Study "Medicine / Pharmacy" Essays 221-275

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History of Occupational Therapy Frame Research Paper

… This lead to conflicts within the field about whether the field should continue to specialize or whether it should remain generalized.

Frame 9 -- In 1956, the Certified Occupational Therapist Assistant (COTA) position was created to help ease the demand for OTs. OTs required 4-6 years of training in order to be certified. The field of occupational therapy continued to grow and by the 1960s had become highly specialized (Kearney, 2004).

Frame 10 -- During this period of specialization, the field of occupational therapy became divided into specialized field of pediatrics, developmental disabilities, and the physically infirm. Occupational therapists also specialized in working with the mentally ill and others to help them become functional and contributing members of society. In 1958, it was observed that occupational therapy was not the only occupation undergoing specialization. The fields of law, medicine, and engineering were also becoming highly specialized (Kearney, 2004).

Frame 11 -- In 1963, Moore criticized the field of occupational therapy for the inability to communicate effectively with other members of the medical community. At that point, their training consisted of half science and half "arts and crafts" training (Kearney, 2004). Studies were conducted and in 1965, Essentials was revised again to reflect these changes.

Frame 12 -- The revisions in the 1965 edition set the standard for all subsequent editions of the manual. The manual emphasized science and medicine, but added greater recommendations for inclusion of the social sciences. This edition de-emphasized arts and crafts classes.

Frame 13 - In 1958, the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) became responsible for the approval of educational programs for the occupational therapy assistant.

Frame 14 -- These changes led to the form that the occupation takes today. Today's occupations therapy relies more on the field of medicine than on arts and crafts. The techniques that the therapist uses have become more sophisticated too.

Frame 15 -- The period from 1950 through the 1960s can be summarized as a period of specialization and increasing complexity. It is a period that was important to the Occupational Therapist becoming a respected part of the medical team. Today, the occupational therapist is an important part of the team that helps patients return to normal life as quickly as possible, or to adjust to changes in their life as a result of their condition.

References

American Occupational Therapy Associaton. (2010). Occupational Therapist. Health Care

Careers Directory 2009-2010. Retrieved from 0 http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/40/tr01-occup-ther.pdf

Essentials of an acceptable school of occupational therapy. (1950). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 4, 126-128.

Kearney, P. (2004). The Influence of Competing Paradigms on Occupational Therapy Education:

A Brief History. Retrieved from…… [read more]


Pharmacokinetics -- Atenolol 50mg PO Research Paper

… Men and women are the same with regard to how the drug affects them. Studies have shown the extreme effectiveness of Atenolol as "an effective antihypertensive agent providing 24-hour reduction of blood pressure" (Drugs.com, 2011). The drug can also be used in adults and the elderly as a hypertensive, and in cases of both angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. The contraindications for the adult group are for people whose systolic blood pressure is less than 100 mmHg or whose heart rate is below 50 beats per minute. The drug is indicated in these cases. It is necessary to be cautious when prescribing the drug to elderly populations. Although this group has more hypertension and the other problems for which Atenolol may be prescribed, it is necessary to watch that the systolic blood pressure especially when the patient is 60 years of age or older (Drugs.com). It is also necessary to note that;

"In general, elderly patients present higher atenolol plasma levels with total clearance values about 50% lower than younger subjects. The half-life is markedly longer in the elderly compared to younger subjects. The reduction in atenolol clearance follows the general trend that the elimination of renally excreted drugs is decreased with increasing age" (Drugs.com, 2011).

For women who are pregnant, medications other than Atenolol should be considered. There is no blockage of the drug across the placental barrier, so the child is affected by the mother's intake of the medication.

Cost

There are two methods of taking the medication, and there are three different strengths of tablet that can be given. Since this investigation is concerned with the 50mg tablet dose, that is the cost that will be examined. Prices range from $13.00 for 100 tablets to more than $50.00 per 100 tablets. In the research conducted there is no indication why there is such a disparity in cost among the different pharmacies.

References

Drugs.com. (2011). Atenolol tablets. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/atenolol- tablets.html

Healthline. (2011). Atenolol oral tablet. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/goldcontent/atenolol

MIS. (2004). APO-Atenolol 50 mg tablet. Retrieved from http://home.intekom.com/pharm/apotex/ap-aten.html

Ogbru, O. (2006). Atenolol, Tenormin. Retrieved…… [read more]


Cave Paintings Complementary and Alternative Thesis

… Treatment of PTSD is similar to that of acute stress. CAM techniques can help reduce the level of anxiety and its accompanying symptoms, regardless of whether it is PTSD or acute. CAM therapies are more effective on long-term stress than… [read more]


Medical Imaging Drugs From Lab to Human Exposure Grant Writing

… Prostate Cancer

Medical Imaging Drugs from Lab to Human Exposure

New techniques: Medical imaging drugs

Currently, drugs used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are subject to additional regulations by the FDA. "PET images show the chemical functioning of an organ or tissue and are unlike X-ray or MRI images, which show only body structure" (PET: Q&A, 2011, FDA). These drugs have been deemed to be sufficiently distinct by the FDA from traditional pharmaceuticals, regarding their potential for complications, that they warrant their own regulations due to the fact that "PET drug exhibits spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei by the emission of positrons" (Guidance, 2009, FDA). All drugs must proceed through a series of phases of testing from lab to market. Clinical trials must demonstrate that PET drugs are harmless despite the fact that the drugs contain small amounts of radioactive materials.

According to the FDA a "diagnostic radiopharmaceutical means: (a) An article that is intended for use in the diagnosis or monitoring of a disease or a manifestation of a disease in humans and that exhibits spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei with the emission of nuclear particles or photons; or (b) Any nonradioactive reagent kit or nuclide generator…. The amount of new safety data required will depend on the characteristics of the product and available information regarding the safety of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, and its carrier or ligand, obtained from other studies and uses. Such information may include, but is not limited to, the dose, route of administration, frequency of use, half-life of the ligand or carrier, half-life of the radionuclide, and results of clinical and preclinical studies. (CFR, 2010, FDA)

Before testing on humans, PET drugs are commonly tested on rats. Because PET drugs involve submitting the patient to a specific procedure, the pre-human clinical trials must not simply test the drugs, but also examine the drug's utility and safety over the course of the procedure. More sophisticated tests have been enabled by new technology. Now "in pre-clinical trials, it is possible to radiolabel a new drug and inject it into animals. The uptake of the drug, the tissues in which it concentrates, and its eventual elimination, can be monitored far more quickly and cost effectively than the older technique of killing and dissecting the animals to discover the same information. A miniature PET tomograph has been constructed that is small enough for a fully conscious and mobile rat to wear on its head while walking around" (PET, 2011, New World Encyclopedia). The animals can then be tested for short-term and long-term health effects as a consequence of the drug's administration and the trials have the advantage of featuring the…… [read more]


Animal Research Is a Necessity Research Paper

… This 1966 law was "a very minimal and in many ways incoherent attempt to regulate animal research," and even though the 1985 amendments "did much to render coherent the ethic for laboratory animals," it remains inadequate (Rollin 2006). Under EU… [read more]


Web Evaluation Essay

… Stem Cell Website

Stem Cell Research: Comparative Web Portal Analysis

Stem Cell research is a highly controversial issue in public life today. A process which carries the promising implications of treatment for health maladies that presently have no cure such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, stem cell research also invoked emotionally charged debate with roots in the 'right to life' issue often raised by conservatives and religious advocacy groups. Any legitimate philosophical consideration of stem-cell research must proceed from an elaboration over the scientific implications of such a process, as these advances in our understanding of genetics and human physiology have precipitated the ambitions for such capacities as cellular reproduction and the elimination of genetic and neurologically degenerative diseases. The scientific debate over stem-cell research is comprised of both matters of scientific feasibility and medical ethicality, with either facet still as yet unsettled. The term cloning is often used within the framework of the scientific discussion, working from a generally accepted definition of rendering a genetically identical copy of an organism from its own cellular sample. The dichotomy of perspectives on stem cell research as well as the sheer scientific and medical complexity of its implications has produced a bevy of available online sources elucidating the subject. As a result, there is a distinct challenge present in researching the subject objectively. With the glut of information available and the wide range of political and ideological agendas that might underscore said information, it is important to evaluate in depth one's chose informational resources. This is the understanding that precedes the present evaluation of two exhaustive web portals relating to the subject of stem cell research. The following discussion offers a comparative analysis of Research America: An Alliance for Discoveries in Health and Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, with the intent of determining which is ultimately the more valuable research instrument.

Before investigating each site's particular handling of the stem cell issue, it is essential to gain a grounded understanding of the identity and credentials offered by each. Accordingly, we review the 'About Us' link from each site. Research America describes itself as the largest non-profit group in America working to create 'research to improve health.' Its cited goals are the courtship of funding for medical research, to improve public knowledge of the benefits of such funding, to parlay this into public support for expanded research objectives and to empower the public to engage its public health system more actively through community action and a greater body of shared public knowledge. Now, prior even to investigating its discussion on stem cell research, we recognize that Research America is highly likely to take a strong position of advocacy for research furthering our understanding of stem cell research and for funding of this research to be derived from public funding.

By a slight contrast, the Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute describes itself into distinctly apolitical terms. In its 'About Us' statement, Sanford Burnham identifies itself as seeking "to understand the underlying biological mechanisms that… [read more]


Counseling the Ethical Dilemma Term Paper

… But shortly after I left my job and started college, I wrote a letter (to a county supervisor with a "CC" to our state senator) exposing the wrongs I had seen in terms of the lack of healthcare offered to these men. There was the medications issue and also some of these poor souls would sit all day in underwear that had been peed in, or worse, and I had been asked not to deal with it until they went to bed. My challenge resulted in a state investigation of the whole facility. Other employees came forward and there was a major overhaul of the administration. I had challenged the status quo, and I felt good about that, but I still harbored guilt deep down because I let the abusive policies go on through the summer.

On page 127 of Chapter 7 (Ethics and Power) the authors assert that by harming clients we act "unethically." I believe I did allow harm to come to those old men (clients, if you will). And in this case the harm I caused came from "acts of omission" (failing to report unethical behavior) and from "acts of commission" (dispensing medications illegally). This was actually a case of professional malpractice. In Chapter 8 (Engage) the authors discuss how counselors engage someone, and I actually feel a little less guilt knowing that I did treat the men with dignity and when they were up to it, I would engage them in conversation. One man in particular, John, always wanted to talk baseball and he shared the same story over and over about the beer truck he used to drive "back in the day."

