"Medicine / Pharmacy" Essays

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Dental Oral Candida Term Paper

20 pages (6,332 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Dental Oral Candida

Oral Candida

Oral Candida is a yeast infection of the mouth, and is also commonly called 'thrush.' It is generally characterized by white patches in the mouth, but there are other symptoms as well. It can occur in anyone, but it is more likely in babies and young children, and in people that have compromised immune systems,… [read more]

Epilepsy Medically Speaking, the Disease Term Paper

5 pages (1,503 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Epilepsy

Medically speaking, the disease of epilepsy is part of a group of neurologic disorders characterized by recurring episodes of "convulsive seizures, sensory disturbances, abnormal behavior, loss of consciousness" or a combination of all (Glanz, 434). Epilepsy is usually classified as a specific disorder when a person experiences two or more seizures without a clear reason for the… [read more]

Community Plan of Action Term Paper

4 pages (1,506 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… They have to work with the family and the patient to get the maximum possible results. (Stroke and General Rehabilitation)

It is thus clear that there are different types of problems that exist in our society today and of whom three have been discussed. These individuals are also placed in different situations and of that two sites have been discussed. The general objective of all these discussions is to find out methods as to how the different problems in the society can be resolved, and how the individuals in difficult situations can be helped. Specific action on this matter has to be decided and then taken up.


Lauerman, John. F. "The Prescription Paradox" Brown Alumni Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.brown.edu/Administration/Brown_Alumni_Magazine/99/3-99/features/paradox.html Accessed 10 September, 2005

"Medications and Older People" (September-October, 1997) FDA Consumer Magazine.

Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1997/697_old.html

Accessed 10 September, 2005

"Stroke and General Rehabilitation" Retrieved from http://www.scvmed.org/channel/0,4770,chid%253D16856%2526sid%253D13132,00.html Accessed 10 September, 2005

'Teen Pregnancy Prevention" Retrieved from http://www.pregnancy-info.net/teen_pregnancy_prevention.html

Accessed 10 September, 2005

'The Diabetes Teaching Center" Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.ucsf.edu/introduction / Accessed 10 September, 2005… [read more]

Medication Errors by Nurses Term Paper

3 pages (839 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Nurses are also afraid of repercussions which may occur due to the error (unknown, Nursing).

Efforts have been made to change these misconceptions, resulting in "a strong upsurge in the number of medication errors reported in the MEDMARX database, which is a positive step toward identifying and eliminating medication errors and ensuring the safety and well-being of hospital patients (unknown, AORN)."

When examining the "192,477 medication errors documented by MEDMARX in 2002, the vast majority were corrected before patients were harmed; however, patient injury resulted from 3,213. Of this number, 514 errors required initial or prolonged hospitalization, 47 required interventions to sustain life, and 20 resulted in a patient's death. Compared with 2001 data, a smaller percentage of reported errors resulted in harm to the patient (unknown, AORN)."

Errors in administering medications such as morphine, insulin and heparin are responsible for the majority of harm to patients.

Nurse's Responsibility

The nurse plays a major role in the prevention of medication errors. While reporting errors can prevent a reoccurrence of an incident, the nurse can prevent an error completely by following a few simple rules. These rules include assuring it is the correct patient, medication, route of administration, dosage, and time for administration; knowing the patient's drug allergies; checking for drug interactions, and knowing what the drug is used for as well as possible side effects.

Administering medication safely is the "most critical phase of the medication-use process and ultimately the last barrier to preventing medication-related errors. Some facilities are now employing information technology at the point of care through barcode technology, which provides nurses with a critical safety net and peace of mind knowing they are the patient's last line of defense against medication errors (Meadows)."


Medication errors can result in extended hospital stays and even death. It is important for a nurse to recognize the steps necessary to prevent such errors, and report those errors which do occur.


Cohen, Hedy. (01 July, 2004). "Pediatric medical errors part 3: safety strategies: medication use system to analyze errors." Pediatric Nursing, pg 33.

Meadows, Ginny. (01 July, 2002). "Safeguarding patients against medication errors." Nursing


(Medication errors defined. (accessed 04 September, 2005).


Unknown. (01 December, 2002). "Drug errors put children in peril." Nursing, pg. 33.

Unknown. (01 November, 2004). "How nurses perceive mistakes." Nursing, pg. 34.

Unknown. (01 February, 2004).…… [read more]

Migraine Headache Term Paper

15 pages (4,204 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … million Americans suffer from migraine headache, which is the most common neurological disorder in the modern world and modern times. This affliction reduces work performance by 50% and accrues to wasted resources and a generally low-quality of life. The more common type of migraine afflicts 80% of all sufferers, who mostly do not consult with physicians. At present,… [read more]

Sickness Can Be Good Term Paper

1 pages (316 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… In a case such as that, it would not be wise to take medicine to prevent vomiting. Fevers and sweating often suffered with illnesses are actually burning up and releasing harmful agents from the body. A runny nose helps to clear out excess buildup that can prevent proper respiration. In these ways, diarrhea, fevers, and runny noses aid in our survival by clearing the body of harmful agents, thus allowing our bodies to return to proper function.

In most cases the uncomfortable physical conditions we must endure when these natural defenses are activated is worth the cost. Sometimes a person may fall under the stress incurred, but most likely that is a case of a physically weak body to begin with. We must remember that according to Darwin's Theory of Evolution, survival is…… [read more]

Pharmacology Dvt: In the Legs Term Paper

4 pages (1,640 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The study plan permitted outpatients getting LMWH to go home at once and hospitalized patients getting LMWH to be sent before time. The average number of days in the hospital for the LMWH group was only 1.1 days when compared to 6.5 days for the standard heparin group; 120 LMWH patients were not hospitalized. (Lovenox Effective in the Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis)

Jack Hirsh, M.D., clinical researcher and director of Hamilton Civic Hospitals Research Center says that the revelation that low molecular weight heparin can be given securely and with efficiency at home in a large number of patients with proximal DVT represents a key advance because it both raises patient expediency and minimizes health expenses. It is essential to benefit from not only on the effectiveness of these new agents, but also on their possibility to be given in cheaper settings. Contrasting with other antithrombotic agents, Lovenox gives distinctive benefits for usage in the home setting in that it does not require daily blood screening, removing the requirements and expenses of laboratory testing, and can be given by the self easily. Lovenox is the foremost LMWH familiarized in both Canada and the United States. Lovenox, also known as Clexane (R) in some European countries, is obtained from the depolymerization of heparin which is the parent anticoagulant molecule. (Lovenox Effective in the Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis)


"Deep vein thrombosis" (June, 2003) BUPA's Health Information Team. Retrieved from http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/mosby_factsheets/Deep_Vein_Thrombosis.html

Accessed on 24 July 2005

"Deep venous thrombosis" Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000156.htm Accessed on 24 July 2005

Gylys, Karen H. (July 2001) "Pharmacology Department: Low-Molecular Weight Heparins" The

Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. Volume 15(4) pp 91-95. Retrieved from http://www.jcnjournal.com/pt/re/jcn/fulltext.00005082-200107000-00008.htm;jsessionid=Ci5zBMEZy7c21DVVqx7u7foWX4zv21X4wL9qfa3TZRhPTEbqg1qf!-2006515172!-949856031!9001!-1 Accessed on 24 July 2005

"Lovenox Effective in the Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis" Retrieved from http://www.pslgroup.com/dg/6952.htm Accessed on 24 July 2005

"Lovenox (enoxaparin sodium injection)" (July, 2004) Retrieved from http://www.aventispharma-us.com/PIs/lovenox_TXT.html Accessed on 24 July 2005… [read more]

Antidepressants May Improve Heart Attack Term Paper

4 pages (1,110 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Experimentations were primed in the numbers of patients who suffered heart attacks that were undergoing psychotherapy and those not undergoing the treatment.

Analysis of the Case Study -- Several process of analyzing the effects of the medication were made. These were primarily based on previous studies made by the authors of the report. As stipulated by Dr. C. Barr Taylor;

"our study provides much stronger evidence than we've ever had before that antidepressants are safe and may benefit these patients" and were partially contradicted by Dr. Alexander H. Glassman in saying that:

"but even though a previous study produced similar evidence of the beneficial effects of antidepressants after a heart attack, the new finding may not translate directly into clinical practice"

Results were directly scrutinized by all of the experts in this field of study in order to give and furnish conclusive findings of the case. Flaws on the research were verified, such that

The analysis looked at the 28% of patients in the therapy group and the 20% of those in the non-therapy group who were given antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors because of the severity of their depression.

This note sums up to the fractional validity on the results of all prior study on the use of Antidepressants.

Derivation of Results- based on the report, the following results were derived from the experimentation and analysis of the case study:

1. That there were no definitive evidence that may be considered in using the data from the study as a standard of care for patients undergoing treatment.

2. That even though there was no sufficient result on the treatment of heart attack patients in using antidepressants, according to Dr. Lange, there are currently no enough mandates that makes it illegal or prevents the physicians and practitioners to prescribe the intake of antidepressant drugs to patients. However, it must be noted that there is still a valid process to investigate the judgments considered by practitioners when prescribing the drug.

Conclusions Based on the Results - the conclusion made by the authors of the report were coinciding with each ones' finding. Although in the article, there were no definite conclusions on whether the use of the drug would really improve heart attack survival, it would appear that the prescription of antidepressants were purely on the judgment and findings of the medical practitioner.

Antidepressant are said to produce certain side effects that would be endured by the patient using the drug. The use of this medication is commonly associated to different behavioral tendencies and disorders. The studies that were presented in this report were appropriate in finding alternative means in the treatment, but such use of antidepressants might lead to other cases of ailments that may affect the physical well being of the patient. On the latter part of this article, the issues surrounding antidepressants, its use, and its side effects, were also presented. The statement issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is a paradigm on the application and… [read more]

Discovery of a Cure Term Paper

5 pages (1,762 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Trained sales personnel are required to introduce the drugs to the doctors and a marketing campaign on a global level is also required to introduce the drug to the people who really need it. Advertisement campaigns will differ significantly between regions based on the population and the knowledge of the product, the disease and the treatment available that they have.

The industry is very competitive and the constant stream of new and innovative products in the market requires that innovative method for marketing this product is constantly sought. Labor costs are also high in this industry due to the expertise requirements and the intense competition between various companies to attract and retain the best individuals for the company. Finding marketing personnel who understand the region and develop campaigns that target this need is equally important. As the product gains recognition in different markets the strategy for marketing will also evolve and change. Markets, in turn, are not passive. They also respond to the changes and the information of products that are provided by the company to them. The confidence in the drug and the constant research into the side effects and the control measures needed can also help the product image. The cost of healthcare is expected to increase with time. The pharmaceutical industry is constantly streamlining its marketing operations in an effort to control cost and reach the widest audience that they can. It is therefore important that Us Triple Z Corporation understand the markets and the needs of the population…… [read more]

Electronics Aiding Humanity Term Paper

10 pages (2,750 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Electronics Aiding Humanity

Technology and Man

The emergence of technology brought a lot of changes in how man performs his daily activities, may it be for his personal needs or for his professional responsibilities. How technology continuously provides interface to a faster accomplishment of man's needs is important to the awareness of mankind.

Since the time that diverse and advanced… [read more]

Animal Rights - Medical Research Term Paper

1 pages (310 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Animal Rights - Medical Research

Many are concerned regarding animal rights, however the fact is that millions of people benefit from modern medicines and treatments that extend and/or improve the quality of life that result from using animals for medical research (Animals pp).

Every new prescription medicine must be studied in animals before it can be tested on humans, and although advances in computer and test tube methods are always used first, many of the potential effects of medicines are the result of chains of biological reactions that can only be investigated in a living body in which all the cells, organ and systems are working together because no combination of computer models and work on isolated cells and tissue can reproduce the vast complexity of the body (Animals pp).

The majority of the more complex effects of medicines in humans can be predicted from well-designed animal studies, thus, giving researchers the guidance to determine…… [read more]

Medicinal Uses in Plants Term Paper

5 pages (1,842 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Medicinal Uses of Plants

First the word, then the plant, lastly the knife. - Aesculapius of Thassaly, c. 1200 BC

The epigram above suggests that humans have been using plants for their medicinal qualities since time immemorial. In fact, the pollen of eight medicinal plants was determined to have been intentionally deposited in a 60,000-year-old tomb in Iraq,… [read more]

Thrombolysis in Critical Care Term Paper

11 pages (3,560 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Thrombolysis in Critical Care

How do you diagnose acute myocardial infarction in the patient with chest pain? A rule-out diagnosis should be considered in any patient presenting to the accident and emergency department with complaint of chest pain. High risk findings include chest pain, known history of coronary artery disease, radiation of the pain to left arm or neck, pain… [read more]

Acupuncture Is an Ancient Practice Term Paper

8 pages (2,903 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Kao Wu's books were really short summaries for acupuncture students, but the Compendium was a complete collection of all the available material on this subject. It is copiously annotated and integrates the herbal remedies used with acupuncture and moxibustion." (Lewith)

It was during the Ming dynasty, around 1504, that contact with Europe was established, and Europeans began to settle there.… [read more]

How Are the Nacirema Similar and Dissimilar to Americans? Term Paper

2 pages (704 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Cultural Practices of the Nacirema and Americans: Comparing and Contrasting

At first glance, it might seem that culturally-advanced and deep-thinking Americans have relatively little in common with the comparatively narcissistic, shallow, and primitive Nacirema, who carve out an existence somewhere between "the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carab and the Awawak of the Antilles" ("Body Ritual among the Nacirema, p. 1). Who could even think to compare Americans, in our advanced state, with such a remote and isolated group? However, upon closer reflection, however, it occurred, much to the present author's surprise, that the Nacirema and Americans are in fact mirror images of one another.

