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Effects of Video Games and Current Media on Our Opinions of War and Combat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … Video Games and Views on Combat

Modern computer games are incredibly realistic, allowing users to create complex on-screen identities and relationships. Military-oriented thematic games in particular allow users to establish "units" that mirror real military units, complete with hierarchical command structures, operational responsibilities, and realistic tactical capabilities. Some of those games feature realistic representations of historical military conflicts down to specific battles featuring the same units that may have faced one another during the Battle of the Bulge, the Nazi Siege of Stalingrad, or the Tet Offensive, for just a few examples. Users appreciate the realism of employing the same weapons and tactics used by the real-world military counterparts of their on-screen characters; they also enjoy the realism of the weaponry and other military equipment available to on-screen soldiers. Critics of this form of entertainment object to the manner in which these types of games trivialize the horrific reality of real military conflict and promote realistic violence without appreciation for the consequences of the carnage inflicted by military armaments in the real world. Meanwhile, the popular media present a more sobering view of real-world military conflict, particularly in connection with the continual report of U.S. casualties in the two current foreign theaters of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

The Direct Effects of Video Games on Perceptions about Military Combat

Modern digital media has advanced to the point that players of video games can experience so-called "virtual worlds" that are incredibly detailed and that accurately depict the real-world analogs of the situations and circumstances that they portray on screen. Military-themed computer games in particular allow users to become thoroughly familiar with and knowledgeable about the actual weapon systems issued to armed services personnel in the field. Moreover, those games are particular to specific time periods and historic battles allowing users to re-enact battles from virtually any battle in the annals of U.S. military history. That realism also extends to the violence capable of being inflicted by guns, explosive artillery, mortars, fighting vehicles, and both strategic bombers and tactical fighter aircraft. Many of the games are so realistic that users can actually become extremely knowledgeable about military weapons systems as well as in their intended tactical use in the field of battle.

It is precisely the realism of these computer-based video games that concerns many parents. They worry that the games desensitize users to the horrific realities of military combat in the real world in addition to doing so in a framework that minimizes the consequences of death and maiming on the battlefield because lives lost in video games can be "reset" by a button. They worry that young people exposed to these games may fail to appreciate the consequences of violence in general and of combat violence in particular. Likewise, they are concerned that involvement in these types of games could increase interest in military service without a realistic appreciation of the true nature and extent of the personal risks and moral responsibilities involved.

In particular, military-oriented computer-based video… [read more]


War Powers Act of 1973 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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"Rather than put the pressure where it should be -- on the president to start thinking about removing armed forces sixty days after he has committed them to a hostile situation -- the War Powers Resolution now puts pressure on Congress to declare the United States forces are 'in hostilities' in order to trigger the sixty-day clock for troop removal" (Koh 127).

Part III:

The War Powers Act of 1973 requires some revision but it is still an extremely important document ensuring that the founding father's wishes of a government with checks and balances remains level, with no one body holding more power than the others. With the recent War on Terror in the Middle East, it was this act which prevented the likes of Presidents Bush and Obama from escalation without Congressional approval. One of the most important responsibilities of a government is determining when it is appropriate and in the best interest of the nation to go to war (Grimmett IB81050). It is therefore important that these decisions be given thorough examination by various groups. When one person or one branch of government has more control than the others, the system breaks down.

As mentioned, there are revisions which are required of the Act to ensure its effectiveness. The Act, as it reads today, can still be worked around by those who have the desire. Presently, it takes more consensus in Congress to stop a war in progress than to begin one. "It takes two-thirds of both houses to stop a presidential war but only one-third plus one to sustain one" (Hall). In most cases, presidential requests for military approval have been granted by Congress. "The president remains largely free to execute his initiatives without congressional check, except in those rare cases where he is politically weak and where Congress's political will is unusually unified" (Koh 133). In a bipartisan government, like the one we currently have, it is difficult to get Congress to unify against the executive branch. Decisions are made primarily along party lines these days without consideration about what vote would best represent the constituents and serve the citizens of the United States. A more united Congress would be a more effective Congress.

Works Cited:

Carter, Stephen L. "The Constitutionality of the War Powers Resolution." Virginia Law Review.

1984. Print.

Grimmett, Richard. War Powers Resolution Presidential Compliance. Washington, D.C.:

Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2008. Print.

Hall, Kermit. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Oxford. 2005.

Print.

Koh, Harold. The National Security Constitution: Sharing Power After the Iran-Contra Affair.

New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. Print.

Rostow, Eugene V. "Once More Unto the Breach: The War Powers Resolution…… [read more]


Napoleonic Wars to What Extent Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (766 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Napoleonic Wars

To what extent and in what ways can the Napoleonic Wars be considered total wars?

The Napoleonic wars are considered total wars in the way that they were fought. Where, his armies would use various tactics and techniques to advance the cavalry well ahead of their supply lines. The idea was to take the fight to the enemy with: overwhelming speed and superiority. At the same time, the army would live off of the land and what they could forage. However, beneath this basic definition, it is clear that there are other factors that are considered to be a part of total war these include: the use of ideology / religion, how this directly involves the civilian population and how it influenced gender relations.

The different ideologies and religious views will have an impact upon: how soldiers as well as civilians viewed the actions of the government. As they are utilized to: unite everyone behind one single cause for a greater purpose. Once this takes place, it means that support for the conflict will increase; with these two groups working together, to help achieve the larger overall objectives. This is important, because it is showing how various ideologies (such as: nationalism and religion) are utilized to help unite everyone behind one single cause. (Blaufarb 30 -- 54)

The war would have a dramatic impact upon civilian life. Where, it took the able men in various towns and villages, in order to fill the ranks of the army. This created short-term labor shortages, by reducing the amount of skilled craftsman. Over the long-term, this would have an impact upon the social fabric of the community, by returning these men to their homes either: physically / mentally injured or dead. In either case, the community is robbed of its natural pool of talent during and after the war. This has a psychological impact upon these communities, as they only see the negative effects of the war on their lives. (Blaufarb 76-101)

Part of the reason why the civilian population was drawn in was into war was: the willingness to protect their homes. Where, local communities felt an obligation to defend their way of life and traditions. When this occurs, the individual will have an obligation to defend their family and their culture. This…… [read more]


U.S. War Response Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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S. Armed Forces to conduct themselves as their enemies do (an eye for an eye mentality if you will).

The modern law of war is derived from two principal sources (Program for Humanitarian Policy, 2010); treatises and customary law. While not all laws of war derive from treatises, it is important to consider the prominence of customary law. Such customary international law is established by the general practice of nations together with their acceptance that such practice is required by law.

To fulfill the ostensible rules of war, the laws of war place substantive limits on the lawful exercise of an aggressor's demonstration of force. While the laws require that belligerents refrain from employing violence that is not reasonably necessary for military purposes and that belligerents conduct hostilities with regard for the principles of humanity and chivalry, in reality, opposing forces do little to ameliorate the devastating effects of war and, consequently, the U.S. should work toward reducing the combatant effects by responding with like force against aggressors.

In conclusion, the world, and the wars fought in the world, are ever-changing and require a periodic reappraisal of the necessary and desirable combative elements to achieve peaceful means in wartime. To suggest that the U.S. conform to outdated and inapplicable national treatises in the face of insurgent forces is to undermine the very legitimacy of U.S. involvement in foreign conflict.

References:

The Program for Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University (2010), "Brief Primer on IHL," Retrieved from: http://ihl.ihlresearch.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.viewpage&pageid=2083

Fritschi, V. (2010). The Law of Armed Conflict and the Principle of Sovereign Equality of States. Retrieved from: http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ord184=Start+Date&ots591=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&lng=en&ots627=fce62fe0-528d-4884-9cdf-283c282cf0b2&id=30801… [read more]


Contracting Policies Established White Paper

White Paper  |  3 pages (861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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This is an important issue that review of previous contingency contracting has revealed.

Managing the Contingency Contracting Process

Development of the required contingency contracting processes is not the end of the plan (Long, 2010). Managing the different contractors is the most difficult issue in contract completion (GAO, 2010). The GAO (2010) realizes that "relying on contractors to perform [critical] functions can provide benefits, but also introduces potential risks, such as conflicts of interest, that should be considered and managed." Due o the importance of this stage of the plan, it has been necessary to set up contingencies for the management of potential contractors.

The GAO found that many governmental agencies were using multiple contractors to perform jobs that the agencies were understaffed to perform. The issue is that the agencies often did not know the extent of the contracting firms involvement. The report said that "to mitigate risks associated with using contractors, agencies have to understand when, where, and how contractors should be used" (GAO, 2010). Unfortunately this was not the case.