Conclusion

If I were in the presence of a counselor, I would state that at the end of the day, I did act ethically by exposing (whistle-blowing) the wrongful behaviors and policies I witnessed and participated in. But I would also be quick to admit that in those two plus months that I worked there, I resisted doing the ethical thing, mostly to protect my job. Do I bear responsibility for the harm done to those men during the time I was employed there? Yes. But though I was accountable for that time frame, I do believe that because I blew the whistle on improper policies that remove to some extend my culpability.

Works Cited

Ungar, Michael. (2010) Engage (Chapter 8) in Counseling in Challenging Contexts. Florence,

KY: Cengage Learning.

Ungar, Michael. (2010). Ethics and Power (Chapter 7)…… [read more]


Ropivacaine in Epidural Pregnancies Research Proposal

… Recent studies in labor analgesia has been done more at sea level rather than at higher altitudes, and the neonatal results seemed to improve for patients in higher altitudes that used ropivacaine over bupivacaine because there are less cardio toxic concerns with this anesthetic compared to bupivacaine (Litwin 259-261).

In addition, ropivacaine has been proven to be safe for mothers and their newborns especially after mother and baby are sent home, and are very unlikely the anesthetic would be carried over to the baby. There are more concerns for newborn babies that could take in secretions of other anesthesia medicine in the breast milk rather than in ropivacaine. What small percentage that was found in breast milk was statistically found to be lower in ropivacaine than bupivacaine and lidocaine in concentrations of milk taken within a 24-hour period. Currently, one of the only questionable reactions to ropivacaine according to the professionals of The Annals of Pharmacotherapy is the connection between persistent hiccups in epidural ropivacaine in newborn babies (Bagdure).

Works Cited

American Pregnancy Association, "Epidural Anesthesia." American Pregnancy Association. N.p., Aug 2007. Web. 17 Jul 2011. http://www.theannals.com/>.

Bagdure, D. "Persistent Hiccups Associated with Epidural Ropivacaine in a Newborn" Annals 45.6 (2011): n.p. pag. Web. 17 Jul 2011.

Halpern, S.H., & Walsh, V. (2008, May). Epidural ropivacaine vs. bupivacaine for labor: a meta-analysis. Retrieved from http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/96/5/1473.full

Litwin, A. "Mode of Delivery Following Labor Epidural Analgesia: Influence of Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine." AANA Journal 69.4 (2001): 259-261. Web. 17 Jul 2011.

McClellan, K. And D. Faulds. "Ropivacaine and update of its use in regional anesthesia." Adis drug evaluation (2000): 1065-1093. Web. 17 July 2011. .

Merson, N. "A Comparison of Motor Block Between Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine for Continuous Labor Epidural Analgesia." http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=18&hid=11&sid=6de252f5-44de-480f-8b78-3f376c47769a%40sessionmgr12&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWlwLGNwaWQmY3VzdGlkPXM4ODU2ODk3JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=c8h&AN=2001035216>.… [read more]


Gene Therapy Essay

… Ethics

Gene Therapy

The Dangerous Promise of Gene Therapy

Gene therapy research

Need for more effective regulation and oversight

Tragic case of Jesse Gelsinger

Problems with gene therapy

Safety of gene therapy

Review of NIH's RAC and FDA approval ineffective

Several deaths in human clinical trials

Commercial interests in gene therapy

Creates conflicts between business decisions and medical decisions

Recruitment of research subjects for gene therapy protocols

Gene therapy gives promises to people who are desperately searching for hope

Subjects often recruited in coercive ways

Germ-Line Gene Therapy

Germ-Line Gene Therapy

If available would be very helpful

Arguments for Germ-Line gene therapy

May be the only to prevent damage to people with certain genetic defects

B. Hard decisions for parents could be avoided later on C. Germ-Line intervention is more efficient than repeating somatic cell gene therapy

D. Gives researchers the freedom to explore new mode of treating or preventing disease

E. This kind of intervention best accords with a health professional's role of healing

III. Arguments against Germ-Line gene therapy

A. Unanticipated negative effects

B. Unnecessary

C. Too expensive to be a viable option

D. Limited utility in preventing disease

E. Issues of appropriate respect

F. Potential perils of concentrating great power in the hands of people

G. Possible malevolent use

H. People have a moral right to not have their genes tampered with Anytime that medical advances require human testing there are many ethical questions that come up. There will always be people who are on the side that human clinical testing is too dangerous and thus unethical. It may be true that there is an element of danger associated with this kind of testing, but it is something that is absolutely essential if modern medicine is to progress at all. There have been many developments in medicine over the years that have had to undergo human clinical testing that have been more than dangerous to those involved but were necessary for the good of everyone. If not for this testing and the trials that were involved there might be many people today who would not be alive or would be living very different lives than the ones they are living today.

Unfortunately the price for advancement is often danger. Because of this it is more important than ever to make sure that…… [read more]


Natural Health Care Term Paper

… Health

Natural Health Care

Homeopathy, also known as homeopathic medicine, is a complete medical arrangement that was developed in Germany more than two hundred years ago. It has been practiced in the United States since the early 19th century. Homeopathy… [read more]


Revolution in Understanding Genetic Contributions Research Paper

… One of the benefits of personalized care is that developers of new medications have been targeting new markers for different cancers and identifying specific patient populations that will respond to more targeted therapies. There has been a lot of excitement of the effectiveness of crizotinib for NSCLC even though a relatively small proportion of all NSCLC patients are likely to benefit.

The success and the fervor over crizotinib is warranted as it does appear to be promising in the treatment of some case of NSCLC and perhaps in several other cancers; however, it certainly is not a panacea. Of course one would not choose to use crizotinib in patients without the identified EML4-ALK fusion gene and its associated abnormal protein. In addition, in the Phase I/II studies it also appeared that some patients may have possessed a further mutation such that crizotinib was not effective for them. However, the real breakthrough here is the advancements in personalizing treatments. Personalized medicine is the real innovation here. In the past, health care and standards of care have always been based on epidemiological research performed on large patient cohorts. But as we are learning, the use of large cohorts does not consider the genetic variability in people. The development of drugs like crizotinib has the potential to lead to a paradigm shift in medicine. Using crizotinib as an example we can see how this paradigm shift might emerge. First, we have now recognized that perhaps certain conditions/diseases that share similar presentations are composed of a number of conditions with slightly different genetic alterations. By identifying the specific genetic variables in the diseases and the genetic variations that lead to resistance to treatment we can design specific treatments that can aid in the recovery of smaller cohorts of individuals. Over time, the identification of increasing different smaller cohorts of genetic variations in disease can lead to more and more personalized treatments for these cohorts. This relies on the systematic use of genetic or other personalized information to be able to select or optimize that patient's preventative and therapeutic care (Mehta, Jain, & Badve, 2011).

However, we need to remember that genetic tests are not perfect because many gene mutations are not perfect predictors of outcomes. However, once we know the genetic variables present in a clinical group we are able to specify and understand the specificity and sensitivity of the new diagnostics and we can better tailor the effectiveness of treatments. This information can lead to better success rates in treatment and the need for less guesswork.

Of course genetic variability would not be the only path that personalized medicine would follow. There are also molecular profiling technologies such as metabolomic analysis or proteomic profiling that can be useful. In addition all of these personalized methods could be useful to assess risk factors for a number of conditions and to tailor individual preventative measures for individuals at risk. The field of oncology appears to be ahead of other fields in personalized medicine, but the… [read more]


Testable Hypothesis. That Residents Spend Research Paper

… 1. The authors' hypotheses was that a simulation-based educational program would improve the resident's Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) skills; and that the resident needed periodic training for improvement.

Question 2 What research subjects or data sources did the researchers use in the study?

2 nd-year residents from Chicago's Northwestern University's internal medicine residency program. 38 students. They received four 2-hour practice-training sessions in simulator intervention and ACLS skills, and practiced on a computerized dummy.

Question 3 What are the specific variables of interest, as well as the possible confounds and covariates the researcher should consider? What are the data types and levels of these variables?

The independent variable was the simulated-based educational program with practical component. The dependent variable was the resident's skill level and improvement in ACLS. This was measured by three tests including one at the outset to assess initial skills.

Covariates were nominal data and included demographics such as age, gender, ethnicity, medical school, and scores on the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Gender was 2 levels; Ethnicity - 5 levels; and ACLS situations that residents experienced during their first year of training was 4 levels (0-5; 5-10; 10-15; 15+). Confounds include the fact that the dummy was used for education and testing and the fact that testing and training were both applied only to one sample, that was not only small but also relatively non-diversified.

Question 4 What statistical tests were used? Were they inferential or correlational? Were they parametric or non-parametric? Give the specific names of these tests.

All tests were parametric. The statistical tests were descriptive and inferential. Although not stated, a t-test was used to assess contrast between the two groups (t-tests are always used to form comparison between 2 groups). Pearson correlations (a correlational / regression test) were used to evaluate correlation of ACLS performance with United States Medical Licensing Examination scores. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was used to assess reliability between the groups (interrater reliability), whilst Cronbach's coefficient was measured internal consistency of study.

Question 5 How are the results of the statistical analysis shown to be statistically and/or practically significant, or not significant? What was the p value mentioned

Significance was shown by the comparison of the crossover groups on their 2nd and 3rd test and the results of these two tests when compared to the baseline score.

There was a significant difference in the scores of Group A (experimental group who had first received when compared to scores of their baseline test (p<.0001). and, a similar statistical difference was found between scores of cross-over…… [read more]


CIT, or Critical Incident Technique Term Paper

… CIT, or Critical Incident Technique, is a set of procedures that use direct observation of human behavior to meet definable criteria and help develop a flexible assessment of a particular set of behaviors, and incident, or an industry. It is used in a variety of ways, particularly in contemporary marketing and customer satisfaction studies in which individuals are able to form opinions based on a number of individual responses that, when combined, form a synergistic approach to the issue. For instance, CIT is widely used in organizational development as a research tool for identification of organizational breakdowns or areas of emphasis, which even sometimes are quite positive. It is used as an interview technique to help solve problems (White, 2005).

Issue - One very common area of stress for many people is the waiting room in the healthcare profession; particularly crowded doctor's offices in which appointments are not always possible to set in advance as in dental, eye care, or preventative medicine. Patients tend to be anxious, particularly if they are in pain or discomfort; and most waiting rooms are not conducive to relaxation or a patient centered approach. Often, too, due to the nature of modern medical care, the professionals are running late or overbooked, also stressors (Frampton, et al., eds., 2009).

Scenario- General Internist Office in upper middle class suburb. Five doctors share office, there are three receptionists; and 15 seats for patients. Receptionist notes that appointments are generally scheduled in 15 minute intervals, from 9am-1pm, and 2pm-6pm; Monday through Thursday. Most forms of insurance are accepted.