First, the Nacirema have a "highly developed market economy which has evolved into a rich natural habitat" ("Body Ritual among the Nacirema, p. 1). The same might be said of Americans, where virtually everything is bought and sold. The ritual activities for the human body with which the Nacirema are obsessed could be compared to the elaborate grooming rituals of average Americans: bathing and showering, blow-drying hair, brushing and flossing teeth, applying underarm deodorants and perfumes or colognes, shaving the face (for men) and legs and underarms (for women), putting on make-up (in the past, for women only, but sometimes, now, for men, too), and cutting, trimming, bleaching, brushing, coloring, curling, or otherwise manipulating the hair. Increasingly, many Americans go so far as to but sticky, gooey little strips of some substance or other on both the top and bottom layers of their teeth and leave them there for up to half an hour each day, to make them whiter. Americans complain often of extreme tooth sensitivity due to this practice, but refuse to cease this ritual. Clearly, between grooming and attending to their advanced market economy, Americans, like the Nacirema, have little time left over for any, more idle endeavors. Also Americans, like the Nacirema, consider the human body fundamentally ugly and in need of repair. Whatever elaborate procedures, ablutions, etc., are performed upon it, there is always more to do, almost immediately.

Like the Nacirema, Americans often count their wealth…… [read more]

Should Acne Be Treated Term Paper

11 pages (3,256 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Acne Be Treated?

Treating Acne: the Methods, Advantages and Dangers Entailed

What is acne, why does it appear on the skin, and can it be prevented?

According to the National Health Service (NHS) Direct Online Health Encyclopaedia, acne affects a person's hair follicles and the sebaceous glands in the skin, "which secrete an oily substance called sebum" (a… [read more]

Medical Radiology Term Paper

3 pages (1,218 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Radiological Imaging

Portable Computed Radiography vs. Portable Digital Radiography

The Objective in this case study research proposal is to evaluate briefly the system most suited for the use of evaluation of the catheter positioning in the chest of the patient in the Intensive Therapy Unit (UTI) environment. Traditionally these images are difficult to process. The aim of this study is in making a determination as to whether the images produced through Digital radiography or those produced through Computed radiography is optimal in terms of the best system in order to reduce risk to the patient due to higher radiation doses or incorrect positioning. This process of imaging in relation to the computed radiography is accomplished through use of a portable x-ray generator - an anthropomorphic chest phantom.


Through simulation of the patient through the attachment of various catheters and lines hard copy images are produced for evaluation purposes. Radiologists and Radiographer will be those to evaluate the produced images. Identified as key is to keep any many variables as possible constant. This will be achieved through experimentation at a single location using both the computed radiography plate as well as the Portable Flat-Panel digital detector. The experiment will be inclusive of imaging of the phantom through use of various exposures on each system in the production of hard-copies for assessment and evaluation purposes.


There exists several types of imaging that are used by the Radiology teams at local hospital and healthcare institutions with specific use in imaging processes that target the desired imaging in relation to the disease or symptoms of the individual who is being imaged for diagnosis and possible treatment.

Literature Review:

The Department of nuclear medicine and diagnostic Imaging, at Kyoto University School of Medicine and the physicians named as Tadamura, Kubo, Yamamuro, and Konishi wrote in their work that "Nuclear cardiology has played a significant role in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease. MRI and multidector-row CT (MDCT) has recently been introduced in the filed of clinical cardiology. For the management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease, it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of various imaging modalities. Tadamura, Kubo, Yamamuro, & Konishi (1998). The work entitled "Digital Imaging with a Photostimulable Phosphor in the Chest of Newborns" states that when comparing imaging of newborn mediastinum, lung bones, and soft tissues the images ere "significantly better on computed radiographs than on half-exposure computed radiographs and that visualization of the lungs, bones and soft tissues was statically significantly better on screen-film radiographs than half-exposure computed radiographs. Image density was statistically better on computed and half-exposure computed radiographs than on screen-film radiographs." (Cohen, Katz, Kalasinski, White, Smith, & Long)

Computed radiography is the use of "conventional radiographic equipment to expose a photostimulable phosphor imaging plate to create a digital image similar in appearance to screen-film radiograph. The potential advantages of computed radiography over screen-film radiography include electronic image distribution, image postprocessings, and reduction of radiation exposure to the… [read more]

Social Research Activities, Whether Empirical Term Paper

10 pages (2,967 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The instrument employed by the researchers was a non-standardized questionnaire administered by two test administrators. Unfortunately however, no information was presented as to when, where, and how the questionnaire was administered. When test administration is not appropriately administered the resulting error can greatly impact the data collected. For example, administering an alternative medicine questionnaire to a parent who has just… [read more]

Animal Testing Today Term Paper

4 pages (982 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… In November 2004, researchers at the Mayo Clinic reported that they had identified a treatment for the fatal lung disease idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (Mayo Pp). They discovered that the anti-cancer drug imatinib-mesylate, produced by Novartis Pharmaceuticals and known commercially as Gleevec, is able to target a gene critical to controlling the disease process (Mayo Pp). Previous to this research, there had been no treatment and patients usually did not survive beyond three years of diagnosis, now the treatment is undergoing clinical trials at the Clinic (Mayo Pp).

The researchers described their investigation in laboratory mice in the Journal of Clinical Investigation (Mayo Pp). The gene identified is known as c-Abl, and it initiates the destructive, abnormal growth of lung tissue, moreover, the drug Gleevec inhibits c-Abl (Mayo Pp). Gleevec had already been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in certain cancers, so the researchers were able to speed the Gleevac treatment into human trials (Mayo Pp).

Medical researchers study animals in order to gain a better understanding of the body processes in humans and animals, to study the causes and effects of illnesses, to develop and test drugs, surgical techniques, and other medical therapies, and to test the safety of chemicals in food products and cosmetics (Ethics Pp). Without animal testing these drugs and procedures could never have been approved by the FDA and would not be available to the public (Ethics Pp).

Scientists perform experiments on more than twenty million animals every year in the United States (Ethics Pp). Without the last fifty years of animal testing there would not have been the advances in medicine that society has available today, such as complex organ transplants and drug treatments (Ethics Pp). Amazing results for humankind has resulted from the use of animals in the medical field, and as science presses into new frontiers, animal testing will remain a major part of research (Ethics Pp).

There are numerous animal rights groups that protest against the use of laboratory animals. However, it is difficult to comprehend that they could truly wish to turn back the clock to a time when society had no defense against diseases and disorders that are cured and preventable today due to the use of animal testing.

Work Cited

Animal Rights and Vivisection. The Hutchinson Encyclopedia; 9/22/2003; Pp.

Vivisection. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; 4/22/2004; Pp.

Major medical milestones that depended on animal research.


Mayo Clinic Successfully Uses Anticancer Drug to Fight Idiopathic Pulmonary

Fibrosis. Ascribe Higher Education News Service; 11/1/2004; Pp.

The Ethics of Animal Testing. http://damoo.csun.edu:8888/4576… [read more]

Verhey, Allen. "Playing God Term Paper

4 pages (1,343 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Only God can decided, and thus the physician must do all at his or her disposal to prevent the patient's death, even if the patient has lost all cognitive abilities or the probability of the patient's recovery is quite unlikely in the future, or the prognosis of the patient's potential quality of life is poor.

In other words, the physician should not be playing God by "pulling the plug," rather the doctor must do everything technologically possible to make sure that a patient stays alive until God takes patient, rather than any intervening decision by the doctor. Only if all of the efforts of the physician fail, only after the maximum efforts of the physician have been exercised, can the medical profession know that it is truly the will of God for the patient to leave this world.

Thus the idea that doctors should not "play God" is more semantically repugnant, as in playing with patient's lives and wills, rather than having a real, coherent, and singular meaning in this culture. It can be used both ways -- that doctors should not use technology, because technology allows doctors to assume the functions of God, and that doctors should and must use every measure at their disposal possible to sustain human life, because to do so is to decide who lives and who dies. Both uses of the same phrase assume knowledge of God's, and by extension, a physician's function in an ethical as well as a medical fashion. Yet both show completely contradictory lines of thinking.

How to reconcile these apparently incommensurate notions? The article "Playing God and Invoking a Perspective," sorts through these different and contrary uses of the phrase "playing God," and ultimately, its author states that the phrase "playing God" does not so much state a principle or suggest a coherent notion, code, or rubric of ethical behavior as invoke a perspective. "Playing God" is simply a perspective from which scientific and technological innovations are assessed. It suggests the relevance of a perspective in which "God" is taken seriously and "play" playfully.

When discussing the notion of doing everything technologically possible to sustain a patient, Allan Verhey invoked the notion of "God of the gaps." "It is an old and unhappy story in Christian apologetics that locates God's presence and power where human knowledge and strength have reached their (temporary) limit. Newton, for example, saw certain irregularities in the motion of planets, movement that he could not explain by his theory of gravity, and in those irregularities he saw, he said, the direct intervention of God. When later astronomers and physicists provided a natural explanation for what had puzzled Newton, "God" was no longer necessary. And there is the old joke of the patient who, when told that the only thing left to do was to pray, said, "Oh, my! And I didn't even think it was serious." The God of the Gaps is only invoked, after all, where doctors are powerless." (353)

In other words, notions… [read more]

Stem Cell Research Define Stem Cell Technology Term Paper

16 pages (4,117 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Stem Cell Research

Define Stem Cell Technology

Potential of Stem Cell Research

Future Trends

Political Spectrum

Trim Tab

Action Plan

Stem Cell Research

This report will attempt to present insights into the new technology of Stem Cell Research while also presenting views into the political spectrum surrounding the use of this new technology. Through the education of the public domain… [read more]

Product Pricing Component the Organization Term Paper

3 pages (1,237 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… In fact, the price is relatively inelastic because the consumer will simply go to a health food store where a competitor's precisely similar product is sold for less, or will even order online, especially with overnight service available.

The marketing issues surrounding homeopathic remedies are not so much intrinsic to that industry itself as to the medical establishment's impact on any non-AMA methods of health maintenance in the U.S. A Web site called Quackwatch carries an article by Stephen Barrett, M.D., in which he takes issue with Hahnemann's original concept, writing: "Hahnemann declared that diseases represent a disturbance in the body's ability to heal itself and that only a small stimulus is needed to begin the healing process." Barrett continues to deride the remedies because they are not loaded with vicious chemical molecules as are allopathic medications, and, in fact, often display none of the original substance.

Barrett is not alone in his attacks on homeopathic medicines, of course, but his virulent posture is typical of the sort of AMA pressure that puts downward price pressures on homeopathic drugs because the potential market is being pressured to avoid them.

One of Barrett's main objections is that there is no original substance left in many of the remedies. He says that it is then impossible for them to effect a cure, even if they could otherwise.

The best strategy to counteract this negative pressure lies in the scientific community itself. Education, expensive as it is, seems to be the best way to begin to enhance revenues. In short, because of the downward price pressures noted above, the only way to increase profits is to expand the market. One of the only ways to expand the market is to counteract the claims of the AMA-backed medical community. Jean-Marie Pelt, Distinguished Professor of plant biology and pharmacognosy at the University of Metz, writes:

Researchers are striving to understand and explain the mechanism behind high dilutions: how is water able to retain traces of its contact with molecules, when, after being diluted several times, these traces have disappeared, leaving high dilutions of pure, yet active solvents? It seems that only quantum physics holds the answer - at least partially - to this mystery. (Boiron Web site)

Strategies to enhance revenue

Until the AMA backs down, which seems unlikely, or the general population begins to take responsibility for its own health, and becomes willing to try other methods, then education is the main way to expand the market. Another way is one that has been taken recently in other segments of the health industries, however.

Recent winters have seen major over-the-counter drug companies promoting 'natural' flu and cold remedies on television. Boiron would do well to develop its own mass-marketable remedy for a common ailment and market it similarly. Some obvious possibilities are acne, muscle aches and symptoms of menopause. In the case of the latter, the way has already been prepared by the mass marketing of other natural, though not homeopathic, remedies such as… [read more]

New Diseases the Proliferation Term Paper

3 pages (950 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… (Levy 1992)

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE)

The Virginia Department of Health explains that Enterococci are a bacterium that is present in the Vagina and the Bowels. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) This bacterium has a tendency to spread to wounds, the urinary tract, and the bloodstream. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) The Journal of Community Health Nursing, asserts that the bacteria have enormous survival advantages in hospitalized patients and can persist on environmental surfaces for prolonged periods of time, surviving heat and desiccation (Shay, Goldmann, & Jarvis, 1995). Once thought to be relatively benign, enterococci are now recognized as a potent source of infections, particularly bacteremia and endocarditis (Stosor, Noskin, & Peterson, 1996). The National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NNISS) now cites enterococci as the second most common bacterial cause of hospital-acquired infections, causing 12% of all nosocomial infections. (Neuman 1998)

The antibiotic used to treat the bacteria is Vancomycin and when patients are resistant to this drug their condition can be complicated to treat. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003)

The bacterium can be spread through contaminated surfaces and person to person. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) Experts insist that this bacterium is particularly dangerous because it can live for a long time on surfaces that are not properly cleaned. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) The long life of the bacteria increases the chances that it will infect people.

