Study "Medicine / Pharmacy" Essays 441-473

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Global Economy Essay

… Global Economy

The Constant Gardener" (2005): What should be the role of the United States in promoting global economic justice and human flourishing?

The first response of most viewers upon seeing "The Constant Gardener" (2005) which details the use of experimental drugs on poor Africans is that of horror. Surely that could never happen in 'the real world,' it is tempting to cry. However, issues of equity and access to healthcare make the central premise of the film not so far-fetched. First of all, even within America, because of a lack of access to affordable healthcare, many individuals subject themselves to drug trials, hoping for a cure but also simply access to the types of drugs they need to survive. Healthcare access is a pervasive international problem.

The Constant Gardener" demonstrates how untold numbers of individuals in the developing world lack basic access to care. Giving women access to birth control, ensuring decent sanitation, and other measures would save lives and make for a better planet in the long run for all of us, by controlling infectious diseases, reducing the chances of political instability in the region, and allowing economic development to take place. Individuals who can control their family size, drink clean water, and receive vaccinations are more likely to resort to positive, non-violent ways of improving conditions in their country than those citizens who do not have these things.

However, compassion and long-term concerns have seldom guided policies in regards to Africa. One example of this is AIDS treatment, where many individuals struggle to obtain antiretroviral drugs because of the drugs' expense. Under pressure, Western drug companies that sell the drug have offered them to the sick at a discounted rate, but even this is often too much for the poorest of the poor. Pharmaceutical companies have benefited from government protection and the funds of the developed world, and it is within the United…… [read more]


Psychotropic Medications Thesis

… Psychotropic medications treat clinical disorders at the neurological level. All affect neurotransmitters, by increasing or decreasing their availability, processing power, or reuptake. Psychotropic medications are becoming more sophisticated and effective because of advancements in neuroscience. The medications are important adjuncts to psychotherapy because of their ability to minimize symptoms. However, psychotropic medications create side-effects, many of which are harmful, uncomfortable, and in rare cases fatal. Therefore, health care workers must monitor patients taking any psychotropic medications. Other medications, diet, or lifestyle habits may also interfere with the action of the psychotropic drugs. Contraindications must be thoroughly examined before recommending psychotropic medications as a treatment option.

Antidepressants treat mainly major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and can also be used during the depressed phase of bipolar disorder. During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, different medications or treatments may be recommended. Lithium is a commonly prescribed psychotropic drug for treating both the depressive and the manic phases of bipolar disorder (NIMH). The two main classifications of antidepressant medications are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)…… [read more]


Nursing the Clinical Problem Is Identified Immediately Term Paper

… Nursing

The clinical problem is identified immediately in the article. Authors point out that measuring blood pressure is "one of the most commonly used techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of various health care problems," and because of that accurate blood pressure measurements are absolutely necessary (Foster-Fitzpatrick, Ortiz, Sibilano, Marcantonio & Brown, nd, p. 94). An inaccurate measurement could mean an incorrect diagnosis, which in turn might lead to patients being mistreated. Blood pressure varies depending on a number of conditions and the authors postulate that leg positioning might be one of the most important factors in determining accuracy of blood pressure readings. Specifically the authors hypothesize that blood pressure readings will be more accurate when patients keep both feet on the floor. The research is particularly relevant for nursing practice, as blood pressure readings are a routine part of patient intake and ongoing care.

A brief but thorough literature review follows the introduction to the research article. Citing research that denies the relevance of leg positioning during blood pressure readings, the authors provide a balanced point-of-view regarding their hypothesis. The authors also defend their hypothesis by pointing out weaknesses in prior research that might have minimized the effect of leg positioning on blood pressure reading accuracy. Furthermore, the authors explain the reasoning for their hypothesis by citing research about the direct effect of leg crossing on blood pressure. Foster-Fitzpatrick et al. (nd) admit that findings related to the relationship between leg crossing and blood pressure are "inconsistent," (p. 95).

In the introduction to the research article, Foster-Fitzpatrick et al. (nd) state, "The current study was initiated to determine if blood pressure measurement is affected by the leg crossed at the knee as compared with feet flat on the floor," (p. 94). The researchers also explain how they measured blood pressure and which…… [read more]


Manage Care Delivery for Diagnostic Testing and Nursing Term Paper

… Manage Care

Simon: A Case Study

What preparations should you make for Simon's return to the ward post-operatively?

Simon must be well-situated in a bed where he is able to have the necessary pain and antibiotic medication administered intravenously through a cannula and can be closely monitored by hospital staff. It is essential that a member of the staff monitor Simon immediately after the surgery for any complications or changes in his condition. Also, as much as possible, Simon and his mother must be made cognizant of what has occurred. His mother must be made aware of the need to take notes to prepare her for the treatment of Simon's postoperative condition upon discharge, such as monitoring his pain threshold. The usual prescription for nursing care is to elevate and immobilize the affected leg to prevent swelling, as well as to dress the other areas treated by the surgery with antibiotic-treated dressing. The dressings must be changed daily on the exposed wounds motion ("Fractures of the tibia and fibula," 2008, Chapter 21: Practical Plastic Surgery).

Question 2: Based on Simon's story what observations are you going to perform on Simon in the first 8 hours after his return from theatre?

Swelling in his leg and around his open wounds, loss of sensation in the affected leg, headache from a possible concussion that may be the as-yet undiscovered result from his fall, examining him for possible stress fractures or other fractures that were not immediately obvious upon his entry into the hospital should all be part of his continuing evaluation.

Question 3: Simon complains of increasing pain and tingling in his lower left leg. You notice swelling of his toes. What could be happening and what interventions need to be performed?

