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Conflict, Ambivalence, and Hostility Endured by West Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (592 words)
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¶ … conflict, ambivalence, and hostility endured by West Virginia residents during its Union occupancy in the Civil War can best be illustrated by the involvement of its female supporters for Confederacy war efforts.

Although the Civil War had a great effect on virtually all of the states existent in the United States during its Civil War -- which spanned from 1861 to 1865 -- its effect on the western region of Virginia can be deemed one of the most peculiar. This assertion can be elucidated by the fact that at the time of the war West Virginia was part of Virginia proper, participated in the South's largely agricultural economy for its economic survival and had several cultural ties that were typically associated with the Confederacy way of life. However, while West Virginia was initially able to supply many troops which enlisted as part of Virginia's Confederate efforts to wage war against the northern Union loyalists, a series of military engagements won by the North (foremost of which include victories at Randolph County's Rich Mountain and at Corrick's Ford midway through July), rendered West Virginia under the control of the Union for the duration of the war.

The dichotomy which this sudden turn of events presented to the occupants of this state can best be seen in the example of its female participants in the Civil War. Western Virginian's were extremely ambivalent about its Union occupation during this tumultuous time period; in fact many were outright hostile if not violent due to the triumph of the Union in its borders. Consequently, several Western Virginia women involved themselves in a covert manner in the military efforts of the Confederacy and were employed in various capacities of espionage that including working as spies, guides, and in some cases,…… [read more]


Cyber Warfare Impact on End Users Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (591 words)
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Cyberwarfare

Like terrorism, cyber-warfare changes the rules of the game. Cyber-war penetrates every strata of society. The end user, whether individual consumer or commercial enterprise, is a potential victim. As Knapp & Bolton (2006) point out, cyber-warfare was once "commonly regarded as a military concern" but is now a total "societal issue" affecting non-military areas and especially commerce (p. 76). One of the arenas in which cyber-warfare plays out is, of course, identity theft. However, there are a host of ways cyber-warfare can impact the end-user from the large scale offensives terrorist organizations may wield to disruptions that are smaller in scope and yet equally as frustrating. Cyber-warfare presents tangible economic, social, and political risks that must be combatted creatively. Therefore, cyber-warfare provides opportunities for revolutionary strategies and policies.

The economic impact of cyber-warfare on end users is also the most quantifiable. Loss of assets, valuable information databases, and other measurable booty has a tremendous impact on the private sector. These losses in turn are felt by the consumer, the ultimate end-user whose daily life may be indirectly disrupted by cyber-warfare. Corporations are feeling the brunt of cyber-warfare, and are increasingly becoming direct targets of cyber crime. Sometimes cyber-warfare can be construed within the framework of traditional crime such as theft, but the techniques of cyber-warfare need to be understood with new vocabulary and a new framework. In fact, whole businesses are sprouting up in response to cyber-warfare including specialized cyber-warfare insurance providers. Increased costs of cyber-security are having a major impact on the economy (Knapp & Bolton 2006).

As Kelsey (2008) points out, the characteristics of cyber-warfare make it impossible to combat using traditional rules of war. New policies and procedures are needed to address digital terrorism ranging from corporate espionage to governmental sabotage.…… [read more]


Dereliction of Duty by H.R Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (872 words)
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Also, McMaster wants people to understand that the Vietnam War was lost even before it started, as all factors pointed toward the belief that it would be impossible for the U.S. To achieve success in fighting communism in Southeast Asia with the limited number of troops and with the thinking that they involved in the conflict.

McMaster's book practically demonstrates that the Vietnam War was pointless, as American leaders considered that they could exploit such a conflict with the purpose of promoting the general image of the U.S. during the Cold War and in order for the public to feel that American leadership is, in point of fact, capable to perform honorable acts. McMaster basically relates to how political leaders should have realized the fact that the military was not a political tool that they could use with the intention of boosting their image.

The Vietnam War was basically meant to have the general public consider that the U.S. was willing to fight against authoritarian regimes from all over the world, given that it had apparently been one of the most virtuous democratic forces. However, political leaders were uncertain in regard to the military objectives that American troops should be given or concerning how exactly they would assist the South Vietnamese in having access to a better life. The Joint Chiefs of Staff themselves were unable to act according to their role of providing professional military advice, as they were required to be loyal to the president first. The catastrophic decisions made by the Johnson Administration thus took their toll on the troops in Vietnam, as it came to be the main actor in the conflict.

McNamara was primarily determined to act in disagreement with the Joint Chiefs of Staff because he considered that they were unable to respond rapidly to his demands. According to McMaster, McNamara gradually developed a tendency to act on account of the advices he received from presidential advisors and depending on what he thought was best. McNamara came to overestimate the power of U.S. military forces in Vietnam, and, furthermore, considered that military leaders on the front were perfectly able to take important diplomatic decisions. According to McMasters, McNamara failed to realize the fact that the military was but a tool that needed to be directed in accordance to professional military advice.

McMaster, Dereliction of duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the lies that led to Vietnam, (HarperPerennial, 1998).… [read more]


Lessons Learned From Making of a Quagmire Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … lessons learned from Making of a Quagmire by David Halberstam and apply it to the defacto American raj in Afghanistan. First is not to become too closely associated with a present unpopular regime such as the Diem regime in Vietnam, as it is doing with the present administration in Afghanistan now (Halberstam and Singal 15). Also, staying in a never ending guerrilla war is an obvious lesson (ibid 65)

The best that can be done now is to declare victory since we have gotten Osama bin Laden and "train and transfer" the war to the Afghans. This was the original mission to go in, that is to decapitate and disrupt Al Qaeda. This has been done. It is impossible to do what every conqueror including Alexander the Great, Britain and Russia has tried and failed to do: totally pacify the country. We certainly can also remember the disaster of mission creep from the failure in Vietnam. Our arrogance, like those in the past, is clouding our judgment and we deceive ourselves if we think we can do what they could not.

What is disturbing about the war in Afghanistan (and in Iraq as well) is that comparisons to Vietnam end at the energy question. For all of its problems, one of those did not include oil and natural gas. Truly, if one thinks about it, we must ask if we would ever have left if energy were an issue there. One does not have to be a Rhodes scholar to realize that it is the "e" word (energy) that really lies at the heart of the issue. After all, nation states (especially super powers) do not spend trillions of dollars defending nonessentials. The real reason Americans are dying in the Hindu-Kush is as far or as close as our car's gas tank, our home's furnace, or our jacuzzi. Decades of Middle East wars, oil embargoes and lines at gas pumps have not taught us to get off of the black heroin coming from the region. Clearly, we are more hooked than ever before.

An important author of much of Obama's policy's is his old academic mentor, former Carter administration National Security Advisor,…… [read more]


Vietnam and Movie Apocalypse Now Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,017 words)
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Respecting the Rules of War

Wars have occurred throughout recorded human history. Even in antiquity, there was a recognition that even war should be subject to certain basic rules, such as restricting hostilities to combatants instead of wantonly attacking uninvolved civilians. In modern times, the types of concepts recognized by most civilized societies include avoiding unnecessary harm to civilian non-combatants, refraining from hostile action until a formal declaration of war, humane treatment of prisoners of war, prohibition of impersonating enemy combatants such as by disguising themselves by wearing their uniforms, requirement that combatants wear identifying uniforms of their own, prohibition against falsely flying flags of other nations, and prohibition of attacking clearly marked ambulances and hospitals. The movie Apocalypse Now provides numerous examples of violations of these modern rules of warfare during a conflict in which many different types of violations of the rules of warfare are now known to have been committed by both sides.

Examples of Violations of the Rules of War in Apocalypse Now and Vietnam

The most obvious examples from the movie would be the murder of the women in the sampan by Captain Willard after "Mr. Clean" accidentally killed everyone else on the boat and wounded her as a reaction to what he believed was a hostile movement, and Willard's later order to "Chef" to call in an air strike on an entire village if he does not return from his expedition to find his target. Willard's mission to assassinate Colonel Kurtz is also a war crime but it is not committed against the enemy.

