Study "Military / Army / Navy / Marines" Essays 56-109

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Government Should Be Added Extra Point System for Those Who Served the Military Service Research Paper

… Government in South Korea should add extra points system for those who served the military service'

There is a compulsion for men to work in the army in South Korea. The veterans have been provided an extra point system that… [read more]


History of the Modern Army Combatives Program Research Paper

… History Of the Modern Army Combatives Program

CHARTING AN EVOLUTION

Hand-to-Hand Combat

This is a deadly or non-deadly physical encounter between two or more persons at grappling distance without the use of weapons (U.S. Army Combatives, 2012). It refers mainly to military engagements in battle but it alternately applies to un-armed physical fight between two or more persons, such as police officers and civilians. It is called close combat when engaged beyond grappling distance and close quarter battle when firearms or other distance weapons used by military participants are involved. Combatives are military martial art combat systems applied to hand-to-hand combat training (U.S. Army Combatives).

Beginnings

Hand-to-hand combat is the most ancient form of confrontation in human history (U.S. Army Combatives, 2012). Each culture had its own form or method, such as boxing, wrestling, and gladiator tournaments, and jousting, in ancient Rome and the Middle Ages. Chinese soldiers trained in this type of encounter as early as during the reign of the Zhou Dynasty from 1022 -- 256 BC. It remained part of military training despite technological advancements, such as the gunpowder, the machine gun during the Russian-Japanese War, and the trench warfare of World War I. William Ewart Fairbarn and Eric Anthony Sykes were the first to codify American combatives. They helped teach police officers and the marines a quick and simple but effective hand-to-hand combat for melee situations. Fairbairn called it the Defendu system. He eventually revised this into a method of "quick kill" hand-to-hand combat training, which he called "gutter fighting."

Rex Applegate, a U.S. military close combat instructor, later adopted and expanded it for teaching to U.S. military and paramilitary forces. The British Commandoes, the Devil's Brigade, OSS, U.S. Army Rangers, and Marine Raiders provided similar training. Applegate discussed the new training in his book, "Kill or Get Killed (U.S. Army Combatives)."

Body: The History of Modern Army Combatives Program

An order to re-energize martial arts training in 1995 revealed the need for a more effective program (National Guard, 2011; Blanton, 2008; Curtez, 2012). In response, Commander formed a committee to develop a replacement. He put SSG Matt Larsen to head the committee. In reviewing successful programs all over the world, this committee found that countries with indigenous national combative programs were more successful. Among these are Korea with Tae Kwon Do, Japan with Judo and Thailand with Muay Thai. Russia was not in the list because of its untrained population but its SOMBO system had great promise, as it was tailor-made for the Military. The committee took interest in this Russian system because of its Judo and Greco-Roman Wrestling foundation. It saw the SOMBO as similar to wresting and easier to learn, more flexible to size and strength, and with a component that allowed further training. On the whole, the committee decided that the new system they were looking for…… [read more]


Navy an Historical Account Research Paper

… Of course, the U.S. had attempted to an isolationist veneer -- but the Navy, now an entity that could determine its own course -- had other plans: the naval strategy between the Wars was one of growth, and growth was… [read more]


Women in the Military How Has Their Role Changed Term Paper

… Women in the Military

Since the beginning of combat history in the United States, women have played an important role in the military. This occurred in both the traditional and non-traditional forms. Women could serve traditionally, for example, as nurses,… [read more]


U.S. Military Bias Challenges Present in Overcoming Essay

… U.S. Military Bias

Challenges Present in Overcoming Biases in the United States Military: Past, Present, and Future

"The few. The Proud." "Be all that you can be." "See the world." These hiring slogans for various branches of the United States military (Marines, Army, and Navy, respectively; the Air Force has never officially adopted a slogan) suggest a great amount of pride, and offer opportunities of service and of personal fulfillment and achievement. These are some of the traditional sources for honor through military service, and it makes perfect sense to invoke them in trying to encourage enlistment -- the military is putting its best foot forward, and offering a kind of training and experience that no one else can. But though these slogans are wholly democratic in their language, and though they stem are issued by the oldest democracy in existence, the actual institutions behind these slogans might not be so equitable.