It is possible that Simon's circulation is affected from the immobilization of his leg. It is also possible that his vascular status is affected by the injury, or that he may have an arterial injury. To screen for arterial injuries it is advised to check if Simon's capillary refill and the circulation on the top of the foot and behind the posterior tibia's artery. If signs of circulation are not present, a serious arterial injury might be suspected. Simon should also be evaluated for evidence of nerve dysfunction or injury, and he should be checked for sensation in the deep nerve of the first web space on between the big toe and the second toe, the plantar surface of the foot or posterior tibial nerve and the lateral aspect of the foot or sural nerve. He should also be checked as much as possible for active ankle motion and toe motion within the confines of his injury and immobilization ("Fractures of the tibia and fibula," 2008, Chapter 21: Practical Plastic Surgery).

Question 4: Simon's IV cannula has become red and swollen since he had a dose of antibiotics. What…… [read more]


Vaccines and Autism Term Paper

… Vaccines and Autism

The work of Bob McChesney (2001) entitled: "Policing the Unthinkable" states that over the past twenty years due to "...neoliberal deregulation and new communication technologies, the media systems across the world have undergone a startling transformation." (McChesney,… [read more]


Healthcare Ethics - Gardasil Term Paper

… Healthcare Ethics - Gardasil

HEALTHCARE ETHICS: GARDASIL

Recommendations about widespread public inoculating against the two strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) responsible for 70% of cervical cancers every year in the U.S. is probably a good idea. In principle, it is not any different than other mandatory inoculations administered to school-age children, such as for polio and measles at 5 or 6. Like those deadly childhood diseases, HPV is also deadly, accounting for the deaths of more than one third of the 10,000 (mostly) women diagnosed with cervical cancer; also like polio, HPV is a childhood disease with severe consequences. The only real difference is that HPV remains (in effect) "dormant" until adulthood.

On the other hand, there are several potential issues for relevant inquiry before implementing Merck's suggestions for wide inoculations using its new vaccine Gardasil: (1) the drug was rushed through the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approval process; (2) critics point out that longer clinical trials would be more appropriate before making the decision; (3) two members of the FDA…… [read more]


New Pharmaceuticals Term Paper

… New Pharmaceuticals

From the time a new chemical compound is discovered, to the time when (and if) it is available for marketing, it may be many years. Any new drug must be evaluated by a clinical trial - a research study in which human beings are administered the drug and then observed for side effects or physical problems. The clinical trials are broken into several different phases:

Phase I trials use an experiment drug on a very small group. This may be done to identify safety issues or side effects. It can also be used to determine what the dose range for a medication should be.

Phase II trials give the drug to a larger number of people, mostly to see if it works for a certain type of condition, or for more safety testing.

Phase III trials give the drug to a large group, maybe up to 3,000 people. These patients will often have the condition the drug is being used to treat, and this allows the scientists to review information about the treatment and more safety testing.

Phase IV trials are done after the drug has already been out on the market, and tests are continued in an attempt to evaluate the drug's safety and effectiveness.

At any point in the testing process, the drug study may be discontinued, especially if there appears to be a safety issue or else if the drug is thought to have too many side effects for marketability. The cost of the trials falls on the pharmaceutical company, who hopes that the drug will be successful. It is estimated by the FDA (2002) that for 100 drugs that enter Phase I testing, one drug will eventually make it to market.

Anyone can apply to take part in…… [read more]


Pharmaceutical Companies Spend Millions of Dollars Advertising Term Paper

… Pharmaceutical companies spend millions of dollars advertising directly to patients or potential consumers of their products. Advertisements bombard our psyche with everything from erectile dysfunction remedies, blood pressure and cholesterol drugs to acne meds. Pharmaceutical representatives visit physicians daily leaving them with samples and other goodies. Does such commercialization of drugs increase their costs or is the real high cost of drugs due to the research and development? Should the U.S. allow patients to import expensive medications from other countries?

To be as fair to 'big pharma' as possible, it must be observed that it is indeed expensive to create new drugs and to test the drugs extensively on animal or human subjects. Even if some drugs are relatively inexpensive to produce or to bring from lab to market, other drugs, like antiretroviral drugs, were quite costly to bring to fruition, and their initial prices often reflect years of research. Also, because drug patents are of limited duration, it is in the drug company's interest to make as much money off of a new pharmaceutical before the patent runs out and cheaper generic drugs flood the market. Even before a drug's patent is exhausted, quite often very similar drugs from competitor…… [read more]


Proteus Vulgaris Term Paper

… ¶ … diseases associated with the bacterium called Proteus vulgaris, outlines its history, explains how the bacterium is transmitted, and its diagnosis, besides discussing prevention of the diseases that proteus vulgaris causes, and their treatment. It also includes an outline… [read more]


Cement Shortage Lakkireddy, Et Al. ) Examined Term Paper

… Cement Shortage

Lakkireddy, et al. (2005) examined the effect of Povidone-iodine pocket irrigation on the rate of infection from permanent pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Compared with a control group that received PMs or ICDs irrigated in saline solution, the patients whose devices were irrigated with Povidone-iodine did not experience a lower rate of infection. Povidone-iodine pocket irrigation is, however, commonly used as a preventative measure against the infections that may occur after implantation. The substance is an antiseptic also known as Betadine.

The Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study was comprehensive, involving over 2500 patients over an eight-year period. Slightly less than half of the patients received saline irrigation in the pocket and slightly more than half of the patients' pockets were irrigated with Povidone-iodone. Contrary to the hypothesis, there were no significant differences in the rate of infection between the two groups.

About one-third of all the patients who did experience infection had diabetes. Therefore, other intervening factors may have affected the development of the infection regardless of the whether the pocket was irrigated with the Povidone-iodine or not. Infections were treated immediately with a course of antibiotics but some complications did arise including one patient death as the result of septic shock.

Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that implanting PMs, ICDs or any other invasive device demands the strictest aseptic procedures. Povidone-iodine is one way to topically irrigate the pocket before implantation as a means to prevent infection. Combined with antibiotics, the Povidone-iodine irrigation may prevent complications but antibiotics may be contraindicated.