In principle, Mr. Clean's shooting of the non-combatants in the sampan was not a violation of the rules of warfare because (we assume) his action was an instantaneous reaction was genuinely out of fear and his belief that the woman who moved was reaching for a weapon or for the trigger to a bomb. As long as he did not have the intention of murdering a civilian in cold blood, his mistake was not a violation of the rules of warfare. The same distinction holds true where a civilian village is bombed strictly in error rather than deliberately. However, Willard's decision to kill the wounded woman was inexcusable because he specifically intended to kill her without any reason to believe that she was an enemy combatant. Similarly, his later order to Chef to call in an air strike against an entire village was a violation of the rules of war because it was not justified as an attack on a military facility or on known enemy combatants.

During the Vietnam conflict, many American soldiers developed hatred of the enemy and of the civilian population because of the extent to which Vietnamese civilians who were sympathetic to the North Vietnamese aided and abetted the enemy. On one hand, it easy, (especially with the benefit of 20/20 hindsight and from the safety of a desk in the United States), to condemn any American soldier who failed to respect the rules of warfare… [read more]


Vietnamese History in the 20th Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (957 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Battalion commanders in the air forces were especially restricted in their actions as a result of the air doctrine policy employed by the Johnson Administration.

In spite of the fact that division commanders were less limited in their actions, their devotion to respecting the government's ROE was apparently more important than their interest in winning the war. Somewhat similar to politicians back home, division commanders were focused on achieving the best results possible without involving all of their troops in areas believed to be of great strategic importance.

General William Westmoreland, the leader of the American military in Vietnam from 1964 to 1968, was initially inclined to believe that the war would be over in a few years, most probably because of the fact that his first battles were successful. Battles that were at first meant to produce a limited number of casualties escalated as the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese became more powerful. From putting across feelings related to winning the war during his first years in Vietnam, Westmoreland became agitated upon seeing that matters became critical and came to focus on fruitless search-and-destroy missions.

Despite the fact that the Secretary of Defense at the time of the Vietnam War, Robert McNamara, had been apparently devoted to preserving peace and freedom in areas from around the world, he considered that it would be better for the U.S. To limit its intervention in foreign wars. He was actually reluctant to support military leaders and advisors in putting across their perspective regarding the Vietnam War because he believed that war-related matters should be controlled by civilian leadership.

President Lyndon B. Johnson was supportive toward McNamara's point-of-view, as he considered that the Vietnam War could only be won by employing a diplomatic attitude toward the North Vietnamese government. He believed that pressure was essential in having people in North Vietnam less dedicated to fighting an unjust war. Johnson did not want the war to progress and thus he implemented restrictive rules of engagement. This was most probably a consequence of the fact that he feared that an escalated conflict would gradually come to affect the U.S.' relationship with the Soviets and with the Chinese.

Rules of engagement are, to a certain degree, one of the principal reasons for which the Americans experienced serious defeat in the Vietnam War. Although their power was more than enough for them to stand against the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese, their restrictions prevented them from acting with effectiveness in the territory.

Works cited:

Gross, Chuck, Rattler One-Seven: A Vietnam Helicopter Pilot's War Story (Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 2004)

Moss Donelson, George. Vietnam: An American Ordeal, 6th Edition, (Pearson, 2010)

"Free-Fire Zone," Retrieved May 30, 2011, from the Global Security Website: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/vietnam2-free-fire-zone.htm… [read more]


Soldiers Rhetorical Analysis: Chapter Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Soldiers

Rhetorical analysis: Chapter 5 of the Good Soldiers

To document the effects of the surge on American and Iraqi troops, author David Finkel uses chapter headings with chilling simplicity in his book The Good Soldiers. The title July 12, 2007 simply marks the day chronicled in Chapter 5. July 12th is yet another miserable day in the ever-spiraling conflict taking American lives. This chapter is headed with a quote by President George W. Bush: "We're helping to enhance the size, capabilities, and effectiveness of the Iraqi security forces so the Iraqis can take over the defense of their own country. We're helping the Iraqis take back their neighborhoods from extremists" (Finkel 83). Bush's quote manifests a palpable irony, when contrasted with the real-life situation on the ground. The conflicts between American and Iraqi troops are constant, as are the frequent demonstrations of incompetence of the Iraqi police forces. Irony is the predominant rhetorical feature of Chapter 5 the text, contrasting the real and the ideal, the words of American politicians and life on the ground [Thesis].

"What's happening that turns everything into a fight?" asks Col. Ralph Kauzlarich in the first sentence of the chapter, an ironic expression of dismay given the fact that the Americans are fighting a war (Finkel 83). The fact that the violence is increasing is seen as proof of the fact that the Americans are winning in Kauzlarich's eyes, in a kind of reversal of expected logic. "They wouldn't be fighting if we weren't winning" (Finkel 83). However, while Kauzlarich speaks without intended irony, another military leader's comment, as he is poised on the front lines of the fight, has a different tone: "Good thing we are winning, because if we were losing [imagine how bad things would be]" (Finkel 85).

These forced attempts at optimism are ironically contrasted with the real, expressed attitude of the troops who are fighting on the ground. The closer a soldier is to actual combat, the less idealistic his or her analysis of the conflict. Witty troops make up a handmade 'morale meter' which directly contradicts Kauzlarich's statement. Its 'ratings' include a scale with headings such as: "Embracing the suck…Fuck this shit, I quit…Bend over. Here comes again" (Finkel 85). The deliberately profane tone shows how the troops see through the official party line that America is winning the war and engaging in meaningful combat for the Iraqis. Instead of stating 'the troops are angry and dispirited,' Finkel uses the homemade artifact of the morale meter as evidence of the truth, of non-official sentiment. The author shows rather than tells how the troops are feeling.

Finkel also uses ironic repetition to show the circular and tautological logic of the military: "Their job now was to follow the orders of other soldiers who were following orders too" (Finkel 85). Finkel's tone gives the impression that no one is really giving orders at all, but that people are following directions mindlessly and reflexively, like the armed forces is… [read more]


George W. Bush's Arms Control Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 28

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Thus, the most crucial effects of September 11th to Bush policy was the focusing of attention on terrorists and their national supporters and the formal declaration that the United States had the right to preemptively attack any country or group it perceived as a threat, launching "the policy of pre-emptive was against potential aggressors before they were capable of launching… [read more]


American Beauty Lester Burnham, the Main Character Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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American Beauty Lester Burnham, the main character in American Beauty, is responsible for the choices that he makes, this being one of the most important themes in the film. While he initially feels that his condition was made possible as a result of a series of unfortunate circumstances, it is him who actually chose to be the person he is and have the life that he has. The choices that he made across his life practically made him the prisoner of his own story. There is nothing personal about Lester. He is uninteresting and similar to many other simple people who are scared to do something to improve their lives. It is very probable that he is in this condition because he was too scared to act across the forty-two years he spent chasing the American Dream.

The fact that he masturbates on a regular basis in spite of having a wife serves is meant to emphasize his isolation from the outside world. Lester's sexuality is actually the very thing that saves him from posing in someone that he is not. His attraction to Angela pulls him out of his confined world and makes him observe reality. Lester's struggle to attract Angela can be considered a campaign of self-discovery, given that he changes his personality and abandons previous conceptions in his quest. It is eventually revealed that, in order to rediscover himself, Lester needed to employ an adolescent's view in regard to life.

No Country for Old Men While one might be inclined to consider that this film puts across yet another account concerning violence, bounty hunters, and drug-related concepts as a whole, the film is actually meant to address more complex ideas. One of the most important elements in the motion picture deals with people wanting to get rich over night without experiencing difficulty doing so. One of Llewelyn Moss' first thoughts at the point when he finds the money is related to him no longer being bounded by financial problems. This reaction is frequently seen in people consequent to spending most of their lives working for a miserable salary. Moss simply wanted a way out and the two million dollars provided him with the perfect opportunity to escape depression. He did not stand to think about the complications that might arrive along with such a large sum of money or about the consequences of taking drug money. It was as if he was willing to risk anything in order to get a chance at changing his lifestyle.

The film brings on a moral dilemma and has viewers identify with Moss at the time when he takes the money. After all…it is what most individuals would do if they were to find themselves in such circumstances. One's own well-being seems to be more important than the well-being of a Mexican drug dealer in need of water. It is thus difficult to determine whether Moss should be condemned for his deed or not. Either way, karma gets back at him… [read more]


2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report vs. The Objectives of General George W. Casey Jr Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report vs. The objectives of General George W. Casey Jr. In the overview section of the study, study, we will list and define the six key mission areas described in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report and the objectives of General George W. Casey Jr. Then, these issues will be compared and contrasted soundly in the analytical section to analyze the differences and convergences of Defense Secretary Robert Gates and the Chief of Staff of the Army General Casey.