Symptoms and Prevention of MRSA and VRE

Like MRSA, VRE individuals can be infected or colonized with the bacteria. The symptoms of the presence of the bacteria include an elevated white blood cell count, fever and inflammation. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) The Virginia Department of Health reports that the people that are most susceptible to contracting these disease include those with kidney disease, compromised immune systems, diabetes, vascular disease and those with catheters. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) Experts believe that there are several ways to prevent the spread of these bacteria; one of the most fundamental ways is through the thorough washing of hands. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) Other ways to prevent the diseases include the cleaning of contaminated services and limiting the number of people that are exposed to a colonized or infected person. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003)


Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings, Specifically Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). (March 2003). Virginia Department of Health. http://www.vdh.state.va.us/epi/mrsavref.htm

Levy, Stuart B.(1992) Antibiotic Paradox: How Miracle Drugs Are Destroying the Miracle. Plenum Press: New York.

Neuman, Karen. (1998) Transmission of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Among Family Members: a Case Study. Journal of Community Health Nursing.V 15.:1.

Tiwary, Devesh. (2003) Drug…… [read more]

Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci Term Paper

6 pages (1,606 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Antibiotics are completely useless against viruses, but doctors often prescribe antibiotics "just in case," rather than waiting for a positive throat culture for strep throat, for one common example.(17) An ultra-resistant form of strep throat would be particularly deadly, given its outbreak potential and transmissibility.

Another issue is the (over)use of antibiotics on cattle and poultry farms. This contributes to the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacterial evolution in two separate ways. Antibiotics allow farms to raise more livestock per acre, because they make cattle and poultry more resistant to bacterial diseases that thrive in close-packed host communities. But consumers are exposed to these antibiotics unnecessarily because they remain concentrated in meat products. The other problem connected to antibiotic use on farms is that promising new antibiotics are compromised for use in human disease treatment by their introduction and use on livestock (18)

The last important focus must be on immunization programs to prevent classes of disease that require antibiotic treatment, and improved hospital cleanliness, especially in the case of methicillin resistant infections, which can run rampant in hospital settings without rigorous disinfection programs.

17. Tampa Tribune; March 13, 2003

18. Ibid.


Hurst, L., Russell, S. Superbugs and nightmare scenarios: Resistance to antibiotics grows; Toronto Star (Aug. 3, 2002) Accessed at http://www.vaccinationnews.com/DailyNews/August2002/Superbugs&Nightmares15.htm

2. Lopez, T. Study: Drug-resistant infections increasing in U.S. hospitals www.solucient.com (August 5, 2003 Press Release) Accessed at http://www.solucient.com/news_press/news20030805.shtml

Srikameswaran, A. Higher rate of antibiotic resistance here puzzles researchers; Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (February 18, 2004) Accessed at http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04049/274463.stm

4. Staphylococcal and streptococcal infections

Copyright © 1997-2004 surgical-tutor.org.uk Accessed at: www.surgical-tutor.org.uk/defaulthome.htm?core/preop1/staph_strep.htm~right

Strep And Overuse Of Antibiotics; Tampa Tribune

March 13, 2003 Editorial) Accessed at http://www.keepantibioticsworking.com/News/news.cfm?News_ID=278

6. Todar, K. Bacterial resistance to Antibiotics

University of Wisconsin Department of Bacteriology (2002) Accessed at http://www.bact.wisc.edu/Bact330/lecturebactres… [read more]

Integrons Has Been Driven Term Paper

3 pages (852 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… They argue that SIs evolved into MRIs through the entrapment of intI genes and attI sites into structures like transposons. Based on this assumption, the authors then predicted that SI integrases should be active and numerous in the bacterial kingdom, and cassettes should encode functions that are adaptive.

Ultimately, the authors demonstrated that there were equivalent integron structures throughout the gamma-proteobacterial radiation. Further, they noted that integrase of Vibrio cholerae is identical to the MRI class 1 integrase. In addition, the metabolic activity of three SI cassettes was identified.

SI structures were identified in V. mimicus, V. metschnikovii, V. parahaeomolyticus, L. pelagia and V. fischeri. They noted that each of the Vibrio SI had a 100 kB SI. Further, many gamma-proteobacteria genera had SIs, including Sewanella and Xanthomonas. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas medocina also have had SIs recently characterized (Rowe-Magnus et al.).

Rowe-Magnus et al. make an interesting observation about the relationship of phophages and integrons. They note that bacteriophages share a great deal of similarity to the integron platform in terms of attachment sites, large numbers of open reading frame sites, and the integrase genes. Based on this evidence, the authors then go on to speculate that an immobilized prophase may in fact have acted as the ancestral integron. After this occurrence, the phage and integron systems may have diverged to the point that only their recombination systems are similar.

Integrons are a powerful system to create genetic diversity within the bacteria population. The integron system is capable of exchanging and stockpiling large numbers of cassettes, as well as recognizing target recombination sequences. As such, bacteria are then able to scavenge foreign genes, allowing them to quickly adapt to a number of environmental niches (Rowe-Magnus). Interestingly, Rowe-Magnus et al. note that integrons may not be a necessary system, and SI systems seem to encode adaptive functions, as some genera seem to lack the integron platform.

In summary, Row-Magnus et al.'s paper demonstrates that super integrons appear to have acted throughout bacterial evolution. They note, "integrons are ancient structures that have been steering the evolution of bacterial genomes for hundreds of millions of years" (Rowe-Magnus et al., p 655). Accordingly, the rapid appearance of antibacterial resistance is based upon these evolutionary ancient pathways.

Works Cited

Rowe-Magnus, Dean. Faculty Research Focus, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology - Faculty

of Medicine, University of Toronto. 13 February 2004.


Rowe-Magnus, Dean A., Guerout, Anne-Marie, Ploncard, Pascaline, Dychino, Broderick,

Davies, Julian, and Mazel, Didier. The evolutionary history of chromosomal super-

integrons provides an ancestry for multiresistant…… [read more]

Speech Pathology Expert Speech Language Term Paper

3 pages (1,160 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The technique is described in the article. Treatment was daily for three 15-day courses. Sixty-nine percent were clinically cured, and 17% were markedly better. The effect was improved if treatment was within 60 days of stroke." (1999 Acupuncture Literature Review)

Rival 1 Argument: "The findings were very impressive, and our rehabilitation units need to have a trial of this. If the results were even half that of the report, it would still be worthwhile." (1999 ACUPUNCTURE LITERATURE REVIEW)

Rival 2: "One of the very exciting developments over the past years has been the development of advanced tools, methods, and service delivery for the treatment of aphasia. These tools include the Lingraphica® System, a patented, portable, interactive, highly stimulating, flexible, and adult-appropriate medical device which has been specially designed for use by and with aphasic patients. When employed by specially trained speech-language pathologists together with an extensive and detailed Algorithm of Patient Care, this system has consistently demonstrated its ability to produce superior clinical outcomes in adults recovering from aphasia." (New Advances in the Treatment of Aphasia)

Rival 2 Argument: "Several factors appear to contribute to producing these superior clinical outcomes. For one thing, the consistent use in a Language Care Center Program of the extensive Algorithm of Patient Care ensures consistency of treatment and of results. Next, the specialized and ongoing training received by speech-language pathologists means that they are constantly upgrading their own qualifications for achieving superior outcomes. Additionally, the specialized technology - the Lingraphica System - has been designed to be useful and stimulating to adult aphasic patients, with the result that they enjoy working with it. When patients have it at home, they often spend hours using it for practice and stimulation, and the sheer cumulative effect of all that time is frequently significant. And finally, the use of a database to capture treatment and response data of patients generally allows the Centers together to analyze and track treatment trends generally, establish benchmarks for superior service delivery, and constantly raise Centers to new level of achievement through Continuous Quality Improvement."

My Stance: In both scenarios my first response is to set up additional clinical trials to perfect the methodology and delivery of an effective curing agent be it either electronic or through the needles. I noticed that both approaches were focused on getting assistance to the patient in the early recovery period since aphasia onset. This approach complies with the current understanding of the recovery plateau cycle. There was no clinical results available for Rival 2 and upon presentation of the facts I may swing to the other side.

But, with the evidence that I had to make the decision plus my personal experiences make me think that the Acupuncture may be the better of the two treatments. First, the Chinese study was conducted in a more clinical setting. Therefore, I am more likely to believe the results to be accurate. The Rival2 scenario of providing support to a speech-pathologist leaves to much room for training errors.… [read more]

Public Health Study on Implications Term Paper

2 pages (649 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… For those who could not afford such treatment, however, penicillin was no panacea. Penicillin simply meant that individuals whom could afford treatment took fewer precautions in protecting themselves when involved in sexual relations. Thus, the fear of 'the pox' in individuals of higher socioeconomic status was lessoned, and the sense of the pox stigmatizing the poor and those involved in the sex trade increased.

During the Tuskegee experiments upon Black men seeking treatment, it was hypothesized that the antibacterial effects of penicillin might be due to psychological, rather than physical reasons. To determine if this was the case, and to observe the effects of the disease in a modern setting, men suffering the ailment were not given the appropriate treatment and studied as test subjects. All suffered the horrible effects of the illness, to one degree or another, and were permanently, physically damaged.

The only way that this could have occurred, author Susan M. Reverby, suggests, is because those who contracted the disease were seen as deserving what they got, and getting their true 'just medicine' by not getting proper treatment. Because of the patient's poverty and low socioeconomic status as Black sharecroppers, the doctors could intellectually and morally justify in their own warped minds, that the patient's lives were not really all that much worse, for lack of treatment -- they probably wouldn't have been treated anyway, they said, and thus by doing no good, the physicians were really not doing any harm.

Of course, this experiment that did no human good, and much human harm, to the men in question. The book ends with a cry not only for heightened ethical standards for medical professionals and better access to health care for the poor, but also the fact that medicine needs more people of color within its fold, so that doctors see their own faces reflected in the human faces of their patients, rather than the eyes of mere experimental subjects.… [read more]

Macrolide: Erythromycin Term Paper

6 pages (1,850 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… (Kataja 1999) study in central Italy assessing susceptibility of Streptococcus Pyogenes clinical isolates collected over a 6-year period (1992 to 1997) showed a steadily increasing macrolide resistance rates. The analysis of clonal diversity in relation with resistance phenotypes and genotypes revealed that increased macrolide resistance rates were due to a complex interplay of different mechanisms, with a relevant contribution played by an "epidemic" spread of genetic elements carrying the erm (B) gene among the circulating streptococcal population. (Cresti 2002)


Cresti S, Lattanzi M, Zanchi A, Montagnani F, Pollini S, Cellesi C, Rossolini GM. (2002). Resistance Determinants and Clonal Diversity in Group A Streptococci Collected during a Period of Increasing Macrolide Resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 46(6):1816-1822.

A de Azavedo JC, McGavin M, Duncan C, Low DE, McGeer A. (2001).Prevalence and Mechanisms of Macrolide Resistance in Invasive and Noninvasive Group B. Streptococcus Isolates from Ontario, Canada Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 45 (12): 3504-3508.

Gay K, Baughman W, Miller Y, Jackson D, Whitney CG, Schuchat A, Farley MM, Tenover F, Stephens DS.(2000). The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to macrolide antimicrobial agents: a 6-year population-based assessment. J Infect Dis., 182(5):1417-24.

Hyde TB, Gay K, Stephens DS, Vugia DJ, Pass M, Johnson S, et al. For the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network. (2001). Macrolide Resistance Among Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates. JAMA, 286:1857-1862.

Johnson AP, Speller DE, George, RC, Warner M, Domingue G, Efstratiou A. (1996). Prevalence of antibiotic resistance and serotypes in pneumococci in England and Wales: results of observational surveys in 1990 and 1995. BMJ, 312:1454-1456.

Kataja J, Huovinen P, Skurnik M, Seppala H. (1999). Erythromycin resistance genes in group A streptococci in Finland. The Finnish Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43(1):48-52.

Martin JA., Green M., Barbadora, KA. Wald, R. (2002).Erythromycin-Resistant Group A Streptococci in Schoolchildren in Pittsburgh. The New England Journal of Medicine. 346(16):1200-1206.

Mason EO Jr., Wald ER, Bradley JS, Barson WJ, Kaplan SL. (2003).Macrolide resistance among middle ear…… [read more]

Education for the Mind, Heart Term Paper

2 pages (564 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Being a Pharmacy student at the University is indeed an education of the mind for me.

Another reason why Pharmacy appeals to me is that it provides me with a venue to interact and get to know people who have the same interest as mine, which is to study intensively Pharmacy. Also, social interaction with people who have diverse interests compared with mine will also help me broaden my knowledge in relating with people effectively, which, I believe is a must for every pharmacist, who are constantly in touch with people who have health difficulties and needs. Thus, education for the heart for me is achieved in Pharmacy by constantly interacting and relating with people who have been instrumental in my development as a student and individual.

Lastly, education for the soul is the most important reason why I chose Pharmacy as my course. Pharmacy, for me, is primarily a career in service for the people, and my interest will help me pursue this course, combining both my passion for knowledge and service as my guide to attain my dream of becoming a Pharmacist someday. For me, achieving a degree in Pharmacy is an education for the soul, where I can develop in me self-fulfillment and -actualization as a student, individual, and future Pharmacist.