The authors questioned the role of Povidone-iodine vs. other antiseptics, noting that…… [read more]


Autism and Immunizations Term Paper

… Autism refers to a group of disorders of the brain that undermine the normal cognitive development and the general sensory perception and processing in children. Regressive autism is one of the forms wherein children who had developed normally start to loose their cognitive motor skills and progressively fall into autism. There is much debate surrounding the MMR and DPT vaccinations and their possible link with the development of regressive autism. The timing of these vaccinations at 15 months and 18 months fall in the same period when most children contract regressive autism (18 to 24 months). This gives enough reason for researchers to suspect a positive link between the two. The following discussion is based on two articles that have differing viewpoints about vaccination and the link to autism. A brief overview would provide us with a better insight on the issue.

In the first article, Dr. Mary Megson, strongly opines that MMR and DPT vaccination could have a direct relation to development of regressive autism in children. Dr. Megson says that the increase in number of autistic children is due to the increasing vaccinations, particularly, the MMR and DPT vaccines. The DPT vaccine contains pertusis toxin known to cause defective G. alpha protein. She states that DPT vaccination causes G-Alpha Protein Defects, which separates the G. protein from its retinoid receptors resulting in depletion of vitamin a and night vision impairment, a common symptom in autistic children. She explains that an intact G. alpha protein is critical not only for vision but also for touch, hearing and other sensory perceptions. Also, vitamin a is known as the "anti - infective agent" and its depletion makes the children immunosuppressed leaving them open to other opportunistic infections.

Dr. Megson argues that since G. alpha proteins control various metabolic pathways any disruption in them could trigger gluconeogenesis, hyperlipidemia and cellular malignancies. She further expounds that the MMR vaccine given earlier affects aproptosis by cross-reacting with the cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. This affects cellular communication and the ability of the cells to destroy abnormal cells in the vicinity. So as per Dr. Megson, MMR and DPT constitute a deadly combination. She urges the government to implement a new vaccine policy with safety of the children as the first priority. [Mary Megson]

The other article by Michelle meadows contradicts the hypothesis linking autism and vaccines. Quoting studies across the U.S., UK, Denmark and Sweden the article tries to disprove the vaccine theory for regressive autism disorder. While admitting that 'Thimerosal', a mercury-based…… [read more]


Autism vs. Vaccines Does One Cause Term Paper

… Vaccination and Autism: A Causal Relationship

The debate over whether or not autism actually exists independent of vaccinations has been ongoing for decades. DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus), commonly known as the three-in-one vaccination, until the 1980s, when the outcry about the possibility of the combination of these drugs being administered in a single injection, causing some children to have an adverse reaction to the combination, and leaving those children in a condition largely diagnosed as "autistic," resulted in the three-in-one vaccination being discontinued as a single injection. This, only after much evidence documenting the causal relationship between certain childhood conditions, sometimes death that could be closely linked to the three-in-one drug combination. However, even in the face of the vast body of evidence supporting the link between the DPT and neurological damage suffered by young children; the vaccinations continue to be given to children, albeit usually separately administered by pediatricians today, as opposed to the combination in which they were once administered.

The Evidence

The evidence supporting the neurological and other kinds of permanent damage done to children by the DPT vaccines is vast. It is best to approach the evidence has been documented and presented to the public by authors like Harris Coulter and Barbara Loe Fisher, in their books DPT: A Shot in the Dark (1985), and Vaccination, Social…… [read more]


Admin Law Term Paper

… Vaccines

The issue at hand is why federal agencies will not take liability for the use of the Swine Flu Vaccine or the Anthrax Vaccine, both of which are clearly needed and could save many lives if administered in a… [read more]


Contraceptive Seasonale Term Paper

… Contraceptive Seasonale

Contraceptive: Seasonale

The contraceptive Seasonale is the first product that has been approved to prevent pregnancy on a 91 day cycle, with 84 therapeutically active pills and 7 placeboes. The medication is a combined oral contraceptive, containing a form of both progesterone and estrogen, in this case, levonogestrel 0.15 mg and ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg. The length of the cycle of the medication attempts to create a situation where the woman taking the medication only has one period every 84 or so days, reducing the number of periods per year from approximately 13, on a normal 28 day cycle to only 4 on a 91 day cycle. (DuraMed, 2003, Seasonale Insert)

Seasonale has a reliability, if taken correctly of 99% with the incidence of unexpected pregnancy with perfect use being less than 1% and with typical use being approximately 5%. (Paulo Alto Medical Foundation Website "Seasonale" 2003) This is comparable to all other forms of combined oral contraceptives a clear indication that the length of the cycle does not deter effectiveness. (DuraMed, 2003, Seasonale Insert) the incidence of unintended pregnancy does go up significantly when doses are missed, especially during crucial cycle days, yet this is also similar to 28 day cycle combined oral contraceptives.

The most significant advantage to taking Seasonale include the obvious, a reduced number of periods per year as well as decreased intensity of symptomatic periods. In a sense the indication that any form of combined oral contraceptive can be taken for such a long cycle without causing unintended or unusual side effects as compared to other COC, is a significant step in the COC offerings of the industry as it effectiveness is a testament to its use.

Some disadvantages to taking Seasonale include: like other forms of oral contraceptives it is essential to take it daily, and usually around the same time every day. Furthermore, like other forms of OCs it can cause serious side effects like, blood clots stroke and heart attack side effects which increase in risk if the patient smokes cigarettes while taking the medication. The disadvantages which are specific to Seasonale include the difficulty of awareness of unintended pregnancy without the monthly reminder of the…… [read more]


Psychologic Social and Economic Issues Facing Homeless People and Ways to Increase Compliance Term Paper

… Psychological, social and economic issues facing homeless people and ways to increase compliance among them.