Quadrennial Defense Review

Key Mission Areas

Obviously, the secretary of defense is speaking for all of the Armed Forces and for the civilian government of the United States.

Defend the United States and support the civil authorities at home. Homeland security is a priority at all times.

Succeed in counterinsurgency, stability and counterterrorism operations in the war on terror. We must kill and destroy the enemy to prevent another 9/11.

Build the security capacity of partner states (allies). The United States can not do the job alone. Coalition countries must be trained and supported in the war on terror.

Deter and defeat aggression in anti-access environments. We must deter aggression before it happens and defeat it when it occurs.

Fifth, we must prevent proliferation and counter weapons of mass destruction that might be deployed by rogue states. Rogue states must not be allowed to acquire weapons of mass destruction and must be denied the ability to acquire them in the first place.

Finally, we must also operate effectively in cyberspace and enhance the All-Volunteer Force. We must deter threats to our electronic security and keep the volunteer force strong. It is much better than a conscript army.

General George W. Casey Jr.-Six Objectives:

Support the accomplishment of our strategic objectives in Afghanistan and Iraq. For this objective, General Casey has stated that he is seeking to organize train and equip U.S. forces for on-time deployment to the theaters. In addition, the efforts must support the main thrust and transfer of mass from Iraq to Afghanistan.

Continue Efforts to Restore Balance. The Army must maintain progress towards FY 2011 Goals. The Army is in the third year of a four-year plan to restore balance in the Army, and it is making progress toward achieving those goals. Getting the Army back in balance remains the goal through FY 2011. The U.S. Army must maintain its focus on this goal and ensure that growth is completed and progress maintained towards a BOG-Dwell ratio of 1:2 for the Active Component and 1:4 for the Reserve Component for complete modularity and rebalancing the force.

Sustain soldiers Families and Civilians. Need to consolidate and improve on the gains we have made. We will also institutionalize both Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program and an Army Risk Reduction and Health Promotion Program to strengthen the health of our force. Also, we need to increase our understanding of the implications of a rotational cycle and modularity on Soldier and Family support.

Establish an Integrated Management… [read more]


Global Trends and National Security Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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19). By focusing on the waning threat posed by one particular violent ideology, the National Security Strategy fails to realize or address the underlying economic and social factors which contribute to the success of any violent ideology.

Secondly, because the threat of Islamic fundamentalism is viewed as the preeminent threat to American national security, the 2010 National Security Strategy does not take into account the fact that a transition away from fossil fuels is imminent, thus weakening the power of its regional allies to protect the United States' "important interest in the greater Middle East" through policies of repression and torture only made possible by control over oil wealth (National Security Strategy, 2010, p. 24). Thus, when the National Security Strategy discusses the goals of "counterterrorism cooperation, access to energy, and integration of the region into global markets," it does in a glaringly ahistorical fashion, as if the regimes it seeks to engage with in order to further these goals will always be in power due to their monopoly over the region's oil, even as this monopoly is broken through the revolutions of the Arab Spring and the eventual transition away from fossil fuels (National Security Strategy, 2010, p. 24).

While both the National Intelligence Council's predictions regarding the state of international politics in the year 2025 and the 2010 National Security Strategy are both woefully flawed and rely on a number of assumptions regarding the future success of American empire, the former nonetheless offers some insight into the ways in which the latter is ill-prepared to deal with the actual threats to national security that the United States will face in the coming decades. In particular, the NIC report highlights the faulty assumption that the United States can continue as a dominant power in spite of internal problems, the disruptive effect a transition away from fossil fuels, and the increased threat from terrorism as a result of climate change.

References

National Intelligence Council. United States Intelligence Community, Office of the Director…… [read more]


JFK Assassination Conspiracy Theories Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,407 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Kennedy Assassination

Summary of the Warren Commission Report

The Warren Commission (WC) concluded in its report -- given that it had "no limitations" on its inquiry and "all government agencies have fully discharged their responsibility" to cooperate fully -- that the shots fired that killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connally came from the "sixth floor window…of the Texas Book… [read more]


State and Individual Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (683 words)
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¶ … Individual

Select a contemporary political figure and argue how you think they follow or do not follow Machiavelli's rules of what a leader should be

In the book the Prince, Machiavelli is discussing how an individual can be able to: seize and obtain power based upon the end justifying the means. As, these principals are able to help someone to use their strengths in order to achieve political or military advantages over their enemies. Evidence of this can be seen with a passage from the book itself with Machiavelli saying, "And whoever has strongly fortified his town and, as regards to the government of his subjects, has proceeded as we have already described and will further relate. He will be attacked with great reluctance, for men are always adverse to enterprises in which they see great difficulties." (Machiavelli 41) This is important, because it is showing how a strong military is essential for a country to maintain their influence on the world stage. As a result, many of these ideas have been used throughout history to deal with various issues by political figures.

Once place where this can be seen in society is with the overall amounts of defense spending. Part of the reason for this, is because there is the belief that if spending was to be cut dramatically. There could be, negative implications on U.S. interests around the world. As there is no sufficient fighting force to address numerous challenges. A political figure who is using these tactics is Leon Penetta (the Secretary for the Department of Defense).

What he has been doing, is discussing with Congress about how America must be able to maintain a strong military at all times. The reason why, is because the nation is still continuing to face a wide variety of threats. If there were dramatic cuts to the Department of Defense budget, this could have adverse implications on the national security of the United States. As, U.S. forces will not be able to provide the same kind continued support to…… [read more]


Resolving Conflict Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … valuable and how it will be applied in the future.

What was Covered

The importance of knowing how to negotiate correctly was emphasized in this block of instruction. Within the negotiation process, there are many components and strategies that must be followed for successful outcomes. The various facets of negotiations, including who does the important work in stabilizing the position and who destabilizes the situation, and who closes.

Also covered was: a) how to respond to conflict; b) what collaborative and competitive negotiations are all about; c) the two most important kinds of bargaining (distributive and integrative); d) the best alternative to an agreement that can't be negotiated; e) how negotiation isn't just a confrontation or a dialogue, rather it is a "sequence of events"; and f) there are important strategies to follow to engage in negotiations with any chance of coming out positive.

What was Learned

There are basic rules to negotiation but there are also misconceptions about how to negotiation. First of all, negotiations do not have to be bitter or confrontational, Understanding the horizontal dimension, the internal dimension, and the way in which negotiating teams square off against each other is critical to success. There are stabilizers (those who calmly seek solutions) and destabalizers (these are the people that do their best to ruin the negotiation process by driving hard bargains and ignoring the views of others). The quasi-mediator is usually the lead negotiator and the closers know how to cut a deal and get signatures on the new documents. There is the salesman as part of negotiations, he or she is the person that is a buffer, or go-between. The ratification negotiation is usually between your team and the closers on your team.

It's a dynamic where you haggle about what your side will or won't accept from the other side. Questions get asked, like "How far are we willing to go to reach a compromise with these people?" And "How much of a change are we willing to accept?" What we also learned in…… [read more]


Stress Cortisol Secretion Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Stress, Cortisol Secretion

In any workplace, one of the most important factors seems to be on-the-job training. This means that new employees become aware of the practical requirements and challenges of the specific work he or she is to do. The most important component of this is that practical training tends to reduce employee stress and cultivates work experience and subsequent excellence. When I read the article, one of the most striking things to me was therefore that there seems to be a distinctive lack of practical training that approaches the situations that employees in police and military companies might encounter during their work. Concomitantly, it was also interesting to find that, even now, in the age where stress is recognized as a primary factor affecting work performance and general well-being. This is why research like that offered in the article is so vital in terms of potentially high-stress work where the effectiveness of performance means not only the well-being and longevity of employees themselves, but also indirectly that of the citizens being served by these professions.

