremendously wide applications within modern medicine, radiology offers more than a dozen distinct areas of even greater specialization within the field. Some of those specialty areas involve direct medical intervention, such as in…… [read more]


Pharmaceutical Sexual Enhancements Thesis

… Sexual Enhancement

Viagra, Levitra, And Cialis

The objective of this work is to examine Viagra, Levitra and Cialis and how they work and as well this work will examine erectile dysfunction and the differences, side effects and enhancement of the… [read more]


Can Pharmacogenomics Improve Drugs Safely Research Proposal

… Pharmacogenomics

The Opportunity for Health and Safety Improvement Through Pharmacogenomics

The currently dominant tendency in Western medicine is to appeal to methods of pharmacological treatment to attack ailments, diseases and the symptoms of conditions. The degree to which this strategy… [read more]


Cva Health - Nursing Essay

… CVA

Health - Nursing

A nursing overview of a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

Pathophysiology: What is occurring in the body when a patient is experiencing a CVA?

A cerebrovascular accident (CVA), more commonly referred to as a stroke, is usually caused… [read more]


Drug Receptor Interaction Essay

… Phenylephrine: An Alpha1 Andrenegic Receptor With Limited Effectiveness

Phenylephrine has come largely to replace pseudoephedrine as the preferred method of treatment for decongestant and other cold related symptoms. Phenylephrine is an Alpha1-adrenegic (a1 andrenegic) receptor that functions as an agonist… [read more]


Preventing Medication Errors Essay

… Preventing Medication Errors:

According to Walter D. Glanze, medication errors in a hospital or clinical setting "continues to be a very serious problem for physicians and patients," especially when one considers that medication errors can lead to prolonged stays in a hospital or even death (2001, 134). In the Brief Report issued by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, "in any given week, four out of five U.S. adults will use prescription medicines" (2006, 1) or take over-the-counter medications, and most of the time, these medications do cause some harm to the person taking them. However, when a physician or a pharmacist makes an error related to prescribing the wrong medication, "adverse drug events (ADE's). . . are inevitable" and the more powerful the medication, the more likely that the patient will experience harmful side effects, possibly even death (2006, 1).

Therefore, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services requested that a study be done to discover how widespread these medication errors are in the U.S. And to set up a national agenda for reducing and/or preventing such errors. Overall, this study revealed that medication errors are quite common and in order to decrease the prevalence of these errors, "this will require changes from doctors, nurses (and) pharmacists in the health care industry," the FDA, other government agencies, health care organizations and of course from patients who must be more vigilant when taking their medication to assure that they are not mixing together medications which may exacerbate their conditions or possibly lead to death ("Preventing Medication Errors," 2006, 1).

Within this report by the Institute of Medicine, there are three specific recommendations which will hopefully lead to a decrease in medication errors on…… [read more]


Chemistry Research Paper

… ¶ … home interiors to driving to manufacturing, the talk of the world is going green. People are encouraged to drive green, live green, and even eat green. Beginning to realize that their actions have a large impact on the… [read more]


Dramatic New Scientific Discoveries Revealing the Healing Research Paper

… Dramatic New Scientific Discoveries Revealing the Healing Powers of Herbs, Vitamins and Other Natural Remedies by Jean Carper

Miracle Cures: Dramatic New Scientific Discoveries Revealing the Healing Powers of Herbs, Vitamins, and Other Natural Remedies by Jean Carper

In this book, Carper discusses herbs, vitamins, and other natural remedies that can be used to help people look and feel better at any stage of their lives and no matter what their current level of health. There have been a lot of books that have talked about these kinds of things, and there are more and more people every day who are getting into the holistic side of healing. However, that does not mean that everyone in the scientific community is in agreement as to whether these kinds of remedies actually do what they are supposed to do. Some say that they are beneficial and others say that they are nothing more than placebos - 'sugar pills' - that do no good at all. In the book, Carper addresses this and also looks at the scientific evidence and discoveries that surround these kinds of remedies.

This helps to show that there is direct and compelling evidence that these types of holistic and natural remedies do have their place in the medical field, sometimes in place of western medicine and sometimes as a complement to it, and that more doctors are becoming aware of this. There will never be total agreement when it comes to these kinds of issues, just like there will never be total agreement on issues such as religion or politics, but as long as the scientific community continues to explore alternative medicine there will be more opportunities to find vitamins, minerals, herbs, and other natural remedies that are beneficial to people who are dealing with many different medical conditions.

Whether acute or chronic, medical problems have been with society since it began. Various ways to treat these problems naturally worked well, and others did not. As western medicine evolved many doctors turned away from the natural types of medicine in favor of scientific advances, but Carper shows that science and natural…… [read more]


To the Minister of Health Canada Research Proposal

… To the Minister of Health;
Canada has a serious healthcare issue on its hands. Though we
proudly proclaim ourselves a progressive nation with public healthcare
access, there remain children who today do not have the proper access to
prescription medicines and proven treatment avenues. This is a serious
flaw in our system, relating both to economic disparity and access
limitations. Based on the disposition that Ontario has historically taken
toward its publics, we have grown accustomed to expecting the kind of
compassionate treatment that saves lives.
On the matter of public healthcare, it is clear to me that the
government is interested in redressing these matters. Therefore, I feel
confident that words of my letter will be well received. According to your
website, Ontario is fortunate to have a "government committed to reforming
the public drug system through the Transparent Drug System for Patients
Act, 2006, which made changes to the Ontario Drug Benefit Act and the Drug
Interchangeability and Dispensing Fee Act." (Ministry of Health and Long
Term Care, 1) In particular, you have claimed a direct interest improving
patient access. This is an issue which is clearly of great importance to
us. Indeed, it is the purpose of my letter to contend that there is still
quite a great deal of work to be done in helping to realize that goal.
Moreover, the government of Ontario has a direct responsibility here.
There is little question that you have shown the awareness and
ability that are necessary to help address the need in the general public
for an access that defies economic divisions. Indeed, improvements in
accessibility of prescription drugs have genuinely helped to raised living
standards and life expectancy amongst Canadians. This is to note that "
'illnesses that were at one time rapid and a death sentence, we're now able
to treat with the benefits of modern medicine and we've been able to turn
catastrophic illness into chronic illness." (Gillis, 1) Our medicine has
certainly seen improvement.
However, the idea of public and universal health coverage remains
elusive, especially where drugs are concerned. As you are likely aware,
drug plans have yet to become a universal part of healthcare treatment
opportunities. You must also know that the significant social problem of
high "drug costs is particularly critical in Atlantic Canada, where 24 per
cent of the populace, or 600,000 people, have no drug plan." (Gillis, 1)
There are many families with children who fall quite problematically in a
middle ground between those who are most in need and those who have the
means to receive the highest possible care.…… [read more]