The various branches of the United States military have long been marked by severe biases, where opportunities provided to some -- i.e. white heterosexual males -- have been entirely denied to others quite explicitly for reasons of gender, race, and more recently, sexuality. From the segregation of troops through every major war until the Korean War to the very apparent dearth of female officers that persists to this day to the failed and discriminatory "don't ask, don't tell" policy, the military has not shown a true and concerted attempt to match their actions to the equality promised -- or at least suggested by -- their statements. Instead, the dominant power structure -- again, white heterosexual males -- has perpetuated itself by the consistent oppression of anyone different from themselves. This pattern was seen first in the segregation of African-Americans, then the barriers and degradations that women have been subjected to, and finally in the ongoing treatment of homosexuals.

Perhaps the most well-known case of widespread bias in the United States military is the segregation of African-American and white troops throughout most of the country's history. Most of this occurred over periods of time when the concept of a woman serving in the military would have been simply unthinkable, and issues of sexuality -- especially homosexuality -- were simply not discussed in a sort of "don't ask, tell, or do" policy that extended to and from society at large. This does not excuse such thought or action, but the fact that the military remained a highly biased organization in terms of race even when the issue was under heated contention -- as gender and sexuality issues were not -- provides some necessary context when observing any bias in the military. Though the specific groups affected by the military's bias might change, the problem is a persistent one, and reflects the hierarchy's refusal to approve of anyone who does not meeting their conception of the "right stuff."

If being an African-American meant you didn't have the right stuff until after World War II (and disparities have been noted even now),… [read more]


Latinos in the Military Term Paper

… Latinos in Military

From the Spanish allies during the American Revolution War, to the Tejanos marching off to World War I, to the distinguished service in World War II, to the Borinqueneers and the 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico in the Korean War and to those who are fighting valiantly in today's war in Iraq, Latinos have served the U.S. proudly and well. Yet, they have never received the recognition so deserved.

Bernardo de Galvez, for whom Galvaston, Texas was named, became governor of the Louisiana territory and attacked the British fort at Pensacola. A year later in 1781, he entirely seized the installation from the enemy (Fontana 927). Jorge Farragut, a Spaniard who battled in both the Revolutionary War and in the War of 1812, had his legacy continued by his son, Admiral David Glasgow Farragut, recognized as the Civil War's best-known Hispanic.

As a Union Army officer, David Farragut blocked Southern ports and was made Rear Admiral by Congress as a reward him for his bravery and support. During the Civil War, a number of new weapons were introduced. This included a new type of torpedo, a landmine that floated under water, which led to Farragut's well-known quote in Mobile Bay: "Damn the torpedoes. Full speed ahead!" (Wright 97). During the Civil War, three Hispanic-Americans also earned

Congressional Medals of Honor, the first time that decoration, the highest military honor bestowed by the U.S., was awarded. Although many Mexican-Americans were divided as were the Americans during this war, by the end of the war nearly 10,000 had served in regular Army or volunteer units. In addition, many Cubans, who continually shipped back and forth between the mainland and their home, also fought in the war, serving in both the Union and Confederate armies.

During the Spanish-American War, large numbers of Latinos, primarily Mexican-Americans, served in the armed forces, despite considerable prejudice and discrimination. These negative feelings continued into WWI. Although the Mexican-American culture was increasingly being integrated into the American, primary Texan, culture, their culture was still seen as an alien and suspect element (Mac Donald 149) Mexican immigrants' allegiances were even viewed more mistrusting than those of the African-Americans, which does not say much. In an editorial discussing Texas' recent mass exodus of African-Americans, the Austin American commented:

As much as many differ on the colored question, yet the fact is quite apparent that Texas is far better off with these 100,000 negroes than with the 100,000 Mexicans whom it will be necessary to bring in to take their places. These negroes have been born in Texas of parents who were born in Texas and have a sense of fealty, interest and pride in this state that no Mexican will have. (noted in Mac Donald 149).