The article begins with a good exposition of the current situation with regard to stress analyses within high-stress police and military work environments. In addition to limited research on this component, there is also not much on the effects of the stress factors, such as information processing, working memory, skill acquisition, and learning in operational settings. In the same section, the article also addresses the practical dangers that might relate to the anxiety and stress suffered by police and military personnel. One important hypothesized component is that these officers may underperform under stress, which in turns provides insight into the training process itself. According to these findings, it appears that underperformance is not clearly scrutinized for its core causes, nor is the training process being evaluated for its effectiveness in field situations. If police and military work is to be improved, these are vital areas of further attention, especially when it…… [read more]


Use of Force Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,166 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … force has been adopted and vilified in various circumstances by commentators, states, and international organizations. In most cases, the states determine the appropriate situations with which the use of force is applied on a case-by-case basis and how to apply it. For example, one of the fundamental provisions in the United Nations charter states that all members shall avoid from the threat or use of force against the political independence or territorial integrity of any state in their international relations. States have used force when they are at war, on the brink of war, for political and economic potshots, and when one state is unaware of the clandestine activities of another state. The application of the use of force has mainly been characterized by the invoking of measures that have devastating impacts on the target nation. However, under contemporary international law, one of the major concerns that have risen is the legal and illegal uses of force.

Types of Legal Uses of Force:

The legitimacy of the use of force has continued to be an issue of increased concerns under the contemporary international law. There are various types of legal uses of forces including the following & #8230;

Political Struggles:

In the recent past, the use of force has developed to become a normal aspect of many political struggles for the accomplishment of national objectives (Slomanson, p. 468). It's one of the legitimate uses of force since it may be necessary for the achievement of political power in internal and international relations. According to the contemporary political scientists, international rules regarding force are normally meaningless during crises since binding limitations regarding the use of force have never been effective. However, the extent on the use of force by a state in its international relations continues to raise a profusion and confusion of politico-legal concerns that can't be analyzed. One of the reasons for the legitimacy of the use of force in political struggles is because of the widespread publicity given to such instances unlike instances of peaceful cooperation. Consequently, many countries have applied a combination of threats, military actions, and economic coercion for the achievement of political objectives.

Countermeasures:

The use of force is legitimate when it's applied as a counter-action that reacts to allegations of internationally wrongful conduct. One of the prominent examples of such measures is reprisal, which is a coercive action that basically involves the authorized seizure of persons or property in another country. This counter-action is used as a retaliation initiative towards a prior wrong that was carried out by a state or its citizens (Slomanson, p. 471). While countermeasures were not relatively uncommon during war, it became authorized under the contemporary international law during times of peace.

Even though reprisals can either be private or public, public reprisals are the most commonly used countermeasures because they mainly involve injuries sustained by the state itself. The uses of these countermeasures in the contemporary international law began in the 18th Century when governments started to… [read more]


World War 1 And Its Depiction in All Quiet on the Western Front Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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World War 1 and its depection in "All Quiet on the Western Front"

The media world and writers in general are typically inclined to write in regard to warfare using concepts like adventure, honor, and the greatness of people being unhesitant about dying for their country. Erich Maria Remarque's 1929 book "All Quiet on the Western Front" presents readers with the harsh reality of war as the writer wants to emphasis the gravity related to fighting and the fact that there is nothing glorious about it. Remarque most probably wanted to raise society's awareness concerning how warfare is not as beautiful as most people like to believe, as it is actually destroys the social order and the lives of innocent young people who are unable to fully comprehend its seriousness until it is too late for them. Remarque uses concepts that are unattractive for readers who are normally interested in reading romantic war stories, but his main intention is to have people acknowledge the fact that war should never be an enjoyable topic.

The novel goes directly against the romantic expression of warfare through highlighting that it the masses need to open their eyes regarding the real world and understand that it is wrong to support any form of conflict, regardless of the circumstances involved. While people might be inclined to consider that warfare provides individuals with breath-taking experience that assist them in undergoing psychological progress, most individuals fail to look at matters from the perspective of soldiers who see war firsthand and who are shocked and permanently traumatized as a result of what they go through. While leaders are generally supportive in regard to a warfare performed for purposes related to nationalism, soldiers on the front come to acknowledge that it is absurd to risk their lives for principles that are not necessarily beneficial for them. Fighting with blind passion is likely to have an individual lose his understanding of the world consequent to the moment when he realizes the importance of a human life.

Remarque is not necessarily interested in providing people with instructions regarding the horrors related to warfare, as he also wants to put across his experiences and memories in order to assist people in gaining a better understanding of the conflict. His opinion in regard to how "the front is a cage…… [read more]


Vietnam Syndrome Term Paper

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Vietnam Syndrome

Define the "Vietnam Syndrome" and describe how it affected the United States after the 1970s.

A scholar of American civil rights history defines the Vietnam Syndrome as the "fear of getting bogged down in another quagmire" that "made a majority of Americans reluctant to intervene militarily in Third World countries" (Sitkoff, 1999). After the humiliating defeat in Vietnam, the conviction of many Americans of the invincibility of the U.S. military was shattered and because of the enormous damage the war inflicted on the United States, in terms of manpower lost and economic losses, not to mention psychological stars, many Americans because weary of going into another war unless it was absolutely necessary. The war should be the last resort in settling disputes in the international arena, they argued.

The Vietnam Syndrome affected the United States after the 1970s tremendously because Americans were determined not to repeat the mistake of Vietnam. The failure of Vietnam was perceived differently by different people. Some people thought that the war was morally wrong and therefore should not happen again. Others believed the war was unwinnable, so they argued that the United States should not go to war without making sure that America would definitely win. Others thought that the Vietnam War was lost because of strategic or tactical errors in the conduct of the military and became determined to employ new methods in new conflicts. But all of them agreed that something was fundamentally wrong with the Vietnam War -- veteran diplomat George Kennan described the war as "the most disastrous of all America's undertakings over the whole two hundred years of its history" (Sitkoff, 1999) -- and that the United States should not repeat its mistakes in Vietnam ever again.

The impact of the Vietnam Syndrome became manifest in the decision of the Congress to pass the War Powers Act in 1973, which made it illegal for a U.S. President to engage in combat operations abroad for more than ninety days without congressional approval. The public pressured Congress to…… [read more]


War the Nature of Modern Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (839 words)
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¶ … War

The Nature of Modern War

If there is one thing that can be said about modern warfare with total certainty, it is that it is not the same in its carrying out either practically or ideologically speaking. That is, the technologies, instruments, strategies, and methodologies of warfare are undergoing/have undergone drastic changes, and the root causes behind wars and/or defining the groups at war with each other are also quite different from what they are. Defining anything in the negative is problematic, of course, and the vagueness of this description certainly does not improve such an attempt in this particular case: saying that war simply is not what it used to be provides no means of understanding war as it exists now. Starting with the idea that it has been fundamentally altered raises some specific questions, however, and in attempting to answer these questions a clearer positive definition of modern warfare might emerge -- might, because there is hardly consensus on the subject amongst scholars.

Mary Kaldor defines and describes "new wars" as essentially related to identities, a term that she uses to refer to the labels that people and their cultures use to delineate and separate themselves. Identities are largely fixed by birth, though Kaldor notes there are some exceptions, and because of their fixed and automatic nature these identities are inherently backward-looking: they are concerned with a shared history, real or imagined, and with a sense of commonality borne more of nostalgia than of a conscious and explicit common purpose for the future. The "politics of identity" can thus be contrasted to more forward-looking "politics of ideas" as being more reactive and closed to additions or evolutions within defined groups.

In Kaldor's view, "new wars" consist of smaller fighting groups using more guerilla tactics and relying less (or not at all) on conventions of warfare such as specific fields of battle, military units and equipment, and the like. The manner in which modern politics of identity fracture larger groups and create cohesion amongst smaller enclaves contributes to this, and as the world grows smaller through the forces of globalization local and regional governments are actually gaining greater control. National governments are losing both the capabilities and the legitimacy they possessed in the twentieth century, and smaller identity groups are attempting to reassert control in their regions of influence. In Kaldor's view, this is leading to warfare that takes place on a smaller scale both in terms of its quantifiable elements and in more abstract…… [read more]


Persistent Existence of Sexual Violence Term Paper

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This is because victims are not in the power position. Also, a work environment like the military is one where men and women both live together 24 hours a day. Gender and sexual harassment is tolerated. The potential to create and foster an environment where such incidents of violence against women are much higher that in the civilian society (ibid., 4).

Nuturers

With regard to nurturing, successful recovery is contingent upon a positive experience in prevocational training that can provide the confidence to succeed in job related education and skills development. This includes developing the appropriate accommodations and supports. When combined with placement services, success in the activities can promote a readjustment to civilian life, and reduce the negative feelings generated by MST. Also, it is vital to recognize that service providers such as mental health personnel, vocational counselors and psychologists provide valuable information/services to the veteran and rehabilitation counselor (ibid., 11-12).