Social Interactions Between Alternative Therapists and Patients Thesis

… Social Interactions Between Alternative Therapists and Patients

The goal of the research in this work has as its focus interactions that take place among natural and social groups. This work will study a social group in its natural state and… [read more]


Off Label Drug Use Term Paper

… ¶ … Label Drug Use

USELESS, COSTLY or FATAL

Off-Label Drug Use

In November, 2003, the Knight-Ridder news service conducted an investigation on a practice called "off-label prescribing (Devitt 2006)." It found that doctors wrote up to 115 million prescriptions… [read more]


Aromatherapy Ecdriesbaugh Aromatherapy Is Considered Non-Traditional Medicine Term Paper

… Aromatherapy Ecdriesbaugh

Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is considered non-traditional medicine and falls under "complementary and alternative medicine" also known as CAM. Many CAM therapies such as acupuncture, dietary supplements, reflexology, yoga, massage, chiropractic services, Reiki, and aromatherapy center on the concept of energy in the body (Fowler, Newton 2006). According to Fowler and Newton, nurses have a special role in supporting patients towards wholeness through the practice of CAM, but also stress how important it is to understand all the aspects. These aspects include costs, drug interactions, and the patient's knowledge and understanding of CAM concepts.

CAM is sometimes called mind-body medicine because it is an approach to healing that uses the power of thought and emotions to positively provoke physical health. Because of this approach aromatherapy is not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine; however, the purpose of CAM therapies is to heal and promote wholeness and well-being. Nurses are innate healers. Together with patients, they restore patients' minds and bodies back to health. As a result, both the quality and quantity of patients' years of life can be greater than before. CAM therapies are noninvasive, often cost far less than traditional medical care, and make use of the natural healing abilities of healthcare providers. The use of CAM therapies may be constrained by insurance companies and viewed suspiciously by healthcare providers because of limited research and the fact that CAM therapies seem so different from conventional medicine (Fowler, Newton, 2006).

When essential oils are utilized for curative effects such as during a massage, the practice is called "aromatherapy." In the United States, aromatherapy hasn't gained respect as being medically valid in mainstream culture. Many advertisements abuse the phrase to sell everything from coffee, perfume, dish soap, and laundry soap in the name of "aromatherapy." However, in France aromatherapy has been a highly esteemed practice within the medical field. The term was created in France 1937 by Rene-Maurice Gattefosse who wrote out the medicinal therapeutic uses of essential oils. Many years later, England's Robert Tisserand combined the established medical view with a more holistic approach to healing in the book the Art of Aromatherapy, which helped others to discover the use of essential oils in healing (Milivojevik, 2006).

To investigate essential oils is to discover more than just pleasant aromas. Many aromatherapy experts claim that intensely concentrated plant extracts have the power to heal mind, body, and spirit. According to Schnaubelt, essential oils interact with human biochemistry in ways that science has been able to witness and document. For example, lavender is known for its calming effects. Scientists have noted that essential oil molecules attach to cellular receptors, usually through inhalation or direct contact with the skin, and this stimulates a chemical reaction (Milivojevic, 2006). "When a scent is inhaled, the chemical components within the scent pass through the nostrils to the olfactory bulb and then to the limbic area of the brain. The limbic area of the brain…… [read more]


Beloved Grandmother Was Stricken With Alzheimer Admission Essay

… ¶ … beloved Grandmother was stricken with Alzheimer's, I spent a great deal of time incredibly frustrated by the fact that there was little I could do to help that lovely woman. From that adversity and pain, my interest in pharmacy was born. Since I spent so much time helping my Grandmother manage her medications, I realized the value of patient education when it comes to prescriptions. My desire to help others, coupled with my knowledge of the difficulties that many patients on more than one medication face, convinced me that pharmacy was the right choice for me.

Currently, I am finishing my last year for my Masters in Biomedical Science and working on a thesis dealing with the Nicotine Receptors in the Brain. I have worked incredibly hard to get to where I am today. I came to this country from Iran after high school, where I graduated as Valedictorian, and when I first began college, my English was not yet very good. As a result of this, my grades suffered during that first year. This…… [read more]


Acupuncture TMC Term Paper

… Acupuncture -- an Overview

Briefly describe the five categories of therapies as defined by the National Institutes of Health and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and specify to which category the selected therapy belongs.

According to its official website, the National Institutes of Health and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NIH/NCCAM divides alternative therapies into five categories. The first are biologically-based practices that focus on herbs and food, the second are energy-focused treatments that treat energy imbalances in the body, the third are manipulative and body-based practices like massage and chiropractic therapy that treat the body through touching, the fourth is psychologically oriented mind-body medicine, and finally, there are 'whole' medical systems. While acupuncture is specifically an energy-based treatment to heal imbalances of ying and yang that affect a sufferer's qi or energy, it is important to remember that it is part of the whole medical or whole cultural body of practice known as Traditional Chinese Medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine treats sufferers with a variety of herbs, pressure points, and counseling in Chinese thought, as well as acupuncture.

Explain the philosophy, purpose, and treatment principles of the therapy.