As a result, the Mexican-Americans kept a low profile during WWI and were hesitant to stage…… [read more]


Mandatory Military Service Term Paper

… Mandatory Military Service

Each year around the world, millions of young men reach the age of majority, kiss their families goodbye and go off to join the military. This is not because they dreamed of becoming soldier while they were… [read more]


US Military Bay of Pigs Term Paper

… U.S. Military Bay of Pigs

War has basic principles by which it is conducted and it is important to abide by these. There are nine core principles of war which are objective, offensive, mass, economy of force, maneuver, unity of… [read more]


In the Army Managing a Quality Workforce in the 2100 Century Term Paper

… Business

The United States Military after the Iraq Invasion:

Maintaining Quality and Quantity

Generally when one thinks of business management, one thinks of a corporation. However, one of the largest business operations in the world is not a business in… [read more]


Military Leadership Merits Essay

… After being informed on August 3rd, 1943 that Private Charles H. Kuhl was suffering from "battle fatigue," and therefore could not perform his duties, Patton exploded in a fit of rage, slapping the shell-shocked soldier while belittling him for his alleged cowardice and ordering him back to the front lines, and while this act of willful aggression against men under his command may have been dismissed as an isolated incident, Patton managed to slap another sidelined soldier and send him back into battle just one week later (Blumenson, 1974). This lapse in judgment resulted in a reprimand from President Dwight D. Eisenhower himself, who wrote to Patton expressing his severe disapproval, stating while he "clearly understands that firm measures are necessary in order to secure the desired objectives & #8230; this does not excuse brutality, abuse of the sick, nor exhibition of uncontrollable temper in front of subordinates" (Blumenson, 1974), and Patton was forced to apologize to the troops he assaulted, as well as to make several speeches to the those under his command expressing remorse. His fellow generals universally distanced themselves from Patton's conduct, and his reputation was irrevocably altered due to these flashes of contempt for the inaction of others.

Despite the ramifications of what many termed "the slap heard round the world," Patton's legacy as a feared opponent for those pitted against him on the field of battle preceded him, and he played an integral role in the Allied invasion of Normandy while acting in a reduced role as a result of the assault scandal. With American military leaders suddenly doubting Patton's ability to control himself, he was not chosen to lead an expeditionary force during the invasion of Normandy, but the fact that Nazi generals believed Patton to be America's most capable commander allowed the Allies to engage in an act of subterfuge and misdirection which changed the course of world history forever after. By feeding the Nazi high command with a steady stream of misinformation designed to mislead them into thinking Patton would be leading the crucial entrance into the fiercely defended French occupied territories -- a rouse that the Germans were all to ready to believe due to their reverence of Patton's exploits against them in Northern Africa and Italy -- the Allies managed to gain the tactical advantage they needed to gain an upper hand in WWII that they would never lose. Patton's abilities on the battlefield were so respected in his day that even when not in command, the very suggestion of his presence was enough to motivate massive deployments of resources and personnel, and this astounding ability to strike fear into the heart of the enemy even from afar played a foundational role in the American's subsequent defeat of Nazi Germany and the Axis powers. For that reason alone, the relatively minor controversies which dogged Patton throughout his long career should not be used to discredit the multitude of contributions he made to the defense of American interests abroad.

References

Atkinson,… [read more]


Military Technology -- Civil War Essay

… A man named Jonathan Letterman, who was Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac, created the "…first organized transport…" of wounded soldiers. He innovated the design of "ambulances," which moved along with each division of soldiers, with a line sergeant in charge. There were "…two stretcher-bearers and one driver per [horse-drawn] ambulance, and they went into a battlefield and picked up the wounded and delivered them quickly to "…dressing stations and then to field hospitals" (PBS). While this innovation sounds like a simple logical answer as to what should be done with injured soldiers, the PBS article points out that previous to Letterman's system of transporting the wounded, ambulance crews usually were made up of "…a ragtag group of soldiers who were otherwise unfit for fighting" and were not competent doing the task of removing injured troops (PBS).

How effective was the Union naval blockade?

There is no doubt that the technologically advanced vessels built by the Union navy contributed in substantial ways to the demise of the Confederate effort. To wit, a research paper published by the Air War College (authored by Colonel David J. Murphy) points out that some scholars have asserted that the Confederate army lost the war not because of the blockade but rather for the following reasons: a) the collapse of the rail system in the South; and b) a feeling of "religious guilt" in the South that "triggered a collapse in morale" (Murphy, 1999, p. 2). But Murphy insists that while some scholars point to the fact that the South "easily" penetrated the Union navy's blockade of the ports -- and that Confederate leaders were "largely unconcerned about the economic effects" of the blockade -- the historic facts do not support those assertions.