Management of the contractors used by a particular agency has to fall under the authority of a particular individual or group. Without centralized governance for the projects that a particular agency has contracted, the contractors may overstep the guidelines of the contingency contracting plan. One way that this aspect of risk could be managed is with a consistent governmental policy (GAO, 2010). Unfortunately one is not now in place.

Management also depends on the type of contracting that is required. Most contingency contracts are drawn up with regard to activities such as reconstruction and disaster relief. However, there are times when contractors are required in combat zones to support troops. The management of these activities requires different skills and necessitates a joint management platform amongst the agencies involved. Therefore, the development of a consistent interagency plan and training can be seen.

References

Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy (DPAP). (2011). Contingency contracting fact sheet. Retrieved January 25, 2011 from http://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/contingency/reports/additional-resources/ar- ContingencyContractingfactsheet1-20060911.pdf

Department of Defense (DoD). (2010). Contingency contracting (CON 234). Retrieved January 24, 2011 from http://www.dau.mil/registrar/pre- courses/CON%20234%20Pre-Course%20Materials.pdf

GAO. (2010). Contingency contracting: Improvements needed in management of contractors and grant administration in Iraq and Afghanistan. Highlights of GAO. Retrieved January 25, 2011 from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10357.pdf

Long, W. (2010). Joint contingency contracting: A step forward. Defense AT&L. 10-14.

Therkildsen, G. (2010). Would McCaskill's contingency contracting IG be worth it?. Retrieved January 24, 2011 from http://www.ombwatch.org/node/11313… [read more]


Deployments on National Guard Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Mrs. Anderson, with the added responsibility of her husband's duties around the home during his deployment, applied for a grant and received funding to acquire tutoring services for her son. This was an effective method for assisting her son in keeping up on his schoolwork and cutting down on the family's stress.

III. Assistance Offered by the Military to Spouses and Children

Stacy Bannerman, author of "When the War Came Home: The Inside Story of Reservists and the Families They Leave Behind" was interviewed recently by Matt Elliott and stated that the National Guard is "the most poorly funded branch of the Armed Services, even though they have served the longest Iraq deployments since 2001, and at times have provided more than 50% of the troops in Iraq."[footnoteRef:10] Bannerman is reported to have gone on to state as follows: [10: Elliott, Matt (2010) Q&A with Stacy Bannerman. PBS. 19 Aug 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/pov/regardingwar/conversations/blog-1/qa-with-stacy-bannerman.php]

"The Guard has been operationalized; family programs have not. This is not a failure of the Guard, per se. Rather, it is the failure of a Congress that appears unwilling to acknowledge the differential impacts of these wars on Guard families, soldiers and veterans, who have higher rates of combat-related stress, and more behavioral issues in non-deployed family members, among other things."[footnoteRef:11] [11: Ibid]

The military is reported to provide counseling for children who are under stress as well as emotional and financial counseling for spouses and even makes provision for assistance with reintegration problems when the deployed spouse returns home. Rick (2010) reports that the military works with families during deployment to prepare them for reintegration of the family once the deployed family member returns. This is because while the deployed parent is gone "…children grow up, spouses become more independent, life goes on. They return to jobs and lives that are no longer the same. They may have new children who maybe don't remember them. There's a realization that they have missed out on some key events. That can cause stress, depression and anxiety for the service member and the family. The reintegration programs are designed to make that transition as smooth as possible.[footnoteRef:12] [12: Ibid]

Summary and Conclusion

The impact of deployment of a member of the National Guard or Reserve is the deployment of the parent and spouse of individuals within the service member's family and the result is an impact to the lives of these individuals which must be planned for and properly addressed in order to mitigate the negative impact that often results from deployment of a spouse or parent.

References

Defense Science Task Force on Deployment of Members of the National Guard and Reserve in the Global War on Terrorism (2007) Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics Washington, DC Retrieved from: http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/ADA478163.pdf

Elliott, Matt (2010) Q&A with Stacy Bannerman. PBS. 19 Aug 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/pov/regardingwar/conversations/blog-1/qa-with-stacy-bannerman.php

Gever, John (nd) Extended Military Deployments to Combat Areas Increase Stress, Anxiety and Depression among Families. MedPage… [read more]


Allegory of Being 18 Years Old Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Allegory

Rites of Passage

The door leading into the recruitment center didn't really attract attention in any way. Nothing about the front of the office really stuck out as anything special or out of the ordinary; the wall of tinted plate glass and the black metal of the doorframe and handle matched the outer decor of all of the shops in this nondescript strip mall that took up the thirty-three block of Needham Avenue. Even the narrow strip of cardboard at the top of the window with the words "U.S. Army Recruitment Office" was rather bland, and the eye easily traveled from the bright yellow sign of the tobacco shop on the office's left side to the flowery script of the Indian restaurant to its right without even registering the militant presence in between. From all outward appearances, then, this office did not exactly demonstrate the pinnacle of marketing skill or effort, and passing into the air-conditioned and fluorescently-lit room beyond this storefront was less momentous than might have been expected.

There were three desks in the room. Two of them occupied the back corners of the room, flanking a door that was just as unstriking as any of the external features of the recruitment office and that at the same time had a greater aura of mystery as it was opaque, made of painted wood rather than tinted glass. Behind the desk to the right of this door sat an aging man whose long-greyed temples and wrinkled brow were off-set by the crispness of his olive green uniform and the sharpness of the shoulders that occupied it. Despite the severity of his posture -- his chest formed an exact right angle to the desktop in front of him at all times -- there was something paternal about this man. He cared for the children he sent off into battle, his eyes seemed to say, but he wouldn't take any nonsense from them either.

The desk on the other side of the door was at this time unoccupied, yet the medals arranged in a velvet display case in the wall behind this desk and the pictures of posts around the world arranged on the desktop and facing outwards gave faith that this was the seat of an important and influential personage, and one who could testify to the merits of serving one's country with a great deal of objectivity. His absence actually made his effect and influence that much stronger, as the visions of glory and honor that reflected in the eyes of the newly-entered observer were untainted by their association with any imperfect human form. The medals and photographs spoke for themselves of the…… [read more]


Boston Massacre the Beginning of a Revolution Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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¶ … Boston Massacre is often described as the first shot on what would eventually become American soil, as the 'shot head around the world'. This shot, the result of heightened tensions between the colonists and the British Empire, would result in establishing the stage for the beginning of the American Revolution. "One of the most celebrated events in the… [read more]


Regulation of National Security Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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However, without proper regulation there is always the danger that the people they have been contracted to protect will be put in harm's way. A plan that includes finding ways to allow companies the revenue required for a contract rather than have t low ball a bid, properly vetting the company's personnel so they can do their job effectively, making sure that security companies are kept in check with regard to military power, and doing all of this from a global standpoint will not be easy. Many issues exist with these militaristic units that are not easily resolved. But, since people's safety is at stake, it would seem imperative to have an international set of regulations that all such firms must abide by. No, they cannot be protected like members of the military, but they should have a separate set of protections and penalties that applies to them. The business that they are in is so different that normal law is difficult to apply.

Works Cited

Addicott, Jeffery F. "The Political Question Doctrine and Civil Liability for Contracting Companies on the "Battlefield." The Review of Litigation, 28.2 (2008): 343-352.

Commission on Wartime Contracting. "Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Where are we Going?" Commission on Wartime Contracting, 2010. Web.

Perlo-Freeman, Sam, and Elisabth Skons. "The Private Military Services Industry." SPIRI Insights on Peace and Security, 1, 1-19. Print.

Stoddard, Abby, Adele Harmer, and Victoria DiDomenico. "Private security Contracting in Humanitarian Operations." Humanitarian Policy Group, 2009. Print.

US v. Slough. 08-0360 (2008). Web. 15 November, 2010.… [read more]


Global Peace, and it Seeks Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Technological invention can help in preventing such conflicts by developing reusable fuel resources and can lead to global peace.

With the globalization that's currently being witnessed the World would soon end up becoming one and the chances for a lasting international peace in the current global system should also be very high if this trend continues, because globalization as already mentioned above is a cause of peace.

Aspects conducive for constructing global peace

Aspects of the current global system that are particularly conducive to constructing a lasting peace include religion like Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and the Baha'i faith that all advocate for a global peace, they use sacred writings and teaching or sermons to urge their followers to peace co-exist amongst themselves and their different neighbors.

According to Vasquez, J (1996), the global system of education has the potential to create a lasting global peace as different individuals learn together thereby forging good relations amongst themselves, more so the basic principles or fundamental of learned persons is non-violence and issues of conflict should be resolved using dialogue not violence. The global education system is connected with globalization that's also an aspect conducive for constructing global peace as it allows different culture to interact thereby creating a common understanding and peaceful co-existence between different societies. Vasquez (1997) also noted that the political democracy in many countries is a factor that leads to global peace as well as the joint peace treaties signed by various countries. International organizations like the United Nations also are help through there initiatives to construct global peace.