Although usually thought of as 'needle therapy,' the term acupuncture actually refers to the stimulation of various pressure points on the body through a variety of techniques, including but not limited to needles. Heat, pressure, cupping with a glass, or small electrical impulses are also used to stimulate physical pressure points (Singer, 2007) However, the acupuncture techniques familiar to most Westerners and which have the greatest research-based scientific support involve penetrating the epidermis of the skin with "thin, solid, metallic needles that are manipulated by the hands or by electrical stimulation" ("Acupuncture," 2006, NIH). Most Westerners use acupuncture for the purpose of non-pharmaceutical pain alleviation and it became more widely known in the U.S. In the 1970s when New York Times reporter James Reston wrote about how doctors in China used needles to ease his pain after surgery ("Acupuncture," 2006, NIH). Nerve pain is the most common reason people turn to acupuncture, although it has been used for all chronic pain conditions, including post-operative pain, fibromyalgia, arthritis, etc.

Acupuncture's philosophy is rooted in the assumptions of traditional Chinese medicine that disease is called by a blockage in the flow of qi or energy which causes an imbalance of yin and yang, the hot and masculine and cold and feminine principles. Vital energy exists along pathways known as meridians. It is believed that acupuncture through the use of pressure points can help restore the correct energy balance between the twelve main organ meridians and eight secondary meridians ("Acupuncture," 2006, NIH).

Briefly summarize the historical development and evolution of the therapy.

Although it is commonly described as a 'New Age' therapy, acupuncture was first used in China more than 2,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest and most commonly used medical procedures in the world ("Acupuncture," 2006, NIH). The American…… [read more]


Consent the Most Important Statement Term Paper

… Consent

The most important statement included in the NCCAOM related to the practice of Traditional Chinese medicine is the statement referring to the obligation of "keeping the patient informed by explaining treatments and outcomes." This statement is basically valid in any treatment, but, given the fact that traditional Chinese medicine is less of a custom in Western treatment, it is thus even more in this particular case.

The patient needs to have explanations, first of all, on the meanings of Chinese medicine, on the principles it is based upon. These will help him understand why acupuncture can be helpful in delivering certain illnesses and how a general equilibrium can be reached in the body. Further more, the patient needs to be fully informed on the expected outcome and be convinced that this is a long-term process rather than a quick recovery.

On the other hand, issue #5 from the basic principles of the AMA makes reference to similar ideas. The physician not only has the duty to inform, but to remain continuously informed by a continuous research in any medical segments, including the Traditional Chinese medicine.

Finally, the AOM Code of ethics makes again clear reference to the necessity of constantly informing the patient about the techniques used and the potential outcome.

2. The two main problems that generally may appear are related to (1) obtaining consent and (2) communicating consent and information. In the first case, the patients may be physically unable to give consent, because of the physical condition they are in. In this case, it is generally up to the closest relatives to do so, but what happens if we are not 100% sure that they are most likely to have the patient's best interest at heart? In other…… [read more]


Gerontology and Gerontic Nursing Practice Term Paper

… 1. As she suffers from osteoporosis, several mechanisms are at play in
Mrs. Wood's condition. The basic elements result from poor bone mass
accumulation during childhood combined with an acceleration of bone loss
adulthood, when peak bone mass has been… [read more]


Acupuncture Is a Traditional Chinese Medical Technique Term Paper

… Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medical technique that has been practiced in that country for more than 2,000 years. (Acupuncture) the theory that underlies this form of medical treatment is based on a very eastern perception of the function of… [read more]


Pros and Cons of Buying Prescription Drugs From Canada Term Paper

… ¶ … Consumers to Import Drugs from Canada

Importation or smuggling? As drugs become more and more costly, the possibility of importing drugs from Canada has seemed increasingly attractive to many American consumers. Internet pharmacies offer cheap drugs from Canada-based… [read more]


Allergy in Human Term Paper

… Allergy in Humans

Allergy was first recognized in 1906 by Clarens Von Pirquet, a pediatrics professor in Vienna, as a group of early skin reactions to cowpox vaccination (Kim and Drake-Lee 2002). Today, allergy is applied to more specific IgE-mediated… [read more]


Genome Project on Drug Design and Discovery Term Paper

… ¶ … Genome Project on Drug Design and Discovery

The advances that have been made due to the mapping of the human genome are substantial and along with this are substantial advances in medicine and most specifically in pharmacology. It… [read more]


Mr. Everett Is Diagnosed With Tinea Pedis Term Paper

… Mr. Everett is diagnosed with Tinea Pedis and Tinea Corporis. What is his problem? How might he have acquired this problem? What classification of anti-infective drugs would be ordered for his treatment? Name three drugs and dosages. Are the drugs… [read more]


Cardiac Problems, Gi Issues and Anticoagulants Term Paper

… ¶ … cardiac problems, GI issues and anticoagulants as discussion topics the writer illustrates medical understanding. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

CARDIAC

In the world of cardiac events most people immediately think about heart attacks however there are many other disorders that can place stress on the heart and the patient.

Supra ventricular tachycardia is a disorder in which the heart rate begins to beat rapidly with no notice. Heart rates can jump from 60 to 320 beats per minutes without acceleration. While SVT is rarely life threatening a sustained AVT attack can create potentially dangerous situations including ventricular fibrillation that can cause sudden cardiac death.

Three medications that are commonly used for SVT include Verapamil, Betapace and Calan SR. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker designed to reduce the calcium signal for electrical conduction of the heart. Betapace is a beta blocker that helps control the electric conduction of the heart. Calan is another calcium channel blocker that works in a similar manner to Verapamil.

Each of the medications used have precautions and possible side effects that can vary from nausea to fatigue to more serious issues such as heart rate problems. Side effects usually are not severe enough to stop the medication but should be reported to a doctor. Betapace is the exception. It can cause very serious side effect during the loading dose including sudden cardiac death therefore patients are admitted into a hospital before being started and for the first three days of taking it so they can be closely monitored.

There are no herbal treatments recommended however, the reduction of caffeine, quitting smoking, getting enough rest and reducing stress are all believed to be helpful with these conditions.