In sum, these are the reasons why I intend to enroll and pursue a degree in Pharmacy, particularly in your University. Education for the mind, heart, and soul are my tools for achieving my goal of educating myself with the knowledge and experience of a Pharmacist.… [read more]

Japanese-American Biopharmaceutical Industry Term Paper

60 pages (20,340 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… The objective of such harmonization is a more economical use of human, animal and material resources and the elimination of any unnecessary delays in the global development and availability of new pharmaceuticals while maintaining safeguards on quality, safety and efficacy, and sustaining regulatory obligations to protect public health. This mission is embodied in the Terms of Reference of the ICH.… [read more]

Ritalin: The Case History Term Paper

8 pages (2,711 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… However, because of the presence of two stereogenic centers in methylphenidate, this process proved to be challenging. A variety of experiments led eventually to an overall yield of 40% threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride with an excellent degree of enantiomeric purity. (Prashad, 2001)

Novartis also explored the possibility of enzyme-based resolution, but encountered difficulty in suppressing the erythro racemate. (Prashad, 2001)

Jeffrey Winkler… [read more]

Efficiency of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Term Paper

20 pages (5,652 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… What is Known about Tetracycline?

Tetracyclines and its derivatives are antibiotics which inhibit the bacterial growth by stopping protein synthesis in the bacteria. Bacteria must synthesis proteins into energy in order to survive, mush in the same way we synthesize fats, carbohydrates, and proteins into energy that can be used in our body's various systems. Teetracycline compounds have been widely… [read more]

Juanita Rich Essay

2 pages (666 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Ethics in Operations

There are a couple of main issues found in the case study pertaining to Juanita R. And the Storefront Clinic that she was operating. Chief among these is the fact that Juanita's clinic had effectively run out of funds. Without adequate funding, the clinic would have to close. Another main issue in this case study is the health of the indigent and underserved population that Juanita is serving. Members of that population are going to the clinic in attempts to attain better health. If the clinic closes, it will be difficult for this population to obtain additional medical treatment. The other main issue is the involvement of the large and well-financed pharmaceutical company that is attempting to fund the clinic in return for gaining "long-term data about a newly developed antihypertensive medication" (p. 51). In doing so, it would attempt to present the aforementioned population with anti-hypertensive medication that is still in the testing phase.

The ethical principles that are being violated would be the dissemination of medication that is still in the testing phase to a poor population so that those serving that population can obtain much needed funds. Were Juanita to agree to the terms of the pharmaceutical company, she would effectively be selling the health of her underserved population for the money to keep the clinic open. Such practices represent a major ethical issue and a violation of conventional ethics that consider the health of a population and its safety much more important than finances or profit. Granted, since Juanita and most of the other clinicians are merely volunteering their time there is no profit involved. Still, she could potentially forsake the health of her patients for funding, which is still an egregious ethical violation.

The ethical dilemma that Juanita is facing is whether or not it is better to have the clinic close and serve none of destitute population that she is attempting to provide services for, or risk its safety by taking funding from the…… [read more]

Drug Treatment for Acute Asthma Chapter Writing

2 pages (635 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Dexamethasone vs. Prednisone

Keeney, G.E., Gray, M.P., Morrison, A.K., Levas, M.N., Kessler, E.A., Hill, G.D., Gorelick, M.H., & Jackson, J.L. (2014). Dexamethasone for acute asthma exacerbations in children: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 133(3): 493-499.

Prednisone is commonly used by nurses, nurse practitioners, and doctors to treat pediatric asthma events. These medical issues often send the asthmatic person to the emergency department, where they are stabilized and given an oral course of prednisone for five days. However, some small studies have been done that indicate prednisone may not be the only -- or even the best -- answer for acute asthma events in pediatric patients. Another medication, dexamethasone, has been said to work just as well. Large scale studies on that statement have not been conducted, however, until now. The meta-analysis shows that a number of studies have been performed where dexamethasone has been compared to prednisone and has worked for pediatric asthma patients. The overall information from synthesizing these studies indicates that there is no difference in the effectiveness of prednisone and dexamethasone, when given to minors with asthma.

One notable issue is that dexamethasone appears to reduce the instances of vomiting that are seen with the use of prednisone. By keeping that in mind, it may be more beneficial to provide these pediatric patients with dexamethasone, instead of giving them prednisone, since the effectiveness of either choice appears not to be statistically different. Another apparent advantage that dexamethasone has over prednisone is that a shorter course of the medication is needed in order to obtain the same result. Prednisone is typically a five-day course, and is given orally. Dexamethasone, by comparison, is given either orally or as an intramuscular injection, and is a two-day course. This means the pediatric asthma patient receives less of the medication, based on the length of time that medication must be administered. That can help the patient and his or her family…… [read more]

Tuskegee Syphilis Project Term Paper

2 pages (693 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… The physicians and the staff at the Tuskegee Institute were convinced that the study was a good choice, and that treating the men for their condition could actually harm them, because they had already been sick for so long. Additionally, there was concern that there would not be enough data if the men received treatment, and the study would not be successful. Nurse Rivers was conflicted, but was taught to follow the orders of the doctors. She earned the trust of the men in the study, and when she was told not to treat them, she did not question that. She simply did what she was told. Whether that was ethical can be questioned, but it is important to note that none of the people who worked on the study had any training in medical ethics. All of the people making the decisions were Caucasian, as well, and all believed in what they were doing in that they saw alleged value in the study.

Today, it would not be possible for a similar type of study to be conducted. There are ethical issues that have to be considered and addressed when studies are created and developed, and they generally cannot get approval and funding if they are not adhering to proper medical ethics. Additionally, people in the scientific and medical communities are taught medical ethics during their education, and they know and understand that experimenting on people by deliberately giving them a disease or leaving a disease untreated to see how it affects them is wrong. It is very cruel to use people as human test subjects, and to withhold treatment from them -- especially when it comes to a disease that can cause serious damage to a number of organs and can lead to an early death. The study in Tuskegee was immediately stopped when the story broke in the media, and the same would be true today if a study managed to get that far, but it would be extremely unlikely that it would ever begin at all. Medical ethics would not allow it.… [read more]

Severe Back Pain and Muscle Disorders Term Paper

2 pages (629 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… How does the treatment vary between musculoskeletal disorder and intervertebral disc disorder?

Doctors will recommend various types of "manual therapy, or mobilization," as therapy for musculoskeletal disorder; some medications may be prescribed: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; acetaminophen or opioids; any of these medications are typically prescribed for pain. What doctors will try to do is to increase the body's levels of serotonin and norepinephrine (using medications like Ambien, Lunesta, and Rozerem, in "low doses") (WebMD). Moreover, there could actually be injections (of anti-inflammatory medications) around the most painful muscles; and they may be exercise to strengthen the muscles, including stretching; also acupuncture or acupressure can be used along with "relaxation and biofeedback techniques" (WebMD).

Treatment for lumbar disc problems (intervertebral disc disorder) includes some of the same treatments as are recommended for musculoskeletal disorder. For example Medscape suggests that "pharmacotherapy" is appropriate (again, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs although some of the drugs recommended include over-the-counter medication like ibuprofen and acetaminophen). Also opioids help relieve pain, as well as Ketoprofen, Flubiprofen, and Naproxen (Medscape). If by using conservative treatments for six weeks or so the level of pain is not lowered, doctors may recommend "spinal fusion" or "discectomy" or even "injection of chymopapain" (Medscape).

Like the suggested treatments for musculoskeletal disorder, treatment for intervertebral disc disorder may include stretching (which relieves "nerve root compression"), and acupuncture as well as chiropractic adjustments (Mayo Clinic). The intervertebral disc pain can be reduced by using cold packs or hot packs (a heating pad) (Mayo Clinic).

Works Cited

Mayo Clinic. (2012). Intervertebral Disc Disorder. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org.

Medscape. (2014). Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disk Disorders. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://emedicine.medscape.com.

National Institutes of Health. (2010). Intervertebral disc disease. Retrieved July 28, 2014,

From http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov.

WebMD. (213). Understanding Spinal Disk Problems -- the Basics. Retrieved July 28,…… [read more]

Research Study Design Research Proposal

1 pages (358 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Problem

Will adding frozen pizzas to Karen's Frozen Foods current line of product offerings warrant the expense of doing so?

Research method and sources of information

A focus group of the target audience of teenagers and busy working couples will be used to see if the pizza being test-marketed is appealing. Individuals will be interviewed about their food preferences and given sample pizzas to taste-test. Then, they will answer a quantitative survey on their buying habits.

Nature of data to be gathered and analyzed

A mixed method approach will be used: testers will be interviewed and observed in a qualitative fashion. They will also answer a quantitatively analyzed questionnaire about their tastes, eating habits, and frozen food consumption.

Hypothesis or hypotheses to be proved or disproved

The new frozen pizzas will be popular amongst teenagers and working couples who need to put a hot meal quickly on the table every night.… [read more]

Migraine Pt Migraine Headaches Typically Research Paper

4 pages (1,458 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… These medications aim to stop the progression of the headache that has already begun as opposed to identifying triggers or using medications to prevent the onset of headaches (Sheikh & Matthew, 2012). Abortive medications include analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), selective serotonin receptor (5-HT1) agonists (triptans), ergot alkaloids, and antiemetics.

Triptans are believed to work via vasoconstriction of the cerebral… [read more]

Pharmacutical Industry Term Paper

3 pages (1,057 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… At present, the age demographic between 40-59 years has the highest rate of diabetes. "However, this age bracket is expected to shift to the age-group 60-79 years by 2030" (Global diabetes drugs market and diabetes services market, 2013, PR Web). The drug maker that can deliver the 'next new thing' in diabetes drug treatment is likely to profit greatly from this surge in diabetes, particularly if it can be tolerated by older patients.

Given that obesity is associated with increased risk of blood pressure, heart disease, and osteoarthritis, drugs which specifically treat all of these obesity-related conditions will grow more in demand. Finally, drugs which treat obesity itself are likely to become of greater interest. Drugs to treat obesity have been stubbornly difficult to develop, given the multifactorial nature of the condition in terms of its etiology and causation. Still, obese patients remain a coveted demographic. "Valued at more than $130 million in 2009, the U.S. obesity drugs market is expected to grow at a healthy compound annual rate of 4.0%, with sales reaching nearly $160 million in 2014" (U.S. market for obesity drugs, 2013, Life Science Intelligence.).

Although the obesity-related drug market provides possible opportunities for marketing to an expanding demographic of consumers, there are concerns that advertising within the industry in general may be constrained by growing resistance to direct-to-consumer marketing, which is being subjected to additional scrutiny by the FCC and FDA. "The average American TV viewer watches as many as nine drug ads a day, totaling 16 hours per year, which far exceeds the amount of time the average individual spends with a primary care physician" (Ventola 2011). Physicians have complained that patients come to their offices brandishing drug advertisements, demanding that they be prescribed a 'hot' new pharmaceutical. There is concern that patients are self-diagnosing for conditions created by the pharmaceutical industry, spanning from illnesses ranging from toe fungus to extreme PMS that requires an antidepressant. Thus, the types of marketing available to pharmaceutical companies will be highly dependent on the whims of government agencies to regulate them. However, the trends regarding obesity seem unlikely to be alleviated, despite public health campaigns to educate consumers in the value of healthy eating.


Berger, R. (2013). Global pharmaceutical industry is in a strategic crisis -- business models must be adjusted. Roland Berger. Retrieved: http://www.rolandberger.com/press_releases/513-press_archive2013_sc_content/Pharmaceutical_industry_in_a_strategic_crisis.html

Carroll, J. (2013). Novo Nordisk betting $3.7B on a blockbuster oral diabetes drug market

Fierce Biotech. Retrieved from:


Diabetes. (2013). WHO. Retrieved:


Global diabetes drugs market and diabetes services market. (2013). PR Web. Retrieved:


Thomas, K. (2012). Generic drug makers facing squeeze on revenue. The New York Times.

Retrieved: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/04/business/generic-drug-makers-facing-squeeze-on-revenue.html?_r=0

U.S. market for obesity drugs. (2013). Life Science Intelligence. Retrieved:


Ventola, C.L. (2011). Direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising. NCBI, 36(10): 669-674,

681-684. Retrieved: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278148/… [read more]

Randomized Study Acupuncture Essay

2 pages (629 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… 5. Outcome measures included a measure of facial nerve function (based on a neurological exam) and disability and quality of life skills (the Facial Disability Index and the Quality of Life score).

6. Results and conclusions. After the follow-up period it was determined that the participants in the treatment group had better facial function, less disability, and improved quality of life based on the outcome measures compared to the control group. Xu et al. (2013) concluded that the stimulant effect of de qi had a greater therapeutic effect and was associated with better outcomes among patients with Bell palsy.

7. Ethical considerations. As with any such study the safety, confidentiality of the participants and the safety of the participants is a strong consideration. In this study the participants all gave informed consent prior to participation, the treatment was performed under the strictest of conditions and acupuncture was only performed by physicians with 10 years or more experience, and patients were followed by a medical team. Confidentiality was maintained. An additional ethical considerations not covered in the article is that the control group should have been offered the treatment manipulation if they so wished following the study. There were dropouts in both conditions and the study does not explain how these participants were followed up.

The study benefited from randomization in being able to establish a causal link between the manipulation and the outcome. Without randomization such a link cannot be determined as there is no control for other possible variables in the sample that can affect the outcome.