Certainly the collapse of the rail system in the South contributed to the Confederate's demise, but Murphy points out that it was the blockade that "…starved the South of needed replacement rails, locomotives, and tolling stock" (2). Moreover, Murphy explains that the big, major victories by the North did not happen until the Confederates were "…suffering from blockade induced shortages" (3).

In conclusion, while there were major technological advances that helped both the North and the South in the Civil War -- including hot air balloons, telegraph facilities, rail transportation and more effective weaponry -- the North had more technologies and superior technologies and those innovations helped shut down the Confederate efforts.

Works Cited

Harvey, A.D. (2012). Was the American Civil War the First Modern War? The Journal of the Historical Association / History, 97(327), 272-280.

History. (2008). Civil War Technology. Retrieved October 16, 2013, from http://www.history.com.

Marten, J. (2012). How Technology Shaped the Civil War. Scientific American. Retrieved October 16, 2013, from http://www.scientificamerican.com.

Millett, A.R., and Masiowski, P. (2012). For the Common Defense. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Murphy, D.J. (1999) Naval Strategies During the American Civil War. Air War College…… [read more]


Military Operations Essay

… These initiatives may involve interagency exercises and simulations that are supported and conducted by combatant commands and Services. Secondly, space capabilities to support the full spectrum of operations would require the development of forensic capabilities to attribute weapons of mass destruction in a quick and accurate manner. These forensic capabilities can be developed through better cooperation between agencies, partners, and allies.

The cyber domain can support the full range of military operations now and in the future by ongoing development of unmanned technologies for different missions. America should remain committed and devote its efforts towards intellectual and technical innovation because of strategic environment changes due to technological change. The need for ongoing development of cutting-edge technologies for a range of missions is because of the use of technology by adversaries to create sophisticated methods of causing threats and harm. These measures support the execution of the full range of military operations now and in the future because it provides innovation, full dimensional protection, and precision engagement.

Capability Area to Accept Risk:

Similar to most of the country's military operations, the Air Force has experienced a period of tremendous changes and challenges in the past decade. Some of the major changes include movement of unprecedented personnel and equipment to remote areas, introduction of new technologies, and creation of intelligence, control, and command operations. Since these changes have been characterized with significant challenges, there is need to determine the capability area the air force can best accept risk in the future, though it's a difficult process. Based on recent events, the capability area where the Air Force can best accept risk is cyber domain since potential savings have not been fully realized in installations (Donley par, 15). The Air Force can accept risk in this area by tracking efficiencies in research and development, training, logistics, and installation support. This is a logical area of extra risk because the Air Force needs to consolidate scarce resources in maintaining and realizing an increasingly efficient basing structure.

In conclusion, the full range of military operations now and in the future provides a spectrum for the Army to balance between fighting to win present wars and being prepared for the next one. This spectrum not only requires joint efforts from different stakeholders but also necessitates efficiency in certain capability areas for effective execution. Air, space, and cyber domains are the major capability to support the full range of military operations now and in the future. While these domains are associated with certain risks, effectiveness in their execution provides necessary support to this spectrum.

Works Cited:

"Air, Space, & Cyberspace Power in the 21st-Century." 38th IFPA-Fletcher Conference on National Security Strategy and Policy. The Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, Inc., 21 Jan. 2010. Web. 13 Sept. 2013. .

Donley, Michael. "Sec. Donley: How Low Can The Air Force Go? -- EXCLUSIVE." Breaking Defense. Breaking Media, Inc., 9 Jan. 2013. Web. 13 Sept. 2013. .

United States. Joint Chiefs of Staffs. Director for Strategic Plans and Policy. Joint… [read more]


Trainbands Those That Were Early Colonies Essay

… Trainbands

Those that were early colonies had made their settlement among pockets of Indian inhabitants and wanted a method of safety. The colonists put together "basic tactical unit" or trainbands (common defense p. 5). Usually, these components were not held… [read more]


Flight and Its Impact Research Paper

… Military -- Flight and its Impact on the U.S. Military

Though military use of flight was slow in the earliest days of 20th Century America, Post-World War IU.S. military involvements rapidly accelerated the development of flight, revolutionizing warfare. Initially a… [read more]


Military Bearing to the Mission Research Paper

… Steadfastness is a most important characteristic of military bearing. In the absence of reliability, an individual can neither carry out his duties appropriately in the terminal nor be relied upon by their colleague, or sequence of command to execute their military obligations satisfactorily. Which means punctuality as well as reliability is never optional to any military member for the reason that lack of the two in a military member not only hampers the undertaking of the command but of the whole NAVY.