ANTICOAGULANTS

When receiving anticoagulants, there are four areas of education that should be addressed with the patient and the patient's family.

Anticoagulants are powerful medications that can have life saving results, however, they also have several important issues that should be addressed with the patient and their family. The first area of education that the family needs to be aware of is the instruction to tell all medical doctors, dentists and pharmacists that they are on that medication. The medication has other medications that it cannot be mixed with. In addition before surgery or dental work is performed precautions must be taken so that the patient does not hemorrhage (Precautions While Using This Medicine http://www.healthopedia.com/drugs/detailed/anticoagulants/precautions.html#).

The second thing that must be addressed is to tell the doctor before taking any over the counter medications as they can create the same problems as above.

It is important that patient carry identification…… [read more]


How Does the Pharmaceutical Industry Affect the U.S. Economy? Term Paper

… Pharmaceutical Industry

How does the Pharmaceutical industry affect the U.S. economy

In the September 01, 2005 issue of Pharmaceutical Executive, it was reported that the overall global industry growth has to slowed to single digit rates: 2004 global dollar volume… [read more]


Moxifloxacin Pharmacology Term Paper

… Moxifloxacin (Pharmacology)

Composition/formulation & structure/nomenclature a) What is in the drug?

The drug is an antibiotic, and it comes under the classification of fluoroquinolones. It is primarily used to fight bacteria in the body, and to treat bacterial infections, including… [read more]


Aspirin -- Wonder Drug Today Term Paper

… Many doctors recommend taking 80 mg of aspirin each day to ward off heart disease and generally aid in blood circulation by thinning the blood.

How does the drug "work?" Recent studies have finally shed some light on what actually happens when a person swallows this little white pill. Aspirin has a variety of effects, but one of the major effects is reducing the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are substances somewhat like hormones that affect the flexibility of blood vessels, among many other things in the body, and this is one reason aspirin is effective in promoting a healthy heart.

Today, aspirin may seem innocuous and even a little old fashioned, but it is still the most widely used drug in the world -- something Bayer did not expect when Hoffman made the discovery over 100 years ago. Author Jan R. McTavish says of Bayer, "No one, however, apparently anticipated that in less than two decades this new compound would become the manufacturer's best-selling medicine and the world's most widely used drug (a distinction it still holds)" (McTavish 112). New forms of aspirin have been developed as more study has gone into the drug. Aspirin causes gastrointestinal distress and even bleeding in some people or if people take it over long periods, so scientists came up with buffered aspirin to combat these problems. A new type of "plasticized" aspirin is also being developed to help combat these problems.

Aspirin can also cause death if it is taken in extremely large doses -- especially in children. In some people, it can also cause nausea, diarrhea, and/or vomiting. However, for most people it is one of the safest, inexpensive, and effective ways to combat fever, aches and pains, and many other illnesses. It is also a major portion of over 50 other over-the-counter drugs ("Aspirin"). Aspirin really is the wonder drug of the world!

References

"Aspirin." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Editors. "The World of Aspirin." Aspirin.com. 2005. 22 Aug. 2005.

< http://www.aspirin.com/world_of_aspirin_en.html#

Flieger, Ken. "Aspirin: A New Look at an Old Drug." FDA Consumer Jan.-Feb. 1994: 18+.

McTavish, Jan R. Pain and Profits: The History of the Headache and Its Remedies in America. New…… [read more]


Pharmaceutical Career Every Year, Increasing Admission Essay

… Pharmaceutical Career

Every year, increasing numbers of people's lives are improved due to advancements in pharmaceuticals. The future holds even greater promise. Now that the human genome is sequenced, scientists will be applying the data to treat and cure a variety of diseases. Some of the best opportunities for transforming medicine with the newly acquired human genetic information rest in the design and enhancement of prescription drugs.

I look forward to being a part of this exciting future in the pharmaceutical field. With my BS degree in cell and molecular biology from (NAME OF SCHOOL), excellent academic history and deep interest in the area, I will be able to make a sizeable contribution.

My interest in pharmaceuticals goes back to my childhood, when I already showed curiosity about and aptitude for the sciences. In high school, I had already begun conducting research. I also had the chance to attend a special program called Leadership and Service, which included a number of different science-related field trips with…… [read more]


Glaxowellcome Introducing a Second Migraine Medication? Case Study

… ¶ … GlaxoWellcome introducing a second migraine medication?

With the vast opportunity to capture a wider and untapped market on prescription medication intended for migraines, GlaxoWellcome introduced a second migraine medication, Naramig/Amerge which GlaxoWellcome is planning to launch as a second generation prescription migraine medicine, triptans, parallel to Zenecks, Zomig. Although the previous medication being endorsed by Glaxo, which is Imigran, is still in circulation, the introduction of the new medication was not initially intended to replace the drug. As it was noted;

It was not as though Imigran had not been successful, Glaxo had captured 91% of the prescription-medication market share.

Data shows that the positive response of hospitals and patients to the latter medication, since its launch in early 1993. This vital information have revealed remaining potential in its market, hence, continuous studies were made to develop a new and better medication than Imigran/Imitrex.

2. How should GlaxoWellcome position Naramig in the U.K.

Market positioning of a products is very vital to its success. Based on the decision and the considerations made by the marketing team of Glaxo Wellcome in the UK, the company would be positioning the new prescription medication, Naramig, as a replacement for the previous drug Imigran. Doing so it would lessen confusion amongst doctors and patients as it was noted:

This option fit well with the overall concept that Naramig was an overall superior drug to Imigran. Itwould also allow Naramig to gain all the benefits of a new compound. second-generation, safety, and low recurrence.

3. Was the chosen strategy (Option 4) the best decision?

Issues with regards to existing products being replaced by a more…… [read more]


Cultural Competency Practiced Term Paper

… In 1996, the Food and Drug Administration took the needles used in acupuncture off its "experimental" instruments list. And, in 1997, the National Institutes of Health issued a consensus statement concludes that acupuncture:

Clearly works to treat a number of conditions, including nausea from chemotherapy, surgery and pregnancy, and pain after surgery (including dental surgery).