Within the homeless population there are many individuals that require medication for a psychological illness or problem. Unfortunately, many of these individuals do not receive the medication that they need for their mental disorders as there are psychological, social, and economic issues that affect their ability and their desire to seek treatment and to remain on a medication once it is prescribed to them. Where psychological issues are concerned, many people with mental illnesses stop taking medication once they start to feel better because they convince themselves that they are 'cured.' Socially, these individuals may also have a difficult time with taking medication because they often find that they are already ridiculed enough by many segments of society and therefore they do not want to take medications that might stigmatize them further. Economically, they often cannot afford their medications. If they are homeless, they already have serious problems with their finances and if their day of asking for handouts or working as a day-laborer nets them profit they…… [read more]


Fighting Cancer Is Among Medical Term Paper

… Prior to my full-time medical research work I was involved in Pfizer's file enrichment program, developing process chemistry methods. Our research team conducted platform chemistry reactions including high-throughput library synthesis and parallel synthesis of small drug-like compounds. In a similar vein, as assistant to the senior scientist of the project, I selected regeant monomers and evaluated optimized conditions for chemistry library protocols.

Another highlight of my career so far is my contribution to the synthesis of Cytosine and its analogs. Cytosine shows promise as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, pain, addiction to smoking, ulcerative colitis, obesity and anxiety disorder. However, no synthetic Cytosine is available in clinical settings yet, so further research is required in this area. Our goal was to prove the possibility of parallel synthesis of different cytosine analogs using Arqule technology and methodology. Our team successfully developed a template for synthesis, a protocol involving eight different reaction steps.

As you can glean from this brief explanation of the work I have done so far, my talents in the laboratory are proven and I look forward to contributing further to the scientific community through…… [read more]


Infectious Disease Staphylococcus Aureus Term Paper

… Infectious disease - Staphylococcus aureus

Review of the Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus

As the percentage of elderly in the United States continues to increase, it is reasonable to expect more and more people to become hospitalized for one reason or… [read more]


Neutropenic Patients With Fever Term Paper

… Like other blood cells, neutrophils arise from the hemtopoietic stem cells which exhibit pluripotential. Some of the drugs already mentioned actually effect the cells within the marrow. This may occur at any point during the cellular maturation process or after the cell is released into circulation. Europhiles also have distinctive surface antigens which may make the susceptible to immune mediated cytolysis somewhat similar to that which is seen in an auto-immune related hemolysis. The cells then begin increased margination and become excessively adhesive to the vascular endothelium or trapped within the lungs and the spleen. Sequestration of the neutrophils within the spleen in such a case may lead to splenic enlargement. This in turn can lead to an activation of the complement cascade, resulting in increased margination, increased vascular adhesiveness.

There may be no specific sign of neutropenic fever in a MICU patient other than manifestation of those causative infections which may be present. Any other associated symptoms are likely associated with the severity of the condition, the duration of the neutropenia and of course the cause. Patients should be monitored with serial complete blood counts to include a differential count as well as blood cultures for bacterial and fungal pathogens. Bone marrow biopsy is most likely the most effective and useful laboratory evaluation in the patient with neutropenic fever, and may help discern leukemia, infiltrative or myeloproliferative disorders. The exact cause of the neutropenia may be difficult to determine. A neutrophilic antibody count may be helpful when no other obvious cause may be determined.

Treatment will be directed toward causative organisms as well as supportive therapy, and the duration and nature of the neutropenia. Acute and severe neutropenia with infection and fever always requires intensive treatment with a broad spectrum antibiotic until specific etiology can be determined. Should there be any suspicion that the neutropenia is secondary to a drug side effect, then obviously the effecting agents should be discontinued immediately. Antibiotics should be continued, even when cultures are negative, until the patient is afebrile for 24 to 48 hours, or until an alternative diagnosis and prognosis are clearly defined.

Transfusions may be helpful in patients with severe neutropenia, but the risk vs. benefit must be carefully weighed. Donor matching is difficult; sensitization may occur transfusion should not be considered in any patient in whom it would be considered to be prophylactic. Bone marrow stimulation with androgenic steroids, vitamin infusions or other agents is generally unsuccessful. The recovery of cell counts with cell stimulation agents or hematopoetic growth factors after chemotherapy may be of use, but in the acutely neutropenic patient the benefit may be of limited use.

Reference:

Finberg RW, Talcott JA: Fever and neutropenia -- how to use a new treatment strategy. N Engl J. Med 1999 Jul 29; 341(5): 362-3

Vial T, Gallant C, Choquet-Kastylevsky G: Treatment of drug-induced agranulocytosis with haematopoietic growth factors- A…… [read more]


Cellular Reproduction Term Paper

… They can replace damaged cells in patients with spinal cord injuries or heart disease.

We have made great strides with cell reproduction. What the opposition doesn't realize is that reproduction has been in effect for many years. The vaccine for Jaundice as well as other vaccinations and drugs used today are from reproduction. We are now able to offer patients with certain diseases a new chance at life. Society has taken a medical and made it a political issue. Shouldn't the end justify the means?

Oligodendrocytes: cells the cover the nerves with a fatty substance and enable them to relay messages to the brain.

Blastocyst: an embryo that is five-day-old and has taken spherical shape.

Stem Cell: a basic cell that can develop into different types of mature cells.

Articles:

Current Science

5/6/2005

Page: 1

The Problem of Medical Ethics

British…… [read more]


Merck and Vioxx -- Research Term Paper

… At the time of the study's release, Merck stated that the resulting difference was merely caused by the heart-protective effect of naproxen rather than the heart-risk effect of Vioxx, not by any additional risk. (Steyer, 2004) But in later data showed that the heart-risk effects of Vioxx exceeded any potential screening capabilities from attacks on the part of naproxen.

What are the limitations and significance of the research data?