Participants - Four individuals; 2 male, 2 female. 1 M -- 26; 1 M -- 24; 1 F -- 39; 1 F- 25. All with at least some college. 2 Caucasians, 1 Latina, 1 Black. Within a two-week period, each had an appointment with one of the doctors at the Internal Medicine Clinic; two appointments were for route in blood work or checkups; 1 for a persistent flu;…… [read more]


Multiple-Health-Behavior Diabetes Intervention Term Paper

… For the context of the data used in the paper, the chart was an appropriate depiction of the data collected, and is thus presented in a neat and easy-to-read format. Since the parameters include the observation of data through a given time period -- 5 years broken up into 12-month increments -- the quantities for each respective month is seen as a progressive basis. Figure 3 somewhat differs from the first two figures, however, the prognosis remains the same; the graph is appropriate and perfectly represents the data collected. The scope and scale of all the graphs are also appropriately presented, as all the values are easily graph-able within the scale of the charts.

As far as whether there may be alternate graphs or charts that could be used to display the data, column graphs might be the second best choice. Column graphs, however, are more properly used if the overall goal was to present the different multiple variables and compare them relative to each other at a given time period. This, however, does not appear to be the case in the paper, because the paper adheres to a temporal basis, not…… [read more]


Arthritis Relief Essay

… She informed me that there were some major studies done that showed a lowering of pain by using the combination.

She also informed me of the problem of nightshade vegetables and fruits, and how they affect the human body. She said that before I started taking anything I should cut out potatoes, peppers and tomatoes from my diet. She had piqued my interest, so I decided more research was called for.

I then went online and read about a $12.5 million study on the effects of glucosamine and chondriotin, and discovered that what the lady had told me was partially true. According to the study "for a subset of participants with moderate-to-severe pain, glucosamine combined with chondroitin sulfate provided statistically significant pain relief compared with placebo" (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011).

Based upon this research (and knowing that there is more research to do) I would probably determine the pain history of my elderly clients before making any recommendations. If they happen to be in the moderate to severe category I would likely recommend the glucosamine/chondroitin mixture as it is more natural in origin than some of the other medical remedies offered.

If the pain was not as severe I would likely recommend that the patient seek to exercise, eat right and lose any excess weight, all factors that exacerbates arthritis suffering. I would probably not recommend the external cremes or ointments as a long-term solution to their suffering. I might recommend it as a short-term relief since there are not current studies that show the nightshade effect to any significant degree.

References

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2011) Questions and answers: NIH glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial primary study, accessed on April 8,

WebMD (2011) Arthritis diets and supplements: Do they work? Accessed at: http://www.webmd.com/osteoarthritis/guide/arthritis-diets-supplements on April 8, 2011… [read more]


Cystic Fibrosis First Term Paper

… Cystic Fibrosis

First, look again (this is what is already available):

Classification of the drugs selected e.g. CNS drugs, NSAIDS, steroids etc.

Drugs which affect the central nervous system.

Generic, trades names, chemical names etc.:

For a patient with Cystic Fibrosis, he or she must routinely (typically daily) take medications every day for life. These are the standard drugs assigned to patients with Cystic Fibrosis (Rubin, Bradley, 2003):

Tobi

Tobi is an antibiotic used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacteria that grows in the lungs of many people with cystic fibrosis. Learn what you need to know about Tobi, including possible side effects, safety warnings and financial assistance.

Pulmozyme

Pulmozyme (dornase alfa) is an important part of treatment for many people with cystic fibrosis. Learn what you need to know about Pulmozyme, including possible side effects, safety warnings and financial assistance.

Pancreatic Enzymes

Most people with cystic fibrosis take panreatic enzyme replacements whenever they eat to allow them to absorb nutrients and avoid the discomforts of malabsorption. Learn what you need to know about pancrelipase, including possible side effects, safety warnings and financial assistance.

4. Anti-Inflammatory Medications

Anti-inflammatory medications are sometimes prescribed to people with cystic fibrosis to help reduce swelling of air passages and improve lung function. Learn what you need to know about the different types of anti-inflammatory medications, including when and how anti-inflammatory medications are used in cystic fibrosis treatment, potential benefits and possible risks of anti-inflammatory use.

5. Bronchodilators

Many people with cystic fibrosis use medications called bronchodilators to help improve lung function. Learn what you need to know about the bronchodilators used in cystic fibrosis treatment, including possible side effects, safety warnings and where to find financial assistance.

6. Azithromycin

Azithromycin is an antibiotic that is used to treat infection in people with or without cystic fibrosis (CF). Read about the way azithromycin is used in CF treatment including how it differs from use in other infections, possible side effects, safety warnings, and where to find financial assistance.

7. Inhaled Hypertonic Saline

Hypertonic saline is a promising new treatment that can help thin secretions and reduce respiratory infections in people with cystic fibrosis. Learn what hypertonic saline is, how it works, who is using it and the potential benefits and side effects of hypertonic saline treatment.

"The Business Part"? I am unsure of how you would like this page to be aligned, then, so I will simply provide what you asked for (I would simply insert material of this sort directly within the applicable paragraph):

"the drugs that treat CF and how they work or don't at times"

Cystic Fibrosis…… [read more]


Cam Persuading a Hospital to Adopt Complementary Research Proposal

… CAM

Persuading a hospital to adopt Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

As a masters prepared nursing leader, how would implement CAM?

My first step as a nurse would be to get the rest of the staff 'on board' to include CAM. One of the most frequent criticisms of Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) is that there is no proof that CAM really 'works,' unlike scientifically validated, evidence-based medicine. Its harshest critics often attribute its apparent successes to the so-called 'placebo effect,' or the idea that because someone thinks a cure is helpful, they believe they show signs of improvement. However, many CAM techniques have been shown to be beneficial in controlled, scientific studies.

For example, in one study of 50 patients with herniated disks, half the patients took daily doses of the anti-inflammatory drug Celebrex along with Vicodin while the second group was prescribed back-building yoga and Pilates exercises. After three months, 80% of patients in the yoga group reported that their pain was reduced, while in the Celebrex group only 44% of the patients showed signs of improvement. "Three patients, or 12% of the yoga group, re-injured their backs during the period; that compares with 14 or more than half of patients in the medication group" (Parker-Pope 2002). Another movement-based alternative therapy called the Alexander Technique, according to a 2008 British Medical Journal study, was found to be more effective than drug treatment. Acupuncture, meditation, and a variety of treatments outside of the traditional scope of Western medicine have been shown to be more or equally beneficial than drug treatments through scientifically-validated studies (Varney 2011). These treatments are often more cost-effective than traditional therapies alone. Furthermore, they can empower patients to take control of their own health by encouraging healthy movement and eating habits, which can reduce the risk of re-injury.

2. What financial concerns do you have and what strategies would you use to solve them ?

Another frequent objection raised to CAM is that insurance companies may not cover the treatments. However, given the mounting empirical evidence of CAM's benefits, some insurance companies are offering coverage for these treatments. Unfortunately, coverage is seldom complete or is extremely limited in terms of number of sessions. "Chiropractic, massage therapy and acupuncture are the three most-covered therapies" (Wong…… [read more]


Biological Equipment Utilized to Detect Biological Weapons Essay

… 1st Responders

A first responder can be anyone with medical knowledge or training who shows up on a scene of disaster before anyone else. This individual may have attained advanced medical training, although it would also describe someone who has only participated in basic medical courses. The term first responder is a generic term that applies to any one of the above mentioned individuals. Oftentimes these first responders are people who work in the traditional 'first response' categories such as fire, police and medical emergency personnel, but other responders can include people that might not otherwise be considered. These individuals may participate in first response training due to their remote locale, their job or their desire to be prepared. Some of the individuals who fall into non-traditional first responder category include; teachers, flight attendants, security and prison officers, hunting or fishing guides, and the ultimate 'be prepared' individual might be boys and girl scouts who live

Training for these individuals is diverse and can consist of relatively simple first aid to complex setting of bones, treating of radiation and burns, as well as other medical emergency responses. Medical training is not the only training these individuals receive; they also receive training in a variety of other areas as well. With the wide array of natural and other disasters (Japan's recent earthquake is a prime example) that take place around the world on a regular basis, the first responder training acquired by these individuals is of utmost importance. A number of organizations provide training but a recent 2002 report on detecting biological weapon use decried the lack of knowledge for first responders regarding biological warfare. The report showed that "diagnosis may be delayed given clinicians unfamiliarity with these diseases" (Borio, et al., 2002).

The Borio et al. study determined that clinical manifestations could include body rashes, hemorrhagic diathesis, fevers, sweating and shock.

First responders would not necessarily be able to determine that these symptoms, on an individual level, were necessarily derived from a biological attack, but other circumstances may assist in that determination. Those circumstances could include a large number of individuals with very similar symptoms, or an entire area being effected at roughly the same time frame.

Basic and advanced medical training are now being offered by a number of organizations.

An example would be the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) that provides a wide array of training for firemen and first responders. Training supplied by the NFPA includes certification in a number of areas such as; Certified Fire Protection Specialist,

Certified Fire Inspector (I and II) and Certified Fire Plan Examiner. These are advanced courses in how to prepare for fire emergencies; more basic training for first responders might include courses on CPR and emergency first aid.

Basic courses can be found through organizations such as the American Red Cross. The Red Cross website states that "Red Cross first aid, CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation) and AED (Automatic External Defibrillators) training meets the needs of workplace responders, schools, professional responders… [read more]


Responsibility to Linda Assessment

… ¶ … responsibility to Linda is to provide her with the information she needs to make her own decisions. As her case worker, I cannot tell her what to do, but I can use this opportunity to build her internal motivation to make the right lifestyle changes. As such, I need to ensure that I provide her with a compelling argument that draws links between her behaviors and her current health problems. The approach I want to take is supportive and information -- she has already been told what to do and is not motivated to follow those instructions, so my role here is to address her sense of motivation and perhaps help her to implement structure in her life that will allow her to follow the path set out by the physician.

While Linda is aware that she has diabetes, she has refused all treatment. I do not want to focus on her past refusals for treatment, but rather to focus on helping her understand how she can solve the problems that she currently faces. I will explain to her that her lack of treatment has led to high blood sugar levels and the pain that she is currently experiencing. I will also explain that such pains are going to become more common and more intense if she continues to refuse treatment. The pain has motivated her to seek help from me now, so hopefully the pain will continue to serve as a motivator for Linda to begin treatment.

One of the biggest challenges that Linda will face is that if she begins treatment, her pain will subside. This could reduce her motivation and she may slide back to her old behaviors. To address this, I will need to make sure that she is comfortable coming back to me if the pain comes back. I want her to know that I am always available to help, because I believe that there is a high risk that Linda will stop her treatment once she starts to feel better. Linda may not be able to draw the connection clearly between preventative medicine and a lack of symptoms.