Conclusion

To sum up, sexual violence within the United States armed forces is a persistent fact that has been long recognized by public policymakers, military officials, health care professionals and the news media. The risk of exposure by women service members to sexual violence within the military is high and the PENs model was used by author in the essay to break down this issue systematically.

The VHA policies with regard to military sexual trauma represents a uniquely comprehensive set of health care responses to military sexual trauma. Results attest to the success of universal screening, which yields clinically significant information with relevance to mental health and behavioral health treatment.

The health literature regarding military sexual trauma will be particularly important and will guide them to help both male and female veterans overcome the traumas of war.

Works Cited

Carter, J., & Leach, J. (2011). Veterans, military sexual trauma and ptsd: Rehabilitation planning implications. Journal…… [read more]


Was Operation Iraqi Freedom a Legitimate and Just War? Research Paper

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Iraqi War

Operation Iraqi Freedom: A legitimate and just war?

The United States of America invaded Iraq in 2003 under the direction of President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair of the United Kingdom (Gordon 2006). The foundational information that is said to have precipitated the action was the idea that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction which… [read more]


Evolution of Cbrne Incidents Weapons Research Paper

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Another serious concern for these kinds of terrorist activities is that there may be more than one medium used in order to cause terror and harm. In other words, the terrorists may choose to detonate a bomb, but that may be what is called a "dirty bomb." These explosives, when detonated, release a chemical or biological agent into the air around them. These unexpected agents can spread quite rapidly, and when they do they can easily and rapidly be deadly. Even if the actual explosion does not kill many people, there is great damage potential in the "dirty" aspect of that explosive. With that being the case, agencies that are preparing for critical incidents must take these kinds of mixed-activity terror threats very seriously (Eldridge, 2006). Rushing to help in an incident where all the facts are not known could cause more harm in the long run, and could result in the sickness or death of more people.

It is not possible to be 100% prepared for any eventuality where a terror attack is concerned. Partially, this comes from the fact that one will not know what kind of biological agent was used, even if it is determined that one was used. Sometimes, it is not possible to tell immediately that a particular chemical or biological agent was used, and if that is the case there can be many more casualties, and the spread of sickness, before problems are realized. Critical incidents are high-stress situations, where people who do not spend all day, every day training for danger suddenly find themselves attempting to save lives and fight back against an adversary that might be unknown and/or might have multiple angles (Morel & Olson, 1992). This can make for a high degree of confusion, along with a lack of resources or skills that are needed but that were not trained for properly or thoroughly enough. Being prepared is limited to specific scenarios, making true preparation difficult.

References

Eldridge, J. (ed.). (2006). Jane's nuclear, biological and chemical defense 2006 -- 2007 (19th ed.). Coulsdon, Surrey, UK; Alexandria, Va: Jane's Information Group.

Morel, B. & Olson,…… [read more]


Douglas Macarthur and the Korean War Term Paper

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Douglas MacArthur

The actual reason that President Harry Truman fired General Douglas MacArthur has generally been explained as "insubordination" (Pearlman, 2008), but there are several other reasons in the literature that explain in greater detail why MacArthur was removed from his position.

MacArthur was known to engage in bizarre & arrogant behaviors which led -- after years of his having offended many -- ultimately to his dismissal

a) MacArthur was in his penthouse suite in Manila when the war department informed him the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor; but he left his fleet of B-17 bombers and his P-40 fighter planes on the nearby runways at Clark ad Iba airfields (Wainstock, 1999)

b) Eight hours later the Japanese air force attacked and destroyed those aircraft that MacArthur decided to leave open for enemy attack (Wainstock, 1999)

c) MacArthur was paranoid, believing for example that President Roosevelt wanted to defeat Germany first because Roosevelt personally disliked him; "…he was certain that many in Washington would rather see him defeated than win the war…" (Wainstock, 1999).

d) MacArthur only smoked his corncob pipe when photographers were near; General Omar Bradley called MacArthur a "megalomaniac" with an "obsession for self-glorification" and a "contempt for the judgment of his superiors"; State Department official H. Freeman Matthews called MacArthur a "prickly and arrogant commander in chief"; President Truman saw MacArthur as a "supreme egotist" who regarded himself as "something of a god" (Wainstock, 1999).

e) After WWII ended, twice President Truman asked MacArthur to return to the U.S. To receive honors from a grateful nation; MacArthur replied that conditions in the Far East were so "unstable that it would not be safe for me to leave then to other hands, even briefly"; Truman was insulted (Wainstock, 1999).

Thesis TWO: MacArthur was basically in charge of the rebuilding of Japan's society and culture during the American occupation of Japan. Some of his policies were so provocative -- and even progressive in some cases -- they will certainly surprise and perhaps shock readers in 2012.

(a) MacArthur saw that the incidence of venereal disease within the American forces that were occupying Japan, and the returning Japanese reached "nearly 30%" right after the war; clinics were set up to distribute condoms, to give antibiotics to solders (Buhite, 2008).

(b) MacArthur outlawed prostitution but allowed women to continue walking the streets looking for "tricks"; the War Department ordered him to prevent "fraternization" between Americans and Japanese but MacArthur did not agree with the order so he ignored the order; he did not curtail (Buhite, 2008).

(c) the general wrote into the civil code rules and policies that promoted equal rights for women, equal rights in marriage, access to divorce, "ending of arranged marriages," he insisted on voting rights and participation for Japanese women in public affairs and in the workplace -- and these were all new concepts in Japan (Buhite, 2008).

(d) When the House Appropriations Committee in Washington…… [read more]


Fire Research on Fire Science the Commencement Essay

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¶ … Fire Research on Fire Science

The commencement of modern fire research can be traced back to 1871 when two massive fires occurred in early October of that year. Due to their huge impact, the two fires set the tone for fire research that has developed to eventually become the contemporary fire science. The modern fire science is basically centered on the safety for victims of occupants and the fire fighters. Actually direct fire science consists of fire behavior projects with which the fire behavior variables are predicted through supervision and evaluation (Barbour, 2007). Since its inception, modern fire research has greatly impacted fire science in several ways including:

Infrared Imaging:

This is one of the major technological changes and advancements of modern fire research that have greatly influenced fire science. Infrared imaging basically entails the detection of any living creature that produces heat through a device that magnifies heat temperatures. The magnified heat temperatures are then used to identify victims who are ensnared in a burning building and trapped firefighters. The major impact of this research on fire science is that it has resulted in the speedy identification and retrieval of the trapped individuals by rescuers. An example of the use of infrared imaging is the fact that the military has been authorized to provide the most recent infrared technologies to fire departments across municipalities by new Federal Legislations.

Global Positioning Systems (GPS):

The other significant technique of modern research is the global positioning systems that are used to identify the location of trucks and resources in order to facilitate appropriate deployment, especially in overlapping response situations. The systems can also be utilized to download real time information during wild fire incidents. The downloaded information can then…… [read more]


Moral Law Sun Tzu Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (803 words)
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2). He said the increased use of the United States flag by the U.S. government at that time was meant to build up the patriotism into nationalism and even into jingoism (extreme nationalism). Moreover, Webster quotes Steve Grosby who points out that patriotism is being loyal without hatred of those outside "one's nation"; but nationalism "repudiates civility and tolerance of difference" (Webster, 3). The moral law has the same intended effect -- to become hostile towards "the enemy" and follow the leader even if it is wrongheaded and based solely on a nationalistic fever being stirred up among the people.

THREE: One specific example from the readings is found in #9 in Chapter 1: "The commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerely (sic), benevolence, courage and strictness" (Sun Tzu). In response to that passage, the Bush Administration did have "many enthusiastic supporters" as it waged war on Iraq (calling it the "war on terror"), writes political science professor Thomas Dumm (Dumm, 2006, p. 155). But "benevolence" and "courage" were not revealed by Bush as much as the suggestion that those against the Iraq war were "traitorous" (Dumm, 155). In reference to those who objected to spending billions on the war in Iraq, a White House spokesperson is quoted as saying: "President Bush considers this nation to be at war, and, as such, considers any opposition to his policies to be no less than an act of treason" (SourceWatch).

