Study "Military / Army / Navy / Marines" Essays 661-715

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Once an Eagle Research Paper

… Myrer, Anton. Once an Eagle. New York: Harper Collins, 2001.

Anton Myrer's Once an Eagle tells the tale of Samuel Damon, a young man from Nebraska who joins the U.S. army in 1916 on the cusp of America's entry into World War I. Sam Damon fights first in Mexico, then in France, where he receives a battlefield commission after serving nobly in action. While recovering from his injuries, Sam falls in love with the daughter of his commanding officer, a young woman with the masculine name of Tommy Caldwell. After the war is over, Sam rejects going back to soft civilian life, despite being offered a plush job on Wall Street, during the boom years of the Roaring 20s. Tommy marries the soldier anyway, despite having vowed to escape army life.

The book underlines the fact that Sam does not refuse the Wall Street job because he lacks the ability to thrive in business. When Sam is stationed near his uncle Ed Downing, Sam is given the chance to run Downing's manufacturing company. Sam is shocked to discover that the company foreman is placing his own interests above the goals of the organization, its owner, and the workers. This is completely counterintuitive to the philosophy of the army. Sam's leadership skills win him the respect of his fellow employees, and Sam is able to turn the fortunes of the company around, winning back customers and getting the enterprise 'ship-shape' once again. But after his uncle, duly impressed, offers him a job, Sam rejects it. He has proved to himself that he could 'make it' in the real world. Just as Sam had a premonition about the beginnings of the war, his experiences with the business community have given him the ability to anticipate the Depression. "He was afraid of this world. He feared it; not as an arena where he could not prove himself -- he had dispelled that qualm effectively enough…it was too ungoverned, too avaricious" (Myrer 539).

Author Myrer thus creates a hero who is an American ideal. If someone as noble as Sam could not succeed in business, this would be an indictment of capitalism. Sam can, but he prefers the purer nature of military service, even though it is less lucrative. His chosen life forces his wife…… [read more]

Inadvertent War Essay

… Inadvertent War -- Historical Issues and Concerns

The modern history of human warfare illustrates that in addition to the general threat of deliberate warfare, the prospect of human error also adds the risks of war initiated by accident or as the result of unauthorized private action. There is also a risk of inadvertent escalation during wartime. Several times, events in the 20th century resulted prematurely in war that could possibly have been averted; in other instances, attacks during wartime were escalated in response to erroneous perception of enemy intentions. In the 1960s, outright warfare between two Cold War superpowers could have easily been precipitated by accident, unauthorized orders, or misunderstanding. Safeguards exist to mitigate such risks but may not necessarily be capable of eliminating the types of human error in perception and judgement capable of resulting in inadvertent war in the future.

Historical Background of Inadvertent War and Escalation of Warfare:

To some degree, the manner in which World War I broke out in 1914 could be considered the result of mistaken assumptions and characteristics of armed conflict at the time that greatly increased the momentum toward war even where the leaders of respective nations had not decided that war was necessary or inevitable. Specifically, armies of the day required much longer to mobilize than in the modern technological era, measured in weeks instead of days or hours. In fact, the speed with which European nations could mobilize large forces had become one of the most important factors in evaluating the strength of 19th century armies. Generally, warfare was preceded by weeks of partial mobilizations and counter-mobilizations in response as nations postured and prepared for war. The process of mobilization for war became such an important aspect of national power and signal of imminent geopolitical intention that mobilization sometimes actually precipitated the outbreak of war prematurely or even in circumstances were war could possibly have still been averted through political negotiations. That is precisely what happened in Europe on the eve of World War I.

Slightly one month after the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Bosnia by a Serb, tensions were great as Austro-Hungary was on the verge of attacking Serbia. Russia began mobilizing forces in the event it became necessary to protect Serbia against Austro-Hungary. Germany declared war on Russia almost immediately in response to their mobilization. Convinced that France would enter any war between Germany and Russia on the side of Russia, Germany also declared war on France after France failed to indicate her specific intentions in response to high-level German inquiries. Germany had no basis for seeking a war with France other than the concern with pre-empting the entrance of France into the war on the Western Front after Germany was fully involved with Russia on the Eastern Front.

Germany did not seek war with Britain at the time either but guaranteed Britain's entrance into the war inadvertently by virtue of Germany's long-planned strategy for (1) avoiding a two-front war and (2) avoiding French military… [read more]

National Defense Strategy Essay

… Bush and Gates on the U.S. National Defense Policy
1. Implicit to the speech that Secretary of Defense Robert Gates would
deliver before the annual meeting of the International Institute for
Strategic Studies in Singapore is the understanding that post-cold war
conditions, patterns of globalization and strife in developing nations have
produced a new type of conflict. The Secretary addresses at one moment in
his speech the notion that in many ways, defense and security strategies
are still in a state of evolution subsequent to the end of the Cold War and
its considerable fallout. It is thus the United States has pursued a new
mode of engaging partners in the global community that functions
simultaneously on the strength of regional diplomatic alliances and
unilateral military alliances. This emphasis on promoting a dual strategy
of engagement, which is also in no small way impacted by trade
relationships as demonstrated by the focus on such partners as China and
India, underscores this new defense strategy which might counterbalance
outmoded military orientation. As Gates contends, the events of the last
decade both in terms of trade developments and military conflicts, have
precipitated "a shift that reflects new thinking in overall U.S. defense
strategy. We are building partner-nation capacity so friends can better
defense themselves. While preserving all our conventional military
deterrence abilities as traditionally understood, we have become more
attentive to both 'hard' and 'soft' elements of national power, where
military, diplomatic, economic, cultural and humanitarian elements fold
into one another." (Gates, 5) This is to suggest that by managing
individual relationships such that key partners are strengthened by U.S.
economic and military interest, these partners may become better allies in
preemptively eliminating threats which might come to fruition on American

2. As a matter of philosophical grounding, the Gates speech cites a
number of the core principles which tie together America's strategies of
global trade liberalization and military engagement. This is particularly
evident in consideration of the U.S. National Strategy for Public Diplomacy
and Strategic Communication, which sites as its primary three objectives a
commitment to human rights; a focus on reaching out to those with shared
ideals; and to support the struggle for democracy. Frequent references to
the engagement of U.S. forces in Iraq and Afghanistan underscore the last
of these three commitments, demonstrating the willingness of the U.S. to
commit its forces to the global fight for democratic governance. And in
addressing the American concern over the struggle for human rights, dignity
and freedom in Burma, Gates indicates that the U.S. has committed
significant aid in spite of the obstacles posed by civil strife there. The
conference as a whole would also speak from the point of view that the
parties there gathered has been assembled based on their shared vision for
an economically and diplomatically stable Asian Pacific region.