Primary area of concern on international system of global peace

Currently the global peace is at a threat due to various factors that include terrorism which has in the recent past led to loss of many lives and destruction of property in different parts of the globe and a good is example is the September 9/11 United States terrorism attack that had a very devastating negative impact in the U.S. And its' economy as well as other countries that trade with it. Nuclear weapons are also another primary concern on the international system of global peace and as stated by Viotti, Paul & Mark K., (1999),they are inhumane weapons that are capable of destroying human life, animals, plants and the environment in general and as such they are threat to the construction of lasting global peace. The other threat to global peace is the unresolved conflicts such as Taiwan, Israel-Palestine and Kashmir, which if left unaddressed could spread to other countries leading to international violence.

Conclusion

The attainment of global peace is can appear to be unrealistic goal but as the easy has pointed out there are chances or possibilities for lasting international peace in the current global system to be attained. After a thorough study on the causes of war and peace it is clear that peace is easy to attain than war in the current world.

The threat to global peace needs to be tackled… [read more]


Ordinary Men Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland by Christopher Browning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,161 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Ordinary Men

Reserve Police Battalion 101

In Ordinary Men, Christopher R. Browning tells the story of a non-descript German military unit during World War II called the Reserve Police Battalion 101. Through direct interviews with 125 of the Battalion's men conducted in the 1960's, Browning reveals the full scope of the unit's participation in the Final Solution in Poland. More important for Browning than the external world of these soldiers was their inner world. What made them agree to become mass murderers for the State?

Browning's description of the Battalion's inner workings reveals the seeming humanity and normalcy of the unit, which provokes further disbelief and curiosity. How could such men commit such atrocities? Browning's answer to this question is not easy in coming and may not be very satisfying for many people. Browning claims that there was nothing particularly exceptional, at least not in the context of Nazi Germany, about the battalion's men or their situations which would explain their wartime actions or absolve them of culpability. (Browning, 166) Instead, Browning concludes that, in terms of culpability, the soldiers occupied an elastic gray zone where their human decency was constantly tested and sometimes extinguished by the savagery of their mission. (Browning, 188-192)

Roadmap

Browning actually attempts to explain the behavior of the Battalion through a two-part inquiry. The first inquiry examines the Nazi Leadership's decision to pick such an unqualified group of executioners to the Battalion. The second inquiry examines the unbelievability became such enthusiastic killers. His answer to the first inquiry, which some may find anti-climactic, provides valuable insight into the thought process of Nazi leadership. Also, it enhances the sense of shock, making the second inquiry all the more pressing.

The Selection of the Group

Browning notes that the most amazing thing about the battalion is that it was composed of mostly middle-aged, fairly mild men, not reckless, impressionable youth. (Browning 163-164) Browning explains this curiosity by analyzing the recruitment rolls in light of the progress of the War. (Browning 165) He concludes that these stable, middle-aged family men were selected because of some insidious Nazi psychological strategy, but because they were some of the last able-bodied men available in Germany at the time. (Browning, 165)

Browning emphasizes the distinctiveness of the Battalion by constantly evaluating them against the traditional archetype of the Nazi killing machine. By doing so, Browning contrasts the genuinely disturbing Nazi soldier with the tentative Reserve soldiers. By including in his book the rather mundane experiences of the Reserve Police Battalion soldiers themselves, Browning further establishes them as "ordinary men," upsetting traditional notions of what a mass murderer should look like.

Situational and Individual Factors

The revelation that the Battalion soldiers were rather mild people provokes a feeling of puzzlement, almost to the point where one man's guess is as good as the next. Perhaps such an improbable phenomenon deserves an equally improbable explanation. As Browning demonstrates, it is certainly an historical question which lends itself to the imagination.

Considering the dysfunctional condition… [read more]


Nineteenth Century Legacy and the Great War Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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19th C. Legacy and World War I

Legacy of 19th Century - Even prior to the conflict, a war of ideas -- a conflict between two different and irreconcilable conceptions of government, society and progress, caused both governments to utilize the latest technology possible in their race for military superiority. Trends that were apparent on the eve of World War I were numerous: hyper nationalism, imperialism resulting in aggressive colonialism to fuel resource needs, modernization of political and military institutions which contributed to militarism, political instability and a focus towards socialism and egalitarianism (royalty vs. democracy), and technological buildup and vying for global hegemony. The argument that World War I was planned is based on two major trends: 1) German and British Foreign Policy in the late 1800s, and, 2) Consistent and increasing militarism and military spending in most of the European powers from 1870 on ( See: www.pbs.org/greatwar and Appendix A).

Military spending was not just confined to Germany. In fact, taken as a whole, the per capita spending of what would become the Triple Alliance was greater in the period of 1870-1914, even adjusting for Britain's massive expenses during the Boer War. One could also argue that a per capita expenditure is not the only way to explain armament or militaristic costs. For example, defense budgets as a percentage of GDP, actual percent of GDP, etc. What is clear, though, is that in the period ending the 19th century, the major powers were literally pouring dollars into war preparations; whether that be new weapons, sea power, or war planning, all of Europe was at the brink (Grey, 1909). And, if one thinks of the costs of armaments being a strategy that impacts the economy and culture of countries,…… [read more]


On Killing Book Review

Book Review  |  4 pages (1,204 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Killing

Dave Grossman's book "On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society" deals with the psychology of killing during warfare. One of the chief theories he wants to express through the document relates to how humans have a native instinct that makes them reluctant to kill. This instinct is disable during combat, given that the fighting environment prevents one from acting rationally and the military generally presses soldiers into being less receptive to their inborn resistance to take the life of a human being. Considering the impact such a writing leaves on those who read it, it is likely that war combat veterans would have a better perception of warfare and of all the factors involved consequent to going through the manuscript.

Those in charge of the military are also probable to learn something from reading this book, as it speaks about the aftermath manipulation leaves behind it, and about how human beings are permanently affected after they kill. Even though a great deal of individuals don't fire a single shot during warfare, the fact that they are instructed to commit murder at the slightest chance they get triggers a feeling of responsibility for the crimes others perform, making it more likely for them to feel guilty for the role they played in the war.

Grossman appears to be less interested in the general case involving soldiers who were influenced in losing some of their most basic instincts, as he particularly speaks about conditions during the Vietnam War. As they prepared to go to war, Americans were taught that it had not been abnormal to kill, and that particular circumstances justify this act. One can virtually say that soldiers were desensitized and left with the feeling life had little value in time of war. During training missions, bull's-eyes were actually replaced with human-like shapes, so as for soldiers to become accustomed to shooting at real-life individuals as if this had been part of a training exercise. While numerous soldiers were expected to be uncomfortable with shooting at targets that resembled real humans, matters gradually changed, given that after several training exercises it seemed perfectly normal to shoot at something that could have just as well be a human being. Soldiers were taught that it had not been a human being they were shooting at, but that it had been the enemy, someone who bears no name and has no face, as he or she is simply preventing them from successfully finishing their task.

According to Grossman, the Vietnam War is liable to take the first place for wars involving the best trained killers the world has ever seen. It was almost as if American soldiers were efficient killing machines, with their emotional side having been turned off by their leaders. Even with the fact that there were numerous wars fought by extremists who would stop at nothing from achieving their purpose, the Vietnam War is different. This difference stands in the fact that… [read more]


Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe Alexander Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe

Alexander Grab's book "Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe" focuses on the episodes having happened in Napoleon's Great Empire and on the progress experienced by the ten states composing it. The author discusses the French leader's reform strategies and how these improvements were successfully applied on the European continent. Grab focuses on each of the ten countries during Napoleon's reign and on the ruler's personality.

Napoleon Bonaparte stands as one of the most controversial individuals in all of history, taking into consideration his military tactics and the fact that he was considered by many to be insane. European politics all across the nineteenth century were largely shaped by his actions, during his rule as Emperor of the French (May 18, 1804-April 11, 1814; March 20, 1815 -- June 22, 1815). Given the French leaders innovative military campaigns, a large number of individuals have concentrated primarily on the military aspects of his life. There are apparently over 220.000 publications relating to Napoleon Bonaparte.

Napoleon was interested in conquering all European powers, with the purpose of strengthening the authority of his Empire. Another reason for which he chose to conquer parts of Europe was his determination to prevent foreign powers from intervening and restoring the Bourbon dynasty. Napoleon was well aware that he would have to install people close to him in the leadership of particular states within his empire. Thus, he hoped that his empire would be bonded through the relationship between him and the people he put in charge of states in the community.

