Study "Military / Army / Navy / Marines" Essays 991-1000

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Open Source Intelligences Term Paper

… Open Source Intelligences

Robert M. Clark's Target-Centric intelligence model utilizes what is known as the intelligence cycle. Originally, the intelligence cycle was designed to create a complete set of data by breaking into stages the process of collecting the data.… [read more]


Narrative of 2010 National Security Strategy Essay

… Narrative of 2010 National Security Strategy

Security Strategy 2010 -- Perspectives

The National Security Strategy is from afar the most important document which encompasses the main principles, guidelines, and strategies to be implemented by one presidency or another. The strategy… [read more]


Air Force According to Their Web Site Research Paper

… Air Force

According to their Web site, only 4% of United States Air Force personnel are pilots. This leaves dozens upon dozens of opportunities to apply academic and professional skills to a service-oriented profession with the Air Force. In fact,… [read more]


Pros and Cons of the Cha and Kang Perspectives Essay

… ¶ … Cha and Kang

The Pros and Cons of the Cha and Kang Positions

North Korea's leaders have demonstrated puzzling, erratic, and irrational political and military behavior in the eyes of U.S./South Korean political scientists and policy makers. For… [read more]


High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program Essay

… ¶ … High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program otherwise known as HAARP is a project that culminates in a device array that bounces large amounts of electrical energy into the ionosphere to study its behavior and effects. There is significant… [read more]


Leadership and Management Processes Research Proposal

… AFMC Admin

AFMC Case Study: Cost Efficiency and Management Structure

The scenario presented by Case Study Part A dictates that the horizontal command structure present in AFMC is itself a cause for much of the difficult in terms of achieving greater process efficiency. At its center, this article relays the difficulties relating to the achievement of quality maintenance while applying tighter cost controls. The article details the observations made by the incoming leadership under General Babbitt, who recognized that process inefficiency was present throughout an organization with 13 major installations across 10 different states. Finding that there existed a lack of motivation to reign in cost excesses, Babbitt concluded that this was a problem relating to the leadership structure at AFMC.

Though within installations, military hierarchy would function to provide a basic chain of command, little accountability seemed to be dictated by a central management structure descending from the Ohio headquarters where Babbitt was about to assume command. This meant, according to Babbitt's experience, that efficiency failures were driven by a general lack of clarity in terms of cost assessments. Entering into projects and contracts, those working on the field level for the Command seemed to encounter costs which would routinely run well beyond the budgetary allowances allocated for said project or contract.

In frank terms, Babbitt helps to provide our discussion with an assessment for Part A, which centers on the recognition of a culture-wide shortcoming on the part of the Air Force corporate structure. Namely, an attitude which does not account for costs promotes a sense of removal from personal responsibilities for budgetary excesses has translated in this case into a broad and costly efficiency lag. Babbitt would comment with full candor that "aometimes in the Air Force we have trained ourselves not to be responsible for the resources; that becomes somebody else's problem. You didn't have to look very far to see things that could be done just as well or better in terms of performance and for a lot less money if we took certain steps to change people's attitude and to motivate them differently." (CTR, 1)

This assessment helps to provide a foundation for the recommendations which proceed from the Diagnosis segment of the case study. Namely, Babbitt makes the case that the two most significant obstacles to changing the disregard at all levels for cost efficiency are the absence of a centralized management structure overseeing the managerial activities at each installation and the absence of a centralized accountancy authority overseeing the accounting operations at each installation. This promotes the recommendation for the creation and staffing of both. Babbitt refers with positive reflection on a prior role during his professional ascension, remarking on the efficiency of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) where he was a deputy director. Here, Babbitt referenced the positive orientation produced by a managerial attention to resource availability, cost limitations and the evaluation of efficiency according to the capacity to work within the context of these limitations.… [read more]


Christmas Truce Research Proposal

… Christmas Truce

This is a template and guideline only. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

Silent Night: The Story of the World War I Christmas Truce. Stanley Weintraub. New York:

Plume, October 29, 2002. 224 pages.

Silent Night relates the soldiers' personal memories and other reports of that time during WWI in Europe when both sides stopped the "horror" of war for a few hours, set aside their rifles, machine guns, and artillery, and remembered what Christmas and compassion were all about. Weintraub's purpose is to show the humanity of man amidst the direst of circumstances and explore how the soldiers in the ranks on both sides yearned for peace. At this he is a master, despite his sometimes awkward interspersing of fictional stories concerning the event, and some German terms that were left for the reader to guess at the meaning.

The front lines of WWI were a series of stench-filled muddy trenches on both sides. Each day, both sides launched mostly unsuccessful and suicidal attacks over the sides of the trenches out into no-man's land only to be driven back or gain perhaps 100 yards. The next day, it would begin all over again. It was total, face-to-face, brutal war in a scenario straight from one's worst imagination of what hell must be like. But then, as Christmas Eve 1914 came closer, signs of an informal and most unusual "truce" were beginning to take place between soldiers.

Weintraub's portrayal, based on diaries and letters, is of soldiers, during early and mid-December, coming out of trenches to gather their wounded in that no-man's land with their hands in the air, followed by the other side doing the same. Individuals and small groups gathered amidst the dead, chatted briefly, and returned to their own trenches. They began to discover that the men on the "other side" were people just like them. The night before Christmas Eve, 1914, both sides -- the soldiers -- clearly indicated their willingness to have a ceasefire.