While I can see that there is a…… [read more]


Administering Pre-Transfusion Medications Capstone Project

… ¶ … administering pre-transfusion medications as a means of preventing post-transfusion reactions, examining the literature for support of current practices and for alternative practices that might prove more beneficial. In the initial phase of this project, the problem that was identified was not specifically an abundance of post-transfusion reactions, but rather the administering of medicines -- specifically acetaminophen and diphenhydramine -- as a prophylactic treatment meant to prevent post-transfusion reaction despite a lack of empirical evidence that this practice actually worked. A single article concerning the fact that these medications remain commonly prescribed as pre-transfusion prophylactics without real evidence supporting this practice, and that a possibly more effective pharmaceutical prophylactic existed, served as the spark for instigating this project, and spurred further investigation.

After the problem and a potential solution was identified, a specific research question was developed in order to guide a more extensive investigation. The population of patients being studied was identified as those receiving blood transfusions in hospital settings, with the intervention proposed being antipyretic medications. The comparison that this intervention was placed against in this research question was the current standard practice of prescribing acetaminophen and diphenhydramine, with the desired outcome being the reduction of post-transfusion reactions in terms of both their severity and the rate at which they occurred. With these parameters of the research question defined, the project could progress.

The next step of the project was conducting a more extensive literature…… [read more]


Kennedy, Case, Hurd, Cruz, and Pomper, 2008) Capstone Project

… ¶ … Kennedy, Case, Hurd, Cruz, and Pomper, 2008) was to prospectively compare the risk of transfusion reactions in hematology/oncology patients who receive acetaminophen with diphenhydramine or placebo before transfusion. This study hypothesized that patients who were given acetaminophen with diphenhydramine were less likely to show transfusion related reactions. This should show up in those given the actual drug, using those with the placebo as the control group.

Study research variables are as follows, Independent: The dosing of the patients with the drug or the placebo and Dependent: The patient reaction and metabolization of the dosing. This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind study intended to show whether or not the inclusion of specific drug dosings would alter the effect of transfusion related reactions. This study represents a Level II correlational survey/comparative survey. The sample number was 315 active patients from a total of 334 initial patients admitted for the study. Patients' ages ranged from 18-65 years of age and there were no gender limitations. The health status of the sample population were all admitted to leukemia or bone marrow transplant services the study took place in a hospital setting located in the Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University (Kennedy, Case, Hurd, Cruz, and Pomper, 2008).

The major findings of the study include, as worded in the final report, "Pretransfusion medication of leukemia or BMT patients without a history of transfusion reaction does not decrease the overall risk of transfusion reactions. However, pretransfusion medication may decrease the risk of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions to leukoreduced blood products." (Kennedy, Case, Hurd, Cruz, and Pomper, 2008). The quality of the study evidence is relatively high, given that 154 of the 315 patients were dosed with the drug and the remainder was given the placebo. The correlating graphed information relative to the study also shows a direct correlation between the number of transfusions and the risk for reaction. The study results were significant in showing that the drug had no real value in helping to reduce the risk of transfusion related reactions, at least in the method in which was studied.

Analysis and Arguments

According to the editorial which appeared in the same issue of Transfusion (Tobian, King, and Ness, 2008), the study conducted relative to the use of acetaminophen and diphenhydramine pretransfusion medication vs. placebo for the prevention of transfusion reactions was a direct answer to the fact that much of what is known about these drugs helping to prevent a reaction in a transfusion came from 60-year-old information that was not correlated at all with any study or scientific analysis of whether or not these drugs did anything at all to reduce the prevalence of reactions in the populations must susceptible to them. The editorial does much in exposing some of the weaknesses and points of contention within the medical field pertaining to the use of such drugs for reducing reactions in transfusion.

The editorial (Tobian, King, and Ness, 2008) also mentions that in 3 out of 4 studies… [read more]


New Drug Development Steps Research Paper

… New Drug Development and Approval Process

Word Count (including title and citations): 932

The development of new medicines is an arduous process. Identifying a new compound for drug use in a research laboratory is the seminal step which proceeds through the drug development process. Before a drug is approved marketing for general public use, the sponsor of the drug (e.g. The pharmaceutical company), must show that the drug is safe and effective for the proposed use.

This is done through the support and carefully documented scientific evidence. Furthermore, the sponsor must assure that production processes and controls, including manufacturing, packaging, and labeling, meet established standards of quality. The development process for new drugs includes five basic steps: Preclinical Studies, Investigational New Drug Application, Clinical Trials, New Drug Application, and Approval.

Prospective new drugs must complete preclinical testing to be evaluated for potential therapeutic usefulness. In the preclinical studies, the new chemical compound is tested for safety and effectiveness in research laboratory and animal studies. These tests offer empirical data on how it is absorbed, distributed, stored, metabolized and excreted in living organisms. Its effects on cell structure are also evaluated. These tests involve careful evaluation in several disciplines including pharmacology, toxicology, and formulation.

Pharmacology is a branch of medicine that is concerned with drug action. More specifically it examines interactions that affect biochemical function between chemicals and living organisms. This discipline is further divided into Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics studies. Pharmacodynamics can be summed up as a study of effects the drug has in the body; while pharmacokinetics is the study of what the body does to a drug. Studies in pharmacokinetics essential evaluate the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and their mechanism of action. It considers the extent and rate of distribution, absorption, excretion, and metabolism. The purpose of these studies is to verify the safety and usefulness of the chemical compound in order to determine the value of continued development. Pharmacodynamics studies the biochemical and physiological effects of drug substances on living organism. It also evaluates the mechanism of drug action in the body.

Toxicology would measure any adverse effects of the new compound on living organisms in this stage of evaluation the living organism are observed carefully for any signs of adverse symptoms or detection of poisoning of any kind. Toxicologists observe and measure both acute and chronic toxic effects. The new drugs are also tested for carcinogenicity, cancer causing, and Mutagenicity, effect on gene mutation.

While pharmacology, toxicology assess new drugs for biological activity, steps in formulation evaluate the chemical and physical properties. Formulated proceeds in two stages: pre-formulation and formulation. The pre-formulation stage addresses the chemical and physical traits of the new drug to assure a stable formulation and optimum drug delivery. Such things as drug solubility, partition coefficient, dissolution rate, physical…… [read more]


Can Strategic Planning and Managing Help the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay

… ¶ … strategic planning and managing help the pharmaceutical industry?

Q1.What goals and objectives arise from a SWOT analysis of the pharmaceutical industry?

Strengths: The pharmaceutical industry sells vitally necessary products. Many individuals are dependent upon insulin, heart medication, and other treatments to be able to function normally. Also, because of the wide number of diseases for which there are no cures, there is clear future 'demand' for further treatment with as-yet undeveloped medications.

Weaknesses: When drug patents expire and medications 'go generic,' people often select the less costly generics or are pressured to do so by their insurance companies. This cuts into the profits of the drug companies, who incur considerable initial expenses to develop such drugs. Some of the illnesses for which there is the greatest need and demand for effective treatment, such as dengue fever and AIDS, afflict the poorest regions of the world in disproportionate numbers, and sufferers are unable to afford or obtain even the medical treatments that currently exist for these complaints.

Opportunities: Pharmacological treatment for many conditions, such as depression, is now more readily accepted than ever before. There is an expanding need for medical treatments amongst the rapidly aging population of the affluent Western world. The obesity crisis has also created a greater need for pharmacological treatments of diabetes, heart disease, and other complaints related to excess weight.

Threats: There has been government, regulatory push-back against drug advertising targeting lay consumers. A number of cases where respected drug firms deemphasized the side effects of common medications (such as some anti-psychotics like Zyprexa and the painkiller Vioxx) and over-emphasized the efficacies of others (such as antidepressants) have been highly-publicized.

Goals: Restore the public trust in the industry. Continue to develop new medications for untreated illnesses.

Objectives: Extend aid to the developing world to circumvent criticism at home that companies are only treating 'non-illnesses' or over-treating Americans in general without improving human health.

Q 2. Does the pharmaceutical industry need any change? If not,…… [read more]


Assessing Reliability and Credibility of Cam Resources Presentation Term Paper

… CAM

Assessing Reliability and Credibility of CAM Resources Presentation

Assessing reliability and credibility of CAM

(Complementary Alternative Medicine) resources

Just Google it?

Not so fast!

BEWARE!

Speaker's Notes: 'Just Google it.' A common response to so many modern problems -- including health-related ones. This can be problematic -- even dangerous.

This website is brought to you by Watch for sponsorship

Carefully review website authorship

Speaker's Notes: More and more people are relying upon websites and 'sponsored' information (such as advertisements for drugs and herbal supplements) when making decisions about their health, and not relying upon their physician's advice. This is particularly true of individuals seeking to explore CAM (complementary alternative medicine) to supplement or replace conventional treatment.

Slide

Does this mean I can't use the Internet at ALL?

You can

But do so with care

Speaker's Notes: The Internet can provide valuable information -- if you know where to look.

Slide 4:

Obey the Three Cs':

Credibility,

Compatibility

And Common Sense

Speaker's Notes: When evaluating an alternative health website or other source of information, apply the 'Three Cs': Credibility, Compatibility, and Common Sense

Slide 5:

Credibility

Is the website credible?

What are the author's credentials?

Speaker's Notes: Is the website credible? Ask yourself: Who authored this website? What are the author's credentials? If the author is a layperson, remember that one person's anecdotal experience does not have the weight of a scientific study, and correlation between a single person's alleged recovery and a particular treatment does not equal causation.

Also there is the issue of bias -- is the website author selling a particular kind of supplement or treatment? If they have legitimate credentials, do they back up their claims with footnotes, links to legitimate resources such as the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Journal of American Medicine) or websites of professional associations such as the American Medical Association? (Benedetti, 2010)

Broken 'links,' grammatical and spelling errors, strange fonts in odd colors, and exclamation points, are obvious red flags. However, it is important to remember that even drug companies that sell supplements have sophisticated advertising budgets that can present their claims in a biased but slick and highly persuasive manner.

Slide 5:

Compatibility

Does the website provide 'only one answer?'

Does it discredit conventional medicine?

Speaker's Notes: Always remember that you are researching alterative complementary medical treatments -- treatments designed to be used in conjunction with scientifically-validated 'conventional' medicine. Websites that promise to be the 'only' needed cure for a disease or are devoted to debunking basic aspects of conventional medical treatment are suspect. Anti-vaccination websites that promote nutritional therapy to 'cure autism,' websites that suggest herbal remedies can be used in lieu of chemotherapy, or that magnets can eliminate chronic pain are examples of how promoters of certain techniques may debunk more legitimately-accepted practices and treatments in a dangerously misleading fashion.