3. During the previous administration of…… [read more]

Life of General De Gaulle Thesis

… De Gaulle

The Life of General Charles de Gaulle

All of the prominent world leaders during the World War II era are somewhat controversial; nothing needs to be said about Hitler or Stalin in this regard, Churchill's irascibility and apparent… [read more]

Douglas Brinkely's the Boys of Pointe Du Book Review

… ¶ … Douglas Brinkely's the Boys of Pointe du Hoc

In his book, the Boys of Pointe du Hoc, Douglas Brinkley chronicles a turning point in World War II, the assault on Pointe du Hoc by the 2nd Ranger Battalion, but he also examines the manner in which President Ronald Reagan paid tribute to these heroes on the anniversary of the event and how it helped contribute to the rebirth of patriotism in the United States during the 1980s. To better understand this important event in the history of World War II and the part President Reagan played in commemorating it, this paper provides a review of Brinkley's book to determine what training went into the mission, the actions taken by the Rangers during their assault on Pointe du Hoc, and what Brinkley has to say about Ronald Reagan and the rebirth of patriotism in the 1980s. A discussion concerning Brinkley's coverage of the issue of memory and World War II is followed by an examination of what this book has to say about the start of the "Greatest Generation" concept as well as an analysis and critical evaluation of the book's primary thesis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Training the Rangers

Readers sitting comfortably in the living rooms reading this book in the 21st century will probably not appreciate what the 2nd Ranger Battalion actually experienced on the fateful day on June 6, 1944, when "Rudder's Rangers" who would come to be known as "the boys of Pointe du Hoc" following President Reagan's 40th anniversary commemorative speech, scaled the 100-foot cliffs at Pointe du Hoc in the first blow of the D-Day invasion. The mission was deemed critical because of the battery of French-made 155mm cannons the Germans had installed at the top of the strategic promontory. Through a hail of mortar and machine gun fire and a rain of hand grenades, about 225 Rangers scrambled up rope ladders to help secure the beaches at Normandy in what was perhaps the most important mission of the invasion, and -- not surprisingly -- only 99 of them survived the assault.

The fact that any of these brave men survived the experience at all, though, is testament to the rigorous training they underwent prior to their assault on the sheer cliffs at Pointe du Hoc. For instance, according to Brinkley, "What is most relevant to this study, however, is the way this first class of U.S. Army Rangers was trained to climb towering cliffs by using spikes and rope ladders."

The Rangers were vigorously and relentlessly trained in both the United States in the humid regions of Tennessee, the swamps of Florida and at Fort Dix, New Jersey, as well as upon their arrival in England, and they emerged as "more than a 'band of brothers,'" Brinkley says, "they were an elite fraternity of lethal killers."

Actions by the Rangers on June 6, 1944

The men of the 2nd Ranger… [read more]

Foreign Relations of U.S Essay

… Foreign Relations of the U.S.

This is a guideline and template. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

What were the initial aims, scope and means of the containment policy? How and why did strategy of containment evolve… [read more]

Leadership General Dwight D. Eisenhower Assessed Research Paper

… Leadership

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

Assessed through the Lenses of Various Leadership Styles

Strategic Leader Competencies

General Eisenhower is one of the most notable personalities in United States history who has managed to leave its imprint on both military as… [read more]

Guns and Butter Victory From a Strong Economy Thesis

… Guns Butter

Military and Economic Policy

One of the reasons that the War on Terror has, to this juncture, been such a general failure of policy is because of its persistence during a time of general economic decline and recession. Indeed, there is evidence to suggest that the attention dedicated to certain aspects of waging the war against terrorism naturally detracted from the ability to retain domestic infrastructure and civilian defenses. The text by Collinge and Ayers is revealing on this point, demonstrating that the successful waging of war must be based on the ability to engage combatants wherever necessary while simultaneously ensuring a symbiotic functionality of the domestic economy.

During the Bush Administration, which initiated the War on Terror, a set of negative economic policies concerning imbalanced and untimely tax breaks and an aggressive transition into deficit spending would help to undermine our ability both to fight the war and to ensure safety, security and maintenance at home. The conflict in Iraq would especially be revealing of the need for a strong economy, with a shortcoming of body armor, troops and other crucial resources resulting from limited funding and contributing to combat disadvantages.

Simultaneously, the dedication of resources to the war effort would leave many aspects of the local economy strapped for infrastructural needs or crisis management needs. This would be most amply demonstrated by the failures relating to Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Here, the city of New Orleans would lack both the infrastructural protection against powerful storms and the vehicles and personnel for emergency management necessary to contend with the storm due to the diversion of resources to the War in Iraq. The outcome would be a deadly lack of preparedness that demonstrated the need for a strong economy to coincide with terror war initiatives.

Military…… [read more]

Art of War by Sun Tzu Research Paper

… Art of War:

Composed by Sun Tzu in the 6th century B.C.E., The Art of War is basically a Chinese military manual which instructs the reader on how to wage war related to strategy and war tactics on the battlefield. This is one of the most ancient works on waging a military campaign and has influenced many Eastern and Western cultures in ways which Sun Tzu never imagined, such as in the business world, philosophy and some of the hard sciences.

The Art of War is broken down into thirteen separate chapters with each chapter focusing upon a particular aspect of military warfare. For example, in Chapter One called "Laying Plans," Sun Tzu states that the art of war is of prime importance to the State (i.e., the national government) related to its very survival -- "It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin." Each chapter is also broken down into distinct instructions in relation to how to wage war for the best possible outcome against one's enemies. In Chapter Three "Attack by Stratagem," Sun Tzu declares that the best thing to do in war is to "take the enemy's country whole and intact" without destroying its infrastructure and culture. It is also better…… [read more]

Screening Stanly Kubrick and Full Metal Jacket Research Proposal

… ¶ … Screening

Stanly Kubrick and Full Metal Jacket

Stanley Kubrick was one of the foremost and most respected directors in the modern film world. His films cover a wide range of issues and subjects, from the search for the… [read more]

Child Soldiers Burundi and Sudan 1992-2002 Research Proposal

… Child Soldiers in Burundi and Sudan: 1992-2002

The convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989 is one of the most prominent international humanitarian treaties in world history. It entered into force quicker than any other treaty and currently… [read more]

Idf or Israel Defense Forces. These Changes Research Proposal

… ¶ … IDF or Israel Defense Forces. These changes are mainly related to the progressive movement from a militia and 'people's army' to a more conventional and consolidated professional military organization. The central aspect that is noted is that the IDF has become an integrated part of the national life and culture of the country and therefore any changes in the IDF will consequently have a concomitant affect on the society.

The article refers to a number of precursors to change in the IDF. Among these are changes in the nature and necessity of reserve duty. This change is also underscored by plans to cut the reserve complement by as much as fifty percent. Another factor that is related to these changes in the structure and makeup of the armed forces is the increased number of conscripts, which is partly a result of comparatively large numbers of Jewish immigrants. These precursors to the change in structure and ethos are also suggested by the increased number of call -- up deferments -- all of which are signs of significant changes in the structural constitution of the defense force. Coupled with this is the increased number of professionals who are being discharged into the larger society.

The move towards a more professional military corps can be seen in the facilities that have been implemented to allow those recruits who are identified as being officer material to ascend rapidly in rank in various fighting units. There is therefore a movement towards an increase of professional staff and their tenure in the military and a related reduction of those who are not in essence compatible with a military career - which again attests to the move from a 'peoples army' to a more permanent and professional defense force.

The causes of these actual and incipient changes in the structure of the military can be related to economic aspects and a reduction of the military budget. However, a far more prominent reason is that the relationship between the IDF and the people has already undergone a change in terms of the erosion of its domestic status. In effect the army has been the subject of increased public scrutiny and often censure. Another factor that has initiated these developments is the change in the operational environment and its various requirements. This also refers to changes in the nature of the threats from bordering states, which in turn has necessitated the need for an active rather than a passive defense shield for the country -- and therefore a more professional and formal military and army structure rather than the implementation of part-time reserve troops.