Respect, bravery as well as dedication are termed as NAVY core principles that tend to be instilled in every serviceman's life the moment the oath of enlistment is pledged. Respect is the uprightness that an individual takes upon himself for them to be able conscientiously execute the orders from the officials appointed. Bravery on the other hand is described as the ability to affirm ones values as well as morals that has been installed in them by the NAVY. Dedication is therefore the commitment that is exemplified in the manner in which of each and every individual executes the orders given to them. In the absence of any of the said NAVY core principles, the rest make no meaning. These core principles structure the foundation of military bearing. And this is how they assist in mission readiness and camaraderie.

Conclusion

To armed forces members, military bearing remains immeasurable hodgepodge of regulations as well as ethics that rule their day-to-day lives. For example, a proper as well turned-out uniform, acknowledging individual's facing whereabouts, the manner in which one in that order address their seniors, as well as upholding promptness for whichever General Quarters, residence, or watch. Maintaining a spotless uniform reflects to other service members the delight that one bears in the responsibility they hold in services they offer to…… [read more]


U.S. Military Organizational Culture the Competitive Edge Essay

… U.S. military organizational culture

The competitive edge that the U.S. military continuously enjoy is greatly linked to its strong corporate culture in the entire nation. U.S. military was built on three fundamental beliefs of significant capabilities in both defense and power projection. Consequently, these principles of operation have enabled U.S. military to instill a unique culture amongst its branches like the Continental Navy, Continental Army, and the continental Marines. As a basis for their integrity, the military organization advocates for strong military values that include strength, alertness, and defensive capabilities at all times. In light of customer service, the company exists to serve its country, support the friends of the nation and its structures, and give back to the local community through security services. Finally, in regards to defense, U.S. military has created a culture of innovativeness, diversity in services, and teamwork (Culture). This analyzes five theoretical constructs and the influences that shape U.S. military organizational culture and their impact in public administration management in the United States.

US military built its organizational culture based on the personality of its founder, Second Continental Congress. Second Continental Congress started this organization as just a small organization that was fostered at protecting the country from the external influences and threats like the world wars. Currently, U.S. military has is multinational departments running other retails stores countries such as Canada, Brazil, China, among others.

Second Continental Congress is credited as being among the pioneer employers that referred to the security matters in the country as lethal. The strength of the Second Continental Congress, positive attitude, and nurturing heart gave the organization the qualities of charismatic performance that was directed at influencing safekeeping of the strategies of security in the country. Evidently, military personnel have been made to believe that they do not work for someone, but instead assist in getting the work executed in the country. As such, the perception that has been created amongst the employees is that those who work and perform extraordinary equally get a great share of the organization's profitability and the success of the country security details.

Organizational ethics is the second factor that influences and shapes the culture of any organization as the U.S. military organization. Ethics refers to the rule of acceptable code of conduct and behavior (Driskill & Brenton, 2005). U.S. military stores have been keen on observing ethical standards of fairness, honesty, and service to both individual people and the nation as a whole. Cases of fraud, exploitation, or…… [read more]


Enemy of the U.S. Military Essay

… The problem lies in the fact that bullet-points are too small to convey full meaning of what the bullet-point is attempting to sum-up. Bullet-points, because of their briefness, are often used to present a single point without reference to any interconnection with other issues. For instance, when discussing the cause of a conflict bullet-points cannot present the complicated political, economic, and social forces which may have played a part. One General who has a particular dislike of bullet-points is General McMaster, who stated that without reference to all the aspects of a war's origin, "it becomes a targeting exercise." (Bumiller, 2010) His meaning, of course, is that without a full understanding of the reasons behind the war, the military cannot solve the fundamental underlying problems causing the war; and that bullet-points do not provide the information necessary to solve the underlying issues.