May also be an effective adjunct therapy for a number of other conditions, including stroke rehabilitation, relieving addictions, headaches, menstrual cramps, a variety of muscle pains, carpal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, low back pain, osteoarthritis, and asthma.

Has substantially lower incidence of adverse side effects than that of many drugs or other accepted medical procedures used for the same conditions.

Should be integrated into standard medical practice and be covered by Medicare, Medicaid and private insurance companies.

The World Health Organization has issued a provisional list of forty-one diseases amenable to acupuncture treatment (The fine points of acupuncture, Health Pages). These include respiratory ailments, pain and chronic pain conditions, PMS and other gynecological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders and many other health problems.

Today, acupuncture is achieving a healthy blend with Western practices. For example, true Chinese acupuncturists do not name specific diseases when a patient goes to them for treatment (Acupuncture -- acupressure, Let Us Reason). They will only tell the patient that they have a black in a certain meridian and then treat the patient. However, new Western acupuncturists do name specific diseases as a respect to traditional Western medicine. This leaves the patient with the knowledge to seek additional treatment if needed.

Cultural competence is the integration and transformation of knowledge about individuals and groups of people into specific standards, policies, practices, and attitudes used in appropriate cultural settings to increase the quality of services; thereby producing better outcomes (Davis, 1997). As many Americans are seeking a more holistic, naturalistic approach to health care and as acupuncture has become a widely accepted form of treatment in the United States, acupuncture is a valid and welcome addition to the cultural competence of Western medicine.

Bibliography

Acupuncture. Medicomm. Retrieved May 7, 2005 from Web stie: http://www.medicomm.net/Consumer%20Site/am/accupuncture.htm

Acupuncture -- acupressure, Let Us Reason. Retrieved May 7, 2005 from Web site: http://www.letusreason.org/Nam10.htm

Davis, K. (1997). Exploring the intersection between cultural competency and managed behavioral health care policy: Implications for state and county mental health agencies. Alexandria, VA: National Technical Assistance Center for State Mental Health Planning.

Pfeifer S. (1988). Healing at any Price? New York: Word Books.

The fine points of acupuncture. Health Pages. Retrieved May7, 2005 from Web site: http://www.thehealthpages.com/articles/ar-acupn.html… [read more]


Pharmaceutical Industry Term Paper

… Pharmaceutical Industry

The purpose of this work is to research the pharmaceutical industry and to answer the question of whether the costs of pharmaceuticals in the United States are too high and whether the cost of pharmaceuticals should be regulated.… [read more]


Jacob Warren-Scott Westman Term Paper

… She was not a pleasant person, but the fact that she was a doctor was all that mattered. Blood tests were ordered and these showed a high WBC count indicative of an infection. Additional tests were run and the doctor diagnosed Jacob as having a throat infection and ordered Zithromax, which she considered a strong enough antibiotic. Jacob's mother suggested that tests for Meningitis and Encephalitis be done, but the doctor turned it down as Jacob was quite steady mentally. (Jacob Warren-Scott Westman)

In addition to the antibiotic, she prescribed Advil and Ibuprofen and said Jacob would be well by Monday and if he did not get well by Wednesday to bring him to the hospital. As the prescription was being filled out in the pharmacy Jacob vomited. His mother took him home and gave him the medicines. Though the night was rough Jacob did not vomit and woke up feeling better. He had the best day with his mother eating solid food that he wanted and played with his friends, but in the evening he felt sick again and complained of severe headache. She gave him his medicine, but a little later he vomited again and his mother now became more suspicious that he had contracted Meningitis and called up the family doctor to move Jacob to the Emergency Room and he concurred. She took him to the ER of the same hospital they had visited earlier though Jacob was not very happy about it. The same lady that checked them in earlier was there and she did the needful, and added that she believed even the previous evening, when they came in that Jacob… [read more]


Working as a Pharmacist Application Essay

… Already I have demonstrated determination and focus in the pursuit of my future career. My academic coursework and professional and volunteer positions have all related to pharmaceuticals and health care. I am applying to the University of Washington PharmD Program because of the unique affiliations with other UW schools, affiliations that will enable me to better hone my talents and develop areas of specialization as I familiarize myself with the field. I look forward to studying with the esteemed faculty at the university, networking with them as well as with my fellow students.

While in the PharmD program I also hope to take advantage of the many resources and opportunities for internships that the University of Washington offers. I feel that the UW program suits my needs as an aspiring pharmacist and I also feel that I will fit in well on campus because I am an affable, open-minded, caring, and flexible individual who thrives in a diverse and challenging environment. Thank you for your consideration.… [read more]


Prescription, OTC and Herbal Remedies Term Paper

… There is also a movement to address the quality and efficacy of alternative supplements in Canada, where recently the pharmaceutical industry started manufacturing herbal remedies and McNeil Consumer Products received approval within Canada for the "release of Tanacent for the… [read more]


Healthcare Infrastructure Term Paper

… S. (Herbal Medicine in the United States)

The Congress is in the process of enacting a Medical Treatment Act, that will permit an individual to be treated by any health care practitioner with any method of medical treatment should such a request be made by the individual. The Medical practitioner would however be required to warn the individual that the food, drug or device has not been declared safe and effective by the Federal Government and as such any individual choosing to use any such food, drug or device does so at the individuals own risk. This will give easier for any person in the U.S. To access any mode of treatment as per the person's choice. (Access to Medical Treatment Act)

References

"Acupuncture FAQ" Retrieved from http://qi-journal.com/TCM.asp?-token.SearchID=Acupuncture%20FAQ Accessed on 12/03/2004

Brown, Lonny J. (2001) "What is Holistic Health?' Retrieved from http://www.holistic.com/holistic/learning.nsf/0/6d6ad242c4e75c9c87256b8f00021919?OpenDocument Accessed on 12/03/2004

"Herbal Medicine in the United States" Retrieved from http://www.naturalhealthvillage.com/reports/rpt2oam/herb.htm Accessed on 12/03/2004

"Homeopathy" (1 November, 2004) Retrieved from http://skepdic.com/homeo.html Accessed on 12/03/2004

Jarvis, William T. (December 1, 2000) "Access to Medical Treatment Act" Retrieved from http://www.ncahf.org/articles/a-b/amta.html Accessed on 12/03/2004

Morgan, Chris. "Ayurveda: Medicine of the Gods" Retrieved from http://www.compulink.co.uk/~mandrake/ayurveda.htm Accessed on 12/03/2004… [read more]


Admissions, Personal the Optometrists Term Paper

… The Chinese experience taught me that experimental and traditional medicine can sometimes solve problems even better than the normal approach we are used to in the Western world.