Slide 6:

Common Sense

Trust your gut

If it sounds 'suspicious' -- look elsewhere

Speaker's Notes: Even a layperson must be an informed consumer about his… [read more]


Passion for the Biomedical Engineering Term Paper

… During my undergraduate program, I completed an internship with a Biomedical Engineer in charge of an MRI scanner at a local hospital. Through this process I was able to learn more about the functions of an MRI scanner, how it operates in reference to the patient, and how medical staff perceives the machinery. After this process, I was able to focus my interest this Biomedical Engineering sector. My internship revealed to me that this field has great potential and will see significant growth in the near future. What I discovered greatly enhanced my understanding of the subject and further grew my fascination for it.

I look forward to a career in the Biomedical Engineering field because it relies on my educated opinions as well as my instinctual one. I believe that the opportunities provided by your institution will assist in my goals towards my career. It would give me great pride to partake in such an elite group.

My strengths come from my passion to learn, work in a team, and complete high standards. As much as I would benefit from my acceptance to NAME OF UNIVERSITY I also believe the university would appreciate my enrollment. I believe that upon the review of my application, the NAME OF UNIVERSITY will be convinced of the same.…… [read more]


Endocrine Pancreas Review of Symptoms Term Paper

… 30, serum bicarbonate less than 18 mEq/l, plasma glucose greater than 250 mg/dL, positive urine ketone, positive serum ketone, and anion gap greater than 12 (Kitabchi, et al., 2009). For the variables that were tested, the patient meets all of these thresholds for DKA. Further, Wolfson, et al. (2009) write that "In the case of a patient known to have diabetes who presents with the typical signs and symptoms of & #8230;DKA, it is enough to establish the presence of hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis to be confident of the diagnosis."

Hyperglycemia: The patient's blood glucose level of 420 mg/gl is very high and far exceeds the threshold of 250 mg/gl. This patient is hyperglycemic.

Acidosis: The arterial blood gas reading of pH [HIDDEN] is less than 7.3, which establishes acidosis (Lee-Lewandrowski, Burnett, & Lewandrowski, 2002; Wolfson, et al., 2009), and the high anion gap (AG) also supports metabolic acidosis. The AG is calculated by subtracting the sum of the bicarbonate and chloride levels from the serum sodium level; for this patient, 139 - (5.6 + 112). The AG for this patient is 21.4 mEq/L, which exceeds the diagnostic threshold of 12 mEq/L (Wolfson, et al., 2009).

Ketosis: Ketosis is determined by the presence of ketones in the blood, while the presence of ketones in the urine is ketonuria (Haber & Ward, 2002). The patient's urinalysis result of 3+ ketones indicate ketonuria (Haber & Ward, 2002); a serum ketone test could be conducted to confirm the diagnosis of DKA.

References

Chernecky, C.C., & Berger, B.J. (Eds.). (2001). Laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Haber, M.H., & Ward, P.C.J. (2002). Urine. In K. McClatchey (Ed.), Clinical laboratory medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kitabchi, A.E., Umpierrez, G.E., Miles, J.M., & Fisher, J.N. (2009). Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32(7): 1335 -- 1343. doi: 10.2337/dc09-9032.

Lee-Lewandrowski, E., Burnett, R.W., & Lewandrowski, K. (2002). Electrolytes and acid-base balance. In K. McClatchey (Ed.), Clinical laboratory medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2006). Endocrine disorders. In The Lippincott manual of nursing practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.…… [read more]


Clinical Trial Development of Drugs and Biologics Research Paper

… Clinical Trial

Global clinical development of drug and biologic products

At some point, all prospective drugs must be tested upon a human population. This always raises profound ethical questions regarding the safety of the drug for volunteers. There is also an additional question of the use of controls: if a drug is found early on to be extremely helpful in mitigating the effects of a deadly disease, should the study's results be compromised by offering the drug to the members of the trial that are known to be getting a placebo?

Ethical questions grow even more troubling regarding global clinical trials. The question of using a population that is not of the same socioeconomic, ethnic, or racial background as the researchers calls to mind the infamous Tuskegee experiments in the American South, where white researchers denied penicillin to black men suffering syphilis, to see if the effects of the medicine were partially psychosomatic. At the time, there was already considerable biological evidence about the efficacy of penicillin and many men needlessly suffered damage to their health (Research ethics: Tuskegee Syphilis study, 2010)

Even though clinical drug trials may have legitimate scientific designs and be legitimately 'experimental' in nature with the ability to potentially help humanity, opponents of trials argue that many of the medications being tested are not going to benefit the communities where the tests are conducted. The drugs are too expensive and the population lacks access to even basic medical care, much less new and experimental drug treatments. Proponents of clinical trials state that "apart from a wider availability of patients" on a global scale, "for such patients, clinical trials can be seen as a means to receive medical treatment and care for free" (Kermani 2010). While it is true that a "limitation for pharmaceutical companies in emerging markets is that, at present, only a proportion of the population can afford modern medicines…this section of society is sufficiently large to offer companies a promising consumer base for the future. Companies believe that in the long-term the section of society that can afford new medicines and healthcare services will increase" (Kermani…… [read more]


Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Term Paper

… Henrietta Lacks

An Unasked-for Immortality

Most of us dream about immortality at some point. Depending on our beliefs about human nature and the existence of a human soul, we think with more or less certainty about what it would be… [read more]


Hypoglycemia Study Group in the 2010 Research Article Review

… Hypoglycemia

Study group

In the 2010 research study from the New England Journal of Medicine, "Severe hypoglycemia and risks of vascular events and death" Zounga (et al. 2010) studied 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes at risk for severe hypoglycemia and a possible correspondingly increased risk of macrovascular or microvascular events (the result of intensive glucose lowering treatment). The study was designed to example how intensive glucose lowering and the resultant severe hypoglycemia could increase the risk of a poor cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetic patients (Zounga et al. 2010)

The study compared two groups of patients, one of whom was assigned standard glucose control (the control group) and one group that was assigned intensive glucose treatment (the experimental group). "During a median follow-up period of 5 years, 231 patients (2.1%) had at least one severe hypoglycemic episode; 150 had been assigned to intensive glucose control (2.7% of the 5571 patients in that group), and 81 had been assigned to standard glucose control (1.5% of the 5569 patients in that group)" (Zounga et al. 2010). During follow-up interventions, severe hypoglycemia was found to significantly increase the risk of death from cardiac-related illnesses. Additionally, even nonvascular outcomes, including respiratory, digestive, and skin conditions were found to be associated with the severe hypoglycemia resulting for more intensive glucose treatment.

Experimental or observational

The study was experimental in nature. Patients were divided into two groups -- those experiencing standard glucose control (the control…… [read more]


Nursing Case Studies: Thomas and Mary Scenario Assessment

… Nursing Case Studies: Thomas and Mary

SCENARIO 1: Thomas Tank

Functional health pattern

Thomas Tank is a four-year-old child suffering from an acute asthma attack. His condition is currently causing his family a great deal of stress. At present, the… [read more]


Chemical Burns Research Paper

… Song Reaction

Healthcare practitioners classify burns based on their depth and surface area of skin layers affected and location, the patient's age, and the presence or absence of coexisting conditions. Most burns are minor and are easily treated by the person injured. Other burns, often those by chemicals, or when the injury is caused from the interaction of a chemical agent with the tissue (Singer & Dagum), are not as readily treatable. Every year, chemical burns account for 3 to 6% of burn center admissions. Some of these may occur in the home from accidental exposure, but most happen in the workplace. Although chemical burns are usually not fatal, they can result in serious injury (Merck Manual). First aid must be immediately administered in instances of these chemical burns (Metzgar).

For treatment, it is important to be able to determine the different level of injury. First-degree burns are red and painful and will swell a little. They turn white when pressed on the skin. The skin over the burn may peel off after a couple of days. Second-degree burns are deeper into the skin; they are very painful and typically produce blisters. The skin becomes very red or splotchy, as well as considerably swollen. Third-degree burns damage all layers of the skin. The burned skin looks white or charred. At first, these burns may cause little or no pain because of damage to the nerves and tissue. Before treatment, the person applying first aid has to thoroughly wash his or her hands with soap and water. First-degree burns need to be cooled in water for a minimum of five minutes. This helps reduce swelling by cooling the burned skin. The burn should then be treated with a product for skin healing and protection, such as aloe vera cream (or an aloe vera plant) or an antibiotic ointment. A dry gauze bandage can be put loosely around the burn to protect the area and keep it from the air. If necessary, an over-the-counter medicine, such as acetaminophen can be taken to relieve the pain. Ibuprofen and naproxen will help with swelling. (Morgan).

Second-degree burns need to be soaked in cool water for at least 15 minutes and then antibiotic cream or similar ointment must be gently applied. The burn should be covered with a dry nonstick dressing that is held in place with gauze or tape. The injured person should call the doctor to make sure that he or she is up-to-date with tetanus shots. If the burned area is small, cool cloths should be placed on the area for a few minutes…… [read more]


HPV Vaccination Pros Essay

… HPV Vaccination Pros

HPV vaccines -- like Gardasil - now exist and are a proven way to prevent 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of all cases of genital warts if they are given to women and girls prior their first sexual encounter. While vaccination is heralded by some as too expensive for the Canadian healthcare system to pay for -- it is considered the world's most expensive vaccine (CBC 2009) -- it is massively important for the future health of women in Canada. The Canadian healthcare system should cover the costs of vaccination for all women and girls who want it. School health personnel also have an important job in creating a discussion about the HPV vaccine and its benefits. Education is vital in making sure that women and girls know the consequences of contracting HPV and are aware that there is a vaccine that can protect their health and -- perhaps -- save their lives. In Canada alone, "about 400 die from the disease each year and another 1,350 or so are diagnosed with it" (2009). These deaths can be prevented if all women and girls who want it can be vaccinated.

Some argue that the Canadian health care system is an "already overburdened system" (Norsigian et al., 2007), however, the costs of not offering this vaccine will be much more expensive for the health care system in the future as more women and girls will require treatment for HPV symptoms -- including irregular pap smears, genital warts -- and, in the worst case, cervical cancer. "By most estimates, as many as 250,000 women, most of them in less-developed countries, die each year of cervical cancer, and French researchers have said that the number could jump fourfold by 2050 if nothing is done" (CBC 2009). The value of the vaccination could go up, the CBC (2009) notes, if growing lobby of health groups gets what it wants (2009). U.S. doctors suggest that leaving the HPV vaccination to those people with private health insurance or "hit-and-miss government programs is creating an unconscionable Sophie's choice or roulette game" where some girls and women are vulnerable to HPV and related illnesses and others aren't (2009).