What is also emphasized is that, while there are changes in the nature of the military, it must be remembered that the IDF it is still a much more egalitarian organization than most other defense forces. In Israel the army is still seen as a calling rather then a chore. At the same time there is a movement towards the perceived need for… [read more]

War Profiting Essay

… War Benefits

War's Benefits to the Elite

Few people would outwardly say that they are for war. There are, of course, the standard equivocations -- war is the price we pay for freedom; some evils and injustices morally require the use of force to correct them; physical violence is the only force that means anything when others are wiling to use it (i.e. when someone is willing to kill you, you have an obligation to defend yourself, with violence if necessary). But no one really comes out and says that war is a good thing through and through. The bravery and honor that men show on the battlefield make up the subject of many poems and stories (especially of the bygone eras), and the action of battles has made for compelling entertainment at least since the time of the Romans, but the gladiators and soldiers themselves weren't known for their actual enjoyment and moral approval of their positions of violence and authority. So though it may be possible to acquit oneself well in war, such massive violence and international conflicts are not regularly praised in and of themselves.

The evils of war, in contrast, are regularly expounded in many works of literature and art of the twentieth century. This represents a shift, to some degree, in the mood of the time, but more than this it reflects a shift in the types of people engaging in art, and the thoughts propagated therein. The disillusionment brought on by the First and Second World Wars had a large hand in this. At the same time the Industrial Revolution can also be seen to have had a large hand in this shift as well; there was a large degree of democratization and an increased availability of cheap means by which to disseminate information, which meant that the common man had more access both to reading and to producing literature -- a pursuit heretofore reserved for the aristocracy. The perceived changing attitudes about war, tehn, do not necessarily reflect a change in attitude, but perhaps a change in whose attitude was paid attention to.

The reasons for this difference in the perspective towards war between the elite of the power structure and the common man become quite clear with even the most cursory examination. First, there is the obvious fact that, for most of ths history of civilization and even today, militaries are made up of men (and, increasingly, women) from the lower socio-economic classes of society. Aristocrats and other privileged members of society often became officers, but for the most part they were removed from the real danger of battle, and in fact were far more likely to be taken as hostages as a means to force surrender than they were to be killed. Privileged members of society today also often manage to serve the military in less dangerous positions -- such as in the National Guard, for example. The detriment this carries…… [read more]

Battle of Iwo Jima Thesis

… Invasion of Iwo Jima During World War Two

Strategic Significance of Iwo Jima:

By the end of 1944, American forces had captured the Marianas Islands

approximately 1,500 miles from Mainland Japan (Bishop & McNab, 2007). That

allowed the first sustained U.S. bombing raids over Japan, but the nearly 3,000-mile missions were very costly for U.S. B-29s. Japanese radar installations on Iwo Jima were able to provide advanced warnings to fighter/interceptors based on the island's two operational airfields. They took a heavy toll on the slow, fuel and bomb-laden heavy

bombers because the distances involved exceeded even the longest-range U.S. fighter, the P-51 Mustangs (Bishop & McNab, 2007).

The assault on Iwo Jima by two U.S. Marine divisions was the first in a series of attacks on the Japanese Home Islands (Ray, 2003). Once in U.S. hands, the island would cut the distance that U.S. bombers had to fly by almost fifty percent, allowing fighter escort to and from Mainland Japan and its capital of Tokyo. In addition to eliminating fighter attacks launched by the Japanese against U.S. bombers, the capture of Iwo Jima

provided an intermediate airfield for refueling U.S. aircraft, for launching U.S. fighters, and as a base for sea rescue operations (Ambrose, 2001 Ray, 2003).

Command and Weaponry:

Under the direction of Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi, the Japanese

committed almost 23,000 men to the defense of Iwo Jima (Commager & Miller, 2002).

They were equipped with heavy and medium artillery, heavy and light machine guns, tanks, mortars, and thousands of small arms. The main strategy of Kuribayashi's forces was to use a large network of interconnected tunnels dug deep beneath almost half of the island's territory. Because Iwo Jima was a volcanic Island, its surface was covered in deep layers of volcanic ash that was ideal for digging trenches and tunnels and Kuribayashi maximized this advantage by spending months preparing for the American invasion that was expected. Kuribayashi also had several kamikaze aircraft which he launched against U.S. Navy ships, causing the combat loss of approximately 300 Navy

seamen Bishop & McNab, 2007).

The American command had already begun advancing toward Japan using the islands captured from the Japanese as land bases to assist the bombing campaign of Japan. Kuribayashi understood that his forces would not be able to overcome the American attack that was expected after the U.S. capture of the Philippines and the Marianas Islands. Still, he hoped to maximize the effect of his forces and weapons to cause as heavy U.S. casualties as possible to delay the U.S. approach to the Japanese

Mainland (Commager & Miller, 2002).

Under the command of Colonel Chandler Johnson, the American assault force consisted of the Fourth and Fifth Marine Divisions with the Third Marine Division

offshore as a reserve force (Ambrose, 2001; Bishop & McNab, 2007). For nearly two and a half months before the invasion, American bombers softened up the target with daily bombing operations, followed by three days of intense naval bombardment from heavy and light cruisers… [read more]

Does the US Have the Capability to Support Two Significant Conflicts Simultaneously? Thesis

… U.S. capability to support two conflicts

Does the U.S. have the capability to support two significant conflicts simultaneously?

The history of the United States of America (U.S.) is predicated on war. It can be said that it is a nation… [read more]

General William Sherman Research Proposal

… ¶ … Sherman played an instrumental role in the Civil War and the Indian Wars. During the Civil War Sherman was relentless in his desire to lead the Northern troops to victory. Sherman's strategy involved both traditional and psychological warfare.… [read more]

Ethics After Being Rejected for a Lucrative Thesis

… Ethics

After being rejected for a lucrative Air Force rocket contract, Boeing made several acquisitions to raise their profile in aerospace and put them back on the Air Force's radar. However, the pursuit of the rocket contract and other big… [read more]

Truman and the Atomic Bomb Thesis

… Truman and the Atomic Bomb

Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman became the 33rd president of the United States in 1945. He was born in Lamar, Missouri in 1884 but grew up in Independence. He was a prosperous farmer in… [read more]

Propaganda Used by England and Triple Entente Thesis

… Propaganda Used by England and Triple Entente

When the United Kingdom entered the Great War in august 1914, the British government had to organize rapidly toward building a war propaganda machine to act toward two main ends: the recruiting for… [read more]

Easter Rising of 1916 and Irish American Involvement Thesis

… Easter Uprising

American influence on events in Ireland have always been strong, just as the Irish influence on political and social events in the United States. Unlike many immigrant groups, the Irish immigrants were more likely to participate in politics… [read more]

Strategic Analysis of Some Geographical Feature Research Proposal

… Strategic Analysis of Some Geographical Feature, Either Land, Water, Or Space That Has Had Strategic Consequences in International Relations

Strategic Analysis of Land Mass that has Historically Protected Russia from Invasion

Throughout history, countries have been attacked time and again… [read more]

World War I Was a Progressive Essay

… World War I was a progressive war

Progressivism and World War I

For World War I to be called a 'Progressive War,' may initially sound strange to some modern ears. After all, many progressives are and were ardent pacifists, including during the era when Wilson waged his public relations campaign to enter the 'War to End all Wars.' Yet contrary to this sentiment, some progressives saw the war as a war of internationalism, and a repudiation of the idea that America could ignore what went on in Europe. For them, the war was a flowering of America's acknowledgement that it was no longer able to defend itself by shielding its borders with two oceans, and it had to take an active part in affairs around the globe.