In conclusion, interpretations of the "moral law" -- using contemporary political events as pertinent comparisons -- can be made with numerous valid resources, as this paper has attempted to do. Moreover, it is clear that moral law (in the context of the Commander in Chief of the United States) can lead to much more than just loyalty; it can lead to fanaticism and in the case of Germany in the 1930s, it can turn into fascism.

Works Cited

Dumm, Thomas L. (2006). George W. Bush and the F-Word. South Atlantic Quarterly, 105(1),

153-160.

Lyon, Grant. (2011). Patriotism vs. Nationalism in a Post 9/11 World. HuffPost. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com.

SourceWatch. (2008). Treating Dissent as Treason. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from http://www.sourcewatch.org.

Tzu, Sun. (Translation, 1910). Sun Tzu on the Art of War: The Oldest Military Treatise in the World. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from http://www.chinapage.com/sunzi-e.html.

Webster, Gerald R. (2011). American Nationalism, the Flag, and…… [read more]


Vietnam Leadership of Dwight Eisenhower Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (715 words)
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But in practice, Kennedy turned out to be an indecisive leader. When the Soviets placed nuclear missiles in Cuba, Kennedy could not intervene. He sought a negotiated settlement with the Soviets. It might have been a wiser decision, but in the eyes of many Americans, he looked weak. Kennedy presided to the Oval Office when Laos, Vietnam's crucial neighbor, was in crisis. Eisenhower told him that a military intervention would probably be necessary to save the country from Communism but Kennedy did not intervene. As Moss (2010) explains, "Kennedy's failure to intervene in Cuba at the time of the Bay of Pigs fiasco probably killed any possibility of sending troops into Laos. How could Kennedy explain to the American people his willingness to send troops to Laos 9,000 miles away if he was unwilling to send them to Cuba 90 miles away?" (p. 89). As the situation in Vietnam did not improve in favor of American goals in Southeast Asia, the pressure to intervene directly mounted. Nevertheless, Kennedy only increased military aid and sent Special Forces (Green Berets).

The leadership styles of both Eisenhower and Kennedy raise a question about the importance of direct leadership of the U.S. President for America. It is clear that a direct leadership is necessary, especially in times of international crises that may require decisive actions. Eisenhower was a decisive leader but he was not always at liberty to act as he wished. The unwillingness of America's allies to join the U.S. crusade against Communism and the bureaucracy of Congress might have frustrated him, but he acted within the confines of the Constitution, exercising great leadership and not falling into autocracy. Without Eisenhower's insistence to fight for a non-Communist Indochina, Vietnam might have fallen into Communism much earlier than it did. Whereas Kennedy intervened in Vietnam largely due to political pressure exerted on his Administration. Eisenhower's decisive leadership and Kennedy's reluctance to be decisive and the consequences of their leadership-styles are the evidences showing that direct leadership of the President in the United States is very important.

References:

Moss, G. (2010). Vietnam, an American ordeal. Upper…… [read more]


Future of Homeland Security Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,081 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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Future of Homeland Security

Over the last several years, our nation has been involved in a war on terrorism that is focused on defeating those groups that want to destroy America and its way of life. There have been both positive developments and negative setbacks during this continuing battle. As far as positive developments are concerned, our forces have been able to disrupt potential attacks involving chemical and biological weapons.

One case in particular, involved a plot of Al Qaeda-based extremists that were focused on delivering this type of weapon system in the area surrounding the 2018 Super Bowl in Miami. The focus of the attack was to spread an aerosol version of bubonic plague into the air with the hope that the strong sea breezes will infect anyone attending these events. Part of the reason why we were so successful in preventing this attack, is because of the extensions provided by the U.S.A. Patriot Act. For over 20 years, this has given law enforcement and first responders the tools they need to effectively go after those individuals that are directly targeting these kinds of events inside the United States. (Lewis) (Montgomery) (Zariff)

A second area of success has been in the ability to disrupt the activities of hostile regimes that can pass chemical and biological weapons or nuclear related materials onto terrorist groups. As you well know, this is a continuing challenge that the world community has been dealing with. In the case of Iran, its Islamic government has become more hostile towards the West and continually ignored international directives. After a series of precision military strikes in 2013, the program was set back by at least ten years. This prevented Iran for being able to develop an effective nuclear weapon and delivery system. These successes have helped to make the American people safer in the face of extremist elements that are trying to destroy our way of life and everything we stand for. (Lewis) (Montgomery) (Zariff)

However, in spite of these accomplishments, there are number of major threats that will have an impact on Homeland Security going forward. The biggest challenge we are continuing to deal with is the issue of nuclear proliferation. This is because there has not been any kind of consorted commitment to deal with these challenges. Instead, a handful of nations are directly blocking any kind of efforts to punish hostile regimes. (Lewis) (Montgomery) (Zariff)

The best example of this can be seen with North Korea and Iran. In these situations, China has been playing two different roles. On the international level, it is trying to show that it is a constructive member of world community with its support of select UN resolutions. While the second role, is when China will directly sell to rogue states the military equipment and technology to develop advanced weapon systems. In some cases, this could take place by providing these countries with spare parts and the expertise to develop ballistic missiles. At other times, they have been helping… [read more]


Information Security Advanced Persistent Threat Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,653 words)
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¶ … Persistent Threat

Information Security/Advanced Persistent Threat

Advanced persistent threat, commonly referred to as APT is a group such as a foreign government which is both capable and has the intention of effectively and persistently targeting a particular entity. The term APT usually refers to cyber threat and more specifically to internet-enabled espionage. However, it does equally apply to… [read more]


Mitigation and Involved Toxic Substances Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (700 words)
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Accidents That Involve Toxic Substances

Toxic Substances

The impact of an accident related to toxic substances can be very deadly to the environment, the aquatic life as well as human lives. This can be dated back in the world wars I and II whereby the toxic substances that were used to make the then warfare artillery caused very major destructions. These substances that include chemical and biological element are up to this day used in making of some nuclear weapons. They include the mustard agent and nerve agents.

Russian nuclear explosion

One such incident that recently occurred is the Russian nuclear explosion that left several people dead and scores of casualties. According to the European Union (EU) times, the nuclear attack started when suddenly the vast military tunnel that belonged to the Central intelligence agency (CIA) was forced open due to air pressure and as a matter of fact a lot of air rushed out into the atmosphere, and led to a blast. This event was characterized by a sound that was apparently captured by Russian engineers. As the engineers were trying to vent the tunnel so that some of the steam could come out in order to control the situation, another explosion occurred on the eastern terminus twelve hours later. A great quake was felt by many Americans; speculations are that the timing between the two blasts was planned.

A meltdown occurs in the nuclear rector when the reactor melts; this happens when there is a rise in temperature in the core that causes the fuel rods to liquefy and in the long run sink below the power planet. The molten uranium which is a constituent in the reactor ends up mixing with the groundwater thereby producing explosions of radioactive steam and fragments that are released to the atmosphere. This apparent residual heat is brought about by the decay of fission products.

In this case, the air that rushed out seems to have reduced the level of the coolant which led to the collapse of the fuel rods since there was a sharp rise in temperature. The moderator in…… [read more]


Vietnam and 20th Century Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (588 words)
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There were several incidents involving North Vietnamese boats, and many believed that the U.S.S. Maddox attack was not the only one. Reports at the time suggested that two days after American battleships came under attack again. Now we know that those reports were not accurate but the first attack on USS Maddox was crucial. The confusion over the subsequent suspected attacks was the direct result of the U.S.S. Maddox incident. Soon after the President ordered retaliatory attacks codenamed PIERCE ARROW against North Vietnamese patrol bases. The Gulf of Tonkin resolution also passed through Congress, authorizing President Johnson to use full force in the war against Communism in Vietnam.

"The Gulf of Tonkin incidents amounted to relatively minor skirmishes with significant consequences," George Moss (2010) explains with merciless accuracy. "They provoked the first major U.S. attacks on North Vietnamese military targets; they convinced the DRV leaders that the United States intended to wage a major war in Vietnam against them as well as the NLF forces in South Vietnam; and they provided Johnson with the opportunity to ask congress to enact a resolution, which he later used as a legal justification to wage an expanded American war in Vietnam. They represented a catalyst for the escalation of the war against North Vietnam, a major step toward Americanizing the Vietnam War" (pp. 131-2). There would have been no Gulf of Tonkin resolution without the U.S.S. Maddox attack and no expanded war without the resolution. The U.S.S. Maddox incident made the war inevitable because the President could no longer remain weak in the face of Communist provocations.