Opponents who don't think the Canadian health care system should cover HPV vaccinations argue that the 90% of genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers can be eliminated altogether by simply altering one's behavior, so why should the Canadian health care system be expected to pay? Gardasil is a revolutionary vaccine and, though it can't be used as a treatment or cure for cervical cancer or genital warts (Norsigian et al. 2007), it can prevent HPV infection of those strains that cause the aforementioned symptoms of HPV (2007). While the vaccine is costly - approximately $405 in Canada -, the costs of not offering free or low-cost inoculation will be seen in a dollar amount as well as in overall public health.

Opponents may believe that the HPV vaccine is a way of condoning promiscuity --… [read more]


Bioethical Dilemma: Research With Embryonic Stem Cells Research Paper

… Bioethical Dilemma: Research With Embryonic Stem Cells

One of the most controversial issues to emerge in modern medicine has been the question of whether it is ethical to use embryonic stem cells in biomedical research. The issue touches upon one of the most basic ethical debates of all: when does human life begin? Even the Book of Genesis merely states: "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them" (Genesis 1:28). In terms of when life begins, theologians and doctors continue to debate where to draw the line in the developmental process.

Since abortion became established as a constitutional right, the individual's ability to choose to have or not carry a fetus to term has defined the parameters of the question of when life begins -- until now. The use of human embryos in medical research has made the ethics of the question of when life begins even more complex. The ramifications of banning the practice of or even banning federal funding for embryonic stem cell research has ramifications beyond the individual, and could affect the ability of humankind to treat some of the most mysterious and debilitating illnesses that currently elude medical treatment.

Embryonic stem cells are "derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro, in an in vitro fertilization clinic. They are donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors" (Eustice & Eustice 2006, p.1). The effectiveness of the use of these cells in research was first discovered in 1995, but stem cell research was ineligible for federal funding until March 2009 because of the ban on (National Institute of Health) NIH-funded human embryo research. This prohibition was only recently lifted by President Barack Obama (AAAS, 2009).

Opponents of stem cell research state that "human life begins as soon as an egg is fertilized, and they consider a human embryo to be a human being. They therefore consider any research that necessitates the destruction of a human embryo to be morally abhorrent" (AAAS, 2009). Opponents of stem cell research also oppose reproductive technology that assists the infertile, if any embryos are destroyed in the process. However, supporters of stem cell research note that embryonic stem cells are uniquely beneficial for researchers who are seeking to find cures for serious diseases, particularly conditions which involve the destruction of vital organ tissues. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, arthritis and lupus are just…… [read more]


Elena Bohomol, Lais Helena Ramos and Maria Research Paper

… ¶ … Elena Bohomol, Lais Helena Ramos and Maria D'Innocenzo entitled "Medication errors in an intensive care unit" (Bohomol, Ramos, & D'Innocenzo, 2009). This article represents a quantitative survey that looks at rates of medication errors in an intensive care… [read more]


How Effective Is the Influenza Vaccine Among Children Term Paper

… ¶ … Children

PUTTING to a TEST

How Effective is the Influenza Vaccine among Children?

The purpose of this paper is to discover and discuss the effectiveness of the Influenza vaccine in children. Children and the elderly are the two… [read more]


Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology Research Paper

… Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology

For prescription drugs, what is advertising and what is labeling under the FD&C Act? What are FDA's requirements for prescription drug advertising? Please discuss both print and broadcast advertising.

Congress passed the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (FD&C) in part as a reaction to the dangerous claims manufacturers were attaching to the medicines and potions of the day, and to safeguard the public from dangerous products. False labeling of drugs and cosmetics was prohibited, and labeling materials were identified as "written, printed or graphic matter accompanying the product" (21 CFR Part 201).

The FD & C. Act and subsequent Code of Federal Regulations restrictions on labels include misbranding of consumer products. The barred actions are use of a label that lacks accurate and full descriptions of the ingredients, or a label not properly displayed on the actual product, or a label that fails to meets the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970, by omitting toxic information. The FD&C Act also does not allow FDA "approval" of cosmetics before they are manufactured and marketed, and any labeling claim of such FDA approval for any cosmetic is also a labeling offense. (Dunn 1938)

Years later, The Drug Amendments of 1962 (Kefauver-Harris) established pre-marketing testing requirements, mandated "Good Manufacturing Practices," expanded the FDA's role, and regulated advertising -- materials and claims issued apart from those regulated as labeling. Under these amendments and the CFR sections written to enforce them, the FDA reviews and regulates prescription drug advertising and promotion (21 CFR Part 202). By contrast advertising for over-the-counter drugs is under the jurisdiction of the Federal Trade Commission. (Hutt and Merrill 1991)

These drug advertising rules have two central tenets: under most circumstances, a company may only advertise a drug "for the specific indication or medical use for which it was approved." The second requirement is that ads and promotion must contain a "fair balance" of warnings regarding the risks of a using a particular drug, and the so called beneficial uses touted by the vendor.

When manufacturers of prescription drugs (product sponsors) target the general population of consumers and patients, it is referred to as "direct-to-consumer" promotion or DTC. The manner these audiences are reached may include television and radio advertisements, print, telephone, direct mail, video or brochures. Section 502(n) of the FD&C Act specifies that prescription drug advertisements must contain "a true statement of . . . information in brief summary relating to side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness" of the advertised product.

CFR part 202 makes a distinction between print ads and TV/radio commercials (broadcasts). For print advertisements, it is set out that that "every risk addressed in the product's approved labeling" has to be included in the advertising copy. By contrast all broadcast advertisements need only to disclose the "most significant risks" those actually appear in the labeling, as long as they also include a summary of all necessary information related to "side effects and contraindications." Obviously this advantage has encouraged… [read more]


Animal Testing the Use of Animals Research Proposal

… Animal Testing

The Use of Animals in Drug Testing

Animal testing extracts strong opinions from both those for and those against the practice. There are two main reasons why animals are used in scientific experimentation for drug testing. The first is to make sure the safety of new drugs and other pharmaceutical products. The second is to see how these drugs might be effective in humans (De Boer, 2009). The testing of drugs on animals is a very important process that is necessary in order to facilitate the research and development of new drugs for humans.

The testing of drugs on humans typically comes at the end of a long process of safety data collection. This may include testing the product in a test-tube and using a computer program to simulate what might happen to the drug inside the body and the testing of the drugs on animals. The policies on what safety data…… [read more]


National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research Reports Thesis

… ¶ … National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research reports that approximately 12 to 18 million middle-aged Americans have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), comparable in prevalence to the levels of asthma or diabetes, and that OSA is a likely cause of about 38,000 cardiovascular deaths annually. Those afflicted with OSA are also at greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, arrhythmias, and coronary artery disease. Despite being a common disorder, OSA remains overlooked by many primary care providers. Polysomnography is the definitive diagnostic test, which provides objective documentation of apnea and hypopnea.

As cited in Brogram, Files and Zeigler, (2010), mild forms of OSA affect one in five American adults and moderate to severe forms, one in fifteen, not including elderly or children. Of these, as many as 90% of those affected are not presently diagnosed. Recently, due to the common comorbidity with cardiovascular disease, the healthcare community has been placing a greater emphasis on OSA, yet still many physicians do not recognize the importance of sleep for general well being and are not knowledgeable about the biochemical conditions or risk factors of interrupted sleeping patterns. Patients are not routinely asked about the quantity and quality of their sleep. Conducting a thorough examination and obtaining a detailed history of sleeping habits help form a basic clinical impression of a person's possible OSA, but a polysomnography in a clinic or lab is required to confirm the diagnosis.

The term polysomnography is derived from the Greek "poly" or many, "somno" or sleep, and "graphy" or to write, and refers to a number of overnight tests performed on patients to evaluate sleep disorders. It normally consists of analyzing a person's oral and nasal airflow, blood pressure and oxygen level, electrocardiographic activity, brain wave pattern, and movement of the eyes, respiratory muscle and limbs. Overnight polysomnography is the only diagnostic modality recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Overnight pulse oximetry and home sleep studies are helpful in ruling out OSA, but are not recommended for diagnosis.

Polysomnography helps diagnose and evaluate sleep apnea, a common disorder in middle-aged and elderly obese men where the muscles of the soft palate in the back of the throat relax and close the airway during sleep. This may cause loud snoring and gasping for air at night an excessive sleepiness during the day. The results are expressed using the number of apneic and hypoapneic (AHI), episodes that a patient experiences each sleeping hour. Apnea is defined as airflow cessation lasting for ten or more seconds. The definition of hypopnea has varied over time. The Clinical Practice Review Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services define hypopnea as airflow reduction of at least 30% lasting for at least ten seconds and resulting in 4% or more oxygen desaturation. Some laboratories also require an associated arousal (Mendez & Olson, 2006). Narcolepsy, when people have sudden attacks of sleep and/or cataplexy, sleep paralysis or hallucinations at sleep… [read more]


Penicillin Slinn, Judy. ). "Penicillin: Triumph Article

… Penicillin

Slinn, Judy. (2009). "Penicillin: Triumph and Tragedy. -- Review of Robert Bud

Book." Medical History. 53 (1): 2009. 133.

Penicillin is a group of antibiotics (the "cillin" group) based on the Penicullium fungi. They are historically and culturally significant because they are the first antibiotics that were effective against numerous diseases that plagued humans for thousands of years (syphilis, staph, etc.). Particularly in the developing world, the cillin group is still widely used -- they are inexpensive, fairly effective, and typically well tolerated. However, there are a number of individuals who, for whatever reason, have developed a resistance to penicillin -- whether that be an allergic reaction or sensitivity. In addition, some say because of overuse, many types of bacteria are now resistant to penicillin (Bellis, 2010).

Like other Beta Lactam antibiotics, penicillin works by inhibiting a peptid that links on the cell wall of a bacteria, which weakens the bacteria cell and causes it to die due to osmotic pressure. The reason penicillin is so much more effective with gram-positive bacteria is this very action; gram-negative bacteria do not lose their cell walls as completely, and therefore the numbers tend not to die off as quickly. The cillans also block the division of bacteria and of the cyanelles, which explains the need for a loading dose to occur before many symptoms disappear (Silverthorn, 2004).

Although up to 20% of people sometimes believe they have an allergy to penicillin, actual numbers are far less, but can be quite serious. It is, nevertheless one of the most important medical innovations ever produced, saving countless lives, particularly in war or trauma situations. In addition, according to Slinn, the aura surrounding penicillin was one of scientific methodology and inquiry. Modern society does not realize what it means to find something that could act against infection -- but then acted accordingly and began to overprescribe the drug for issues with marginal effect -- "which led directly to the growth and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics."