This highlights the dangers of using two drugs during a clinical research study. Naproxen may indeed have a heart-protective capacity -- but that does not mean that Vioxx cannot compromise many patients' heart health. Nor is the heart-protective capability of naporoxen entirely proven. Regardless, "preliminary data from an FDA-financed study, using patient data compiled by the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization, says patients who took Vioxx had a higher cardiovascular risk than patients who took Celebrex," although Merck disputes the independent FDA study's methodology. The "FDA posts a more detailed version of the study on its Web site in November, but says the article hasn't been subject to standard peer review." (Steyer, 2004)

Works Cited

"Merck's Vioxx emails scrutinized." (1 Nov 2004) CNN.com. CNN Money. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://money.cnn.com/2004/11/01/news/fortune500/merck/

Steyer, Robert. (18 Nov 2004) "The Murky history of Merck's Vioxx." The Street. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://www.thestreet.com/_googlen/stocks/biotech/10195104.html?cm_ven=GOOGLEN& cm_cat=FREE& cm_ite=NA… [read more]


Cloning Dolly, the World's First Term Paper

… On a related note, perfecting the cloning procedure would enable gay couples to become biological parents. Currently, gays are restricted from adopting children and are even prohibited from marrying in most states and countries. Cloning would allow gay and lesbian couples to have children and overcome some of the legal obstacles standing in their way.

One of the most promising applications of cloning is medical research. Through cloning, scientists can grow organs and tissues that can be transplanted into sick people. Spinal cord injuries, Down's syndrome, kidney, liver, and heart disease, and even cancer can be potentially cured through cloning. Cloning can also be used to heal severe burns or as an adjunct in plastic or reconstructive surgeries. Cloned body parts can serve in a variety of helpful capacities in this way, which would eliminate the ethical problems with cloning an entire human being just to harvest the organs. The ban on cloning might be cutting short the lives of many individuals who could be easily helped through the medical breakthroughs that cloning can offer.

Understandably, people are afraid that cloning could cause two main problems. First, the story of Dr. Frankenstein shows how cloned creatures could be imperfect, even monstrous. A cloned human might indeed be viewed and treated differently by his or her parents and peers. Furthermore, until cloning is perfected, there will be many sad victims of botched procedures. So far, many animals have died because the cloning process did not work properly. Other drawbacks of cloning include the abuse of the practice by people who would clone human beings just so that they could harvest organs; it would definitely be unethical to clone a human being only to keep it alive for organ harvesting purposes. Finally, cloning also raises important questions regarding the affordability of the procedure, for only wealthy people might be able to take advantage of cloning.

When all things are considered, cloning can be of enormous benefit to the human community. Medical benefits include the production of healthy organs and tissues for the sick, an alternative to fertility drugs, and assisting gay couples in having children of their own. Fears about cloning are understandable, but will be alleviated as more research is performed. The only way we can know if human cloning is viable and feasible is to conduct and fund more research. Therefore, the ban on cloning should be lifted and money should be channeled into the cloning process. Politicians should reconsider the ban and scientists should be able to pursue one of the most promising scientific developments of this century.

Works Cited

Dixon, Patrick. "Human Cloning Headlines." Online at .

'Dolly." HowStuffWorks.com. Online at .

Smith, Simon. "All the Reasons to Clone Human Beings." HumanCloning.org. Online at .… [read more]


Helicobacter Pylori Helicobacter (Genus) Term Paper

… Immune Response Avoidance

The severe immune response to H. pylori is characterized by an increase in IgG antibodies in the plasma that remain present for months following infection. Production of IgA antibodies also increase upon infection by H. pylori. An… [read more]


Harris, Gardener Feb 2005) Term Paper

… Naproxen would have been even more effective than aspirin to explain the greater number heart complaints of the group taking the COX-2 inhibitors vs. The Naproxen group.

However, it is still unclear why COX-2 drugs affected body chemicals that determine the stickiness of blood and, thus, the likelihood that someone taking them might experience a heart attack, stroke or similar problem. What is clear from the current controversy is how important it is for consumers to be well informed about the drugs that they take. The COX-2 inhibitor drugs were ubiquitous in their advertising, dominating television and radio, with little explanation of how their chemical composition was different to other painkillers. Although they may have a place for individuals suffering chronic pain, for ordinary arthritis and other minor or temporary pain relief needs, clearly the risks outweigh the benefits. Although this is true of the elderly people whom these drugs were primarily designed to treat, the persuasive quality of pharmaceutical advertising could be applied to drugs for people of all ages, from antidepressants for young people, to weight loss drugs for the middle aged.

The research studies also raise provoking and unanswerable questions about the way drug research is conducted -- how does one validate a hypothesis in an accurate fashion, without depriving the control group of necessary treatment, and yet still produce scientifically valid research?… [read more]


Innovations Term Paper

… Global positioning has also been used in warfare to bomb with more precision than ever before.

Knowledge about atomic energy grew tremendously in the second half of the 20th century. The H. bomb, far worse than the original A bomb, was developed. While at first all the major countries worked as hard as they could and as fast as they could to develop rockets so they could use A bombs if necessary to destroy their enemies, the knowledge that countries could do that to each other may have prevented World War III (Gillmor, 1999). It could be argued that the growing realization that would could wipe out the human race with the push of a few buttons forced the major powers of the world, especially the United States and Russia, to reconsider whether they ever wanted to go to war again. Since the development of easily used nuclear warheads, we have continued to se wars, but the haven't become world wars.

Finally, vaccines and antibiotics should be mentioned. My grandparents say that the diseases childhood vaccines prevent really could be terrible, especially polio. Smallpox has been eradicated. People get flu shots instead of the flu. The importance of vaccines was obvious in the news this year because there wasn't enough flu vaccine to go around. Antibiotics have also greatly improved health. In my grandparents' day, children who got strep throat could develop Rheumatic Fever and die of heart complications. Today if someone gets strep throat, they go to the doctor, get an antibiotic, and are back in school 24 hours later.

SOURCES

Gillmor, Dan. 1999. "The 20th century's most significant tech advances." Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service, Aug. 25.