Grab focused on using secondary sources in his book, turning it into a collection of information gathered from historic materials produced consequent to Napoleon I. The ten states comprising the Empire are paid special attention to. Belgium, France, Germany, the Illyrian provinces, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland are presented separately and as they relate to France at the time of the Revolution and during Napoleon's rule. The French Emperor's influence in most of these territories was felt through the fact that they adopted a series of reform policies set by Napoleon.

Although Napoleon was also interested in installing his reforms outside of France, his main interest in regard to the rest of the Empire was to exploit these territories, rather than to modernize them. Some of the areas within the Empire could barely feel Napoleon's set of restructuring. Portugal and the…… [read more]


Chemical Warfare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,261 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Chemical Warfare

The twentieth century has witnessed some of the violent battles in the history of mankind. The two world wars followed by Vietnam and the gulf wars have resulted in largescale destruction and loss of life than ever before. Technological advancements during the early 20th century saw the advent of a new form of warfare -- the chemical warfare. In fact, the First World War (1914 -1918) was even called the chemist's war, as it was the first time the world saw the devastating consequences of chemical warfare. The use of chlorine, phosgene and mustard gas during this war ushered in an era of new tactics in the battlefield that threatened both military and civilians alike, creating a global threat of weapons of mass destruction. Realizing the destructive potential of these chemical weapons, the chemical weapons convention (CWC), a multilateral disarmament treaty was opened in Jan 1993 and today, more than 183 nations are signatories to the accord. [Johan de Wittlaan, (2010)] A brief overview of chemical weapons development and its deployment in the major wars of the 20th century will provide an insight into the serious threat these chemical munitions pose to the world, as nations continue to be embroiled in the 'insanity of war'.

Chemical Weapons (Different Types)

Chemical weaponry has evolved significantly since the time of the First World War when they were first used. Chemicals weapons are broadly defined as "man-made, supertoxic chemicals that can be dispersed as a gas, vapor, liquid, aerosol (a suspension of microscopic droplets), or adsorbed onto a fine talcum-like powder to create 'dusty' agents," [Gerard J. Fitzgerald, (2008)] Today more than 70 different chemicals have been labeled as chemical weapons [WILPF, (2005)] falling into four main categories namely -- 1) Chocking agents, 2) Blood agents, 3) Blister agents and 4) Nerve agents. [Wisconsin Project, (2010)]

Chocking agents, as the name suggests, cause respiratory distress and bring death due to asphyxia. Chocking agents such as Chlorine and Phosgene were the main chemical weapons used in the First World War. In fact, Phosgene was responsible for more than 80% of the poison gas deaths in that war. The very first incidence of chemical weapons use that is recorded in the history of warfare is in the battle of Ypres, in Belgium. In this battle, Germany tested Chlorine gas on the allied forces comprising mainly of French and Algerian soldiers by releasing over 160 tons of chlorine gas in the trenches. The results were devastating. Within minutes, the chlorine gas killed more than 1000 troops and seriously affected more than 4000 troops giving a surprisingly swift victory for the Germans. [Gerard J. Fitzgerald, (2008)]

Blood Agents are chemical compounds that destroy the red blood cells that are essential to transport oxygen. Hydrogen cyanide and Cyanogen Chloride are two important examples of Blood agents. Blood agents cause rapid breathing, nausea, unconsciousness and death. Germans used Hydrogen cyanide in World War 2 and there are even reports of its use in the Iraq-Iran wars in… [read more]


Motivation for Applying to Phd in IDS Application Essay

Application Essay  |  2 pages (822 words)
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Motivation for Applying to PHD in IDS

International relations has been consistently evolving over the last several years, as a period of relative calm would follow the downfall of the Soviet Union. Then, this would change dramatically with the emergence of new possible adversaries. In the case of the United States and Europe, this means that they must be able to balance these transformations, in order to maintain their influence. One area where this can be seen is with nuclear proliferation, as an increasing number of countries are seeking out these weapons. A good example of this can be seen with Iran, where the U.S. military is estimating that the country will have enough enhanced uranium to build a nuclear device in one year. (Iran's Nuclear Program 2010) This is significant, because it shows how dedicated experts are needed, who have an understanding of: the political, economic, military and cultural aspects of a situation. In my case, I believe that I have this ability to understand and make a positive contribution, to the world of international relations. This is why I am seeking my PHD in International Development Studies, as I want to make a difference in an increasingly convoluted world.

Evidence of how effective I can be at assessing various political situations, can be seen with the way I am able to understand the overall scope of the problem. Using the issue of nuclear proliferation, it is obvious that it is very complicated, especially when you consider the underlying motives behind what is occurring. In Asia, the issue is continuing to be played out on the international stage. What is happening is: China, India, Pakistan and North Korea have active nuclear weapons programs. This is challenging, because it is encouraging other countries to seek out such weapons, in an effort to gain more influence. At the same time, some of the countries mentioned above, have been exporting this technology and assistance, to those nations who are seeking to develop such programs. This is increasing the possibility that conflicts and misunderstandings could occur, as the possession of these weapons can cause some countries to begin encroaching upon other areas of influence. A good example of this can be seen in Japan, where the government is concerned that China could be threatening disputed islands held by Japan. (Peng 2009, pg. 98) This is disquieting, because the increasing number of possible military threats and the concealment of these programs; could cause Japan to…… [read more]


Nuclear Weapon in North Korea Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,919 words)
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Nuclear Weapons in North Korea

There is significant strategic concern both on the national and international levels about North Korea's possession and production of nuclear weapons. Initial reactions included outrage and demands for a cease in activities geared toward advancement of nuclear weapons or facilities were quickly replaced by attempts at diplomacy when North Korea refused to cooperate (Barry, 2007).… [read more]


USS Cole Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (802 words)
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Cole

USS Cole and Anti-Terrorism Strategies

The USS Cole Commission Report does not simply describe what occurred during the terrorist attack on the military transport vessel in October of 2000, nor does it stop at listing the possible intelligence and security failures that allowed for that attack on the vessel to be successful. Instead, it uses the incident as a platform for discussing larger trends in maritime security, terrorism, intelligence needs, and other aspects of national security. Most essentially, the report redefines the nature of the threats facing U.S. military forces in the current era when compared to the threats that existed in previous decades and centuries, noting that in the post-Cold War era the enemy is more likely to be "transnational" -- that is, not affiliated with a specific government or national body, but rather looser in their organization, smaller in their scale, and more difficult to obtain reliable and consistent information on. In order to combat this changing threat, the report recommends several strategic changes in five categories of organization, antiterrorism/force protection, intelligence, logistics, and training. Many of the recommendations are rather broad, with specific actions being taken only after further threat-identification and solution development by various offices within the purview of the DoD.

2)

Though many observers and officials have praised the Proliferation Security Initiative instigated by President George W. Bush in 2002, the agreement that the seventy-or-so countries "support" is rather toothless, and though it does indeed discourage the proliferation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, it does not actually enable the legal use of force to accomplish this in most instances. Even countries that have fully signed on to the initiative retain the legal right to ship such weapons and necessary materials, according to this report, with domestic laws in the various national entities still serving as the only legal means for the seizure of such weapons and materials. This, of course, only applies to nations where domestic laws have been passed that make the shipping, receiving, transport, etc. Of such materials illegal; for this reason, the initiative has largely focused efforts on strengthening such domestic laws, and it has met with some success here. The report generally shows, however, that the initiative does little in a direct and practical means to disrupt proliferation, despite the claims made in the 109th Congress that nearly three dozen separate proliferation incidents were stopped in the…… [read more]


Vietnam: Dereliction of Duty, by H.R. McMaster Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
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¶ … strategypage.com/Bookreviews/263.asp

Dereliction of Duty, by H.R. McMaster

New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Pp. 446. . Illus., notes, biblio., index. $27.50. ISBN:0-06-018795-6.

The Vietnam War was a traumatic experience for the United States. America lost 58,000 dead, hundreds of thousands wounded. Ultimately, the effort to keep South Vietnam from falling under Communist oppression failed. The question some ask is, "Where did it go wrong?"

H.R. McMaster, the hero of the Battle of 73 Easting in Iraq in 1991, provides a lengthy look into the American involvement in Vietnam. He describes how the Joint Chiefs of Staff, then-Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, and President Lyndon Baines Johnson made decisions to prosecute the war in the early stages. McMaster goes into incredible detail of how the men interacted.

In a sense, McMaster's biggest villain is not Robert S. McNamara (who arguably deserves that role), it is the Joint Chiefs of Staff. With the exception of Curtis LeMay, who was retained for an additional year to keep him quiet during the 1964 presidential campaign, they are portrayed as taking the path of least resistance as opposed to standing up to a civilian leadership that was not willing to be honest with the American people about what was involved in Vietnam. In a sense, they were caught between a rock and a hard place. All of them, to one degree or another, felt that civilian control of the military was "essential to a Democracy" (McMaster's quotation of LeMay). At the same time, there were deep concerns about the direction, and these men were being lied to and manipulated by President Johnson.