Really, in a dual…… [read more]


Cephalosporin Romano, A. Et.al. ). "Cross-Reactivity Article

… Cephalosporin

Romano, a. et.al. (2004). "Cross-Reactivity and Tolerability of Cephalosporins in Patients with Immediate Hypersensitivity to Penicillins." Annals of Internal Medicines, 141 (1): 16-22.

The antibiotic group, Cephalosporins, are a class of lactam antibiotics originally isolated from cultures of acremonium from refuse in Sardinia in 1948, just post World War II by Giuseppe Brotzu. Brotzu noticed that these cultures produced substances that appeared to be effective against the bacteria that caused typhoid fever. At this point in medical history, antibiotics were in great need and part of the medical world's most researched topics. Further study of the Cephalosporins found that the mechanism and efficacy were somewhat analogous to penicillin, but in some specific ways, a bit more powerful (Podolsky, 1998).

Like penicillin, the cephalosporin class is used for the treatment of bacterial infections. First-generation cephalosporins were predominately active against Gram-positive bacteria, but successive generations and improvement have increased activity against Gram-negative bacteria, but unfortunately with the effect of reduced Gram-positive actions. In addition, one of the most positive effects of the cephalosporins has been for people who are allergic, sensitive, or do not tolerate penicillin (Dash, 1975, 107-8).

Allergic reactions to penicillin are quite common (some estimates indicate 20-26% of the population). The class of Cephalosporins tend to aggressive fight similar pathogens. As might be expected, the chemical structure of penicillin and the Cephalosporins is quite similar, which unfortunately means that for a certain element of the population, those who are sensitive or allergic to…… [read more]


Population, and Was Primarily Aimed at Measuring Thesis

… ¶ … population, and was primarily aimed at measuring the efficacy of two different pharmacological interventions. The focus of the research question was further enhanced by the multitude of outcomes generated through randomization.

This randomization also made the study quite clearly a randomized controlled trial, in both its original conception and in its carrying out. The trial was both randomized and double-blind, allowing researchers to effectively address the research question without bias. Further investigation is definitely worthwhile.

The study's crossover design allowed for true randomization in allocation, in that all participants eventually underwent all phases of the study -- control, placebo, and various intervention combinations. This also minimized group and individual differences, balancing the groups and providing greater statistical relevance. The group was comprised predominantly of white males, which was not a part of the study's design that was purposeful, though age was a specific eligibility factor.

4)

All participants on the study, form the primary researchers to the staff to the patients themselves, were kept unaware of the patients' status throughout all phases of the trial. Recordkeeping and pharmaceutical administration was conducted in a manner that allowed for this blindness without sacrificing the effectiveness of the trial or the validity of its findings.

5)

Though sixty participants were initially recruited, only 47 completed the study; the others left for various reasons and were accounted for though not counted in the final results. As each group eventually went through every iteration that took place in the study, analysis based on original group is irrelevant to the study at hand, and the…… [read more]


Homeopathy "Impossible Cure" the Promise Research Paper

… Homeopathy

"Impossible Cure" the Promise of Homeopathy

Book report on "Impossible Cure" the Promise of Homeopathy by Amy L. Lansky.

One of the most important aspects of this book is the fact that it provides an overview of homeopathy that is based on actual human experience. The Impossible Cure: The Promise of Homeopathy by Amy L. Lansky (2003) is in the first instance a truly inspirational account of the homeopathy. This work includes a discussion of the history, philosophy as well as the science that underlies this medical discipline. This is embroidered on by verified experience of the healing potential of homeopathy.

Central to the book is that it was motivated by the author's personal experience of her son's recovery from autism through homeopathic medicine and practice. This adds a further dimension to the scientific and historical aspects of the work.

The author, Amy Lansky, received her doctorate in computer science from Stanford University in 1983. After working at various research institutions for a number of years she began to write and promote homeopathic medicine. This career change was as a result of her son's seemingly miraculous cure from autism by homeopathic medicine. Lansky states that, "It did not take long for me to realize that my son's miraculous cure from autism was far more revolutionary than any computer program or technological gadgetry" ( Review of Impossible Cure: The Promise of Homeopathy). She also soon decided that she had to write a book to let others know about homeopathy. This event changed the direction of her life and she began not only to promote and write on the advantages of homeopathy and was eventuality to become a practitioner of homeopathic medicine.

The book is not only a statement of faith in homeopathy but is also a useful guide to the disciple and practice of homeopathy. In this sense it provides a step-by-step guide for those interested in the advantages of homeopathy. In this regard the chapter on the science of homeopathy is intended to dispel much of the criticism and skepticism directed at this discipline. The author points out that while mainstream medicine still tends to view homeopaths with a skeptical eyes, her personal experience is that the science that lies behind this medical discipline proves that homeopathy is capable of seemingly "impossible" healing achievements.

The impact that this book had had on the perception of homeopathy can be discerned for the following brief review by Michael Castleman:

Amy Lansky watched in disbelief as homeopathy did the impossible -- cured her son of autism. She delved into the controversial therapy and has become an articulate, passionate advocate… The result is one of the best introductions to homeopathy I've seen. (Book review: Impossible Cure: The Promise of Homeopathy)

The book itself is also the result of her direct involvement…… [read more]


Homeopathy Law Homeopathy: A Grey Area Essay

… Homeopathy Law

Homeopathy

Homeopathy: A grey area of legal regulation

Homeopathy: A grey area of legal regulation

Although its principles were used in ancient and patent medicine for hundreds of years, the practice of homeopathy has a somewhat tenuous and dubious legal status in the modern age. Homeopathic philosophy of 'like cures like' uses substances that are supposed to cause the patient's disease to cure the patient's disease. The practice does not use empirical, evidence-based scientific studies to support its claims. Of course, some of its advocates would suggest that homeopathy's foundational principle is not so different than using a killed virus to vaccinate a patient against the flu. However, according to the American Medical Association (AMA): "There is little evidence to confirm the safety or efficacy of most alternative therapies. Much of the information currently known about these therapies makes it clear that many have not been shown to be efficacious" (Homeopathy, 2010, Citizendum)

Homeopathy is more popular abroad and some physicians use this alternative medicine in consort with conventional, scientifically tested theories in Europe. The British Medical Society has taken a more lenient view than state or local governments in the U.S.: "The British Medical Journal in 1991 published a large analysis of homeopathic treatments that were given over the course of 25 years…The study found improvement with homeopathic treatment in most categories of problems" (Homeopathy, 2010, Citizendum). But even in Europe and the UK, concerns remain that some patients will substitute homeopathic treatments for conventional medicine, and suffer as a result.

Pennsylvania has long been one of the centers of homeopathy in the United States. Pennsylvania was the second state in which a society devoted to the practice homeopathy was established. The first American school of homeopathy opened in Philadelphia in the 19th century (Schofield 2001).…… [read more]


Year 1929 Event Research Proposal

… 1929 Event

Penicillin is one of the first discovered and widely used antibiotics. It is made from the Penicillium mold. Antibiotics are substances that are released by bacteria and fungi into their environment. They provide a means of inhibiting other… [read more]


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Term Paper

… Cervical cancer develops from a sexually-transmitted disease (STD) that can lie dormant in the body for days, weeks, months, or even years. Most people do not even know that they have the disease. These STDs can sometimes develop into HPV, and a large majority of young women now contract these STDS during their lives, making them much more vulnerable to cervical cancer. If states mandate the HPV vaccine for women, they are taking the right step in saving lives and making people's lives better, and they should mandate the HPV vaccine, just as they mandate several shots for other infectious diseases, like measles and mumps. Mandating these vaccines has virtually eradicated diseases like measles and mumps from our society, and the same should be said for cervical cancer.

Many organizations, groups, and physicians have spoken out to support the vaccine. Two authors note, "Medical and public health professional associations have endorsed the vaccine, including the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Society for Adolescent Medicine, and the American Cancer Society" (Daley & McDermott, 2007). This vaccine is making history because it is the first anti-cancer vaccine for any type of human cancer, and researchers have found it to be 100% effective in preventing this type of cancer in young women.

In conclusion, studies show the HPV vaccine is 100% effective in preventing two major types of cervical cancer. The FDA has approved the vaccine, and it could make a huge difference in cervical cancer survival the world around. States should mandate the HPV vaccine, just as they mandate vaccines for other serious, infectious diseases. The vaccine will save lives, and that should be the impetus for states to mandate the vaccine.

References

Daley, E.M., & McDermott, R.J. (2007). The HPV vaccine: Separating politics from science -- A commentary. American Journal of Health Education, 38(3), 177+.

Vamos, C.A., McDermott, R.J., & Daley, E.M. (2008). The HPV vaccine:…… [read more]


Beta Blockers Essay

… Beta Blockers

Invented by Sir James W. Black. beta blockers are a class of pharmaceuticals that improve the heart's ability to relax. They are primarily used for the management of hypertension, cardiac protection following myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and cardiac… [read more]


History of Vaccines Term Paper

… Most vaccines are developed in First World countries with large healthcare systems, such as the United States, and they are developed to help treat the most threatening diseases. Malaria, for example, is a dreaded disease in many areas of the world, but largely missing from U.S. healthcare worries, and so, a vaccine has not been developed. That does not serve the world population, only the national situation. The same is true of many other diseases around the world.

What is in store for vaccines in the future? There is speculation that vaccines may be administered in food in the future. Author Link states, "Scientists have been able to bioengineer potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, and other edible plants to manufacture vaccines. Furthermore, food vaccines stimulate the immune defenses located in the lining of the intestines and respiratory tract; injections bypass this process" (Link 150). Scientists also believe that in the future, vaccines will enjoy better packaging that prolongs exposure, so booster shots would not be necessary, and there will be combination vaccines that would inoculate for several different diseases at once, which would cut down on the number of shots necessary.

In conclusion, the history of vaccines is really much longer than most people realize. Vaccines, since their inception in the Eighteenth Century, have saved millions of lives and eradicated many diseases. Even though they are controversial and some people refuse them, and they certainly are not perfect, vaccines have a positive effect on the human population. They have wiped out diseases like polio and tuberculosis, and they keep people healthier and safer as a result.

References

Editors. "What Would Happen if we Stopped Vaccinations." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2009. 21 Oct. 2009.

.

Link, Kurt. The Vaccine Controversy: The History, Use, and Safety of Vaccinations. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2005.