Of course, even the pro -- and anti-progressive advocates would admit that America's intervention in Europe was not entirely charitable, humanitarian, and a way of making the world safe for democracy. There were long-lying tensions between Germany and America that had become inflamed by increasingly aggressive German behavior, such as the German's use of submarine warfare and the sinking of the Lusitania. However, one of the reasons for this deterioration in international relations was America's retreat from its initial declaration of neutrality, and its increasingly partisan stance favoring Great Britain over Germany, even before America was officially involved. The sinking of American commercial ships, according to Wilson, finally showed that the U.S. was and would be affected, economically and politically by the war, so long as it went on. The infamous Zimmerman Telegram that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico, in exchange for obtaining the territories lost during the Mexican-American war for the Latin American nation's support was the final straw and rallied popular support for intervention.

As America mobilized, Wilson characterized those voices who opposed his policy as anti-American. However, opponents to the war comprised not simply Republican isolationists, but also progressives who saw the National Defense Act of 1916, the Navy Act of 1916, and the War Revenue Act of 1917, all used to finance and prepare the nation for war, as an overreaching of Wilson's powers as president and as a repudiation of democratic progressivism. They saw the war as a way of supporting an outmoded way of life in Europe, not a war in favor of American democracy. Populist progressives also thought that such funds and focus could be better turned to help people at home. This was one reason that the great progressive voice and leader Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan resigned when it looked like the country's entry into the war was inevitable. The anti-war progressive sentiment more quietly intensified as those who opposed the war were silenced through repressive means. However, the internationalism of Wilsonian progressivism and interest in world affairs did acknowledge the increasingly diverse composition of America as a whole, by acknowledging America's connections to the greater world.

Immigrants served in uniform with to…… [read more]

Superiority of the .45 Acp Pistol Cartridge Essay

… ¶ … Automatic Colt Pistol Cartridge is the Best Handgun Cartridge

Handguns are still considered a controversial issue in this country, but there can be little doubt that when used correctly there are few tools that are more effective for the designed purpose of defense and security than the handgun. Despite the dangers that are often associated with handgun ownership and use, taking the proper precautions and handling the gun with the respect and responsibility it requires makes the handgun far more useful than it is unsafe. With these issues aside, the question of what makes the most effective handgun still remains. The type of gun used only provides part of this answer; few people realize that the type of ammunition used is at least as important, if not more so, as the type of gun. Ammunition is what actually creates the power behind the bullet, not to mention forming the projectile itself. Handguns can really be viewed as vehicles for the initial explosion and resulting delivery of a bullet; they are not the actual unit of defense. This honor belongs to the handgun cartridge (more commonly, though incorrectly, thought of as the bullet). There are many different cartridges that fit various guns, so choosing the correct ammunition can be difficult. With any gun that fits a.45 caliber cartridge, however, the choice is a simple one: without much in the way of rational objection, the 45-caliber automatic pistol cartridge developed by the Colt Company back in 1904 remains, with few modifications, the most effective piece of handgun ammunition ever. The reasons for this are as esoteric as the simple tradition and heritage of the Colt brand and their.45 cartridge in particular, and as practical as the cartridge's stopping power and low muzzle flash combined with a moderate recoil, both of which make it the most effective and easy-to-use cartridge available.

The design of the.45 Automatic Colt Pistol cartridge is over a century old, and so has a long history. The Colt company itself is even older, having been founded in 1847. The history of the Colt Manufacturing Company is intimately tied to the history of the Wild West; the company and its guns were developed in response to the lawlessness and violence that so marked that place and time in American history. the.45 cartridge itself was specifically developed for use by the U.S. Cavalry by John Browning, and its rimless design which made for ease of loading and the shorter cartridge length -- which had benefits of reduced weight and size in military supplies -- without a reduction in power quickly made it one of the most popular cartridges in use by the army. More so than any other company, the Colt Manufacturing Company defined handguns and helped to shape history not only in this country but around the world. And of all the Colt products, the,45 Automatic Colt Pistol cartridge has remained one of the most…… [read more]

Court Martial of Billy Mitchell Research Proposal

… ¶ … Court Martial of Billy Mitchell. Specifically it will discuss the film and its importance in understanding world history. The film "The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell" tells the story of a celebrated World War I flyer, Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. The film takes place in 1920s America, and it shows Mitchell's court-martial trial, something that is amazing since he had such an exceptional record fighting in World War I. He was certain the airplane is one of the best military items for defense; he tries to persuade military leaders to create what would eventually become the Air Force. When they do not understand or take him seriously, Mitchell breaks the rules and drops a bomb, sinking a ship. The bureaucrats did not think this was possible, and he proved them wrong. However, since he disobeyed orders, they demote him to a Colonel and send him to an isolated military base in Texas.

While he is in Texas he witnesses plane crashes from planes that were not maintained or equipped right, and it enrages him that young aviators are dying. He essentially charges his commanding officers of treason, and after the plane crashes, he accuses them of ineptitude and criminal neglect. The accusations come during a very public press conference, and this is what leads up the court-martial. However, the press now knows about the problems with military leaders and their ignorance of faulty equipment. Mitchell has strong principles throughout this video, and his actions helped him gain support from the public in real life, but in the end, the judge finds him guilty and his punishment is a five-year suspension from the Army. Through it all, he remains loyal to the Army, which is difficult to believe, considering all they have put him through.

It is quite clear that Billy Mitchell was a hero who had foresight and a good head on his shoulders. He can foresee the future of aviation and the military, and he understands that planes will play a vital role in military operations. It is hard to believe that the people in charge had so little foresight and understanding of warfare and the future, and this film shows that people can be exceedingly pigheaded when they want to be. It shows the bureaucracy of the military, too, and how leaders simply do not want to change or learn from their mistakes.

Mitchell predicted many things, like an attack on the country that eventually happened at Pearl Harbor, and that they would found a military academy for aviators, which eventually happened at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs. He was a forward-thinker who had a grasp of how the military could change and grow, and what he got for it was a court-martial. This film also shows that innovation and government are not always hand in hand, and that people who are innovators are not always appreciated or even paid attention to. Mitchell was really a hero, but he was treated like a criminal, and… [read more]

Great War in Africa 1914-1918 by Byron Farwell Essay

… Great War in Africa, 1914-1918 by Byron Farwell.

Farwell, Byron. The Great War in Africa, 1915-1918. New York: W.W. Norton & Company,

Although World War I has been the subject of countless fictional as well as historical surveys in recent years, the fact that it was indeed a total 'world war,' encompassing Africa as well as Europe, Asia, and the Americas, is often forgotten. One of the reasons for this may be that the African theater was a largely colonial war, fought between England and France vs. Germany, and involving the conscription of their respective colonized peoples. America was not a 'key' player in Africa. However, it is important for all students of the period to study this part of the conflict, as it has had such an integral part in shaping the map and economy of Africa today. Byron Farwell attempts to rectify this deficit of knowledge in his book the Great War in Africa, 1914-1918.