McMaster provides notes and a bibliography -- one can easily make one's own judgements about what he has written. His timeframe -- from November, 1963 to July, 1965, is small enough that he is able to cover it well. The details are present in a huge quantity. When one wishes to study, and therefore learn from, the mistakes made in the lead-in to Vietnam, this book is an invaluable starting point. Herein lies its value, which is immense. It shows, in great detail, how not to lead a country into war.

By only focusing on this timeline, however, a lack of context results. It seems to be a bit presumptuous to focus on a period of 20 months, and proclaim that the sole cause of losing the Vietnam War is there. Particularly when there are comments from North Vietnamese leadership that point towards the anti-war movement (see Bui Tin's August, 1995 interview with the Wall Street Journal and Vo Ngyuen Giap's memoirs of 1976 for their thoughts). Certainly, the mistakes made in Washington improved the North Vietnamese strategy's chances of success, but the anti-war movement cannot be given a pass for its part in ending a war that was being won on the battlefield in spite of the mistakes made in the timeframe McMaster has so brilliantly covered. That said, this is a brilliant book that deserves a place on the bookshelf of… [read more]


Global Socioeconomic Perspectives Is the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Inevitable Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (1,087 words)
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Global Social Economic Perspective

Global Socioeconomic Perspectives: Is the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction inevitable?

Over the last several years, the issue of the proliferation of: weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) has continued to be brought to the forefront. This is because of various fears surrounding terrorists possibly using such weapons, to maximize the psychological effect and total amounts of collateral damage. As a result, there have been a number of different initiatives to limit the spread of such weapons such as: non-proliferation treaties, maintaining moratoriums on testing and destroying chemical / biological weapon stockpiles. However, the number of nations seeking to establish, their own WMD programs increased dramatically. To include: China, India, Pakistan, North Korea and Iran just to name a few. This is problematic, because the spread of such weapons increases the chances that conflicts could occur, due to the fact of various nations possessing these weapons. There is also the possibility that some states which are sponsors of terrorism could pass these types material on to terrorist groups (such as: Iran passing materials on to Hezbollah). (Sitaraman, 2009, 48 -- 54) This is problematic, because with various standards in place, the inability to control them could create a whole host of problems in the future. As a result, this leads to the question as to if the proliferations of WMDs is inevitable? To determine this, a literature review will be conducted, looking at various pieces of scholarly information on the topic. Once this is complete, it will provide the necessary insights as to if the proliferation of WMDs is inevitable and what actions can be taken to prevent it.

Annotated Bibliography

Kan, S. (2009). China and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Congressional Research Service. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rl31555.pdf

In this article, the author discusses the role that China has played in the proliferation of WMD technology. Where, they have found that they are working with the international community to support such agreements. At the same time, they are selling technology to: North Korea, Iran and Pakistan. This complicates efforts to create enforceable sanctions, as their actions show that they are only willing to support the international community up to a point. This is significant, because it shows how China is creating a double standard by supporting some sanctions, while at the same time selling these countries the technology the need. (Kan, 2009)

Krauthammer, Charles. (1991). The Unipolar Movement. Foreign Affairs 71 (1), 23 -- 33

In this article, the author discusses how the world became unipolar after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Where, it talks the biggest threat that will be faced in the future is small states that have weapons of mass destruction. According to the author, the possibility that conflicts could occur, increases when this happens. With the smaller states seeking to increase aggressive action, in areas of influence that conflict with the world powers. At which point, conflicts could occur, which increases the chances that such weapons will be used. This is significant,… [read more]


Dawn's Early Horror: Hiroshima and the End Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (856 words)
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¶ … Dawn's Early Horror: Hiroshima and the End of the "Good War"

The book Hiroshima by John Hersey and Sam Sloan answers a very important question: where were the "good" Japanese? After all, there are always people who do not have a clue about the surrounding conflict and are simply going about their daily activities. The answer is simple, yet complicated and profound at the same time: we were killing them with atom bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and with firebombs in Tokyo. Rightly or wrongly, Hiroshima was a victim of what so much else was in Japan in World War II: total war. The war on Japan was total in the sense that the divide between soldier and civilian was erased. Civilian centers like Hiroshima were now legitimate military targets in a grueling war of attrition to the death. To illustrate this, one of the figures, Reverend Tanimoto an American trained Christian minister did everything possible to look like the patriotic Japanese civilian, including overseeing the air raid preparations for some 20 neighborhood families (Hersey & Sloan 2010, 4-6). Certainly, none of the training he received at Emory University had prepared him for the scientifically engineered and very real version of Hell that would appear for the first time in world history.

Ironically, the reader even meets a good German, Father Wilhelm Kleinsorge who is in Japan to preach a gospel of peace. Defenseless and reclining in his underwear on the roof of the Jesuit mission in Hiroshima, he is steeped in early morning revery, reading and without a clue what will happen (Hersey & Sloan 2010, 3-4). Like his fellow countrymen (many of whom are also good Germans who have no love of war) who have died in firestorms at American and British delivered firestorms at Hamburg and Dresden, he now will now have to try to survive a firestorm of a new and very different kind. In this Japanese version of Slaughterhouse Five, we find that truly there is no such thing as a good war. Total war kills totally. There is no differentiation between soldiers and civilians in this new type of warfare.

There is no special hatred for the Japanese being exhibited here. Certainly, revenge is on the agenda. However, these kinds of primitive considerations can not approach the savagery that this new type of scientific warfare has created. This new war has unleashed an industry of death, a military industrial complex which here delivered a crescendo of Gotterdamerung. Even Wagner or Nietzsche would have been given pause as the gods died.…… [read more]


Global Socioeconomic Perspectives the Issue of Armed Essay

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Global Socioeconomic Perspectives

The issue of armed intervention in other regions and countries is extremely contentious and has been hotly debated, especially since the Vietnam War. As John Hillen (1996) states, "Deciding when, where, and how to intervene with military force presents a truly perplexing set of questions" ( Hillen, 1996). These questions relate to a number of criteria and consequences of this extreme form of intervention.

My position with regard to this question is that the initiation of armed intervention by a country or nation is only justified in the face of the most extreme threat and only in cases of self-defense and humanitarian assistance. This view is based not only on the cost and the various negative implications of armed intervention per se, but also on the wider ramifications of the use of armed force in an age where technology has created weapons of mass destruction and where the interconnections between nations are becoming more sensitive and complex. In fact it is the complexity of international and global society and alliances that is perhaps one of the central reasons for avoiding the international use of force.

The effect of modern technological and even biological weapons is an obvious reason for avoiding armed conflict on any significant scale. I will argue that the initiation of armed intervention has in many instances been shown to be counter-productive in the long-term and that this stance is strengthened by the interconnected and globalized mature of the world in which we live.

The problematic nature of intervention by force is underlined by the following statement by John F. Kennedy.

I speak of peace because of the new face of war. Total war makes no sense in an age when great powers can maintain large and relatively invulnerable nuclear forces and refuse to surrender without resort to those forces. It makes no sense in an age when a single nuclear weapon contains almost ten times the explosive force delivered by all of the allied air forces in the Second World War. (Kennedy, 1963)

However, there are a number of criteria put forward for going to war or for armed intervention by nations. Those who subscribe to rational choice theory refer to the role of reason in the choice of intervention. This refers to the issue of intervention "…based on maximizing expected gains or minimizing expected losses consistent with the objectives and the interests of the parties making the decision" (Viotti and Kauppi, 2009, chapter 7).

Another reason that is often put forward is that intervention is necessary for the protection of political, economic and security alliances that may be threatened. (Viotti and Kauppi,2009, chapter 7). Other criterion for armed intervention include the defense of national security interests and when "The intervention has precisely defined political and military objectives" ( Hillen, 1996). In 1996, National Security Advisor Anthony Lake suggested the following criteria for the use of military force.

1. To defend against direct attacks on the U.S., its citizens, and its allies;

2. To… [read more]


We Were Soldiers the Movie and Tim O'Brien's the Things They Carried Essay

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¶ … Soldiers

How to Tell if We Were Soldiers is a True War Story

"As a first rule of thumb, therefore, you can tell a true war story by its absolute and uncompromising allegiance to obscenity and evil," (O'Brien, p.69). O'Brien's definition of a true war story is an indictment against the largest body of Hollywood war movies; it denies that any human audience should ever want to sit for a true war story, and, therefore, any popular war story -- any story that does well at the box office -- must not be true. Had O'Brien sat for Randall Wallace's We Were Soldiers, he might have picked out some true elements -- at points the movie does give that visceral feeling which O'Brien claims is at the center of a war story -- but, by and large, he would have sneered, spat, and of Randall Wallace declared, "Dumb cooze." We Were Soldiers fails to be true by pandering to the sensibility and national pride of the public, as well as the desire to draw some sort of victory -- both moral and physical -- out of the script. Certainly the movie was successful, but only by recognizing that the public does not want the truth.