Microsoft PowerPoint is a program that can aid in the presentation of information to an audience by the creation of graphics that can present complicated information in a simplified manner. In many fields this type of program can be used as a means of presenting information in a brief, but informative way that will give the target audience a better understanding of the information being presented. However, in some cases the over-use of PowerPoint can, instead of simplifying matters, lead to problems. This has been the case within the U.S. military, which has come to rely on PowerPoint presentations as a "magic-bullet" that can solve all the problems faced by a modern military. Unfortunately, the reliance on PowerPoint has created a major backlash within the ranks of the military as they reject what has been called "death by PowerPoint." Too many soldiers are using too much of their time to create PowerPoint presentations. "PowerPoint Rangers," as these soldiers have come to be called, are not solving the problems faced by the military but are creating more complex ones. In short, PowerPoint is becoming too important and the military is spending too much of its resources on a program that cannot provide the necessary intelligence in order to win wars.

PowerPoint presentations plague the U.S. military with most senior officers receiving several presentation each day. General David Petraeus called such briefings "just agony," yet the military relies on such types of presentations almost exclusively. In order to create these faulty means of information transmission the military spends an inordinate amount of time, personnel, and resources creating so many PowerPoint presentations that the information tends to blur. Commanders say that these presentations, which have become the main means of transmitting information, contain less information than a five-page paper on a specific subject. This is because of the program's reliance on bullet-points and their conciseness. Each bullet-point must contain a single piece of information without any reference to interconnected information, and as a result, the bullet-points present isolated information without reference to other issues that may be involved. Then in order to include the important associated information, but still using the… [read more]


Military -- British Royal Navy Essay

… , 1989, p. 64.] [6: Ibid., p. 16.] [7: Rodger, pp. 250-1.]

This "wedding" of Great Britain's military and economic interests under the protection of the Royal Navy made the Royal Navy the "supreme industrial activity"[footnoteRef:8] and greatly contributed to the social belief in the myth that liberty and the strength of the Royal Navy were intimately connected.[footnoteRef:9] As a result of the belief that the Royal Navy was essential to the economy and to Britain's safety from its enemies, the Royal Navy had no difficulty in manning its ships with an eager populace.[footnoteRef:10] What is more, the myth spilled over into politics in which the Royal Navy's officers, coming from many different backgrounds[footnoteRef:11], occupied many local and national political offices and heavily influenced Great Britain's laws and funding for the Royal Navy.[footnoteRef:12] As a result, the Royal Navy was amply protected, fostered and funded.[footnoteRef:13] With all these geographic, economic, social and political forces contributing to its growth, the Royal Navy grew to be the dominant maritime force by the beginning of the 18th Century. [8: Ibid., p. 582.] [9: Ibid., pp. 312-3.] [10: Ibid., p. 313.] [11: Ibid., p. 115.] [12: Ibid., p. 389.] [13: Ibid.]

Conclusion

Great Britain's geography, society, economy and politics provided a nourishing network that made the Royal Navy the dominant maritime force in the world by the beginning of the 18th Century. Geographically, Great Britain was both given access to international markets and protected by its island existence, tides and winds. Economically, Great Britain saw early on that the sea was vital to its economic and military interests, allowing it to protect its significant trade, build an efficient economic system within its boundaries and dominate internationally. Understandably, the public realized that its economic strength, liberty and protection from enemies were intimately connected with its naval strength. This emphasis on maritime interests fostered a political climate in which naval officers came from all sorts of backgrounds within Great Britain and held influential political offices both locally and nationally. The political sway of these officers allowed them to ensure that the Royal Navy was well-manned and well-funded. Consequently, all these geographic, economic, social and political forces built a navy that became the premiere maritime global force by the 18th Century.

Bibliography

Kennedy, Paul M. The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (Paperback). Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2006.

Rodger, N.A.M. The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2005.

Starr, Chester G. The Influence of Sea Power on…… [read more]


How Is the U.S. Army Utilizing the Human Resource Model Today? Term Paper

… ¶ … U.S. Army Utilizing the Human Resource Model Today

A human resource model is a performance framework that oversees conduction of tasks from an efficient point-of-view with the intention of attaining mutual objectives. The model works to manage the… [read more]


US Military Involvement in the Korean Conflict Research Paper

… Korean Conflict

How did the Korean conflict begin? What were the dynamics behind this war? How and why did the United States get involved? How was the Korean conflict linked to the Cold War? These and other issues will be… [read more]


Combatant Commander's Revised Mission Statement Thesis

… Combat Commanders Revised Mission Statement

Based upon the accompanying INTSUM, OPREP-3, and Warning Order for the Bangladesh scenario provide a Combatant Commander's revised mission statement. Ensure that this statement includes the elements of "who, what, when, where, and why."