Farwell's book covers four major campaigns: the German and English struggles in Togo, the struggle over the Cameroons, and the battles in Southwest Africa and East Africa. There is a greater focus on East Africa while Togo is dealt with, in contrast, over the course of only a few pages. This is perhaps understandable given that the events leading up to the East African conflict were particularly dramatic. While at first the governor of British East Africa believed that the colony would have no need to engage in fighting during the war, his hand was quickly forced when Germans invaded British soil and occupied the territory. Throughout the work, Byron Farwell stresses the impact of the African contribution to the war and that the campaigns in sub-Saharan Africa were fought primarily by African soldiers. Black Africans were often the most accomplished of the soldiers as they were used to fighting under such conditions. The Great War was far from a 'Great White War.' In the Cameroons, for example, "the rank and file were black Africans except for a few NCO [Non-combatant officers] s" (Farwell 71).

The intention of Farwell's work is primarily to provide an overview, although simply by highlighting the period it provides needed analytical balance in terms of how this period of history is frequently viewed. It highlights the conflict between the colonized and colonizers that existed during the period, and the clash of civilizations. Tropical diseases decimated the European armies, who had little experience in coping with malaria, dysentery, fiercely stinging bees and ants and wild animals. It also shows how the cruelty of trench warfare on the Eastern and Western Fronts of Europe was paralleled with similar callousness shown by the generals towards their troops fighting in Africa. This was evident as early as the conflict in Tongo. Ominously a solder, "who asked if his return passage would be paid, was informed that the question had never arisen," because it was assumed so many people would die and that would be taken care of in the unlikely even that… [read more]

War Versus Pollution Research Proposal

… ¶ … War on Pollution of the Environment


War with all that is entailed in such conflicts has a powerful environmental impact due to the pollution generated during war. These impacts include environmental pollution on land,… [read more]

Movie Review of Billy Mitchell Movie Review

… ¶ … Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell directed by Otto Preminger. Specifically it will discuss what I thought of the video and if it enhanced my understanding of the topic. "The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell" is a film about a famous World War I aviator, Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. This film, set in the 1920s, shows the court-martial trial of Billy Mitchell, a man with an outstanding war record in World War I. Convinced the airplane is one of the best pieces of military defense for the future, he attempts to convince the military to create an Air Force. When they fail to see his point, Mitchell disobeys orders and drops a bomb that sinks a ship, something the military leaders thought was impossible. Because he disobeyed the order not to drop the bomb, he is demoted to the rank of Colonel and sent to a remote military base in Texas. He basically accuses his superiors of treason, and then in Texas he sees two plane crashes by planes that were not equipped properly, and he speaks out against his superiors, accusing them of incompetence and criminal negligence. He does this at a public press conference, which leads to his court-martial., but puts the problem of outmoded and non-maintained equipment out in the open. Mitchell is devastatingly honest throughout the film, and he gained pubic support that helped him during the trial, but did not lead to his acquittal. In fact, he is found guilty and suspended from the Army for five years, but he still remains loyal to the Army.

This film had many of the anti-war qualities of "Paths of Glory," and again showcased poor leadership at the top. One of the most interesting aspects of this film is that Mitchell had so many predictions and that so many of them came true. He predicted that aerial warfare would become a primary way to fight wars that aerial attacks would occur, like the one on Pearl Harbor, and that the military should start a school just for aviators, like the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs. It is clear Billy Mitchell was a forward thinker, and he had a great military mind, and what he got for…… [read more]

Georgia Russia Crisis Research Proposal

… Georgia-Russia Crisis - an Overview

Background Facts

Georgia gained independence from the Soviet Union when the U.S.S.R. broke up at the end of 1991. Georgia was racked by the economic and social collapse that affected the states of the former… [read more]

Terry, Wallace. Bloods: Black Veterans Research Proposal

… Terry, Wallace. Bloods: Black Veterans of the Vietnam War: An Oral History. Presidio Press,

The title of Wallace Terry's book Bloods: Black Veterans of the Vietnam War: An Oral History (Presidio Press, 1985) might seem to suggest that there is a 'common black experience' of Vietnam, given that the work unites the common experiences and narratives of many black veterans in a single volume. However, Wallace ultimately presents not a singular image or thesis of black experience, but a suggestion that African-Americans came to grips with their experiences in ways that were uniquely 'black' because of the persistent fixation on race in American culture, particularly at that time, but were also highly individuated and unique. In short, race and blackness inevitably 'colors' the gaze of the individual of a war inflicted upon a colonized people, a war condemned by the civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. But disproportionately fought by black Americans. Yet no man's story can merely be summed up in terms of his race. To suggest that multiple perspectives of black Americans can be reduced into one experience is erroneous.

Terry does not offer a singular, over-arching thesis but instead stresses the need for multiplicity. The medium of oral history allows the author to take a balanced approach to the divisive history of the period. Through presenting a series of recollections, Terry does not have to articulate a singular point-of-view, but instead exposes the reader to many points-of-views. Some of the African-Americans interviewed were politically conscious before or after the war, others were not -- balance is the key of the book. Some soldiers were religious before coming to Vietnam while other soldiers were not, while still others experienced profound, political and spiritual consciousness- raising experiences while fighting abroad. Several were maimed in the fighting, or experienced the devastating suffering of being a prisoner of war.

The book's outreach spans enlisted men, noncommissioned officers, and commissioned officers, soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines who served between the years of 1963-1973. Although some…… [read more]

Stephen Decatur: American Naval Hero Book Review

… Stephen Decatur: American Naval Hero

There have been a lot of biographies written on Stephen Decatur and all he did during his lifetime, and most of them have been written within the last few years. However, this particular volume does… [read more]

Suicide Among Soldiers Suicide Rate Research Paper

… Suicide Among Soldiers

Suicide Rate Among Soldiers in the War with Iraq

The CBS evening new ran a story in 2004 that stated that as many as 30 American troups serving in Iraq did not die at the hand of enemies, but rather took their own life (Macnamara).The problem was virtually ignored until more than 600 soldiers were evacuated and sent back to the States for Psychiatric problems (Macnamara). The problem is expected to grow, as troops become weary from battle. Statistics for this article were derived from officially military records. These records only take into account, actual suicide attempts. They do not account for the many who are depressed and having suicidal thoughts, but that have not yet acted on these impulses.

The army typically has suicide rates higher than other branches of the armed services, with rates as high as 10-13 per 100,000 soldiers. As of 2003, the rate was only at 8-9 soldiers per 100,000 (Zorova). Yet, the army considers even one soldier to be a significant loss in this respect. They have the goal of making certain that every soldier makes it home to their family. Mental health issues have become an important research topic, especially where the military is concerned. This study will explore suicidal intentions among soldier serving in the Iraq war, with the intent of discovering the factors that drive them to suicidal thoughts.


This study will use a survey questionnaire to explore the most important stressors in a soldier's life that have the potential to lead to suicidal thoughts. The study will use random References sampling techniques, drawn from a pool of soldiers who have recently returned from Iraq. It will use quantitative techniques and Likert-type responses to question soldiers about which factors play the most important role in…… [read more]

Machiavelli the Prince Essay

… ¶ … Prince - Machiavelli

In Nicolo's Machiavelli's the Prince, in chapters six and thirteen, Machiavelli talks about the strengths of a prince in terms of his abilities vs. his birthright, and his strength as a prince in terms of those who back him. To this end, Machiavelli introduces into his discussion of princely character Agathocles the Siclian whose humble beginnings as the son of a pottery maker did not adversely impact Agathocles' ability to become the King of Syracuse (Machiavelli, 30). Also, along the same line of men who are able to achieve their princely status not by fate, but by ability, Hiero, who became prince of Syracuse. Even by Machiavelli's own account, the two were very different men; one, Hiero, a man of charismatic persuasion, we would suspect in that he did not just command his army, but he endeared himself to them. The other man, Agathocles, was ruthless and aggressive in the pursuit of that which he wanted, and that which would ensure his own survival. These traits, Machiavelli says, raises questions about the characters and ambitions of both men, but not about their ability and capabilities to rule as princes.