"You can tell a true war story if it embarrasses you," (O'Brien, p.69), but We Were Soldiers is never embarrassing. Embarrassing is Rat Kiley torturing a baby water buffalo to death; embarrassing is the knowledge that, however hateful it was, we ourselves would not have tried to stop Kiley; embarrassing is the knowledge that the torture of the baby water buffalo was necessary and true. We Were Soldiers, however, is permeated by a sense of dignity, by pride, by the code of the warrior. While the movie does not approve of war, it does cast it in the light of moral rectitude; it affirms that bravery is courage in the face of fear. For O'Brien the bravery of war was simply cowardice towards reputation. For O'Brien,

If at the end of a war story you feel uplifted, or if you feel that some small bit of rectitude has been salvaged from the larger waste, then…… [read more]


Much Ado About Nothing Essay

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¶ … merry war betwixt Signior Benedick and her. They never meet but there is a skirmish of wit between them" (1.1.58-61).

William Shakespeare's comic play Much Ado About Nothing portrays the funny, but also painful and violent adjustment that occurs when soldiers must socially reorient themselves to peacetime. The play begins with the career soldier Benedick's expressed displeasure at the fact that his younger friend Claudio has resolved to marry. "But I hope you have no intent to turn husband, have you?" he cries at Claudio (I.1). Don Pedro, Benedick's superior in the army says to his comrade: "Thou wast ever an obstinate heretic in the despite of beauty" (I.1). Benedick mandates he will never be wed, and states that he dislikes women, except for the fact that one gave him birth. Yet one woman, Beatrice, commands his attention, if only because the pair frequently joust wits: "There is a kind of merry war betwixt Signior Benedick and her [Beatrice]. They never meet but there is a skirmish of wit between them" says Leonato, the father of Hero, Claudio's beloved (1.1.58-61).

This phrase partially explains why Benedick is able to relate to Beatrice, even though he swears he has no interest in women: he can 'war' with her, much as he makes war with men. Furthermore, Beatrice also says she also has no interest in marriage: "I thank God and my cold blood, I am of your humour for that: I had rather hear my dog bark at a crow than a man swear he loves me" she says to Benedick (I.1). The play attempts to bring Beatrice and Benedick together to teach them about their mutual need for another person, and how to relate to one another in a more loving fashion than through the brittle dueling of wits.

No human being, the play suggests is an island. Men must be civilized by the…… [read more]


Why Did the US Invade Iraq in 2003? Essay

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U.S. In Iraq

Bush Administration Claims about the Iraqi War

When the United States initiated war with Iraq in 2003, the Bush administration claimed it was in an effort to quash terrorism groups organized in Iraq, and in response to Iraq's use and holdings of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). A writer notes about these claims, "These claims will move… [read more]


National and International Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
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Chemical and Biological Terrorism

Types of weaponry

Geopolitical Change

Domestic Terrorism

Increased proliferation of CBRN

Technological Advances

The Doctrine of Escalation

Definition and use

Chemical Weaponry

Use

Biologicals

Use

Overview- the United States has one of the world's most powerful and technological advanced armed forces ever fielded. Yet, in the modern world of terrorism, military superiority alone is no longer sufficient to ensure the safety of the nation. Most scholars and military planners believe that any terrorist group would favor attacks using chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons (CBRN) (Stimson Research, 2009). Chemical and biological weapons, for instance, share a characteristic distinct from nuclear weapons: fairly easily acquired raw materials (for most pathogens or chemicals) that either have legitimate uses or occur naturally. For example:

Global Geopolitical Change -- the end of the Cold War was originally thought to have brought about a safer world. Instead, there is now greater autonomy between terrorist groups, significantly more enemies of organized states, and substate groups that are more independently funded through narcotics trafficking and smuggling. These groups disdain the developed states and, no longer restrained by the polar system of U.S. v USSR are able to operate with more global anonymity.

Growth of Domestic Terrorism -- the United States now faces groups from within who are comprised of ideological and religious zealots, antigovernment cults, and apocalyptic organizations who have been on the fringe for decades, but are now developing more sophistication in their approach to terrorism.

Increased Proliferation of CBRN -- While experts disagree on whether are not the stockpile of CBRN weaponry will be used, they do not disagree that they are available. Additionally, dozens of nations, unfortunately which include most of those designated by the Department of State as being sponsors of terroristic activities, possess the capability of chemical or biological weapons capability. Ironically, some of which is provided by education received in the United States.

Technological Advances -- Advances in science and biotechnology are both promising and dangerous. As research develops, more and more disenfranchised students have access to information that could be used in weaponry. In the chemical industry, for example, a great variety of highly toxic and/or inflammable chemicals are quite common in factories globally. New insights into the pathology of infection diseases and the organisms that cause them could also be channeled into terrorist ideals -- as well as methods to delivery said pathogens to a large audience.

The Internet, travel, and cross-border communication -- Again, rapid advances in global communication have increased the economic prosperity and potential for the entire world. However, by facilitating cross-border communication, increased global communication, and ease of access to information, the modern culture of the Internet often allows those predisposed to terrorism operate globally without fear of reprisal (Culluffo, et.al., 2001).

The Doctrine of Escalation -- One of the ironies within the study of the history and psychology of weapons is that humans, as the only animal on earth with the intelligence to plan his own specie's death, as opposed… [read more]


US and Vietnam War Essay

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U.S. & Vietnam War

President Eisenhower said the U.S. should not become involved in a land war in Asia. President Johnson said we should not send American boys to fight Asian boys' war. Yet, the U.S. did become involved in a war in Vietnam. How and why did this happen? Why could the U.S. not win? What should the U.S. have learned from the war?

Fear: this is the main reason that the United States became involved in the Vietnam War. However, the fear was not just the fear of communism, despite the much-touted 'domino theory' that once a nation became communist, nearby nations would fall prey to communist infiltration. The fear was also rooted in the terror that by seeming weak on defense, a president would be subject to internal criticism about being 'soft on communism.' When the Maoists took control of China, the debate raged as to who had 'lost' China, as if China's self-determination as a nation was solely a product of U.S. policy. No president wanted to be accused of losing Vietnam. Ironically, the attempt to fight a land war in Vietnam led to the end of Lyndon Johnson's presidency and control over of the nation by leftist forces.

The military leaders of America thought in terms of false historical analogies: they thought that because Neville Chamberlain appeased Hitler by granting Hitler control over territories in Europe, America must not appease the Soviet Union. Harry Truman's establishment of the so-called Truman Doctrine to fight for free peoples every where and to contain the Soviet Union within the Warsaw Pact had created a mentality whereby every guerrilla war was seen as a fight for American freedom.

The native Vietnamese saw their struggle differently: they perceived their struggle as an anti-colonialist…… [read more]


Theoretical Applications on Why Bill Clinton Decided to Send Troops to the Balkans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,905 words)
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Theoretical Applications on why Bill Clinton decided to send troops to the Balkans.

As with any intellectual endeavor, theoretical assumptions and discussions in International Relations, mean little if they have no connection to actual events. Thus the true test of any theory purporting to describe the conditions and dynamics of the relations among nations, is how well it can explain… [read more]


What Were Mahan's and Turner's Contributions to American Foreign Policy? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (700 words)
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Mahan and Turner and U.S. Foreign Policy

Two individuals probably had more of an impact upon U.S. foreign policy than any others: Frederick Jackson Turner and Alfred Thayer Mahan. Turner's ideas on the closing of the American frontier and Mahan's ideas on the employment of the battleship navy to secure American interests overseas set the tone for the twentieth century in terms of foreign policy analysis and formulation.

Turner presented the American frontier as the driving catalyst of American history and the official closing of it by the U.S. Census Bureau after the publication of the results of the 1890 census as a watershed event. Until that census, there appeared to be no end to the American west. Past the line of that frontier, there was no end to opportunity. The frontier could absorb the American poor in droves with its free land. Manifest Destiny drove Americans west in a natural display of American progress. There had been a frontier ever since Columbus discovered America. Now, with the stroke of a pen, that frontier was gone and the boundless vista of opportunity offered by the American frontier went with it (Burner, Bernhard and Kutler 661).

While Turner was going out on a bit of a pessimistic note, Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan of the U.S. Navy had no hang-ups about moving the frontier beyond America's Western coast and into the saltwater expanses of the Pacific.