The Germans shared their tannenbaum trees with the French and English. The… [read more]


How Can Sanctions Be Adequately Targeted to Avoid the Suffering of Innocent People? Research Proposal

… ¶ … Humanitarian Implications of Sanctions

The establishment of international governing bodies and global peacekeeping alliances has facilitated a new way of combating rogue behavior amongst the nations of the world. Where previously military confrontation and occupation appeared as the only ways of pursuing conflict resolution with intransigent forces, today the economic alliances comprising the world community have created a number of options for pressuring policy change or greater global alignment where needed. This has created the impetus for economic sanctions, which are used to isolate those behaving out of accordance with the world community. By restricting trade with such nations and by limiting both incoming resource from imports and incoming revenue from exports, sanctions may bring to bear a heavy toll on targeted nations.

As our research denotes though, this toll is rarely ever isolated in impact simply to the regime or leadership upon which pressure is sought. The deprivation of key resources and revenue will be imposed more directly upon the general public of any such nation, meaning that with any policy of sanctioning, countless innocents are impacted by a lack of access to food, medicine, fuel and other basic living requirements. For those imposing sanctions under the premise that this might improve the humanitarian conditions facing those in developing and despotically ruled nations, or instigate an opening up of leadership to the world community, the suffering which is levied upon the publics in such nations seems to counteract the desired effect of such a policy.

Jonge Oudraat (2007) offers some strategic consideration to how the use of sanctions might be refined to hone its targeting of despotic or rogue leadership while preserving the living standards of the publics in effected nations. Particularly, the text discusses the strategic focus of sanctions as having a particular bearing on how effective and humane their repercussions may be. Here, the text cites a transition from a focus on "compellence to denial -- withholding the means that could lead to… [read more]


Effect of Combat Stress on Soldiers and Their Family Essay

… ¶ … Deployment on Soldiers and Their Families

The current prolonged involvement of United States armed forces in Iraq and Afghanistan since 2001 and 2003 respectively have now substantially exceeded the duration of military deployment of World War II. Contrary to their expectations, many soldiers have had to serve multiple deployments in those theaters, in many cases, extending their military service well beyond their intended length of military service; in some cases, they have even been recalled after their retirement pursuant to federal law that obligates their service in times of war (McGirk, 2009). Even under "ordinary" circumstances such as during peacetime, military deployment is tremendously stressful for both soldiers as well as their families remaining at home. In wartime, those stresses are increased tremendously, largely because of the obvious increased risk to life and limb associated with combat.

Deployment and Its Effects on Soldiers

Some of the consequences of prolonged (and repeated) deployment have included a dramatic rise in instances of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major clinical depression, and disruption of family relationships, believed to affect at least one of every five combat veterans who have served in either Iraq of Afghanistan (McGirk, 2009). Alcoholism, suicide, spousal abuse, and even several high-profile specific instances of murder have all been linked to PTSD. Even where soldiers do not suffer from PTSD of from other acute reactions to deployment in a combat zone, many experience mild depression, emotional isolation, and significant difficulties both while separated from their families overseas as well as upon their return to civilian life. In many cases, they find it difficult to readapt to their civilian way of life and the longer and more stressful the circumstances of their deployment, the greater those difficulties are (McGirk, 2009).

Deployment and Its Effects on Families

While… [read more]


Alternative Views of Reality Cultural Values Essay

… ¶ … Reality: Cultural Values

The Newsweek cover story by Evan Thomas and John Barry from February 18, 1991, "War's New Science" presents, in the wake of the successful first Gulf War, a rosy vision of future conflict in the Middle East. The tone of the article, in light of the current Iraq and Afghanistan war, is almost surreal in its optimism: "A cost-free victory. A push-button, remote-control war won without casualties. Surgical strikes that wipe out military targets while sparing civilians." For the Pentagon, "tech can almost never be too high," and the article looks forward to an era of war for Americans that is as easy as playing a video game.

What is most striking about this article, in light of Kluckhohns' Value Orientations is its future-focused nature. The future, it is assumed, is invariably better than the past. American individualism also seems implied, given the article's stress upon the need to protect individual American troops. It is assumed that individual causalities have value, and it is not glorious to sacrifice one's life for a collective cause, even though warfare is endemic to human society. The stress is upon 'doing' rather than upon the moral implications of the new technology -- the question if it would it be good, for example, for a nation to be able to wage war with few consequences for its peoples' safety, is not asked, because it is assumed that America will only wage war for wholesome purposes. (Despite the fact that European's superior technology to Native Americans resulted in the immoral decimation of native tribes). And the article assumes above all that Americans are the masters of their fate and nature.

Dominant American cultural patterns have always included individualism and confidence in the ability of humans to manipulate both history and nature with technology. There is also a strong sense of American superiority, as if a moral nation such as America could never engage in a war that was not just. The assumption is that war is just, and can be managed correctly through technology. The only obstacle is money, and as the authors themselves admit: "Americans have always looked to science for their answers, in… [read more]


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