Hiero, Machiavelli says, was a man suited to being king, and a man whose ability to assess a situation and make decisions was in part how he created opportunity to for himself. Hiero was pursued by the citizens of Syracuse, who were oppressed, and saw in Hiero the ability of a man who could face the challenge of their oppressors, and bring together the army of Syracuse as an army that would fight and bring about the needed changes for the citizens of Syracuse. They measured Hiero accurately, and Machiavelli says that Hiero won the loyalty of the army, and, as the citizens rightly saw in Hiero's character, Hiero was a man who won the loyalty of the army. So not only did Hiero lead the army to win over the oppressors, but he also maintained that loyalty and the army supported him in the aftermath of the war.

Hiero, Machiavelli said, recognized that he had won not just because of the loyalty of his own army, but because his opposing force had enlisted mercenaries to fight against Hiero. Mercenaries, Machiavelli says, have no loyalties, because they are not enlisted for love of country or to protect their own family, but for the love of money (47). Often times, too, they are a foreign force, and the lack of love for the country they are being paid to fight for is a lack of motivation to win (47). Of mercenaries, Machiavelli makes his point when he writes:

wise prince has always avoided these soldiers and has relied upon his own men; and he has chosen to lose with his own troops rather than to conquer with those of others, judging no true victory one gained by means of foreign armies (47)."

So, when Hiero overcame the forces of suppression, freeing Syracuse from tyranny, he looked to… [read more]

Department of Homeland Security the Attacks Essay

… ¶ … Department of Homeland Security

The attacks of September 11, 2001 exposed weaknesses in the government's defense of the nation resulting in Congress creating a new cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2003, which combined a variety of agencies in providing protection to the nation. This work intends to answer the questions of what the political struggle inherent in the debate over whether to have an Office of Homeland Security or a Department of Homeland Security and how did Congress and President Bush inject other agendas into the creation of the Department Homeland Security. Finally, this work will answer the question of how the distinct cultures of law enforcement agencies folded into DHS impact on its overall functioning and effectiveness.


The work of Steven E. Miller entitled: "After the 9/11 Disaster: Washington's Struggle to Improve Homeland Security" states that while it is understandable that it was felt that something must be done to enhance security following the events of 9/11, the creation of the Department of Homeland Security was the focus of so much debate because the new cabinet-level department because the "second largest department in the federal government, second only to the Defense Department..." with a budget of approximately $40 billion and representative of the "largest reorganization of the U.S. federal government in more than half a century." (2003)


The work of Antonia Juhasz states that when President Bush states that he desires to "spread freedom to every corner of the earth, he means it. But of course, the president that turned Soviet-era gulags into secret CIA prisons in order to do God-knows-what to God-knows-whom isn't talking about individual freedom. He means corporate freedom -freedom for the great multinationals to extract anything they can from the world's resources and labor without the hindrance of public interest laws, environmental regulations or worker protections." (2006) This fact is evidenced through the free-trade agreement being referred to as a "centerpiece of its national security policy." (2006) According to Juhasz, "the invasion of Iraq - an invasion that was as much economic as military..." And instead of "simply replacing the head of a regime that is no longer serving the interests of the administration, the Bush team has gone further - using military invasion to fundamentally transform a country's political and economic structure." (2006) Additionally, the administration has maintained the altered structure of Iraq with its ongoing occupation and which perfectly describes "imperialism" according to Juhasz. There has been much controversy surrounding the business dealings that have been conducted by and between DHS and private contractors such as Blackwater a company that just recently, has been found to be involved in human trafficking and incidentally, the same company that was in charge of security following Hurricane Katrina. (Phinney, 2006; Labott, 2004) the work of Scahill (2007) entitled: "The Mercenary Revolution: Flush with Profits from the Iraq War, Military Contractors See…… [read more]

Women Played an Important Role in WWII and Were Changed Forever Because of Their Involvement Research Proposal

… The Important Roles Played by Women During World War II

The scope of World War II was unprecedented in its time and thus far
has yet to be succeeded by anything which remotely resembles it in such
capacities as its… [read more]

Bay of Pigs - Leadership and Foreign Term Paper

… ¶ … Bay of Pigs - Leadership and Foreign Policy

One of the most uncertain times in American foreign policy history was in 1961, during the crisis of the Bay of Pigs. In a magazine article by retired Marine officer Jack Hawkins (1996) talks about his role in, and the information he has on the Bay of Pigs, which was an invasion of Cuba by 1500 Cuban expatriates whose goal it was to overthrow the Communist regime of Fidel Castro (Hawkins 36). Hawkins reveals what he refers to as Project Cuba, a plan that would involve overthrowing the Castro government as first being formulated by the Eisenhower administration. Hawkins says in August of 1960, he was assigned to a paramilitary CIA group as a Marine officer experienced in amphibious operations and guerrilla warfare (Hawkins 36). In 1961, President Kennedy was briefed on Project Cuba and he decided to follow through on the project. What would follow would become one of the biggest demonstrations of American ineptitude in the history of America. It was, Hawkins alleges, a failed effort because of presidential indecision, and because President Kennedy, though he committed to the initiative, did not back his commitment with the needed support in human assets or in weaponry (Hawkins 36). if, as Hawkins alleges, the Bay of Pigs was a failed operation because presidential indecision and because the support to which the committed was not provided, then could the initiative have succeeded? Or would Cuba have succumbed to the revolutionary forces vying for power, and never have successfully been democratized even if Castro had been successfully ousted?

To answer these questions, we must go beyond a single perspective that might be limited to just the information, accurate or otherwise, with which that perspective was informed. Hawkins claims to have been assigned to the CIA paramilitary unit responsible for training and interacting with the expatriates to build an invasion force of individuals who would move in to establish the new democratic government in Cuba (Hawkins 36). It is Hawkins perspective that Kennedy authorized the operation, committed U.S. resources to the operation, then, he failed to deliver on his commitment (Hawkins 36). The result was disastrous. The Cuban expatriates were left to flounder on Cuban beaches without the air support, U.S. military support, or the weapons that had been promised them. They were killed and, or, captured and executed.

We'll begin analysis by breaking down what Hawkins alleges were the President's commitment to the operation: (a) air support, (b) military support, - weaponry.

The Bay of Pigs Air Support, Weapons, and U.S. Military

Jack Hawkins says that U.S. air support was a crucial to success or failure of the invasion at the Bay of Pigs (Hawkins 36). Since the mission, as we know, failed, we will examine what happened to the air support that Hawkins claims was committed to the mission, and then not provided. In a study by researchers James G. Blight and Kornbluh (1999), they agree with Hawkins that the brigadistas… [read more]

George Patton Norman Schwarzkopf Term Paper

… Leadership


Generals Patton Jr. And Schwarzkopf, Military Heroes

General George S. Patton, Jr.