Xu, S.B., Huang, B., Zhang, C.Y., Du, P., Yuan, Q., Bi, G.J., ... & Wang, W. (2013). Effectiveness of strengthened stimulation during acupuncture for the treatment of Bell palsy: a randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 185(6), 473-478.

Links: Article:…… [read more]

Body Surface Area-Based Dosing Flat Research Paper

5 pages (1,439 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… 09 m2

=1.09 m2 / 1.73 m2 = 0.63 X 25 mg = 15.75 mg

It is critical to round off the value to the nearest whole number with the aim of generating an accurate value for the medication. Since 15.75 is closer to the whole number 16 in comparison to 15, it is ideal to round off the value… [read more]

Staphylococcus Aureus Is a Type of Bacteria Essay

2 pages (580 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 16

… Staphylococcus aureus is a type of bacteria that normally resides in or on humans. It is most often diagnosed by obtaining a culture from the areas suspected of infection. The proper method to identify S. aureus is through clinical isolation (Sewell, 2002, p. 1077), using such methods as microscope, colony morphology, and other tests (Rowlinson et al., 2006, 857). One method of growing S. aureus in laboratory, as demonstrated in an experiment, is by using Difco Antibiotic medium III at 37° C. with shaking (Koch et al., 1984, p. 358). What is most important for the growth of the bacteria is the level of temperature which has been demonstrated to interfere with the process (Joyce et al., 1970, p. 323). But what raises concerns nowadays is resistance to antimicrobial agents which can lead to various infections. In this respect, antibiotic resistance can be depicted by PCR and DNA sequencing. Based on their conducted study, Duran et al. (2012), concluded that "the detection of mecA gene by PCR techniques is considered the gold standard method." (p. 394) Because we live in a world surrounded of bacteria, the majority of them undetectable at once, antibiotic resistance poses a great challenge as man is more and more subjected to catching bacteria that are difficult to treat. When the bacteria resides on an individual but is unthreatening, it is said that person is colonized. Colonization can be of various durations, sometimes transient or may establish itself for a period of years in which case it is named persistent (Sanford et al., apud Chambers, 2001, p. 178). Children are more susceptible to catching the bacteria through respiratory tracts, but generally, over 25% to 33% of individuals carry it. The bacteria can also come from poor…… [read more]

Vaccines and the Great Denial Creative Writing

5 pages (1,524 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … Vaccines and the Great Denial," provides a variety of scientific research that effectively dispels the claim that there is any link between early childhood vaccinations and incurring autism. Despite all of this evidence, the author cites a number of examples of people who still deny these facts and continue to believe that there is a fundamental link between… [read more]

Pharma Joan Busfield (N.D.) Explores the Pharmaceutical Essay

4 pages (1,293 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Pharma

Joan Busfield (n.d.) explores the pharmaceutical industry as a source of rising health costs. She identifies a few different issues. One of these is the monopoly that pharmaceutical companies have over the drugs they develop, which lasts 20 years and is designed to allow them to earn back the cost of drug development. Another issue that pharmaceuticals are overprescribed -- one of per month for everybody in the developed world. While drug makers earn high profit levels in the west, developing nations are under pressure from bodies like the World Trade Organization to accept Western standards for intellectual property rights, which would force firms in the developing world to produce old, generic products almost exclusively, or pay licensing fees that would put those products out of reach pricewise for most of the people in those countries.

Busfield in particular calls attention to the lack of study regarding pharmaceuticals as consumer products, despite the size of the world's largest pharma companies and their influence of global social outcomes. She seeks specifically to call attention to the power and influence of the pharmaceutical industry in public and political discourse, and policy-making. She notes that while some within the industry complain about the costs associated with drug-testing for approval, many aspects of the process are designed to serve the needs of industry, rather than consumers.

Abraham (n.d.) postulates the idea of "pharmaceuticalization," which he defines as "the process by which social, behavioral or bodily conditions are treated…with pharmaceuticals" (p.290). He argues that the political economy of the pharmaceutical industry, consumerism and deregulatory state ideology are all contributing factors, interrelated, that drive the commercial success of the pharmaceutical industry. Abraham's overarching point is that these factors, more than medical necessity, are what have driven the increased use of pharmaceuticals and therefore health care costs.


The FDA has a multi-stage process by which it approves new drugs. This process, in general, takes several years and hundreds of millions of dollars to bring a product to market. Most new products that begin this process never reach FDA approval, meaning that they never come to market. For pharmaceutical companies, there is little incentive to invest in drug development in a totally free market, because after spending this time and money to develop a drug they would see competitors isolate the chemical composition of their work and replicate that drug within months or even weeks. The solution to this issue is the monopoly.

The monopoly is basic economics -- without competition, the firm can set its prices wherever it feels it will gain the highest profits. The pharmaceutical companies receive a 20-year monopoly on new drugs, which they view as an opportunity not only to recoup the cost of developing that drug, but the costs associated with developing other drugs that did not make it through the approval process, plus a profit margin on top of that. These are paid by the federal government through Medicare and Medicaid, and by insurance companies. In other words, these… [read more]

Opportunity to Work Essay

2 pages (702 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… When the artists or musicians needed me to attend to specific individuals, I would do that. It allowed me to learn the names of all the people in the facility. I also provided institutional support, and filled out forms for the therapists. This greatly helped their procedural operations, and dealt with the bureaucratic red tape that they did not like to do themselves. The process was painless for me, and I enjoyed being able to help.

Another way I provided service to the therapists and to the institution was during the occupational therapy and physical therapy sessions, such as the ones that Brown (1999) describes. During the occupational therapy sessions, we worked with many seniors who had mobility issues or mental impairment issues related to senility, dementia, or Alzheimers disease. These individuals needed extra support, which is what I provided in terms of holding their hands, or helping them walk around. We worked on issues such as how to send their grandchildren emails, and how to remember to take their medications. There are a lot of daily medications for the seniors, and the nurses on staff needed someone to bring the medications to the seniors. Many of them would protest the medications, but I was there to help the nurses when the individual became belligerent about taking it.

During physical therapy classes, I took a more hands-on approach. I have no personal experience or background in physical therapy, but I seemed to have a knack for it. When the therapist needed someone to help with specific exercises, I was there. I was able to hold up the individual when necessary, and work on motor skills. We worked with several different technologies and devices during the physical therapy sessions. The experience highlighted much of what I have learned throughout my course of study, especially in the area of nursing home therapies.


Brown, J.G. (1999). Physical and occupational therapy in nursing homes. Retrieved online: http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-09-97-00122.pdf

Therapy Dogs International (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.tdi-dog.org/OurPrograms.aspx?Page=Nursing+Homes… [read more]

Chest Pain the Presenting Patient Case Study

4 pages (1,112 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Chest Pain Case Study

The presenting patient in the present case scenario is Mr. Hay, an 82-year-old male with an existing diagnosis of Cardiac Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This existing diagnosis will prove relevant in a care plan for Mr. Hay, who has been admitted following a loss of consciousness. Having been discovered by a neighbor after some sustained period of unconsciousness, Mr. Hay would be admitted with an array of treatment issues. The three most pressing would prove to be the patient's Activity Intolerance, his Ineffective Airway Clearance and his Pain management. The discussion here below considers these treatment challenges.

Patient Problem 1: Activity intolerance

In any case where an elderly patient is admitted to the hospital, sedentary conditions can lead to an exacerbation of existing illness or to the formulation of new and problematic health concerns. This is especially true for the patient for whom excessive activity may produce negative health consequences as well. This is the case for the Mr. Hay, whose vital signs demonstrate the need for light but regular activity engagement.

For Mr. Hay, several factors are responsible for his activity intolerance and must therefore be accounted for even in the stimulation of activity. First, the fall caused by the patient's loss of consciousness has produced injuries to hip, ankle and shoulder. These injuries are likely to be an obstruction in the patient's attendance of daily physical engagement.

Additionally, the symptoms of Mr. Hay's COPD present a distinct challenge to ambulatory behavior. Shortness of breath, to be addressed in greater detail in the section below, may lead to dizziness, fatigue or disorientation and must therefore be monitored closely during the engagement of physical activity. Likewise, all evidence points to a mounting cardiac issue -- in all probability related to the existing COPD diagnosis -- that must itself be managed with care. Any physical activity must be offset by recognition of the patient's immediate cardiac state. The patient's heart-rate is recorded at 106 beats per minute (BPM). This is high relative to the normal rate of 60 to 100 BPM. This is consistent with MRIs showing the patient's moderately enlarged heart and a blood pressure reading placing the patient in the hyptertension risk index with a reading of 160 over 95.

These conditions collectively produce an intolerance to physical activity that must be managed and overcome in order to protect the patient from the danger of physical decline that may accompany hospitalization. The condition calls for assisted, light physical ambulation several times a day with constant monitoring of vital signs for indications of over-stimulation.

Patient Problem 2: Airway clearance, ineffective

The second problem of pressing importance is the patient's airway clearance difficulties. Here, a range of presenting symptoms suggest a worsening of Mr. Hay's COPD. The patient has experienced and, at the time of admission, continued to experience, respiratory difficulty. The patient's pursed lips and shallow breath suggest that he is struggling to breathe without assistance. Having performed medication reconciliation, caregivers have determined that the subject… [read more]

Treatments for Rosacea Research Paper

2 pages (740 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… One experiment tested how a topical lotion comprised of 0.1% kinetin lotion could treat Rosacea. Some patients with Rosacea do not handle topical creams well. This is because the condition causes the skin to be highly sensitive and creams can be highly uncomfortable for those patients. Unlike most creams, 0.1% kinetin lotion is extremely mild. The research conducted in this experiment showed that this type of lotion is better tolerated by Rosacea patients and can be used to help patients who cannot handle more aggressive topical treatments.

Some researchers suggest the taking of medication to treat Rosacea, including oral introduction of zinc sulfate into the body (Sharquie 857). In this particular study, patients were either given zinc capsules or placebos to determine if there was a marked difference in the results of the various patients. After the test was ended, the researchers were able to empirically show that the zinc sulfate capsules were an effective treatment for patients with Rosacea. This experiment shows a potential method of treatment for patients who are unable to tolerate traditional topical treatment types.

The research of scientists has shown a wide range of methods for treating Rosacea. Just as no two diseases are the same, so too no two patients are the same. Some people will do better with topical creams, others with light treatment, and still others through the taking of capsules. Each treatment has been shown to provide relief for certain Rosacea patients and so all are viable.

Works Cited

Lee, DH, Li, K.K., & Suh, DH "Pimecrolimus 1% Cream for the Treatment of Steroid-

Induced Rosacea: an 8-week Split-Face Clinical Trial." British Journal of Dermatology. (158:5). 2008. 1069-76. Print.

Papageorgiou, P.P., Clayton, W.W., Norwood, S.S., Chopra, S.S., & Rustin, M.M. "Treatment of Rosacea with Intense Pulsed Light: Significant Improvement and Long-Lasting Results." British Journal of Dermatology. (159:3). 2008. 628-32. Print.

Sharquie, K.E., Najim, R.A., & Al-Salman, H.N. "Oral Zinc Sulfate in the Treatment of Rosacea: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study." International Journal of Dermatology. (45:7). 2006. 857-61. Print.

Wu, J.J., Weinstein, G.D., Kricorian, G.J., Kormeili, T., & McCullough, J.L. "Topical Kinetin

0.1% Lotion for Improving the Signs and Symptoms of Rosacea." Clinical &…… [read more]

Fall Prevention All Staff Falls Business Plan

2 pages (771 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The use of bed and chair alarms can also be used to alert staff when a resident is getting up, especially a confused resident.

Staff rounding on a continual basis is especially important to monitor residents under fall precaution standards. Staff can monitor when residents are using walking aids improperly and work with residents to ensure the proper use for safety. Rounding can also monitor confused residents and prevent accidents that can cause injury. It can also assist residents who insist on maintaining their own independence, even though they have limitations that prevent them from being totally independent. Residents with mobility issues should always be walked and exercised by a staff member with the use of a gait belt for safety from falling.

Residents should be required to wear non-skid sole shoes at all times. Residents who are fall precaution require constant monitoring to ensure they don't try to do things, such as get up without assistance or reaching for items that are too far away, which can cause injury. Items the resident uses on a regular basis, such as water, should be kept in reach of coherent residents and water pitchers kept full where resident is not tempted to get up to meet the need of themselves. Wheel chairs should be well maintained at all times, with scheduled maintenance checks to ensure safety. All areas, including wheel chairs, should be kept clean to prevent hazards. This includes patient rooms, where items of clothing, trash, etc. can be on the floor that causes obstructions. Spills of any kind should be cleaned up immediately.

It is vital that all staff work as a team to ensure the safety of all residents. Regardless of what residents a staff member is assigned to, all staff members are responsible for keeping all residents safe. If a staff member is busy assisting one resident, other staff members need to answer call lights and make rounds on all residents to ensure safety and ensure that needs are met to reduce temptations in residents that are under fall precautions.


Falls in Nursing Homes. (n.d.). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationSafety/Falls/nursing.html

Patient falls: How to prevent them. (n.d.). Retrieved from patient Safety Partnership: http://www.patientsafetypartnership.org/Patient_Falls.html… [read more]

Current Information and Communication Technologies Essay

2 pages (670 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Healthcare Technology

The Bar Code Medication Administration System is a point of care software system for validating the correct medication is given to a patient in the correct manner (Weckman, 2009, May). It is designed to help prevent medication errors related to patient identification, correct medication, route, dosage, and timing. It contains user specified codes and electronic signatures that link to usernames.