The trip to China was an experience that came about in the summer of 2004, when I was nominated by one of my professors to travel to China with the international Mission on Medicine. I knew this would be perhaps a once in a lifetime opportunity, a period during which I could accumulate and learn, so I took no moments to decide and swiftly accepted the challenge.

The trip to China also convinced me that being an optometrist is my vocation. Indeed, during my period spent there, I volunteered at an office for 12 hours a week doing vision therapy with children. Children are perhaps the best example of patients that make you understand the importance of your profession. For example, the case of an eight-year-old that had a focusing problem is most relevant.

The little boy was very bright and knew how to read, however, the focusing problem meddled with his ability and he was frustrated over the fact that, although he had learned to read and was quite able to perform reading, he couldn't because of his physical disability.

After working with him for several weeks, the problem gradually began to ameliorate. After six weeks of therapy, the reward was maximal: a smiling face came and announced that reading was no longer an issue for him.

The Chinese optometric experience, combined with traditional medicine and working with patients, made me understand that medicine and practicing medicine is indeed a gift and an honor of which I want to…… [read more]


Personal Statement on the Career Term Paper

… .

It is my desire to work in a community setting such as a hospital, healthcare facility nursing home, neighborhood clinic, and in cohesion with health practitioners to provide information to patients on an individual basis as needed to guide their proper aftercare. This assures progress at the time of their next appointment with the Health Practitioner.

As a pharmacist it is my goal to fully understand the use, clinical effects and composition of drugs as well as their biological, chemical and physical properties.

I believe that a pharmacist that supports the Health care providers by utilizing all possible communications with the patient to help them understand the nature and role of their self-care is one of the highest callings which exist. Finally, to do all of this and furthermore, to do so professionally and with compassion is my goal and motivation for pursing a career as a…… [read more]


Healthcare Making Prescription Drugs Affordable? Term Paper

… This medical insurance was typically financed in whole or in part by an individual's employer. As healthcare costs continued to rise, many corporate and municipal employers were forced to either cut back on, or eliminate, their contributions to their employees'… [read more]


Post Bac Discuss an Academic Term Paper

… Yet in medicine, the doctor, student, or researcher daily deals with the currently finite capacity of medicine to understand the full scope of the human body's ability to be penetrated by small viral intrusions, to be threatened by pathologies, viruses, bacteria, and the small and lager, and the visible and invisible instruments and intrusions that can cause death and disease.

Success for me has long been defined in terms of my academic success, of which I am proud. Yet despite my academic and cerebral credentials, despite working at the Mayo Clinic at present, and also volunteering at its gastrointestinal unit, I have yet to discover a cure for the ailments that strike the food system of the nation of India and others and cause malnutrition and starvation. Many wiser and older researchers and doctors than myself have labored in vain to discover the cure for cancers of the stomach and esophagus. Although I am proud of my successes in understanding, I am well aware of the failures of those more experienced than myself in my field of choice, and the frustrations I may encounter in my future studies in the medical field.

While working at the Mayo Clinic as a volunteer at GI Diagnostic Center I had to notify patients' family members and friends of patients in waiting area that the patients near and dear to them had completed often variously uncomfortable and undignified procedures. I was amazed, witnessing these patients in the recovery room, at their ability to bear up against physical discomfort, as well as their loved one's compassion and fortitude in giving them emotional aid during such a difficult time. I frequently visited patients in waiting area and assisted with history transport between procedure room and recovery room. The patient's emotional testimony was a success to me that I hope to replicate in the scientific realm when I become a doctor, as well as become successful in taking these lessons of strength learned not only to my studies and research but also the practice of medicine.… [read more]


Aspirin Term Paper

… However, there are some dangers that come with taking large doses of Aspirin. Most people know that taken over long periods, Aspirin can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, and some people cannot take the drug because it upsets their stomachs, which is one reason buffered Aspirin was developed. Regular dosages can also cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, and large doses can be fatal, especially in children ("Aspirin"). Scientists have developed some alternatives to Aspirin like Acetaminophen (Tylenol), which often does not irritate the gastric system but can help relieve pain and lower fevers. In addition, a new "poly-Aspirin" has been developed that helps those who are allergic to the drug tolerate dosages (Gribbin 28).

Unlike many other early drugs that have been replaced by newer and better drugs, today Aspirin is still used extensively for a variety of ailments. Scientists believe Aspirin works by "interfering with the synthesis of specific prostaglandins in the body" ("Aspirin"). However, many more uses have surfaced for Aspirin in modern times, including the treatment and prevention of some types of heart disease and strokes. "Because of its ability to inhibit the formation of blood clots, aspirin is also used in low doses to prevent heart attack and stroke and to control unstable angina" ("Aspirin"). In addition, researchers are looking into the "drug's usefulness in preventing certain cancers, the dangerous high blood pressure that sometimes occurs during pregnancy (toxemia), and migraine headaches" ("Aspirin"). Clearly, the many uses for Aspirin are still developing, and scientists will continue to find more uses for this amazing and versatile drug.

In conclusion, Aspirin may truly be a wonder drug. When it was first developed, it seemed like a magical cure for many debilitating and painful diseases. Today, scientists still recognize the value of Aspirin therapy for a variety of ailments, and it seems that Aspirin will become even more viable in the future if science discovers even more uses for this productive little white pill.