George Smith Patton, Jr. was among the most controversial but successful American field commanders of any war (Campbell 2007). He was a homegrown… [read more]

Twelve O'Clock High and Be Know Term Paper

… Leadership

Dramatic, major changes are sometimes difficult, whether in the civilian industry or in government institutions such as the military. Often times a leader (whether a politician or an officer) who attempts to institute changes is challenged by those who… [read more]

American National Security Term Paper

… President & National Security

Introduction and Historical Precedent

The notion of national security, as we know it changed on September 11, 2001. For the first time in the history of the United States (at least the contiguous states) a concerted,… [read more]

Huxley and Barak on War Language Term Paper

… Huxley and Barak on War Language

The facts of war, according to Aldous Huxley, are "revolting and horrifying," and so as a result of that nations have to make war seem less evil than it is. How do nations do that? "By suppressing and distorting the truth," he continues, in his essay "Words and Behavior." He goes on to suggest that our "sensibilities" and our "self-esteem" are preserved when we lie about the facts of war.

Societies that try to hide the brutality of war are exhibiting "stupidity" - and moreover, the most shocking thing about waging war, Huxley continues, is that "its victims and its instruments are individual human beings," not machines or tools of destruction. The political system, which Huxley calls "monstrous conventions" because they condemn human beings to murder "or be murdered" in "quarrels not their own."

The writer is clearly opposed to the whole idea of war, but in this essay he takes great pains to attack the language that is used to describe and justify war. His semantical attack on the language of war is very specific and very effective. Reading his essay it reminds a person that there are plenty of euphemisms used in modern warfare to make the reality sound not as bad as it truly is, and those will be presented a bit later in the paper.

But meanwhile, Huxley dislikes the informality of "the enemy" and how the enemy makes "his" plans and strikes "his" blows. This is a personal character transformed into "collectivities" and to "geographic expressions" that become not humans but "institutions." The use of the literary style of personification - making a non-human item into a human entity - should be used legitimately, Huxley insists. For example the day doesn't have human attributes but a writer could say, "The warm sun was smiling down on her as she pushed the baby cart along Main Street."

But the war makers and politicians use personification "for the purpose of concealing the fundamental absurdity and monstrosity of war." And when writers and war makers personify opposing armies or warring nations it helps the war makers to give the impression that it is a battle between individuals, which it is certainly not, he adds.

A little barroom fight between to men is not a bad thing, writes Huxley; a "bout of fisticuffs in a bar room" is just that but the men who make the language of war are really talking about "mass murder, deliberately organized." But if the language put out by the media or the war perpetrators were honest, and explained war as the bloody mass murdering machine that it really is, "would therefore be inconvenient." Because once citizens understood the full impact on the human race and the society those citizens would make effort " get rid of the abominable thing."

Another thing that bothers Huxley is when those who create the language of war conceal the reality of war through "picturesque metaphors." The first example of those metaphors… [read more]

Slobodan Milosevic Term Paper

… Milosevic and Yugoslavia

Slobodan Milosevic had a major role to play in the disintegration of Yugoslavia. Many would not want to believe it and least of all Milosevic himself but it is generally agreed that fall of Yugoslavia was caused… [read more]

Should the Draft Be Reinstated Pros and Cons? Term Paper

… ¶ … America Reinstitute a Draft?

Once upon a time, not so long ago, nearly every able-bodied young man in the United States held his breath in anticipation that his draft numbers might be called in the national draft lottery.… [read more]

War in Vietnam the Web Site Term Paper

… ¶ … War in Vietnam

The Web site of the PBS documentary of the War in Vietnam:,producedby PBS Online, gives a compelling history of the Vietnam War, from its inception to the American pullout and beyond. The authors' intent in creating the site was to bring together information from a wide variety of sources that might make the war and its outcome a bit clearer to people unfamiliar with the events, causes, and outcomes of the war. The site contains areas of brief history, a timeline, the air war, guerilla tactics, and the siege at Khe Sanh, along with additional resources for further study.

The Vietnam War actually began in the 1950s, in a conflict between France and its colony, Vietnam. France actually lost the colony in 1954, and when negotiating for peace, they allowed a division of the country into North and South, which was supposed to "disappear" after elections in 1956, but ultimately resulted in Communism in the North, and a free Republic in the South (with much help from the U.S.). The war started in earnest when the corrupt leadership in South Vietnam kept telling the world that the Communists of North Vietnam were aggressors in a civil war, and in order to prevent a Communist takeover, enlisted aid from America. American advisors were in the country advising the South Vietnamese military, and after the attack of two U.S. ships in the Gulf of Tonkin, America sent in real troops in 1964 and the war was one.

Protests against the war began because the war was affecting every aspect of American life, both human and material, and when the government instituted a draft, things came to a head. By 1968, the country was in protest; there were riots at the Democratic Convention in Chicago, and on college campuses around the country. The people wanted out of Vietnam, but that would not happen until 1972, for America, and 1975, when the Communists finally took over the South.

The site uses a large number of very reliable sources, such as university professors and experts to reach reliability and credibility, and it does a good job of presenting the history of the Vietnam War in a comprehensive and yet understandable style. The timeline is especially…… [read more]

Mcclellan an Analysis of George Term Paper



On September 13, 1862, a pair of Union soldiers of the Twenty-Seventh of Indiana accidentally stumbled upon a copy of General Robert E. Lee's campaign orders in a field near Frederick, Maryland, where two… [read more]

International Law and the Use of Force Term Paper

… International Law and the Use of Force


When the United States decided, after a lot of serious thought, to use force in self-defense following September 11, 2001 events, it did so according… [read more]

Actions and/or Feelings Between Me and Beah Term Paper

… ¶ … actions and/or feelings between me and Beah. Beah was only 13-years-old when he began to fight with the Sierra Leone Army, and his memoir shows that war can have a strong psychological effect on the soldiers who fight it.

Like the author, I would not hesitate to join an army to protect my country. However, the army Beah joined was corrupt and violent, and while they were fighting rebels who spoke out against the country, they also looted civilian towns, killed their enemies very violently, and they kept the children fighting through coercion and even gave them volatile mixtures of drugs to ensure they would stay and fight. He says they had no choice in fighting. He writes, "We had no choice. Leaving the village was as good as being dead" (Beah 107). This is the difference between the civil war in Sierra Leone and fighting for my country. Beah had no choice; he could fight or die, while in our country, it is our choice to fight to uphold our country and our freedom.

I would fight to protect my country, but I would not be so violent and gruesome about the way I killed people, either. Beah talks about how cruelly the army eliminated the enemy, and how they even ran "contests" to see who could kill someone the fastest. He even became so used to violence that when his friend was killed, he shrugged it off. He writes, "My squad had lost the base where I had trained, and during that gunfight Moriba was killed. We left him sitting against the wall, blood coming out of his mouth, and didn't think much about him after that" (Beah 122). He became essentially a killing machine, and that is not something I would want to become, no matter who I was fighting. I think that he did that to survive in a terrible situation, while I would fight for my country to keep our situation from becoming something like that.