Maney,…… [read more]


Canine Epilepsy Term Paper

… Canine Epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a disorder of the brain where abnormal electrical activity triggers further uncoordinated nerve transmission. This uncoordinated and haphazard nerve tissue activity scrambles messages to the muscles of a… [read more]


Pharmaceutical Industries: Merck and Co., Inc Term Paper

… Pharmaceutical Industries: Merck & Co., Inc.

Order ID: Benchmarks in the Rise of Big Gov. 1901 -- 1981

International Pharmaceutical Industry

The purpose of this work is to perform a general analysis of the international trends of the pharmaceutical industry in terms of global or local issues as well as the strategies of the leading company, Merck & Co., Inc. And to review the governmental policies toward the pharmaceutical industry.

The Global Pharmaceutical Industry/Supply Chain:

The pharmaceutical industry is global industry. Global pharmaceutical sales grew 10% at a constant rate in 2000 equaling $317.2 billion in total sales which was up from the 1999 amount of sales equaling $295.9 billion. Japan was the largest consumer in the 2000 pharmaceutical industry at 88% of total global consumption.

Investor Concerns:

The largest concerns of the investors in the industry are that:

Government action will make it harder to get patents on products giving a rise to generic drugs.

Medicare drug benefits could end up with legislation in Washington price-setting drugs.

Open-ended class action market

III. Trade in the Industry/Market & Network

Merck Anticipates Full-Year 2005 Earnings Per Share Range of $2.42 to $2.52. Continued growth and development of newer franchises is planned by Merck in 2005 as well as extending the recent launches of ZETIA and VYTORIN, which have been a success thus far. New products are planned to be launched. Plans for the second half of 2005 are inclusive of plans by Merck in submission of three vaccines to the FDA for their approval. The vaccines which are planned for submittal are as follows:

Rotavirus vaccine: "A 'highly contagious' virus that causes gastroenteritis and results in the hospitalization of nearly 50,000 children under age 5 each year in the United States."

HPV vaccine: "This vaccine is engineered to reduce human papillomavirus infection and complications of cervical dancer that kills more women than any other disease each year.

Shingles Vaccine: A Vaccine that reduces the pain that is part of the condition of shingles and is suffered by 1 million American adults per year.

Merck and Co., Inc. is a "global research-driven pharmaceutical company that focuses on discovering, developing, manufacturing and marketing a broad range of innovative products to improve human health both directly as well as through its joint ventures. Merck & Company, Inc. announced on September 30, 2004 "a worldwide withdrawal of VIOXX (rofecoxib) its arthritis and acute pain medication." According to the report the decision is 'effective immediately' and is 'based on a new, three-year data from a prospective, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, the APPROVe (Ademonatous Polyp Prevention on VIOXX) trial."

The stated adverse effects of stroke or heart attack have been cited to be caused by VIOXX in certain patients. Merck is presently reimbursing all customers for unused prescriptions which have been filled by the patient. "Recently announced by Merck on November 23, 2004 is that: "the…… [read more]


Motivation. To Pursue My Passion Term Paper

… This is the type of diversity of technique I hope to bring back to my own country. Someday, I hope to found a chiropractic school in Taiwan that functions independently much like Cleveland Chiropractic College. If I cannot accomplish this immediately upon my return to Taiwan, I would try to have my school affiliated with Medical University in Taiwan.

Thus it is diversity above all that motivates my desire to study at Cleveland Chiropractic College, to learn a diversity of techniques while pursuing the study of a medical practice that treats the individual's body and spirit in a holistic fashion. To make maximum use of the personalized nature of chiropractics, one must master the maximum diversity of techniques. Moreover, I believe that my experiences in Taiwan will bring a welcome diversity to the American classroom, and I hope to bring the diversity of techniques, practices, and experiences I shall share in while in the United States back to my home country and the institution I hope to…… [read more]


Psychopharmacology Term Paper

… Patients should be alerted that Chinese foods with MSG can cause major problems. There are also foods that should be eaten in smaller quantities and with caution (Lippmann, 1990 p. 202).

Because of strong marketing efforts as well as the major increase in antidepressant usage, most people have heard of the more recent medications such as the brand names Prozac (fluoxetine) and Paxil (paroxetine). Others are Luxov (fluvoxamine) and Zoloft (sertraline). These are also known as the SSRIs or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, because they primarily affect the serotonin.

As noted, the SSRIs inhibit reuptake of serotonin. Reuptake is the first step in the process of deactivating this neurotransmitter in the brain. After serotonin is released from neurons, it is removed from these reuptake sites, located on the cell membrane. SSRIs allow serotonin to remain active in the synapse longer, thereby correcting a presumed deficit in the activity of this neurotransmitter (Trujillo, 1996).

Because SSRIs are more targeted, they have a lower incidence of some of the side effects associated with tricyclic antidepressants and MAOIs (e.g., blurred vision, dizziness, constipation, dry mouth). More important to their current popularity, SSRIs have less potential for overdose than the tricyclics or MAOIs, and are therefore considered safer than these other drug classes. Their most common side effects include trouble sleeping, nausea, and dizziness. Less common side effects include headache, drowsiness, less sex drive, and delayed ejaculation (Yale New Haven, Health Library). They should not be mixed with alcohol, and the doctor should be made aware of other medications being taken.

Although some reports suggest that SSRIs may have more rapid actions than the tricyclics or MAOIs, this does not appear to be the case (Trujillo, 1996). Like other classes of antidepressants, clinical response to the SSRIs may take anywhere from two to six weeks to appear.

When talking with their patients, physicians should address a couple of other issues concerning antidepressants. First, are expectations (Yudofsky, 1991 p. 46). Most people are used to having a headache or stomach ache, taking a pill and having a very fast reaction to the pain. Antidepressants take up to six weeks to work, if they do have an affect. Many patients have to try several medications before finding one that offers the least side effects and best treats the condition. In addition, some patients have partial but not full results. Other drugs may be taken for augmentation. The patients must also understand that medications are not the total answer. They should be used along with therapy and other psychiatric measures.