References

Aspirin." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.

Editors. "The World of Aspirin." Aspirin.com. 2004. 12 April 2004. http://www.aspirin.com/world_of_aspirin_en.html#

Gribbin, August. "Plastic Aspirin Gets Rave Reviews." Insight…… [read more]


Penicillin Focuses on the Miraculous Term Paper

… Even though penicillin is not effective against all bacteria, its miraculous discovery has saved the lives of millions of people all over the world. Researchers that were inspired by Fleming's example soon helped to create an industry that invests millions today in order to discover new and ever more specific drugs, from which it gains even more millions in profits. The discovery of new drugs has led to the elimination of many other deadly diseases.

Penicillin turned out, as Fleming inspected, to be nontoxic to most persons, although a few are allergic to it. Many of the drugs that have contributed to the medical marvels of our era might have side effects. A general argument against antibiotics is that its discovery has caused resistant strains of bacteria and it is getting really difficult for the doctors to combat such bacteria. The important point to realize here is that if penicillin had not been discovered than human beings would have been greatly endangered by deadly bacterium. The discovery of penicillin paved a way for a better life for millions of people. It not only cured people but also motivated researchers to discover new life saving antibiotics. One of the side effects of these discoveries led to a group of bacteria that was more resistant to the antibiotics. According to my perception this was not the dark side of Fleming's life giving discovery. Instead it is the beauty of evolution that caused bacteria to become more resistant. Which creature in the world has not gone through the process of evolution? Even we human beings have been victims of this process and done rather well. The resistant strains of bacteria might prove to be a challenge for many doctors initially but it will also make doctors and scientists well aware of the behavior of the bacteria. This will also cause many researchers to discover new medicines that would treat bacterial diseases.

Nothing is more precious than the value of human life. Human life per se should be treated with dignity and respect. Hence, the great discovery of Alexander Fleming has had a great impact on the lives of many people and has paved a way for a healthier society.

Works Cited

Mary B. The History Of Penicillin. 2003. Available on the address http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blpenicillin.htm. Accessed on 22 Nov.… [read more]


Hypnosis in Medicine Proven Term Paper

… Yet, it is clear that one question that was often answered was that it was effective and some of the most respected clinicians of psychology and medicine came to see it as a valid and useful tool for the treatment… [read more]


Radiology Program and My Personal Term Paper

… As for my personal strengths that I feel will help me complete the program, I think that the most important one is my ability in science. Obviously, an aptitude for science is critical to success in a program like radiology. I also believe that I have excellent people skills. These skills will help me be successful in college because an ability to work with and interact with peers and instructors has an impact on a student's success. Furthermore, I have a very good work ethic. I've always taken my studies seriously and complete them before engaging in other interests. I'm capable of working hard and prioritizing my activities. I believe that this will ensure my success. In short, I chose this program because of my desire to help others. Your program is one of the best, and I believe that my personal qualities will allow me to succeed in…… [read more]


Alternative Medicine: The Biology Term Paper

… There are industrial standard and safety protection regulation to meet. This is exactly what the business players need to notify the industry.

The business is inseparable from the advancement of biology as knowledge, both in the past and in the future. In the past, business people made great profit from the herbal plantation establishment, discoveries of new medicines upon health care performances, and not to mention, the increasing numbers of trained herbal consultants by ages. Current businesses have another opportunities ahead, as armed with the practical knowledge inheritance from the earlier health remedy archives, they have preliminary informal studies to discover what contained in the botanical materials, and bring the direction for the industry.

There is a requirement for a strong relation between business strategies and biology as a part of science. Angell (1999) encouraged that current chemical and pharmacological methods would be able to "identify and purify the active ingredients in botanicals," for further study. She said, "Once the chemistry was understood, it was possible to synthesize related molecules with more desirable properties." She gave example of penicillin isolation from Penicillium mold, which turned out triumphantly to cure millions of people in communities that formerly lost their people from wound infection and pus.

In recent biology industries, the option does not stop to that. Scientists come out to discover that one chemical compound or substance may probably have multiple effects toward different forms of diseases. The industry has a broad range of possibilities where it wants to aim the research at. Scientist can predict the potential of chemical substance isolation from herbs and raw materials and point out what the substance can do to save lives upon variety if diseases.

However, such researches would be time consuming and prone to financial exhaustion. To cover the expenses, the promoter organizations need to incorporate the researches to the existing projects addressing specific health issue. It is not necessary that they explore the medicines without analyzing the most relevance result it can produce to solve urgent health problems.

Building Public-oriented Remedy Products

It is essentially ironical that upon the long time exposure to natural remedies, many alternative health care practitioners are allowed to sell their service without official license, even in major countries like England and the U.S. They rely only on restricted technical skills of the subjects from daily practices, and lack of medical qualifications or professional trainings (Mills, 2001).

Some contrary opinions towards the surfacing interest of alternative medicine rise from the fact that those remedies are sold freely in the market without official warnings that some remedies does not only heal, but also cause fatal effects when someone overdoses on them. People tend to consume such medicine without certain awareness and without informing their physicians (Angell, 1999).

A commonly elapsed responsibility of the industry is the publicity factor. It is necessary that the industry develop the marketing and promotion concept carefully so that it does not only focus on introducing the products to public and attracting their attention to… [read more]


Pharmaceuticals in Russia Term Paper

… Independent republics today do not have a federally mandated system in place to provide top quality pharmaceutical industry. There are several reasons for this problem aside from the counterfeit industry.

Some include the following:

Most plants have technologically obsolete production systems installed more than 30 years ago.

Depreciation rate of manufacturing equipment averages 70-90%.

Relatively few plants have production facilities that meet good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards.

Russian managers have little experience operating in a new market economy and are unfamiliar with Western procedures, methods, policies, and accounting principles.

Russian businesses, in general, have produced notoriously poor-quality products.

Manufacturing facilities have very poor internal quality controls.