Rehabilitation for many people is long and difficult, and Beah's story indicates how difficult it can be. Not only did he have to get away…… [read more]

Behind Enemy Lines: 2001 Movie Term Paper

… ¶ … Enemy Lines

I am a downed Navy pilot/navigator, on a NATO reconnaissance flight when I was shot down with my pilot by unidentified ground to air SAM missiles. It is the first day Behind Enemy Lines (More, John (dir), 2001, motion picture film), and I have just witnessed government sponsored military soldiers assassinate my pilot, and now I am on the run from the assassins, in fear for my life. I have made contact with my home base, the U.S.S. Whatever parked in the Atlantic. My commander has instructed me to go to a pre-arranged emergency pick-up point, and I am moving as fast as I can travel on foot towards that designated point. In pursuit of me, no more than 30 minutes behind me, is an assassin who wants to prevent me from telling the story of what I witnessed: genocidal murder. Whether or not I make it to the designated pick-up point depends on whether or not I can focus on my training instead of the image of my good friend and fellow pilot who was murdered before my eyes. I must focus so that I can take the story, his story too, back to the world.

I am resting, taking an energy bar, but there's no way that I can travel further in the dark, and I believe I am safe for now, at least until dawn. I'll try to begin before dawn, to try to put a little more time and distance between myself and the assassin.

It will be daybreak in the next hour, and I am moving out, slowly, as it is still very dark and I am afraid to use my light at all lest I attract unwanted attention. Moving slowly, I find myself stopping frequently, listening to the sounds of the forest in layers to see if I can hear the sounds of man. Nothing. I move forward again. Now I have the sense that I am not alone, that I am being observed. It is daybreak, and suddenly a rifle shot rings loud and clear and I can feel the air of the bullet as it passes close to my head. It is the assassin, and now I am running; running for my life!

I have no choice but to attempt a crossing at a damn where, unfortunately, I will be a nearly wide open…… [read more]

U.S Foreign Policy Term Paper

… u.s foreign policy

The issue of the war in Iraq continues to remain a rather debated subject, particularly because of the ongoing struggle of the American troops to find a proper resolution to the fighting that still take place throughout Iraq. In this debate however, the issue of the relationship between the President and the Congress appears to be more and more an issue of each of the two parties' rights to head the foreign policy of the United States. Therefore, it can be said that the war in Iraq also represented a challenge for the internal order of the United States.

The United States Constitution has a clear definition of the role and powers of the Congress and of the President concerning the declaration of war as well and the execution of it. In this sense, "only Congress has the power to declare war" (Ehrhart, 2003) whereas the President has the right and the duty to conduct it as the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.

There have been many situations however that denied this power to the Congress. In this sense, it seems that since the end of the Second World War the Congress did not declare war on a state (Lithwick, 2001). This was achieved by the President through executive orders that took the place of the legislative power in this sense. However, it is considered that this approach does not benefit the democratic evolution of the United States because it does not legitimize the power sharing inside the institutions of the state. In this sense, the justification of the Constitution relies on the fact that "the Founding Fathers thought war so grave a matter that they chose not to give the power to declare war to a single individual, not even the commander in chief, but instead placed that gravest of responsibilities in the collective hands of the people's representatives" (Ehrhart, 2003) Therefore, the Constitution established the clear distinction of powers.

The War Powers Act of 1973 clarified the idea of the presidential powers by allowing the president to declare war and engage in one without the actual consent of the Congress. More precisely, the act acknowledges the need for cooperation between the presidential and the congressional powers. Thus, "The President in every possible instance shall consult with Congress before introducing United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances, and after every such introduction shall consult regularly with the Congress until United States Armed Forces are no longer engaged in hostilities or have been removed from such situations" (War power Resolution, 2008).

While recognizing the relationship between the two sides, the act in itself is also important for the fact that it lets the president engage in a conflict without the prior agreement of the Congress in this sense. Thus, the act allows the President to go to war for 60 days before requiring the particular acceptance of the legislative body (War Power… [read more]

Protecting American Ground-Based Space Assets From Terrorists Term Paper

… Protecting American Ground-Based Space Assets

The objective of this work is to examine how the United States will be best able to protect ground based assets from terrorist attacks, such as down-link radar sites, launch facilities including control rooms and… [read more]

WWII Propaganda Posters From Office of War Information Term Paper

… World War II Propaganda Posters

WWII Propaganda Posters: Soldiers without Guns

During World War II, branches of the U.S. government commissioned propaganda posters, which were illustrated for the Office of War Information; patriotic in nature, these illustrations were intended to… [read more]

Contemporary History Term Paper

… ¶ … Invention of Peace: Discussion 1 - Does not peace itself create the conditions that will ultimately lead to war? (Question # 2). No. Hobbes described peace very narrowly as a period when war is neither being planned nor actively waged (Howard 2000). But peace also describes the absence of the conditions and circumstances that lead to war. By this broader definition, a period where war is neither being planned nor waged might still fail to constitute peace if conditions of that period are characterized by the dissatisfaction or fear on the part of one or more parties to that peace. The dissatisfaction of one or more parties to any peace and/or the fear of one or more parties to any peace from other parties to that peace are conditions that could eventually cause war. In that case, it is the instability of the peace that causes its failure rather than the existence of genuine peace.

I - the Invention of Peace: Discussion 2 - if nuclear weapons have made war ultimately suicidal for mankind, what can be done about it? (Question #5). Once the technology for nuclear weapons is "out of the bottle" it cannot be contained or destroyed. There are two principal ways of addressing the nuclear threat:

1) securing fissionable uranium and existing weapons, and (2) providing sufficient incentive to nations seeking military use of nuclear power to deter its pursuit of nuclear weapons technology. That has been the purpose of the international Non-proliferation

Treaty (NPT). Under the NPT, the international community offers carrots to cooperative nations and displays a stick to less cooperative nations instead of a positive incentive.

II - Discussion 1 - the Origins and Principal Global Effects of…… [read more]

My Lai Massacre Term Paper

… My Lai Massacre

My Lai remained a history as a symbol of the war's vicissitudes, of arbitrary killings and the entire irrationality of war. The slaughter of over 500 unarmed civilians in this village (other sources claim a figure around… [read more]

Othello the Play Takes Place in Venice Term Paper

… Othello

The play takes place in Venice and Cyprus during the wars between Venice and Turkey in the 16th century. Cyprus is a Venetian outpost, which was attacked and seized by the Turks in 1570 and the following year. The… [read more]

Canadian Political History Term Paper

… World War I, known at the time as the Great War, was a major challenge to countries caught up in the conflict. The war involved a massive mobilization of manpower on a scale not seen before, and getting enough men… [read more]

Chemistry - Depleted Uranium Is a Natural Term Paper

… Chemistry - Depleted Uranium

Uranium is a natural element that occurs in three different isotopes (U234, U235, and U238) in nature. All three are radioactive with half-lives billions of years long and all three are toxic to biological life. Only U235 is capable of undergoing nuclear fission, which makes it extremely valuable both for industrial applications such as nuclear power production in civilian nuclear reactors and for use in nuclear weapons production. Only a very small percentage of naturally occurring Uranium is U235 (significantly less than 1.0%), so it must be extracted through complex mechanisms to yield higher percentages for use in nuclear power production and in fissionable nuclear weapons. It is also produced artificially, as a byproduct of reprocessing the spent nuclear cores of nuclear reactors.

After extraction of U235, the left-over U234 and U238 are considered "depleted

Uranium" which, because it is very dense and produces very high temperatures on explosive combustion, is used extensively for manufacture into ammunition, especially in fighter/ground…… [read more]

Vote for John Mccain Term Paper

… Vote for John McCain

Senator John McCain should be the next president of the United States. He was elected in the U.S. House of Representatives from Arizona in 1982 and in 1986 he was elected to the U.S. Senate due… [read more]

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