While an undistinguished U.S. Navy officer of 30 years, the time that saw the majority of his career was a time of peace. What he did excel in was scholarship. He was an outstanding student with a first class intellect. His career saw the rise of the "battleship era" in naval history as ironclad battles went on all over the world in various locales. There were no written naval doctrines for the use of battleships and he saw it as his destiny to write the rule book on this new age of the naval warfare of iron (later steel) and steam.

What Mahan found in his study of naval history was an elusive thread regarding ancient…… [read more]


Open Source Intelligences Term Paper

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Open Source Intelligences

Robert M. Clark's Target-Centric intelligence model utilizes what is known as the intelligence cycle. Originally, the intelligence cycle was designed to create a complete set of data by breaking into stages the process of collecting the data. Each stage has a specific purpose, and when data collectors complete their task, the cycle can continue. Based on this… [read more]


Narrative of 2010 National Security Strategy Essay

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Narrative of 2010 National Security Strategy

Security Strategy 2010 -- Perspectives

The National Security Strategy is from afar the most important document which encompasses the main principles, guidelines, and strategies to be implemented by one presidency or another. The strategy offers broad guidance, outlining the major national security concerns of the U.S. And how they will be addressed. Given the… [read more]


Air Force According to Their Web Site Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,190 words)
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Air Force

According to their Web site, only 4% of United States Air Force personnel are pilots. This leaves dozens upon dozens of opportunities to apply academic and professional skills to a service-oriented profession with the Air Force. In fact, a career with the Air Force is in many ways similar to a career in the civilian sector. Skills can easily translate between the two environments, which expands the job seekers opportunities for career advancement. As with any organization, the Air Force requires specific academic and personal achievements as a prerequisite for pursuing a position. Those prerequisites vary considerably. Enlisted jobs with the Air Force are referred to as Air Force Specialty Code positions or AFSCs (Powers).

Careers in aircraft maintenance, safety, and flight equipment offer multiple cross-over opportunities within the Air Force as well as in the civilian sectors. Aircrew Flight Equipment Specialists work as enlisted officers of the Air Force. The Air Force created a special AFSC entitled Aircrew Flight Equipment Specialist by combining life support and survival equipment areas of specialization (Powers). This AFSC is officially coded 1POX1. Aircrew Flight Equipment positions (1POX1) and Aircrew Life Support positions (1T1X1) depend on similar training and therefore, officers can easily transfer their skills between related jobs. In fact, Air University offers a degree program that specifically combines training for both Aircrew Flight Equipment positions (1POX1) and Aircrew Life Support positions (1T1X1). The degree program is entitled "Aircrew Safety Systems Technology."

Air University is one of the Air Force's official education and professional development institution ("Air University Facts Sheet"). However, the Air force can provide the necessary training and education at various bases around the country. The Sheppard Air Force Base is one of the primary spots where officers can train for a position in aircrew flight equipment and/or life support. Collectively, the Air Force professional development programs are known as the Community College of the Air Force (CCAF). The CCAF provides the official federally-funded training programs for officers. Degrees issued are generally in the applied sciences, which allows significant job flexibility.

Training requirements for aircrew flight equipment apprentices and specialists begins with CCAF, Air Force school. The Air Force requires a two-year Applied Sciences degree in Flight Equipment or Aircrew Safety Systems Technology. Further education, such as an undergraduate degree, is not required.

In addition to the Applied Sciences degree, apprenticeship is required. After basic military training, a residence course can provide the officer with the necessary 3-level apprenticeship (Powers). The 3-level apprentice may also be awarded after technical school graduation (Powers). In this case, training in school takes about 65 academic days (Powers). Thus, skills development takes place first in formal training setting. Aircrew life support falls under the same career umbrella. These skills are similarly addressed via Community College of the Air Force training. Gyokeres notes that cross-utilization training takes about two months. Air University already combines the training for aircrew flight equipment and aircrew life support into one course, Aircrew Safety Systems Technology.

The objective of… [read more]


Pros and Cons of the Cha and Kang Perspectives Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,001 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Cha and Kang

The Pros and Cons of the Cha and Kang Positions

North Korea's leaders have demonstrated puzzling, erratic, and irrational political and military behavior in the eyes of U.S./South Korean political scientists and policy makers. For this reason, a debate over the wisdom of approaching policy toward the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North… [read more]


High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,318 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program otherwise known as HAARP is a project that culminates in a device array that bounces large amounts of electrical energy into the ionosphere to study its behavior and effects. There is significant controversy regarding the research station which is located in a very remote area of Alaska. The site conducts continual monitoring of the ionosphere to better understand how it works under different conditions and potentially to help develop communication systems that will improve on those that exist today. (HARRP Website) According to the official website the site only conducts four to six research operations per year that produce the energy ionosphere bounce, that is described as lasting from 1-4 weeks depending on conditions and the intention of the scientific research being conducted. The rest of the time only the observation instruments are in use. The site is removed from the local electrical grid when the antenna array is in the test phase. From reading the materials on the official HARRP website one comes to the rapid conclusion that the research program is actively innocuous and makes every effort to reduce any real or potential risk of interference with traditional communication arrays or any other affective danger. (HARRP Website) Yet, it is clear from further assessment that there is a near constant controversial conspiracy theory(s) with regard to HARRP. My argument is that no matter intent it is universally unethical to accept scientific or any other technological advance that breaks any or all of the following ideals: 1- it's against all religions to kill innocent people 2- killing is wrong 3- using the forces of nature for destruction is unethical.

Countless individuals believe that the HARRP array is a fundamentally secretive program that has far more sinister ramifications, on many levels. Some of those levels include the potential for weather manipulation, the potential for earthquake generation and a whole host of other possible effects that could potentially be used against humanity. Some also claim that the site is a secret military operation, while it is plainly clear that the program is supported by a consortium of university and other educational research interests, rather than the military and that nothing the site does is confidential or top secret in any way. Research disseminates via the traditional matriculation of academic literature, but they do not publish findings in raw data or total. (HARRP Website) a scientific blogger online states this:

Buttered up to seem harmless HARRP (HIGH FREQUENCY ACTIVE AURORAL RESEARCH PROGRAM) is strongly suspected to be a scalar inferometer, which is able to use the earth and atmosphere as a conveyor of scalar waves to excite the energy in the atmosphere at any point on the planet.. subsequently these waves are able to effect weather patterns by changing the energy levels (density) of the atmospeheric layers, also making it possible to create endothermic implosions, or exothermic explosions using something known as the woodpecker signal to target specific points on the globe. (clarky003)

HARRP… [read more]


Leadership and Management Processes Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (991 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

AFMC Admin

AFMC Case Study: Cost Efficiency and Management Structure

The scenario presented by Case Study Part A dictates that the horizontal command structure present in AFMC is itself a cause for much of the difficult in terms of achieving greater process efficiency. At its center, this article relays the difficulties relating to the achievement of quality maintenance while applying tighter cost controls. The article details the observations made by the incoming leadership under General Babbitt, who recognized that process inefficiency was present throughout an organization with 13 major installations across 10 different states. Finding that there existed a lack of motivation to reign in cost excesses, Babbitt concluded that this was a problem relating to the leadership structure at AFMC.

Though within installations, military hierarchy would function to provide a basic chain of command, little accountability seemed to be dictated by a central management structure descending from the Ohio headquarters where Babbitt was about to assume command. This meant, according to Babbitt's experience, that efficiency failures were driven by a general lack of clarity in terms of cost assessments. Entering into projects and contracts, those working on the field level for the Command seemed to encounter costs which would routinely run well beyond the budgetary allowances allocated for said project or contract.

In frank terms, Babbitt helps to provide our discussion with an assessment for Part A, which centers on the recognition of a culture-wide shortcoming on the part of the Air Force corporate structure. Namely, an attitude which does not account for costs promotes a sense of removal from personal responsibilities for budgetary excesses has translated in this case into a broad and costly efficiency lag. Babbitt would comment with full candor that "aometimes in the Air Force we have trained ourselves not to be responsible for the resources; that becomes somebody else's problem. You didn't have to look very far to see things that could be done just as well or better in terms of performance and for a lot less money if we took certain steps to change people's attitude and to motivate them differently." (CTR, 1)

This assessment helps to provide a foundation for the recommendations which proceed from the Diagnosis segment of the case study. Namely, Babbitt makes the case that the two most significant obstacles to changing the disregard at all levels for cost efficiency are the absence of a centralized management structure overseeing the managerial activities at each installation and the absence of a centralized accountancy authority overseeing the accounting operations at each installation. This promotes the recommendation for the creation and staffing of both. Babbitt refers with positive reflection on a prior role during his professional ascension, remarking on the efficiency of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) where he was a deputy director. Here, Babbitt referenced the positive orientation produced by a managerial attention to resource availability, cost limitations and the evaluation of efficiency according to the capacity to work within the context of these limitations.…… [read more]


Christmas Truce Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Christmas Truce

This is a template and guideline only. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

Silent Night: The Story of the World War I Christmas Truce. Stanley Weintraub. New York:

Plume, October 29, 2002. 224 pages.