A valid provider order is entered into the system, verified by a pharmacist, and made active. A nurse accesses the system using a specific code. The patient identification wrist band is then scanned with a handheld scanner. The nurse compares the scanner information to the wrist band, and then confirms the information is correct. A Virtual Due List appears, displaying allergies and medications due in the current time frame. The Virtual Due List is similar to a Medication Administration Record (MAR). If the nurse is administering other medications, the nurse is required to expand the Virtual Due List and record reasons for the other medication given.

The medication bar code is then scanned to confirm it is the correct medication, route, and dosage. If a patient refuses, is unable to take the medication, or medication becomes contaminated, the nurse can undo the action and mark it not given in the medication history. The Bar Code Administration System enables access to the medication list for nurses to check to determine when medications were given at past times. It also includes features of RN Clinical Reminders for PRN effectiveness documentation and abilities to access the Vitals Package where some medications require recent vital signs before administration.

If the Bar Code Administration System were more widely used, it could reduce the number of medication errors and adverse patient conditions that usually come about with medication errors. Nurses would be made more aware of mistakes in giving medication, especially in busy times when stress levels can become high. It would also give patients a higher assurance that measures are being taken to ensure safety in the medications…… [read more]

Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine Term Paper

10 pages (3,343 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Monthly teleconferences and meetings were held by the workgroup thrice a year to review published as well as unpublished data related to HPV vaccine clinical trials along with data on efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine. Moreover, data on HPV epidemiology, natural history and sexual behavior in the United States was also reviewed. Economic and cost effective analyses were… [read more]

Vitamin D In Controlling Urtis Article Critique

3 pages (978 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… al (2012) also gave the same results: 100000 IU of Vitamin D3 was not effective enough to control URTIs in healthy adults. The researchers also concentrated on changing their dosage and came to the conclusion that "result remained unchanged when the analysis included winter season or baseline 25-OHD levels" (Murdoch et.al, 2012). The findings of the experimental study are conclusive with literature. Similar experimental studies have been conducted by Laaksi et.al among 164 soldiers, for a dosage of 400 IU of Vitamin D3 (Murdoch et.al, 2012).

Validity and Reliability of the Research

Previous studies conducted had small samples. Study conducted by Murdoch et.al comprised of 322 healthy adults as they believed that the sample size could have an impact on the results, reliability and validity of the research. However, since the results were similar to previous studies, it should be noted that the reliability and validity of the research cannot be questioned. This is because the researchers had concentrated on collecting a large sample size to avoid any shortcomings. However, results were consistent with previous studies.

Murdoch et.al concentrated on studying the impact of vitamin D on URTIs and also asserted that there is a possibility that vitamin D might be able to control URTIs in other populations. In this regard, the authors have observed that "The mean baseline 25-OHD level was 29 ng/mL, and the mean level decreased to about 20 ng/mL during the winter in the placebo group; only 5 participants (1.6%) had baseline levels less than 10 ng/mL" (Murdoch et.al, 2012). The authors propose that such an effect may be found in populations, which suffers from deficiency of Vitamin D However, future research must be conducted in this regard. The internal validity of the research is valid and reliable as the sample size collected concentrated on collecting a large sample size as compared to previous studies. The results of the studies still demonstrated the outcomes of previous researchers and therefore internal validity cannot be questioned.


The limitation of the study was that the researchers did not evaluate the impact of Vitamin D in terms of preventing the disease, which occurred because of individual viruses. Data regarding this is insufficient and therefore, also requires future research (Murdoch et.al, 2012). Therefore, external validity of the research may be questioned.


Experimental studies have been conducted in order to understand the impact of vitamin D on controlling Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. The goal of Murdoch et.al (2012) was to study the impact of vitamin D on Upper respiratory infections (URTIs). The results from the experimental studies conducted to understand the impact of vitamin D dosage on VRTIs have given results, which conflict with one another and the findings of the research conducted by Murdoch et.al (2012) also gave the same results: 100000 IU of Vitamin D3 was not effective enough to control URTIs in healthy adults.


Murdoch et.al (2012). Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on…… [read more]

Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Essay

2 pages (542 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… It is important to crosscheck the anti-inflammatory medications this patient receives with the antibiotics given for the urinary tract infection, as certain drug interactions can result in severe complications.

The patient suffering from bipolar disorder would appear to have no relevance to their direct patient care, unless proper medication dosages were not being adhered to, but this has not been an issue. The absence of teeth, while uncomfortable and a sign of advanced age, requires the assistance of a competent dentist and not a doctor.

As a direct patient care provider attempting to implement anatomical and physiological assessments into my overall diagnosis, in terms of the patient's long-term health prospects I would be most concerned about the presence of an irregular heartbeat. Considering the patient's advanced age, and the presence of hypertensive renal disease, suffering even the occasional occurrence of heart dysrhythmia could prove to be a life threatening event. It is well established that cardiovascular disease is a primary precursor to the end-stage renal failure which so often dooms those who suffer from chronic high blood pressure, and the subsequent hypertensive renal disease that ravages the kidneys. This patient must be encouraged to closely monitor the irregular heartbeat and report any issues promptly to direct care providers.

Works Cited

Christensen, Barbara Lauritsen, and Kockrow, Elaine Oden. Foundations of Nursing. New York, NY: Mosby, 2010. 434-472.…… [read more]

SOP Option 1: Envision Yourself Essay

2 pages (691 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Although I enjoyed my time at the University of Chicago, I could see the boundaries and limitations of my education and those fences made me uncomfortable. I am a dreamer, someone who likes to look at the sky and perceive the endless potential of the universe. Thus, I chose a more challenging academic career at Northeastern University. The step was a huge one. I instantly felt the pressure to set goals and achieve them, for now I had something to prove. I was selected as one of a chosen few to maximize my potential as a budding biomedical engineer. I needed to show my peers and mentors what I was made of, and what I intended to do with my degree.

Now, of course, I can communicate my achievements in this book. But when I was still an undergraduate, I struggled to find a concrete way to develop my talents and skills. My work with Pi Mu Epsilon Mathematics Honor Society and the Biomedical Engineering Society meant that I surrounded myself with inspiring people. It was through meeting people at Northeastern that the spark of light shone in my own eyes: I was going to help the blind to see.

Continuing my studies in biomedical engineering at Northeastern, and receiving a graduate degree there as well, led me to interact with the greatest minds in my field. It was at Northeastern I developed the dream of Optics Wonder Lenses: the technology that would enable us to provide real eyes for real people. We gave the gift of sight to millions who had spent their prior lives in darkness. Our hard work and dedication at Northeastern translated into real tools and real action. If it was not for my reaching for the sky at Northeastern, I might never have been able to develop the biomedical tools that allow one new person each day to see the blue sky above them. This is my story. Thank you for reading it. If you are a recipient of OWL technology, thank you as…… [read more]

Government Be Allowed to Overrule Term Paper

5 pages (1,729 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… These instances included an 1853 British law that required vaccination against smallpox in England and Wales, The U.S. requires that children receive vaccination before entering public school. There are cases when individuals have free rights, but other times when the freedom of the individual has to be overruled. This is specifically so when the lives of many others are in the balance. Applying vaccinations is one of these instances.


American Medical Association (2000). Vaccines and infectious diseases: putting risk into perspective.


A Paralyzing Fear: The Story of Polio in America


A Paralyzing Fear: The Story of Polio in America [VHS] (1998): Reviews


Fiore AE, Bridges CB, & Cox NJ (2009). "Seasonal influenza vaccines." Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 333: 43 -- 82.

Goldstein, M. (1978) How we know: an exploration of the scientific process New York: Plenum Press

Koplow, David A. (2003). Smallpox: the fight to eradicate a global scourge. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lombard M, Pastoret PP &, Moulin AM (2007). "A brief history of vaccines and vaccination." Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot. 26 (1): 29 -- 48.

Riedel S (2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination." Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 18 (1): 21 -- 5. PMC

PBS The Vaccine War


Wolfe R, & Sharp L (2002).…… [read more]

Drug Therapy Case Study

3 pages (948 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Continual use of Ibuprofen should be crosschecked with Ms. Pharms medical history to avoid drug to drug interactions with the following medications: Aminoglycosides, anticoagulants, nitric oxide, diuretics, quinolones, antihypertensives, cardiac glycosides, lithium, methotrexate, ciclosporin, mifepristone, other NSAIDs, corticosteroids (MIMS Online, 2011).

Phenytoin, carbamazepine, theophylline, warfarin, oral contraceptives, antacids, sucralfate (MIMS Online, 2011) are the major sources of drug to drug interactions involving regular ingestion of Lansoprazole.

When considering the risk of harmful drug to food interactions, Ms. Pharm would be well advised to avoid consuming foods cooked with garlic, as this common cooking ingredient may pose a risk of hypoglycemia when combined with Glimepiride (MIMS Online, 2011). Ibuprofen poses no serious risk of drug to food reactions, while Lansoprazole should not be taken in con junction with a diet high in spicy or acidic foods.

3.) Discuss six (6) adverse medication reactions of the prescribed medications.

For patients taking a regular regimen of Glimepiride, expected side effects can include nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, and unusual bruising or bleeding (PubMed Health, 2011). The majority of Glimepiride's known side effects are gastrointestinal in nature, and if symptoms such as "hypoglycemia, GI upset, skin reactions & #8230; hepatic function abnormalities, hepatic failure, hepatitis, jaundice, blood dyscrasias, or transient visual disturbances" (MIMS Online, 2011) occurred in the case of Ms. Pharm, I would advise her to immediately discontinue use in favor of alternative treatment.

Ibuprofen has been known to cause adverse medication reactions when combined with "aminoglycosides, anticoagulants, nitric oxide, diuretics, quinolones, antihypertensives, cardiac glycosides, lithium, methotrexate, ciclosporin, mifepristone, other NSAIDs, corticosteroids" (MIMS Online, 2011). Because patients with a "history of, or active peptic ulcer & #8230; aspirin/anti-inflammatory allergy & #8230; or severe heart failure" (MIMS Online, 2011) can experience gastrointestinal hemorrhaging, Ms. Pharm's current gastritis condition poses a significant risk and as her nurse I must control her dosages of both drugs with professional precision.

Lansoprazole reacts harmfully when taken in conjunction with "phenytoin, carbamazepine, theophylline, warfarin, oral contraceptives, antacids, sucralfate" (Tiziani, 2010, 396), and again the fact that Ms. Pharm regularly takes an antacid necessitates close and careful monitoring of her drug ingestion to prevent complications.


MIMS Online Database. (2011). Glimepiride. Available: http://www.mims.co.uk/Drugs/diabetes/oral-and-parenteral-hypoglycaemics/glimepiride/. Last accessed 24th Oct 2012.

MIMS Online Database. (2011). Ibuprofen. Available: http://www.mims.co.uk/Drugs/pain/pain-fever/ibuprofen/. Last accessed 24th Oct 2012.

MIMS Online Database. (2011). Lansoprazole. Available: http://www.mims.co.uk/Drugs/gastrointestinal-tract/peptic-ulcer-z-e- syndrome/lansoprazole/. Last accessed 24th Oct 2012.

Tiziani, A. (2010) Harvard's Nursing Guide to Drugs. 8th ed. Sydney, Australia: Elsevier- Mosby

PubMed Health Online Database. (2010). Ibuprofen. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0000598/. Last accessed 24th Oct 2012.

PubMed Health Online Database. (2011). Glimepiride. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0000981/#a696016-sideEffects. Last accessed 24th Oct 2012.… [read more]

Bacteria Pseudomonas Annotated Bibliography

6 pages (1,963 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… The conference included many different notable researchers who have been looking at the issue of waterborne bacterial infections in hospital settings. This is particularly concerning due to the increase in patients who have secondary infections after hospital stays. The conference looked at the prevalence of waterborne pathogens, where they come from and methods that have been used to mediate them.

The various lectures at the conference are summarized for the reader which makes this a particularly useful article. Since waterborne infections are among the major problems discussed in the articles gathered (this pathway seems to be one of the most common for the transference of pseudomonas aeruginosa), this article gives more information about how this problem is conveyed than any other. It is a seminal article in that it is a type of meta-study which looks at the problem from many angles and through the research of many different experts. It is, again, a foundational article to the research being conducted.

This particular article provided more understanding of the overall concept being research and gave direction to the study of the pseudomonas bacteria. Even though the article only discusses waterborne infections in hospitals, it gives information on the danger and spread of the bacteria in other areas also. The methods that the various researchers use to stop the spread of the bacteria is also valuable.

Stein, R.A. (2011). Antibiotic resistance: A global, interdisciplinary concern. American Biology Teacher, 73(6), 314-340.

The facts presented in this article are essential knowledge for the underpinnings of any article which discusses the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. The author begins his discussion when antibiotics were first discovered and points out that resistant strains of bacteria were already present when penicillin was first commercially introduced. Throughout the years, as more and more types of antibiotics have been introduced, bacteria have evolved methods of combatting the agents that are deadly to them. The author looks at the different products invented by medical scientists for producing antibiotics, and the methods the bacteria then use to overcome their effects. It is a very thorough article which provides a history of the problem, and looks into the development of pseudomonas resistant strains as well as others.