Skloot, Rebecca. "Under the Skin: A History of the Vaccine Debate Goes Deep but Misses…… [read more]


Financial Research Report on Wyeth Pharmaceutical Company Thesis

… Financial Research Report on Wyeth Pharmaceutical

Company Overview

Wyeth Pharmaceutical is an organization publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange and recognized for its manufacturing of several medicines, such as Advil, Centrum or Prevnar. Founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by… [read more]


Asthma Research on Medline Using PICO Thesis

… Asthma

research on Medline using PICO

Research on Medline using PICO format: Adult asthmatics

This paper will examine how a search conducted on Medline can answer a question phased in the 'PICO' formula: P (patient) I (intervention) C (comparison) O. Outcome. The research question is as follows: Does education of the patient and the family in self-care management result in improved health and functional status in adult asthmatics? P=Adult Asthmatics, I=Education of the patient and family in self-care management, C=education vs. non-education, O= Improved health and functional status.

Search items: "adult asthmatics education"

I selected these terms because they focused on adult asthmatics. The nature of asthma in adults is different, in terms of the patient's responsibility and autonomy over his or her illness, than asthma suffered by a child, and the focus of the research was to be on adult education and self-care. No limits were applied. 235 results were retrieved. Next, I tried a Boolean search: "adult asthmatics ONLY education," so that patient education for adult asthmatics would be the focus of the search. This retrieved 72 items, but was still headed by the same research study.

Two relevant Studies

The first study by Adeyeye and Onadeko (2008) from the Journal of West African Medicine, entitled "Understanding medication and use of drug delivery device by asthmatic in Lagos" was an examination of asthma education programs in Lagos, Nigeria amongst a traditionally, medically-underserved population. The study found there was an acute lack of knowledge about proper asthma treatment in the population. This study makes a useful and dramatic point of comparison, with the developed world, as it is a study of the degree of ignorance frequently exhibited in areas with little access to medical care. Fifty-two of the study subjects, or 49.1% been hospitalized for their conditions and 45.3% had gone to the emergency room in the week…… [read more]


Positives and Negatives on Herbal Regulations Thesis

… Herbal Regulations Pros and Cons

Herbal regulations vary from country to country. They are mostly based on the basic guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the United States, herbal drugs cannot make any specific claim without approval from Federal Drug Administration. And for this reason most herbal products can only be promoted as food and dietary supplements. In Europe however things are different and herbal drugs are more likely to gain status of effective medicines approved by their health authorities. For one, it is less expensive in Europe to get a drug approved. In the U.S., FDA takes a long time to give approval which only makes herbal drug manufacturers hesitant. In Europe, many herbal products can be approved on the basis on their long-term history even if no scientific evidence is available. The same is not the case in the U.S. Strict herbal regulations have their pros and cons. For one, FDA is a very well respected authority and people trust a drug when it has FDA approval. Hence this lessens the risk of using some low quality herbal drugs. Secondly because herbal regulations are in place, people cannot blame anyone but themselves if something goes wrong. FDA also says it has the authority to stop the production of any dietary supplements that poses health risks.

For example there are hundreds of dietary supplements available in the U.S. each claiming to help lower weight. But since these claims are not backed by FDA, people are skeptical of these drugs and those who actually use them cannot blame anyone if they don't get any real results. Regulations help save millions of lives because they make people hesitant about using a non-FDA approved drug. However some herbal remedies with history of success behind them may find this environment rather hostile. There are thus certain cons attached to regulations too. People may be deprived of some good herbal remedies and herbal medicine on the whole is not able to flourish properly. Their research capabilities are also hampered due to strict regulations which limit the chances of better herbal drugs making their way into the markets.

In the countries around the…… [read more]


Herbs That Have Been Proven to Treat Depression and or Anxiety Successfully Research Proposal

… Herbs as Treatment

Treating Depression and Anxiety with Herbs

Millions of Americans are prescribed prescription drugs every day to help relieve symptoms of depression or anxiety. What are usually not discussed with the patience is how prescription drugs work, whether or not they provide lasting relief safely, and alternative options.

FDA reports, warnings, and independent reports have continuously confirmed that prescription drugs cause severe side effects, may be addictive, and may not be any more effective than placebo in relieving many types of depression or anxiety.

Natural Alternative Medicines

Herbal medicine comes from an herb that is a plant or plant part used for its therapeutic properties. Herbal medicine products have been used medicinally for thousands of years to promote good health, to relieve symptoms and even cure some health ailments. Herbs for depression and anxiety can be a useful alternative to prescription medications per the studies.

Successful Clinical Studies using Herbs

Helmut Woelk, medical director, for the Remotiv/Imipramine Study Group conducted a randomized, double blind, group trial. The study represented 40 outpatient clinics and 324 participants with depression.

Objective of the study: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort extract) with imipramine (an anti-depressant tricyclic drug) in patients with mild to moderate depression.

Main outcome of the study: That the St. John's wort extract was therapeutically equivalent to the antidepressant tricyclic drug in treating mild to moderate depression, and the patients also tolerated the St. John's wort extract better (Woelk, 2000).

St. Johns wort -- SJW is one of the most widely used natural anti-depressants available.

Clinical research indicates that St. Johns wort helps to relieve symptoms of anxiety and depression over a period of 2-6 weeks. When tested head-to-head with two popular prescription medications, St. Johns wort…… [read more]


Prescription Drugs Generation RX Essay

… Prescription Drugs / Generation RX

Generation RX Exposes the Dangers of Over-Medicating America's Children

There is a disturbing trend in the United States today. Millions of children are being exposed to, and later becoming addicted to, prescription drugs. The film Generation RX explores the ease with which many psychiatrists and physicians prescribe dangerous and potentially addictive medications for a variety of disorders. Understanding the message of this film means understanding an ugly truth within modern American culture -- the sedation of an entire generation.

It is a sickening thing to think that Western culture is reducing its children to addicts. The movie Generation RX revealed controversial issues within the habit of psychiatrists and psychologists simply handing out dangerous and addictive prescription medications. The film highlights the sometimes unnecessary use of addictive drugs which turn children into decrepit individuals who are unable to fully live a functioning life due to their sedations and growing addictions, (Miller 2008). It is a shocking glimpse into a touchy subject in American culture, which still has not fully been understood to most naive parents and children forced to endure life under constant medication. This feeding of prescriptions to young children only set them up for a later life of addiction and other issues. It stifles their true natures and cripples them into addicts. Prescription drug abuse is a major problem in our society, and one that is not going away. According to some studies prescription drug abuse is much more common than most parents would like to believe. In fact, many report it to be the "the only illicit drug that is abused more frequently is marijuana," (National Drug Intelligence Center 1). The theme of the film help cast a light on a very grim future for many who are being intentionally medicated by doctors and physicians with prescription drugs to help combat behavioral and learning disorders among other conditions. The numbers of youth now abusing prescription drugs as a result of their introduction through prescriptions are continuing to climb. Some studies report the number of teens abusing prescription drugs at about one in five, with one in teen even abusing cough medicine (Partnership for a Drug Free America 1). It is a scary thing to think of all the potential addicts who are being prescribed medications every day.

Despite the commonplace practice of over-zealously prescribing medications, it proves to have serious consequences within the lives of young addicts and their families. There comes a point where the medication becomes an addiction, and this is occurring with far too many American youth. In fact, "an estimated 4.7 million Americans used prescription drugs nonmedically for the first time in 2003," an alarming number (National Institute on Drug Abuse 1). The potential for medicated youth to begin abusing…… [read more]


Pharmacists Get Involved in Medical Ethics Research Proposal

… ¶ … pharmacists get involved in medical ethics-Making medical ethics decisions about medical treatments?

It could be argued that a pharmacist makes an ethical decision every time he or she dispenses a prescription. A pharmacist must make a determination if the medication is appropriate for the patient's condition, if the patient understands the risks and benefits of taking the medication, and understands how to correctly administer the medication to him or herself. If the patient seems unclear on these issues, and has no caretaker, the pharmacist may have to intervene -- or even simply if the medication seems questionable for the condition it is designed to treat. A heavy painkiller for minor pain might raise a pharmacist's ethical 'red flag.' The pharmacist might be concerned that the patient is using certain drugs, such as the stimulant Adderall, for non-medical purposes, if the patient is receiving frequent large prescriptions from various physicians. Or the patient may…… [read more]


Pain Management Chosen Topic/Patient Scenario Thesis

… Pain Management

Chosen Topic/Patient Scenario

Pain Management is my chosen topic for this assessment of internet information. The scenario I looked at was is as follows: Patient's caregiver has expressed the desire to learn about non-pharmacological treatments for her mother's… [read more]


Medication Errors Since the Research Term Paper

… However, in a recent study by The Joint Commission, many times the patient is unable to actively participate in the process, as they may be too ill, injured, young or disabled. In this case, a family member should be available to participate. This is one example of how policies and procedures can be developed to help reduce the occurrence of medicine errors.

Medication errors have a tremendous impact on the client, healthcare industry, and the economy. In the U.S. alone, medication errors injure 1.5 million people and cost billions of dollars to the healthcare system annually (Stencel, p. 1). The committee noted that estimates on medication errors might be low due to unwillingness to report medical errors for fear of litigation or loss of public trust among healthcare institutions (Stencel, p. 1). It is estimated that the costs of these errors result in an addition $3.5 billion dollars every year (Stencel, p. 1). These numbers reflect a major problem in the healthcare industry and one that is completely preventable.

Video Summary and Response: Transdermal Patches with Metallic Backings

In March of 2009, the FDA notified the public that certain transdermal patches contained aluminum or other metals in the backing. These patches are applied to the skin and the medication dose is absorbed through the skin. The metals on these transdermal patches can overheat during an MRI scan, causing skin burns to the area of the patch. The FDA is considering changing labeling on the patches to reflect this danger. However, the MRI technician also has a responsibility to make certain that the patient is not wearing a transdermal patch prior to an MRI scan.

This video demonstrates the multiple layers that must come into play in regards to medication errors. The blame and responsibility cannot be placed on a single person. There are many levels of patient contact, from package labeling to the technician who will perform the scan. This also means that multiple layers of protection should be put in place as well.

Preventing medication errors is everyone's responsibility. A multi-layered approach must be taken to this multi-layered problem. The most important fact in medical errors is that they are completely preventable. However, no single method provides the ultimate answer to the problem. Systems must be put in place on every level of the system. However, systems will not be 100% effective without a commitment to preventing medical errors from the staff.

Everyone must hold themselves personally accountable for preventing medication errors. Systems and technological devices can only go so far in eliminating certain types of medical errors. When one examines the root of the problem, they will find a human at the end of every error, a human that should have intervened to prevent the problem. Personal accountability must be ingrained into healthcare professional and become a part of institutional culture. This is the only way to have a true impact on the reduction of medication errors in the healthcare setting.

Works Cited

Friedman AL,

Geoghegan SR,

Sowers… [read more]

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