Silent Night relates the soldiers' personal memories and other reports of that time during WWI in Europe when both sides stopped the "horror" of war for a few hours, set aside their rifles, machine guns, and artillery, and remembered what Christmas and compassion were all about. Weintraub's purpose is to show the humanity of man amidst the direst of circumstances and explore how the soldiers in the ranks on both sides yearned for peace. At this he is a master, despite his sometimes awkward interspersing of fictional stories concerning the event, and some German terms that were left for the reader to guess at the meaning.

The front lines of WWI were a series of stench-filled muddy trenches on both sides. Each day, both sides launched mostly unsuccessful and suicidal attacks over the sides of the trenches out into no-man's land only to be driven back or gain perhaps 100 yards. The next day, it would begin all over again. It was total, face-to-face, brutal war in a scenario straight from one's worst imagination of what hell must be like. But then, as Christmas Eve 1914 came closer, signs of an informal and most unusual "truce" were beginning to take place between soldiers.

Weintraub's portrayal, based on diaries and letters, is of soldiers, during early and mid-December, coming out of trenches to gather their wounded in that no-man's land with their hands in the air, followed by the other side doing the same. Individuals and small groups gathered amidst the dead, chatted briefly, and returned to their own trenches. They began to discover that the men on the "other side" were people just like them. The night before Christmas Eve, 1914, both sides -- the soldiers -- clearly indicated their willingness to have a ceasefire.

The Germans shared their tannenbaum trees with the French and English. The…… [read more]


How Can Sanctions Be Adequately Targeted to Avoid the Suffering of Innocent People? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Humanitarian Implications of Sanctions

The establishment of international governing bodies and global peacekeeping alliances has facilitated a new way of combating rogue behavior amongst the nations of the world. Where previously military confrontation and occupation appeared as the only ways of pursuing conflict resolution with intransigent forces, today the economic alliances comprising the world community have created a number of options for pressuring policy change or greater global alignment where needed. This has created the impetus for economic sanctions, which are used to isolate those behaving out of accordance with the world community. By restricting trade with such nations and by limiting both incoming resource from imports and incoming revenue from exports, sanctions may bring to bear a heavy toll on targeted nations.

As our research denotes though, this toll is rarely ever isolated in impact simply to the regime or leadership upon which pressure is sought. The deprivation of key resources and revenue will be imposed more directly upon the general public of any such nation, meaning that with any policy of sanctioning, countless innocents are impacted by a lack of access to food, medicine, fuel and other basic living requirements. For those imposing sanctions under the premise that this might improve the humanitarian conditions facing those in developing and despotically ruled nations, or instigate an opening up of leadership to the world community, the suffering which is levied upon the publics in such nations seems to counteract the desired effect of such a policy.

Jonge Oudraat (2007) offers some strategic consideration to how the use of sanctions might be refined to hone its targeting of despotic or rogue leadership while preserving the living standards of the publics in effected nations. Particularly, the text discusses the strategic focus of sanctions as having a particular bearing on how effective and humane their repercussions may be. Here, the text cites a transition from a focus on "compellence to denial -- withholding the means that could lead to…… [read more]


Effect of Combat Stress on Soldiers and Their Family Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (596 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Deployment on Soldiers and Their Families

The current prolonged involvement of United States armed forces in Iraq and Afghanistan since 2001 and 2003 respectively have now substantially exceeded the duration of military deployment of World War II. Contrary to their expectations, many soldiers have had to serve multiple deployments in those theaters, in many cases, extending their military service well beyond their intended length of military service; in some cases, they have even been recalled after their retirement pursuant to federal law that obligates their service in times of war (McGirk, 2009). Even under "ordinary" circumstances such as during peacetime, military deployment is tremendously stressful for both soldiers as well as their families remaining at home. In wartime, those stresses are increased tremendously, largely because of the obvious increased risk to life and limb associated with combat.

Deployment and Its Effects on Soldiers

Some of the consequences of prolonged (and repeated) deployment have included a dramatic rise in instances of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major clinical depression, and disruption of family relationships, believed to affect at least one of every five combat veterans who have served in either Iraq of Afghanistan (McGirk, 2009). Alcoholism, suicide, spousal abuse, and even several high-profile specific instances of murder have all been linked to PTSD. Even where soldiers do not suffer from PTSD of from other acute reactions to deployment in a combat zone, many experience mild depression, emotional isolation, and significant difficulties both while separated from their families overseas as well as upon their return to civilian life. In many cases, they find it difficult to readapt to their civilian way of life and the longer and more stressful the circumstances of their deployment, the greater those difficulties are (McGirk, 2009).

Deployment and Its Effects on Families

While…… [read more]


Alternative Views of Reality Cultural Values Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (729 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Reality: Cultural Values

The Newsweek cover story by Evan Thomas and John Barry from February 18, 1991, "War's New Science" presents, in the wake of the successful first Gulf War, a rosy vision of future conflict in the Middle East. The tone of the article, in light of the current Iraq and Afghanistan war, is almost surreal in its optimism: "A cost-free victory. A push-button, remote-control war won without casualties. Surgical strikes that wipe out military targets while sparing civilians." For the Pentagon, "tech can almost never be too high," and the article looks forward to an era of war for Americans that is as easy as playing a video game.

What is most striking about this article, in light of Kluckhohns' Value Orientations is its future-focused nature. The future, it is assumed, is invariably better than the past. American individualism also seems implied, given the article's stress upon the need to protect individual American troops. It is assumed that individual causalities have value, and it is not glorious to sacrifice one's life for a collective cause, even though warfare is endemic to human society. The stress is upon 'doing' rather than upon the moral implications of the new technology -- the question if it would it be good, for example, for a nation to be able to wage war with few consequences for its peoples' safety, is not asked, because it is assumed that America will only wage war for wholesome purposes. (Despite the fact that European's superior technology to Native Americans resulted in the immoral decimation of native tribes). And the article assumes above all that Americans are the masters of their fate and nature.

Dominant American cultural patterns have always included individualism and confidence in the ability of humans to manipulate both history and nature with technology. There is also a strong sense of American superiority, as if a moral nation such as America could never engage in a war that was not just. The assumption is that war is just, and can be managed correctly through technology. The only obstacle is money, and as the authors themselves admit: "Americans have always looked to science for their answers, in…… [read more]


Memoirs of a Boy Soldier Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Without any support, the people were gunned down and the children conscripted. Worldwide media attention to what was going on could have brought more support to the area and bolstered the local soldiers, keeping everyone safer and keeping children from falling into soldier's hands.

In addition, the soldier's should have gotten more governmental support, so they did not have to conscript children into the civil war. That should never have been condoned or allowed. The fact that they drugged the children should never have been allowed, either. The entire situation in the country was out of control, and turning away from these conditions only allowed them to flourish. Without any aid organizations to monitor the situation, there was chaos, and the children suffered the most. The situation was out of control, and soldiers took matters into their own hands. This was another fault of the government and the military combined. They looked the other way and ignored the situation, which only allowed it to grow. The soldiers effectively taught the children to hate and to become methodical killers, something that never should have been tolerated in an organized military unit, and those responsible for the military were responsible for this travesty.

Supposedly, the boys are fighting on the "right" side, but they are just as brutal as the rebels are, and the soldiers are directly responsible for that. Beah writes, "The rebel ran up and down the village before he fell to the ground and stopped moving. We cheered again, raising our guns in the air, shouting and whistling" (Beah 212). They have become killing machines, animals in their own right, and the soldiers allowed, even encouraged this to occur. It is a tragic situation, made more tragic by the fact that it happened at all. Here in America, it seems impossible that children could live this way, and we would never allow it. However, we turned our backs and did allow it, so in a way we are responsible, too. We should never overlook what is happening halfway around the world, even if it does not affect us, and we should never have allowed this situation to continue, we should have stepped in and done something about it.

The United Nations (UN) should have sanctions against countries that allow youth to participate in international wars. They should step in and send troops to help ensure that children are not fighting in these battles. These children were robbed of their childhood and many robbed of their lives. Beah sees many of his friends die in front of his eyes, and no one should have to witness these things. Eventually, there were aid centers set up, and many children got out of the military to try to resume normal lives, but the damage was done. The UN should have been sanctioning these countries and stopping the practice, rather than just sending aid. They need to take a stronger stance, and let countries know they will have to pay a price if… [read more]