This article provides the ability to look at how bacteria have developed over time and how the means of protecting against them have also evolved. This article is necessary to the research because it describes, in detail, how bacteria become resistant and how antibiotics have been manufactured to overcome the resistance. It is necessary to understand how the bacteria work so that the process can be explained.

This article was probably the most informative regarding the entire history of the battle between bacteria and antibiotics. It provided insights which other articles…… [read more]

Tennessee H1N1 Issues in Healthcare Response Case Study

5 pages (1,450 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Tennessee H1N1

Issues in Healthcare Response: Tennessee and the H1N1 Flu Outbreak of 2009

Coordinating responses to impending epidemics is not always easy, especially when a great deal of that preparation depends on the availability of a vaccine that has yet to be developed or manufactured. This and other problems conspired to produce a significant health concern for Tennessee during… [read more]

Hypomagnesemia Fact Sheet Essay

2 pages (452 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Laboratory Evaluation

It should be noted that "Mg deficiency should be suspected even when serum Mg concentration is normal in patients with unexplained hypocalcemia or refractory hypokalemia




Initial treatment includes supplementation with magnesium. However, the underlying problems must be addressed that lead to the deficiency. Patients may need to undergo treatment for alcoholism or have their medications readjusted.

Expected outcome and follow-up needs

Expected outcomes depend upon the severity of the case, and will determine the course of treatment. In most, less severe cases, oral Mg salts are an adequate to restore balance to the body. In more severe cases, "when Mg deficiency is symptomatic or persistently < 1 mEq/L (< 0.50 mmol/L) an IV or IM of Mg sulfate may be required" (Lewis 2009). This may be also used for alcoholics who cannot be relied upon to follow oral administration guidelines.

Patient education

Patient education is highly dependent upon the causes of the deficiency. Patients taking medications or who have illnesses which may present the risk of an Mg deficiency must be educated as to the signs so they can engage in self-monitoring; so must their caregivers. Patients whose lifestyles put them at risk must receive support to prevent reoccurrence.


Lewis, James. (2009). Disorders of Magnesium concentration. Merck Manuals. Retrieved:

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine_and_metabolic_disorders/electrolyte_disorders/disorders_of_magnesium_concentration.html… [read more]

Confidentiality Hospital and Confidentiality Rct Case Study

2 pages (652 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Patients are likely to be willing to take a risk to improve their chances of extending their life spans.

Regarding the first aspect of Dr. L's dilemma, little utilitarian benefit would accrue if the doctor broke his confidentiality and informed Bruce W. Of the fact Bruce was taking a placebo. At best, Bruce would feel anxious and upset to know he was getting no real treatment and this would likely compromise the effectiveness of the study, since Bruce would perceive no benefits and not act as an effective control in the study. The placebo effect has been measured and is 'real,' and must be taken into consideration when comparing the results in the experimental group and the control group, and Dr. L secretly coming forward will merely taint the results. Whatever the ethical obligation he perceives towards his patient, he knew when the patient agreed to the trial the doctor knew he would be ethically bound not to inform Bruce of his status as a control group participant.

The court case of Tarasoff v. Regents supports the philosophical notion in ethics that there must be a balance between the rights of individual patients and the collective needs of society in medical decisions (211). However, regarding his larger dilemma Dr. L is within his rights of talking to the study designers about discontinuing the study and allowing all participants to benefit from the drug. In this particular example, the RCT is fairly small and it is still difficult to draw definitive conclusions from this singular analysis of the small group. More extensive trials will likely be warranted and the drug is still in its developmental stages. However, it may be possible, given the nature of the disease, to do more extensive studies that are quasi-experimental in nature and allow for a wider proportion of the subjects to benefit from…… [read more]

SWOT Analysis: Bristol Myers Squibb SWOT

2 pages (564 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Due to these generic drugs the pharmaceutical companies invest heavily in their research and development program so that they can always have a marketable drug before the generic ones hit the market. Bristol-Myers Squibb has a strong pipeline but the drugs they have in their pipeline have to compete with other drugs that were introduced in the market earlier than theirs, and this puts the company at a disadvantage as it is not able to boost its commercial potential.

Another weakness faced by Bristol-Myers Squibb is to get FDA approval on their new drugs. The company invest a lot and does a series of tests before they can forward the drug for FDA approval and if the drug fails to be approved the company incur a lot of losses. Though this does not happen often, when it does it has far reaching consequences and affects the overall performance of the company.


Bristol-Myers Squibb is currently investing in development for health products that would be used for areas that the medical needs have not been met. The company does this to have the grace period of market exclusivity. During this period, the company is better placed to sell its drug and eventually break even thus gaining the investment it had put in and also get profits. With these kinds of strategies, the company can rest assured they would have a product in their pipeline at any one given time that would have market exclusivity. The company should also ensure they have a strong and well funded Research & Development program, which would be strategically positioned in order to produce drugs that would be a huge success for…… [read more]

Long-Term Care Facility Safety: Prevention Case Study

3 pages (1,165 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… A study conducted by Hartikainem, Lonnroos and Louhivuori (2007) examined whether medication put the older individual at a risk for falls. The study is reported to have concluded "that central nervous system drugs, especially psychotropics, seemed to be associated with an increased risk for falls." The elderly person's individual physiological factors also result in an increased risk for falls.

Koski, Luukinene, Laippala and Kivela (1996) report that conditions that place the older patient at a higher risk for falls include "lower-extremity muscle weakness, peripheral neuropathy, lower pulmonary capacity, difficulties in gait and use of long acting benzodiazepines and cardiovascular medications." Additionally noted is that the primary occurrence of falls was when the older individual was either "walking or taking a seat" and it is stated that this indicates "training of lower extremities and supervised walking could be an effective nursing intervention for elderly clients." (Koski, Luukinene, Laippala, and Kivela, 1996) Individual Risk Factors that are modifiable and non-modifiable and the environmental risk factors for falling that are modifiable and those that are nonmodifiable are stated by the Long-Term Care Imperative as follows:

Individual Risk Factors

Non-Modifiable Modifiable

Older Age Muscle Weakness

Female Gait and Balance Problems

Chronic Diseases Vision problems

Mentally Impaired Psychoactive medications

Environmental Risk Factors

Non-Modifiable Modifiable

Cold temperatures Clutter in walkways

Uneven pavement No stair railings or grab bars

Poor public space designs Loose rugs

Dim lighting

Source: The Long-Term Care Imperative

It is noted by Premier Inc. that a comprehensive program is needed to reduce falls including the following:

(1) Assessing and screening for risk factors for falls.

(2) Using triggers to implement a falls prevention protocol.

(3) Implementing protocols according to patient needs.

(4) Assessing and reassessing patient and modifying as appropriate.

(5) Reporting falls (internal and external).

(6) Measuring/monitoring fall rates.

(7) Improving the falls prevention program.

Additionally reported is the fact that it is not possible to have a routine fall prevention program since falls occur in many different situations for older adults therefore the prevention plan should be individualized for each patient.


Comprehensive Prevention Program (2012) Premier Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.premierinc.com/quality-safety/tools-services/safety/topics/falls/prevention_program.jsp

Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview (2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Falls/adultfalls.html

Koski, K., Luukinen, H., Laippala, P., & Liisa-Kivela, S. (1996). Physiological factors and medications as predictors of injurious falls by elderly people: A prospective population-based study. Age and Ageing, 25: 29-38.

McCarthy, R. Adedekun, C and Fairchild, R. (nd ) Preventing Falls in the Elderly Long-Term Care Facilities. RN Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.rnjournal.com/journal_of_nursing/preventing_falls_in_the_elderly_long_term_care_facilities.htm

McNamara, C. (1998). Basic guide to program evaluation. Retrieved November 9, 2009 from http://www.managementhelp.org/evaluatn/fnl_eval.htm

Sherrington, C., Whitney, J.C., Lord, S.R., Herbert, R.D., Cumming, R.G., & Close, J.C. (2008). Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 56(12):2234-2243. Retrieved on September 30, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/585681

The American Medical Directors Association. (2005). Falls and fall risk. Assisted Living Consult. Retrieved on November 8, 2009 from http://www.assistedlivingconsult.com/issues/01-01/ALC1-1_FallsRisk.pdf

Wandering and Elopement (2012) NCCDP LLC. Retrieved… [read more]

Consent of Subjects Research Paper

2 pages (988 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Identification of all parts of the trial that are experimental

F. Description of any foreseeable risks or discomforts to the subject

G. A description of any benefits to the subject or others that can be expected from the research

H. A disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures or courses of treatment that might be advantageous to the subject

I. A statement describing the extent of confidentiality of records and notes that the FDA may inspect records

J. Explanation of any compensation any potential injury that may occur and where further information may be obtained

K. Explanation of subjects rights and whom to contact in the event of a research-related injury

L. A statement that participation is voluntary and refusal will result in no penalty.

Some additional elements may be appropriate for the ICF of clinical trial depending on circumstances and may include the following (21CFR 1998):

A. A statement that the particular treatment may involve risk to the subject or fetus should the subject be or become pregnant

B. Circumstances under which the subject's participation may be terminated by the investigator without the consent of the subject

C. Any additional costs to the subject that may result from participation in the research

D. The consequences of a decision by the subject to withdraw from the research

E. The approximate number of subjects involved in the study

The investigator should provide a signed and dated copy of the approved ICF to each subject with any supplemental documents or amendments to the information prior to and during participation in the research.

The understanding of the material in an ICF should be written as if a teacher were providing an oral explanation to a subject. For example, it is easier to review and determine the role and specifics if the subject is addressed as "you" and the members of the investigational team as "we" as it helps to communicate that a choice can be made by a subject. The use of legal waiver terms such as "I understand" or "I have reviewed and been explained" should be avoided as a subject may not be in a position to evaluate whether or not they understand. Scientific and medical terms should be explained to place emphasis on legitimate risk within the procedure and should be described in such a way that a student with no subject matter expertise can see that the procedure both has a purpose and could pose a risk that can be evaluated against the subject's own standards. Complicated biomedical and research terms must be avoided. If it is not possible to concisely explain the procedure and risks and benefits to the subject due to the subject's lack of comprehension and a suitable authorized legal representative is not present then the investigator must determine that it is not possible to obtain informed consent and the patient must be excluded from the trial.


Protection of Human Subjects, 21 C.F.R. § 50 U.S. FDA (1998)

E6…… [read more]

Justification: Assessment of Proteome Changes in Model Research Proposal

7 pages (1,822 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… ¶ … Justification: Assessment of Proteome Changes in Model Bacteria in Response to Antibiotic Treatment Using Combined Mass Spectrometry and Bioinformatics Techniques

The following research proposal describes the investigation of proteomic changes in a model bacteria after exposure to a previously validated antibiotic agent. This research is situated in a context of growing need for antibiotic development in response to… [read more]

Report on Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay

4 pages (1,406 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

The Prevalence and Threat of Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria

The rate at which bacteria are becoming resistant to drug treatments that are intended to eliminate or weaken them is growing rapidly. For over half a century, antibiotic drugs have been prescribed to treat bacterial infections, and as their medical popularity was mounting, bacteria and microorganisms developed ways to… [read more]

Drug Company Perks as a General Rule Article Critique

2 pages (657 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Drug Company Perks

As a general rule, it is problematic to accept valuable gifts from people trying to solicit your business because it is believed that those gifts will influence decision-making. This influence is well understood by the sellers; they would not be offering gifts or perks if they did not have a sincere belief that doing so makes the sale more likely. However, that does not mean that they are believed to be bribes by the sellers. Instead, the sellers may simply believe that these perks help make the potential purchasers more amenable to the sale. In fact, the perks might actually be the only way that the salespeople have the opportunity to present their information to the clients. Therefore, I am not certain that it is always problematic to accept low-value gifts from people who are trying to solicit business, but I am certain that it would be problematic to accept high-level gifts from those people. Is the gift large enough to induce the buyer to give the seller time to make a presentation? If so, then I do not believe that the gift is necessarily unethical. However, if the gift is large enough to influence decision-making beyond allowing an opportunity for a presentation, I can see some ethical problems.

One of the main issues with pharmaceutical companies offering gifts or perks to physicians is that the physicians are not making purchasing decisions for their offices. if, for example, their supplier for scrubs or manila envelopes wanted to provide them with lunches and free sticky notes, it seems difficult to suggest that would be an ethical issue. However, when doctors are making decisions about prescribing medications, they are not making purchasing decisions for themselves; instead, they are making health decisions for their patients. Moreover, patients who receive prescriptions from their doctors believe that those doctors are prescribing medications based upon the symptoms and complaints presented by the patients combined with the doctor's underlying medical training. Therefore,…… [read more]

International Drug Firms Assessment

2 pages (481 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … changing market demographics and related factors in foreign countries continues to be an important issue for major pharmaceutical companies. More specifically, the largest drug companies headquartered in the so-called "First World" have learned to by somewhat shy of the international market in less developed poorer nations, largely because the latter do not offer the same degree of patent protection as wealthier more developed nations. However, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to re-evaluate that concern for several reasons.

Authors Point-of-View:

The author acknowledges the traditional (albeit learned) bias against marketing proprietary pharmaceutical formulations in poorer nations that do not offer patent protection comparable to those available in the wealthier nations where such drugs are typically developed. On the other hand, the author suggests that this apprehension is undergoing a change on the part of pharmaceutical companies for the following reasons: First, the growth of the economies, and therefore, the middle classes in poorer nations presents a potentially lucrative market that drug companies may have a difficult time resisting. Second, market growth in the wealthier nations has slowed, substantially because of increasing competition from the sale of generic drugs and also because of increasing government legislation and controls that limit prices and profits on pharmaceuticals in those countries. Third, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to realize the extent to which the populations of underdeveloped nations actually represent potentially lucrative markets.