References:

Moss, G. (2010). Vietnam, an American ordeal. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.… [read more]


U.S. War in Iraq Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (799 words)
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U.S. War in Iraq

Ever since the tragic events of 9/11 more than 10 years ago, the American involvement in the Iraq war has been hotly debated. Some argue for the maintenance of peace and security in the country, while others maintain that the United States is far beyond its ethical boundaries in both entering and perpetuating is presence in the country. When critically investigating the reasons for the United States entering the war in the first place, the evidence tends toward the second view. The United States began its involvement as part of the "war on terror," citing several reasons for its continued presence in the country. These reasons, however, appear to be thinly veiled attempts to cover the basic lack of ethics involved in continuing the war in a country where thousands of civilians were subject to human rights violations, weapons of mass destruction were never discovered, and had no initial involvement in the war.

Thousands of civilians have experienced extreme violations of their human rights since the start of the occupation. In addition to and estimated more than 10,000 innocent Iraqi civilians who died as a result of cluster bombings, severe human rights violations are also occurring in interrogation cells

. Indeed, reports have indicated sadistic sexual abuse against Iraqi prisoners in the Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad by American Marines in civilian clothing. This is in direct violation of the Geneva Convention. The International Committee of the Red Cross also indicated that its repeated requests to take action against these human rights abuses went unheeded for more than nine months. These violations are at the forefront of arguments against the war in Iraq.

Another argument, in both ethical and concrete terms, is the validity (or lack thereof) of the claim that Iraq housed weapons of mass destruction (WMD)

. Investigation has proved conclusively and beyond a doubt that there are no WMDs in the country or in the possession of Al Qaeda. Officials have therefore used this unsubstantiated claim as a reason for maintaining its presence in the country. This might be said to constitute lying to the public for no better reason than to remain in a war that has already been costing the country millions of billions of dollars.

A particularly important point, besides the other two, in the argument against the ongoing war in Iraq is the fact that the country and…… [read more]


Almost a Miracle the American Victory in the War of Independence Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (831 words)
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¶ … Miracle: The American Victory in the War of Independence

John Ferling's book "Almost a Miracle: The American victory in the War of Independence" provides an accurate account of the conflict and relates to particular events that played an essential role in assisting the colonists win. I believe that the writer intended the book to provide a thorough set of causes that made it possible for the colonies to achieve victory. One of the principal concepts present throughout the book is the fact that Ferling wants people to understand the American victory as being very improbable at the time when the conflict started. In addition to relating to historic facts regarding the Independence War, Ferling also goes at explaining them and tries to determine whether or not the outcome of the war was surprising.

The book is overall an easy read because the writer did not hesitate to explain why he chose to put across particular attitudes. In addition to this, Ferling constantly makes sure that his readers fully understand the nature of the events that he refers to by providing each of these occurrences with accompanying explanations. As I progressed in reading the book I realized that the writer has extensively studied history related to the American War, especially considering that he has written a great deal of texts in regard to American political and military history (Yerxa 109).

While some might be inclined to consider Ferling a typical American patriot, his underlying motives might prove otherwise. The writer appears to be unwilling to acknowledge the indispensible participation of American figures like Washington and Hamilton in the conflict with the purpose of making it look like these individuals did not actually play a decisive role in the war. In contrast, he highlights the participation of particular military leaders and insists that they are generally ignored by individuals who relate to the conflict. By claiming that "Gates remarked straightaway that the commander's duty was to fight a defensive war, not to risk an untried and untrained in assaults on an enemy that was well dug in" (Ferling), the writer directly criticizes Washington's military abilities and boosts Gates' image. Despite of his contributions to war efforts, historians normally perceive Horatio Gates as being an unimportant individual (when considering the general state of affairs in the American War of Independence) and a person that is not very experienced in performing warfare (Chartrand).

In addition to the fact that he tends to underestimate certain individuals who fought…… [read more]


Air Force Brake Case Summary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (982 words)
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There is no accountability body that acts as a quality control so as to ensure that the administrative tendencies that create and allow failed designs, and other such issues, are prevented from doing so.

Ethics Involved

The case in question is clearly a breach of ethics. On analysis of the case it was seen that though the evidence was largely circumstantial there were certain discrepancies that suggested that the organization had serious administrative, communication and design flaws that were overlooked and this was done knowingly.

The basic ethical problem arose when the organization gave into their financial problems and accepted that they were over budget. The hindrances or rather the fundamental discrepancies in the developed product were close to 43 and in different sessions it was decided that there were only three worth mentioning to the evaluation officers-clearly a case of intent to misrepresent the facts. The organization had a choice of risking their budget for the safety of the product and they chose the former potentially risking the users of the product.

Conclusion

Ethical considerations in business organizations are being forgotten as time constraints and financial considerations come into play. Business organizations that are more managerial and service related deal with ethical dilemmas like marketing a product through the falsification of the marketing specifications while general technological organizations deal with manufacturing products. Inept designs, the technical flaws that are allowed to flourish without the qualification of the relevant standards all manage to endanger the lives of people associated.

In the above scenario the Brakes of the plane failed because the administration decided the financial position of the company was more important than anything else. That the pilot of the plane was not hurt is not the issue. That the company knowingly endangered the life of the pilot by failing to apprise him of the associated risks is the actual issue. The organization should have reported all the discrepancies and allowed the Military to make the decision of any risk associated. That they did not was ethically wrong and they should be held liable for the situation accordingly.

US firms have realized that innovation by itself does not ensure commercial success. Unless a new technology is quickly translated into an efficiently manufactured, high-quality product, a faster-acting competitor is likely to capitalize on the advance and reap most of the market returns. That is what the Goodrich firm feared. They got the chance to make it big and ignored the initial clauses of contract that made them ethically liable to work within a certain work constraint. Had Vandivier not literally blown the whistle they may have over come the potential risk and the product would have been manufactured en mass.

Design flaws, engineering lapses, administrative miscommunication all add up to dangerous and potentially risky scenario's where the service industry is concerned and thus, they should be strictly held accountable for…… [read more]


Humanitarian Action in a Dangerous Term Paper

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[Author Unknown, A Gibbs Editorial, 2/24/03]

On September 20, 2002 the U.S. Administration unveiled its new National Security Strategy. This document addresses the new realities of our age, particularly the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and terrorist networks armed with the agendas of fanatics. The Strategy claims that these new threats are so novel and so dangerous that USA… [read more]


Arms Sales to the Third World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,297 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Arms Sales to the Third World

Basic details

Interesting facts

This is a paper on Arms Sales to the Third World. Discussing the top seven arms sellers to the Third World and who the major buyers are. France and Russia follow the U.S.; but China's sales was around U.S.$2.7 billions in 1999 dropped to $400 millions last year with Pakistan remaining a major buyer.

Third World Arms

Who Sales Them?

The global arms business is on the upswing again and the United States, as has been the case many times in the past, accounts for nearly 50 per cent of the sales to developing countries. The New York Times, in a Congressional Research Service Report that was highlighted states that the international arms sales grew by eight per cent in 2000 to nearly $40 billions and the U.S. contracted for about $18.6 billions of it. The U.S. sales increased by about $6 billions between 1999 and 2000 thanks to a large extent by the contact to sell 80 F-16 jets to the United Arab Emirates, a deal that is put at around $6.4 billions. France and Russia follow the U.S.; but China's sales was around U.S.$2.7 billions in 1999 dropped to $400 millions last year with Pakistan remaining a major buyer.

Between 1997 and 2000, Russia had agreed to sell Iran some U.S.$300 millions in weapons measured in constant 2000 dollars. Russia agreed to sell Iran some U.S.$300 million in weapons, but during the same period Russia delivered Iran some U.S.$800 millions in arms and in late 2000 Moscow served notice, despite objections from Washington, that additional major sales to Teheran were being pursued. (William W. Keller & Janne E. Nolan, the Arms Trade: Business as Usual?. Vol. 109, Foreign Policy, 12-01-1997).

Since the end of the Gulf War in 1991, Iraq was a major buyer of Russian weapons, but this is no longer the case. India and China are now the principal clients of Russia and the point is that as Moscow enters into joint production deals with the two countries, eventually there would be the drop in purchases from Russia as domestic production in the two countries start.