Pharmaceutical workers need training in the new, unfamiliar standards and manufacturing procedures (Privin, 1998)."

All those factors have contributed to hold pharmaceutical operations to a 30-65% of industry production capacity. Nearly 66% of pharmaceutical companies in Russia are close to bankruptcy. A single pharmaceutical manufacturer - Russia's top market performer Akrikhin - accounts for more than 3% of the federation's drug product output (Privin, 1998). "

Aside from the problems the manufacturing plants are having there is also the problem of imported drugs taking away business of in house manufacturers. Currently there is also an issue with consumers being able to purchase products without a prescription which interferes with any hope of regulation and supply and demand forecasts being possible within the industry." Because of the increased import of foreign drugs, Russian pharmacists lack complete, updated official lists of available prescription and OTC drugs. They often sell ethical drugs to customers without a doctor's prescription. In Ryazan, for example, a survey of 19 community pharmacies reveals that patients can purchase antibiotics without a prescription in 17 locations, or 89.5% of pharmacies studied (Privin, 1998)."

The government is working on several possible solutions and is fine tuning their ability to be implemented. Some of the things that are being considered in the effort to regulate the pharmaceutical industry include:

examining new drugs drug standardization drug quality inspection and laboratory control regulatory control and oversight of pharmaceutical enterprises (Privin, 1998).

Some of the things the government has put into place is to mandate that companies who want to do pharmaceutical business in Russia must file with the government outlining the type of medications they want to bring in and the manufacturers regulations for their development. In addition all trials and studies on medications must also adhere to strict government regulations.

CONCLUSION The pharmaceutical industry of Russia has been filled with problems since the dismantling of the former Soviet Union. There have been issues with the quality of the drugs being sold as well as the packaging which leads consumers to believe they are buying a well-known brand and they are not. In addition to the health and safety issues that these problems produce there is also the financial trouble it causes the legitimate manufacturers. As the nation moves toward a democratic existence it also works to regulate and legitimize its pharmaceutical industry.

References

Privin, Irina (1997).… [read more]


Medical Dietary Therapy Contribution to Health Outcomes Research Paper

… ¶ … healthy life is attributable to the diet, and this has been seen as a therapeutic alternative to medicine. Over the years, the field of medicine has incorporated diet as a measure to increase treatment outcome to individuals as well as increase the average life expectancy. Dietary therapy facilitates better toxin removal as well as cleaning up potentially present toxins in the human body. To support in the treatment of patients, dietary therapy serves to stabilize patients' conditions allowing for better assessment of their condition and thus, ideal treatment exercise on patients. The choice of dietary therapy as a measure to treat patients or prevent the body from infection is that it is natural and more sustainable. Dietary therapy is easier to sustain with the practice embracing a more natural approach to treating and boost the body's immune system. Compared to the medicinal therapy, dietary therapy does not have a potential for side effects. This…… [read more]


Mathematical Analysis of Prescription Filling Process Case Study

… Mathematics -- Statistical Thinking in Health Care

The pharmacy is incorrectly filling prescriptions. The workers are blaming each other for the pharmacy's failure: the medication prescribers fault the pharmacy's assistants; the pharmacy's assistants fault the pharmacists; and the pharmacists fault the medication prescribers. Examination of their processes show areas that can be changed to enhance accuracy in filling prescriptions and several measures that can be taken to significantly improve the pharmacy's performance.

Process Map & SIPOC Analysis

Process Map

Process Map of Prescription Process

Prescriber decides patient requires medication

Prescriber chooses type of medication

Prescriber determines dosage

Prescriber writes prescription by hand

Prescription conveyed to pharmacy

Pharmacy Assistant enters prescription into pharmacy computer system

Pharmacist accesses and reads prescription from pharmacy computer system

Pharmacist chooses medication

Pharmacist calculates medication dosage

Pharmacist advises patient about medication usage and consequences

Medication conveyed to patient

ii. SIPOC Analysis of Business Process

SIPOC Analysis of Business Process

Supplier

Input

Process Steps

Output

Customer

Prescriber

Patient information

Decides there is a need for medication

Decides type of medication

Calculates dosage

Writes prescription by hand

Conveys prescription to pharmacy, usually via patient

Handwritten prescription

Pharmacy Assistant

Pharmacy Assistant

Handwritten prescription

Receives handwritten prescription

Enters prescription into computer system

Computerized prescription data

Pharmacist

Pharmacist

Computerized prescription data

Reads computerized prescription data

Chooses medication

Calculates dosage

Advises patient about medication usage and consequences

Conveys medication to patient

Fills prescription

Counsels patient

Patient

3. Main Root Causes of Difficulties

a. Special Causes

The problem that must be corrected is incorrect filling of prescriptions. "Special causes" are produced by external or specific factors (Bright Hub Project Management, n.d.), and here involve the messy handwritten prescriptions and inaccurate/incomplete instructions by prescribers, the incorrect entry of prescription information into the computerized system by pharmacy assistants and the pharmacists' mistaken assumptions about pharmacy assistants' grasp of medical terms, drug interactions, names, and other important medication information.

b. Common Causes

"Common causes" are intrinsic in the process (Bright Hub Project Management, n.d.), and include poor communications from the prescribers to the pharmacy assistants to the pharmacists to the patients. Prescribers may also choose the incorrect drug, miscalculate the dose, may misinform the pharmacy about the prescription, and may misinform the patient about the medication. Pharmacist assistants may also misunderstand the prescriptions, make typing errors when entering the prescription information into the computerized system, misjudge medical terminology, drug interactions, drug names and other important medication information. Pharmacists may also misread the computerized prescription data, use the incorrect medication, miscalculate the dosage, and fail to advise the patient about the medication altogether or give too little information or give the incorrect…… [read more]


Medical: Foot Fracture and Strain Case Study

… Patient Intake Case Record

Patient's Information

Choi is a male college student, single, 24 years old, and resides on Wichitaw Drive in Freemont, California 94539. He complained mainly of fracture of the fifth metatarsal bone and strain on his left… [read more]

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