In that regard, the author makes the important point that, to date,…… [read more]

Speech Understanding Ototoxicity Characteristics Research Paper

3 pages (1,116 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… The sound stimulus is presented in the ear contralateral to the probe tip. A continuous pure tone stimulus is presented 10 dB above acoustic reflex threshold for 10 seconds. The test is positive if the magnitude of the reflex decreases by more than 50% in ten seconds. In a normal ear, the reflex should stay contracted for the full 10 seconds. Note, the ear being tested is the one receiving the stimulus not the probe (Dille 2010).

Otoacoustic Emission -- The purpose of this test is to determine cochlear status, specifically hair cell function. This information can be used to: 1) screen hearing, particularly in neonates or individuals with developmental disabilities, 2) estimate hearing sensitivity, 3) differentiate between the sensory and neural components of sensorineural hearing loss, and 4) test for functional (feigned) hearing loss. The information can be obtained from patients who are comatose because no behavioral response is required (Campbell 1993; Rybak 2007)

Auditory Brainstem Response - This test is similar to ARD as it also is a screening method to rule out acoustic neuromas or vestibular schwanomas of the eighth cranial nerve. The test is performed by generated an evoked potential by a brief click or tone transmitted from a transducer in the form of an insert earphone. The elicited response is measured by surface electrodes typically placed on the scalp and ear lobes. An abnormal ABR finding is suggestive of retrocochlear pathology and indicates the need for MRI to look for abnormalities (Roland 2004).


Ototoxicity is a pernicious but entirely preventable disease. It is a result of antibiotic and anti-neoplastic medications. The damage it does affects the auditory and balance systems and can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, disequilibrium or dizziness. Numerous audiometry tests exist to localize the degree of hearing loss, the type of hearing loss and the location of the pathology. Furthermore, they can be used to exclude other sources of pathology such as acoustic neuromas. These tests can guide treatment options in regards to the need for hearing aids, physical therapy and cochlear implants. In regards to recommendations to clinicians, I would strongly suggest avoiding ototoxic medications or medication combinations whenever possible. If the need arises due to infectious or malignant disease, it is advisable that strict monitoring of a patient's hearing be implemented. I would recommend tests that analyze both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss as well as exams which will out other phenomenon such as acoustic neuromas. Lastly, I would advise patients to actively engage in physical therapy to maximize their remaining acoustic function (Campbell 1993; Roland 2004; Fausti, 2009)


Campbell KC, Durrant J. (1993) Audiologic monitoring for ototoxicity. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 26(5): 903-14.

Dille M., et al. (2010). Ototoxicity risk assessment combining distoration product otoacoustic emissions with a cisplatin dose model. J. Of the Accoustical Society of America. 128(3): 1163-1174.

Fausti S., et al. (2009). Auditory and vestibular dysfunction associated with blast-related traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehab Research and Development. 46(6): 797-810.

Grant KW, et al.… [read more]

Roberts Et Al. ) Deals Research Paper

2 pages (629 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… (2008) wondered whether a robotic dog would have the same impact on reducing loneliness, as would a live dog.

Residents of 3 different long-term care facilities were employed in this study. Three levels were used in this experiment -- a group that had living dogs; a group with robotic dogs; and a control group that received no animal-assisted therapy altogether. The independent variable was the dog -- either live or robotic. The dependent variable was the loneliness tested by a loneliness scale.

The comparison of the means between two groups (real dog and robot) was tested by a t-test, whereas the comparison between all 3 groups (real dog; robot; and control) was tested using an ANOVA followed by the Newman-Keuls range test whose objective is to look at all the pairs of means in order to see whether there is a differnce between them.

Results showed that in comparisons with the group that received no animal-assisted therapy, both groups of dogs (robotic and real) showed significant reduction in loneliness. A modified Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (MLAPS) showed that individuals of both groups showed high attachments to their respective dogs.

Correlation and regression statistics (in order to assess whether loneliness reduction was associated with the animal-assisted therapy) showed that the MLAPS measures were not associated with any changes in loneliness, indicating that whilst both real and robotic dogs seems to decrease loneliness in residents, it is not the essence of animal-assisted therapy that does it but some other unknown variable and that the exact mechanism by which loneliness is reduced as a results of the pets is still unclear.


Banks, MR et al. (2008). Animal-Assisted Therapy and Loneliness in Nursing Homes: Use of Robotic vs. Living Dogs American Medical Directors Association, Origianl Studies, 173-178

Robert MS et al. (1998) Medication…… [read more]

Health Immunizing Your Baby Research Paper

5 pages (1,600 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Inherent in these discussions is the issue of whether or not all lives are of equal value, and evenly deserving of opportunities to be protected by vaccination (Ethical Issues and Vaccines, 2011).


There is no denying the fact that vaccines have been a good thing over the years. There are many deadly diseases that our ancestors had to fear that today are not given a second thought. On the other side of the coin there have been some studies that have claimed to find a link between these vaccinations and other disorders like autism. In the end parents must educated themselves in order to make sure that they make the right decision when it comes to immunizing their children. In a study done by Tarrant and Thomson (2008), parents readily admitted that they had knowledge discrepancies in regards to childhood vaccines but believed that the benefits of immunization overshadowed any risks that might be present. The biggest source of information for these parents was family members and peers. Along with this information wide-ranging public health programs and mandatory vaccination requirements for school entry made certain that childhood immunization recommendations were followed.

At the present time there does not appear to be enough sufficient evidence to recommend that children not be vaccinated. The benefits of having a child vaccinated clearly outweigh any possible harm that the vaccinations might be causing. Children should continue to be vaccinated according to the schedule that has been set down by the CDC, so that everyone can be protected.

Works Cited

Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-


Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business


Premier. Web. 22 Nov. 2011.

"Childhood Vaccinations: Understanding Vaccines." Practice Nurse 31, 9-13 (2006)

Business Source Premier. Web.…… [read more]

RFP Request for Proposal Procedures Statement Term Paper

2 pages (580 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Request for Proposal Procedures

Statement of Acknowledgement and Proposal Procedure

RFP Instructions and Project Background

Applicant Company Overview

Product and Services

Technical and Operational Design Requirements

F. Response Sheet

Statement of Acknowledgement and Proposal Procedure

The Fulton County Health Department requires one (1) printed original, signed in BLUE ink, one paper copy and 1 (one) CD ROM. These are to be submitted in a sealed enveloped bearing an assigned Control Number to be located on the first page of the RFP document and sent to the following address:

Fulton County Health Department

Malone St. SE, Fairburn, GA 30213

The deadline for the submission of proposals to the County Health Department Secretary's Office is no later than Wednesday, June 8, 2012 at 2:00 P.M. Any failure to submit the require number of copies may result in disqualification from consideration.

Respondents may either mail, or personally deliver, their submissions to the County Health Department Secretary's Office.

4. The RFP must be signed to bind the Submitter(s).

B. RFP Instructions and Project Background

The County seeks to expand upon the availability of immunization services in the network by expanding the availability of these services in its facilities. It seeks to improve and expand upon the availability of immunization services in the network by expanding the availability of immunization services in Fulton County facilities.

The local immunization database registry for the physician's office must be compatible with the GRITS, state-based system in Georgia (GDPH, 2011). It must contains a minimum of patient name, date, age, ethnicity, address, phone number, public or private, the date of the vaccination, the type of vaccination, manufacturer information, public or private stock, dosage of vaccination, fields for adverse reactions, advice for subsequent modifications, allergies, and immunity gained through…… [read more]

Gardasil HPV Vaccine Pros Cons Term Paper

9 pages (2,616 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Gardasil

An Analysis of the Pros and Cons of Gardasil as a Vaccine for HPV

Gardasil, a new vaccine developed by Merck & Co., was approved in 2006 by the U.S. FDA as a preventative vaccination for HPV (human papillomavirus -- types 6, 11, 16, and 18) -- recommended for girls before the onset of adolescence and for men ages… [read more]

MRSA a Communicable Disease Research Paper

2 pages (703 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… MRSA -- a Communicable Disease

Hospital-acquired infections cause a major concern that threatens patient treatment, hospital staff, and community health. The article presented by Sarah Fairclough highlights the hazard of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as it responsible for one-fifth of all hospital-acquired infections, and represents a significant problem in the medical community (2006). The threat of MRSA infections is severe as MRSA is growing in treatment resistance to antibacterial medications, and Fairclough describes rationale behind resistance in these stains. Hospital-acquired infections, such as MRSA and antibiotic resistant stains of MRSA, lengthen hospital stays, cause significant morbidity, affects nurses' workloads, and can introduce new infections into the community (Fairclough, 2006). Eradicating MRSA seems to be impossibility, however attempts to control the spread of MRSA are encouraged by Fairclough as giving attention to the following factors: detecting and isolating infected or colonized patients, rational antibiotic prescribing, hand hygiene and cleanliness. Taking these measures will not eliminate MRSA, but a comprehensive approach to reduce the risk of MRSA infection is required to decrease its rate of incidence and mortality.

Accounting for 20% of all hospital-acquired infections, MRSA affects the health of patients, the threat of infection within a community, and the workload of nurses and medical personnel. The increased resistance to antibacterial treatments intensifies the risk of MRSA infection, and Fairclough, like many other professionals, describe the resistance as a consequence of evolutionary action (2006). Health administrators are urged to recognize the reproductive cycle of bacteria as much shorter than humans, and therefore bacteria able to adapt to hostile environments (in this case, antibacterial medication) faster, and increases the rate of resistant infections (Fairclough, 2006). Bacteria that develop resistant traits then pass these traits to their offspring, resulting in antibiotic resistant strains of MRSA and other bacterial infections. The incidence of MRSA within the hospital setting is also reflected in the community. In the UK, common strains are found in the hospital and in the community, and could be explained by interactions between patients, visitors, and hospital staff (Fairclough, 2006). In the U.S., however, Fairclough explains different MRSA strains have initiated in the community,…… [read more]

Endocarditis, a Heart Condition Research Paper

2 pages (677 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Those that do have these risk factors are encouraged to use a series of antibiotics to stay ahead of a potential problem (Levy, 2010).

This heart condition is serious and can lead to a myriad of complications, including stroke and organ damage, infections in other parts of the body and even heart failure (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). More specifically, other complications include blood clots that can travel to the brain, kidneys, or lung, a brain abscess, jaundice, neurological changes or even stroke (Levy, 2010). The complications are grave and serious and have certainly warranted clinical trials, specifically by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The clinical trials have led to advances in medical knowledge and care (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services).

The clinical trials have led to many diagnostic tests that can help in the diagnosis process include blood tests, transesophageal echocardiogram, an electrocardiogram, a chest X-ray, or using a CT or MRI scan (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). Treatments for endocarditis include antibiotics, and if the conditions is more severe, surgery (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Antibiotics usually are given for two to six weeks through an intravenous line inserted into a vein (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Surgery is utilized only in more serious cases in order to repair or replace a damaged heart valve or to help clear up the endocarditis (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Prevention is certainly important and The American Heart Association recommends preventative antibiotics and "continued medical follow-up is recommended for people with a previous history of infectious endocarditis" (Levy, 2010).


Levy, Daniel. (2010, May 7). Infectious endocarditis. Retrieved from http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/infectious-endocarditis/overview.html

Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, August 11). Endocarditis. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/endocarditis/DS00409

U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Initials. (n.d.). What causes endocarditis?. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/endo/endo_causes.html… [read more]

Abbot Labs Research Paper

2 pages (642 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Abbott Labs

Problem identification: Mini business plan

Insufficient protection against problems inherent in healthcare industry

Unlike Johnson & Johnson, a firm which possesses many different kinds of personal care as well as medical and pharmaceutical product lines, Abbott Laboratories' product line is extremely concentrated in several specific areas of the healthcare field. When the economy is hard-hit, many people cut back on spending money on healthcare and focus their income on what they see as the most essential items. The types of personal care products that Abbott does possess include animal care and vision care products, which fall into the line of less necessary products than Johnson & Johnson's shampoos and baby care items.

One way to diversify further is to focus more upon its lines of nutritional products, such as Similac, Ensure, Glucerna, AdvantEdge, Body-for-LIFE and ZonePerfect (Products by category, 2011, Abbott Laboratories). These products are specifically designed to address the needs of people with diabetes or who wish to live a healthier and/or lower-carb lifestyle. As a leading provider of such personal care products to a growing world population of seniors and diabetics, Abbott could gain a competitive advantage over Johnson & Johnson and other personal care product providers.

Problem 2: Insufficient diversification of pharmaceutical products

Abbott's anti-inflammatory product Humira has gained it considerable market share. This anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drug has shown considerably better performance than any of the comparable products of Abbott's competitors (Zacks analyst blog highlights, 2011, Yahoo). However, focusing too closely on one or two highly-desirable products can backfire as a strategy for a pharmaceutical company. First of all, given the rate at which drugs can 'go generic,' even the most successful pharmaceutical product is only assured of gaining astronomical profits for a finite period of time. Patents have a definite expiration date and when generic, cheaper medications are available, patients, insurance companies, and hospitals are more apt to choose the cheaper alternatives. Even…… [read more]

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