The patterns of arms sales by Russia and China are not the only challenges for the Republican administration. Domestically, it sets off a larger debate and criticism in many quarters, on the one hand the U.S. goes about telling the developing world about the need to come to grips with peace and developmental imperatives; it unleashes its manufacturing sectors to keep nations in conflict. (Rimanelli, Marco, East-West arms control and the fall of the U.S.S.R., 1967-1994: radical change or expedient accommodation? Vol. 29, East European Quarterly, 06-22-1995).

Arms transfers can and do upset military balances, but they can rarely create or sustain them. History and logic combine to demonstrate time and again that one nation's balance is another's threat. War after war in the Middle East and Persian Gulf has followed one arms import frenzy after another. At some point,… [read more]


Jill Lepore's Book the Name of War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Lepore

Historian and author of the book In the Name of War, Jill Lepore makes it clear that it was after the war -- and because of it -that the boundaries between cultures, hitherto blurred, and turned into rigid ones. She argues that the words strengthened and hardened feelings that, in turn, strengthened and hardened the enmity between Indians and Anglos. How did feelings, and boundaries develop between the cultures as a result of the war?

According to the historian Jill Lepore, before the war between the Anglo and Indian population known as "King Phillip's War," cultural and linguistic barriers between these two dominant populations of the Eastern half of the Americas were fluid rather than fixed. However, the aftermath of this war in 1675, when tensions between Native Americans and colonists residing in New England erupted into brutal conflict a sharp cultural division was incurred. This cultural division has never again been broached as it had been before the war transpired. Although the title of Lepore's book refers to the name of war, it could very well refer to the mutual language of war between the Anglo and Indian nations, and the differing languages of cultural discourse.

The preface of this book, significantly, is entitled "What's in a Name?" The detail Lepore devotes to language, involving analyzing many primary source excerpts of the period, tracts, dime store novels and religious broadsides is impressive. While before the war there was a tolerance and respect for Indian culture in these largely White publications, increasingly after the war the Indian's savageness and lack of compassion is stressed. Lepore stresses that the so-called King Philip's War, was really the beginning of a racial polarization of colonists against Indians, of massacres and outrages on both sides were too horrific to deserve the name of a fully declared war, but more on the lines of mutual racial terrorism.

How did such a divide occur? The conflict between the two groups began when Metacom, significantly called 'Phillip' by the Anglo people of the land, who was the leader of the Wampanoag Indians, led attacks against English towns in the colony of Plymouth. Yet the reasons for this attack to this day remain shadowy, revolving around disputed rumors, an unsolved murder, and pent-up but vague allegations of brutal practices between Indians and Anglos, although both groups had adopted many of one another's customs. Yet both peoples still retained very different conceptions of property and proper forms of clan and familial justice. This tension between adoption and alienation could not be sustained.

Although conflicts had erupted on a small scale before, this war was pursued without previous restraint. It was a total war. Women and children were killed as well as combatants. Captives were tortured rather than merely used as military bargaining chips as they had been before. The dead were ritualistically mutilated, signifying a lack of cultural respect that had implications far beyond victory or defeat. Long after the issues of the war had died, the memory… [read more]


Going After Cacciato Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (447 words)
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¶ … Cacciato: The meaning of courage and the courageous acts of soldiers

In the novel by Tim O'Brien, the soldier Paul Berlin learns that courage and being courageous has little to do with realizing military objectives and everything to do with finding our one's own, personal values. By Going After Cacciato, as the title of the work indicates, Berlin realizes that true courage is often resisting the false ideals presented by society, rather than blindly obeying commands to win and to kill at all costs.

Going After Cacciato is a novel that takes place in the form of several concurrent and parallel flashbacks. As Paul Berlin waits at an observation post while on duty as a sentry, he is remembering recent combat experiences. He also imagines the absconded Private Cacciato on a flight to Paris. Past, present, and presumed recollections of the fate of after the absconded soldier Cacciato are all fused into one, in Paul's mind, over the course of one night. At the beginning of Chapter 42, Paul Berlin muses that the Vietnam War is merely a war "like any war. No new messages. Stories that began and ended without transition. No developing drama or tension or direction. No order." This lack of order is reflected in Going After Cacciato's own structure as a text and reflects the chaotic notions…… [read more]


Impressions of War the Most Vivid Imagine Essay

Essay  |  17 pages (6,472 words)
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Impressions of War

The most vivid imagine of war was the beginning of it all. September 11, 2001 changed the United States. It was vividly relived over and over again in the media and in the newspaper. There was this sense that the nation's spirit had been broken and there was no room to live innocently. There were plenty of… [read more]


War vs. Peace War and Peace: Rallying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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War vs. Peace

War and Peace: Rallying Americans to Support the Former

As Paul Joseph states in Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? "Cultural militarism and the degree to which patriotism, support for military values and for a president during a time of war, and more narrow concepts of what it means to be an American work against the tendency of Americans to become more peaceful" (185). Essentially, Joseph asserts that the rise of 20th century militarism -- the result of the military-industrial-congressional-complex (warned against by Eisenhower in his farewell address from Office) -- has resulted in a less peaceful United States. In other words, Americans are taught by numerous avenues and examples that war is the natural state of mankind. Neoconservatives across the board embrace this doctrine of perpetual warfare (because they believe safety depends upon militarism and totalitarianism). The problem is that militarism and totalitarianism can lead to unwarranted hostility and aggressive policies that destabilize America's economy, politics, and society.

Corporations play a big part in the way ideas of war and peace are promoted today. Corporations like Lockheed Martin profit enormously off of war, producing the weapons of mass destruction that the U.S. claims other nations have. Instead, such weapons are paid for by U.S. taxpayers and sold to nations like Israel, who in turn try to get the West to support its war agenda on Middle Eastern states. Ideology meets corporatism meets politics. American society is beaten over the head with nationalistic songs like "God Bless America" and trite phrases like "Support Our Troops," and is meanwhile denied the truth of who is really calling for war and why peace is not allowed. As Katherine McCoy states, "The ratio of military contractors to soldiers has climbed with each U.S. military intervention since the 1991 Gulf War. More private contractors work in the Iraq War than soldiers" (15). What McCoy observes is that private enterprises are benefiting -- even when politicians climb that…… [read more]


National Security Council Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,341 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … National Security Council

The creation and implementation of the National Security Council took place after the Second World War when it became evident that there was a need for the consolidation of executive posts to manage all aspects of national security policy. Furthermore, the National Security Council has always been at the forefront of the coordination of the foreign policy. However, the National Security Council or NSC, has not remained consistent since its inception and has changed in relation to the style, vision and requirements of each new administration and President.

The NSC was ratified by the National Security Act of July 26, 1947. The organization fell under the chairmanship of the President of the United States and included the Secretaries of State and Defense as its key members. It is the "highest committee in the executive branch of the federal government for the resolution of national security and foreign policy questions."

Elder 13)

One of the essential tasks of the NSC is "to coordinate foreign policy and defense policy, and to reconcile diplomatic and military commitments and requirements." (History of the National Security Council)

Furthermore, the creation of the NSC also provides for "a Secretary of Defense, a National Military Establishment, Central Intelligence Agency, and National Security Resources Board." (ibid) it has four statutory members: the President, the Vice President, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Defense. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) and the Director of Central Intelligence serve as statutory advisers to the NSC. (Overview of National Security Structure)

An important aspect of the functioning of the NSC is the mutual understanding and close relationship between its member and components.

The structure and functioning of the NSC depended in no small degree upon the interpersonal chemistry between the President and his principal advisers and department heads. But despite the relationships between individuals, a satisfactory organizational structure had to be developed, for without it the necessary flow of information and implementation of decisions could not occur.

History of the National Security Council)

Besides the statutory member other leaders in government such as the Secretary of the Treasury and the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, have standing invitations to participate in NSC discussions. (www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33736598"Elder 13) Other members of government and various bodies are also invited if the agenda of the NSC requires it. "The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency are always present in an advisory capacity." (ibid)

An important part of the NSC organization is the NSC Planning Board which is responsible for preparing policy papers for the NASC.

This Board is composed of agency representatives and is "serviced by a group of relatively high-ranking civil servants of non-political character who meet regularly and do much of the preliminary work for the Planning Board." (Ibid)

Importantly for the imperative of coordination with the NSC is the Special Assistant to the President who acts as the chairman of the Planning Board.… [read more]