Patients must also be told that antidepressants work differently than many other medications in the sense that they need to be taken on a continual basis, in the necessary dosage, and often at a particular time of day. Starting and stopping and restarting the drugs is definitely not advised, nor is taking larger dosages for greater affect. Further, if a patient has been on a medication for some time and is starting to feel better, he/she should… [read more]


Discovery / Development Term Paper

… Unable to get the financial backing in England for further development of the drug, Chain and Florey went to the U.S.A. And got the support to start large-scale production of the miracle drug. By the end of World War II, enough penicillin was available for the Allied soldiers to prevent the appalling number of deaths caused by infectious diseases during the First World War. Soon, penicillin and other antibiotics that were developed in its wake became available commercially and were instrumental in man's fight against several deadly diseases.

Let us see why penicillin, rather than some other invention, deserves the 'honor' of being crowned the greatest discovery of the last century. Among other strong contenders are the automobile, the airplane, the wireless, electricity, the transistor and the personal computer. The automobile and electricity are technically disqualified as they were invented in the previous centuries. Out of the rest, the airplane and personal computer were the result of development of existing technologies rather than breakthrough ideas. For example, the steam engine (discovered in the 18th century), had already made rapid propulsion possible by burning fuel. Development of the airplane and the automobile were the inevitable next step in refinement of an existing technology. Similarly, development of the computer was based on utilizing the unique ability of the transistor to control the flow of electric current. In my opinion, the discovery of the 'transistor' is almost as important as that of penicillin as it has made the hugely influential 'information revolution' possible. Penicillin's ability to save lives rather than merely making lives easier, however, beats the transistor into second place.

In the end, it is safe to say that the development of penicillin has had a more profound effect on the health of humanity than perhaps any other invention in history. It, therefore, truly deserves to be called the greatest discovery of the last century.

A the head of the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at Oxford

The first automobile was produced in the late 19th century while the origins of electricity can be traced to mid 1800s or even earlier. However, their mass production became possible only in…… [read more]


FDA Drug Approval Process Term Paper

… 5-year period. This phase further tests the drug's biological and chemical activity as well as its safety profile, including safe dosage range. Phase II of clinical trials follows, in which 100 to 300 patient volunteers with the targeted disease are tested to evaluate the new drug's effectiveness and to determine any possible side effects. This phase takes approximately 2 years to complete. In phase III of clinical trials 1000 to 3000 patients with the targeted disease are studied for approximately 3.5 years. The large number of volunteers used in this phase minimize error caused by variable courses of the disease, observer bias, placebo effect, double or triple blind studies, or hidden toxicities. Tests in this phase confirm effectiveness of the new drug, and long-term use is monitored to determine any adverse reactions.

After all three phases of clinical trials have been completed, the company analyzes the data collected thus far and, if the data show effectiveness and safety, files a New Drug Application (NDA) with the FDA. The NDA is generally an immense document that must contain all of the detailed scientific information known about the drug up to this point. In 1996, the average review time for new drugs approved was almost 1.5 years.

After review by the FDA, the NDA may be approved and the new drug may be available by prescription from physicians. For several years following approval, the pharmaceutical company must submit annual reports on the new drug to the FDA. These reports must contain quality-control records and any cases of adverse reactions to the drug experienced by patients. Often times the FDA also requires a sixth phase, post-marketing testing, in order to further investigate possible effects of long-term use of the new drug. If results of these additional studies indicate no long-term adverse effects, the new drug may continue to help patients for years to come.

References

Siegfried,…… [read more]


Financial Analysis Understanding Term Paper

… CONCLUSION:

Historically pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer and Merck have managed to sustain relatively average or good financial ratios in the areas of leverage, liquidity, efficiency and profitability. Part of the reason for this, in a volatile market when the dynamics of population interest and buying habits frequently vary, the need for pharmaceutical products and new and improved products is always increasing. Part of this is driven by customer demand, which over time has proven to increase and always demand the best when related to pharmaceuticals, or the health of the population.

Even though the current state of the economy is in a slump, the pattern of valuation for Johnson and Johnson over time has shown overall improvement. For example, according to statistics the valuation ratio's for J & J. had improved steadily from 1996-2000, growing from a book value of $4.07/share to $6.07/share (JNJ, 2003). Net profit margin for this company grew approximately 3% during the same time frame, indicating an overall "successful" financial gain for the company (JNJ, 2003). The leverage ratio for the company maintained an average between 1.7-1.9, and compared to other companies in the industry the "Price to Earnings Ratio" varied from 100.9% to 78%.

Not bad given the current poor state of economic affairs.

Pfizer has exhibited tremendous profitability and efficiency in the last few years. Why? Among many things "pricing advantages and private information." (Pfizer, 2003). Pfizer holds the patent on Viagra, a prescription that has become very profitable, efficient and in high demand, resulting in exceptional ratios for the company (Pfizer, 12003).

And what of Merck? Merck company exhibited as recently as 2001 a profit margin of 15.20%, and a return on equity of 44.98% (MBA 681, 2002).

Measuring financial ratios assists in determining stock price, profitability of companies to investors and long-term success The financial ratios of leverage, liquidity, efficiency and profitability over time have successfully proven that pharmaceutical companies, when compared to other companies in various industries have been successful in maintaining efficiency, longevity and fair to great profit margins. The increasing ill health of the population as a whole will ultimately result in better than average profit ratios for these companies. The Net Income of profitability of pharmaceutical companies, as indicated by financial ratios over the last several years indicates an trend toward longevity and increased stability.

When assessing financial ratios for investment purposes, one would be wise to consider the above-mentioned pharmaceutical companies for long-term financial gain.

References

http://www.investor.jnj.com/trading_stats.cfm?page=ratios

Calculating and Interpreting Financial Ratios. http://aolsearch.aol.com/redir.adp?appname=MS&query=Pfizer%20efficiency%20and%20profitability%20ratios&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2efool%2ecom%2fportfolios%2frulemaker%2f2001%2frulemaker010531%2ehtm&datasource=Google&partner=Google&clickedItemRank=2&requestId=cns92890&component=websearch.google.http.tcl&searchType=MS

MBA 681, Fall 2002. "Financial Analysis." http://aolsearch.aol.com/redir.adp?appname=MS&query=Merck%20profitability%20and%20efficiency%20ratios&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2emgmtguru%2ecom%2fmgt499%2fTN4%5f3%2ehtm&datasource=Google&partner=Google&clickedItemRank=5&requestId=cns41327&component=websearch.google.http.tcl&searchType=MS… [read more]


Amoxicillan vs. Penicillin for Use Term Paper

… Any past reaction to a penicillin - containing antibiotic, or any form of medication for that matter, should be reported to your physician so he or she can avoid prescribing them for you. The medication is rapidly cleared by the kidneys as fast as it is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

The efficacy of penicillin is superior in killing bacteria and other microorganisms -- other antibiotics prevent the invaders from reproducing but penicillin destroys the cell walls.

Penicillin V is not active against the penicillinase-producing bacteria, which include many strains of staphylococci. The drug exerts high in vitro activity against staphylococci (except penicillinase-producing strains), streptococci (groups A, C, G, H, L, and M), and pneumococci. Other organisms susceptible in vitro to penicillin V areCorynebacterium diphtheriae, Bacillus anthracis, clostridia, Actinomyces bovis, Streptobacillus moniliformis, Listeria monocytogenes, Leptospira, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Treponema pallidium is extremely susceptible. Penicillin V has the distinct advantage in being resistant to inactivation by gastric acid. It may be given with meals; however, blood levels are slightly higher when the drug is given on an empty stomach. Average blood levels are 2 to 5 times higher than those following the same dose of oral penicillin G. And also show much less individual variation. Once absorbed, about 80% of penicillin V is bound to serum protein.

Side Effects

The most important side effect of any antibiotic can be a serious allergic reaction, although this usually occurs following injection of the drug. This is generally common among people who have asthma, hay fever or other allergies.

Other common side effects include upset stomach, rash, nausea, diarrhea, coated tongue and abdominal pain. Pseudomembranous colitis has also been reported and the seriousness can vary from mild to more critical. If diagnosed, appropriate measures should be taken.

As with any drug, periodic testing should be done to check renal, hepatic and hematopoietic function. Also, high urine concentrations may results in false positive reactions hen testing for glucose in the urine.

If pregnant or breastfeeding, antibiotics can be passed into the breast milk. Reactions are also likely to occur in older people. Individuals who receive injections of penicillin may become lethargic, dizzy, confused, anxious or depressed.

Food and Drug Interactions

Antibiotics should not be taken with fruit juice or soda because the acid in these drinks can destroy the effects of the drug. Most penicillins are best absorbed on an empty stomach and should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. However amoxicillin can be taken without regard to food.

Antibiotics may interfere with the effectiveness of oral contraceptives and may intensify the effectiveness of beta blocking drugs. Large doses of injectable penicillin can increase the effects of blood-thinning drugs such as coumadin.

An overdose of an antibiotic is unlikely but if it occurs, diarrhea and upset stomach are the primary symptoms. A massive overdose can result in seizures or excitability.

Antibiotics work best when there is a constant amount in the blood or urine. To achieve this therapeutic level, the patient… [read more]


Stem Cell Research Term Paper

… "Some scientists say that, given enough money and time, they can build a tower of knowledge that can answer all questions about humankind. Until that distant day, however, it is lawmakers who have to slog through competing scientific claims and decide where to put federal dollars for medical research and what ethical restraints to put on such studies. That's what is going on right now in the hot-button debate over human stem-cell research (Munro pg 65).. Scientists are divided over the priorities and ethics of stem-cell research. One broad faction maintains that the promise of stem-cell research is so great, the federal government should add its money and prestige to what so far has been a strictly private-sector research effort. This faction also says federal research money should go to research on all kinds of stem cells-both the highly versatile ones drawn from human embryos, and the somewhat less versatile ones drawn from human adults. The opposing faction says federal research should be done only on stem cells from adults, so as not to encourage additional abortions, or the manufacture, and destruction, of human embryos (Munro pg 65). "

All of these causes and arguments place a burden on the politicians who have to decide to fund it. One of the answers may be to stop asking the government and search exclusively ion private sectors. This will mean competition in the market place however, if it gets the research funded than it might be the best solution (Broadway, B09).

Because of the federal debate issues and the funding problems the research is years behind what scientists feel it should be. The research shows promise to make people who have become paralyzed able to walk again, as well as other neurological cures but without finding and approval it remains stalled in a time warp (Johnson pp PG). The plan calls for the research to take its projects to the private sector and allow the private companies to provide the funding for the research to continue. This allows the medical community to move forward while at the same time working on the political community to support the efforts. The public will warm to the idea, just as it has the past medical breakthroughs. There was time that people believed seizures were devil possessions of those having them. Eventually the public learned better. It is the same scenario with the stem cell research debate. The public will warm and when it does politicians will support it but until then the field must move ahead so that when the public says yes the community is ready.

Works Cited

Capell, Kerry "Science & Technology: Stem Cells: AT RISK: A GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY IN BIOTECH.," Business Week, 09-10-2001, pp 85

Munro, Neil SCIENCE: A Debate That Stems From Human Cells., National Journal, 05-26-2001. pp 65

A.S. Wang, MIT president joins other university heads in supporting stem cell research., University Wire, 04-11-2001. pp 70

US DEPT OF HHS: Fact sheet on stem cell research., M2 PressWIRE, 02-01-1999.

Polgar,… [read more]

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