The… [read more]


Amateur Armies and Initial Essay

… [footnoteRef:4] [4: Woodworth, 61]

But perhaps most damningly, regarding the Union forces, was the fact that once the initial fervor wore low, conscription became a necessity. The Enrollment Act of March 1863 required all men ages 20-45 to register for the draft, which would be instituted if a district fell below the federally-mandated quota.[footnoteRef:5] Resistance to the draft grew, and many grumbled that they did not want to fight to keep a South in a Union, when it wished to leave. Furthermore, the way in which the draft was implemented -- allowing men to temporarily buy their way out of the draft for the price of three hundred dollars or to purchase a poorer man to go in their place -- only inflamed class tensions. At the time, three hundred dollars was a working class man's annual salary.[footnoteRef:6] [5: Woodworth, 227] [6: Woodworth, 227]

Thus, the initial use of volunteer armies was a disaster. They shoved untested recruits with little real knowledge and understanding of the rigors of warfare to the front lines. When recruitment of new volunteers proved difficult, the public was resistant to instituting a draft after the war began, and felt that it was sending men -- mainly poorer men -- to their deaths in a conflict with an uncertain end date and of uncertain value. The inexperience of the Union forces in particular likely prolonged the war, given that the Union had superior military might to the Confederacy. Yet neither side really sustained an advantage using short-term militia. Loyalty to the army, a sense of personal investment in the strategy undertaken, and coolness in battle was something which could only be won through sustained experience, which the short-term volunteer army did not possess.

Bibliography

Woodworth, Steven E. This Great…… [read more]


Sun Tzu and Military Classics Essay

… " Giap's forces forgot another Sun Tzu principle, however, that of moral influence, when they massacred 5,000 people at Hue and turned the civil population against them. Once the locations of the small and isolated VC units were revealed, the U.S. military was able to destroy them quickly with its superior firepower, especially when the anticipated popular uprising in the cities never occurred. At the same time, though, Giap won a moral victory with public opinion in the U.S., which turned against the war and Lyndon Johnson politically, so in that respect his offensive was a major victory even though it had also been "a military disaster for North Vietnam."

If the Americans were outclassed in generalship during the Vietnam War, they did much better against the Germans at Normandy in 1944, once again by following Sun Tzu's strategies. Dwight Eisenhower made highly effective use of deception by convincing Hitler that the real attack would come at Calais, which led him to keep many of his best units, including the Panzers, in the wrong places -- and none of these could be moved without his permission. Sun Tzu also taught that using double agents was essential in warfare, and in World War II the British Operation Double Cross had turned almost even German spy, and these were used to feed the enemy false information. Because the British had also broken the German Enigma machine codes, they also knew a great deal about the enemy's thoughts and perceptions, which was very useful in keeping them deceived in the run up to D-Day.

Sun Tzu also believed in a war of movement, however, and would not have approved of how the Allies were caught up fighting in the hedgerow country at Normandy for three months, but he would have endorsed Operation Cobra, which launched diversionary attacks toward Caen to attract the attention of the Germans, then broke out of Normandy from the other side in a surprise flanking maneuver led by General Patton, that drove rapidly across France. This was in accord with Sun Tzu's principle that it was always desirable to make the enemy prepare for an attack on one flank to make him weaken his defenses in the areas where the real attack would take place. This was a classic Sun Tzu maneuver, in fact, and led to victory on the Western front, while commanders who did not follow his strategy and got bogged down in prolonged wars or attrition or frontal attacks and sieges on strong defensive positions often ended up losing the war. Generals in the Civil War and World War I, for example, ignored his maxims to "only fight if a position is critical" and "there is some ground that should not be contested" to their detriment and that of their armies.

REFERENCES

Harvey, R. (2008). Maverick Military Leaders: The Extraordinary Battles of Washington, Nelson, Patton, Rommel, and Others. New York: Skyhorse Pub Co Inc.

Sun Tzu. The Art of War. History.com…… [read more]


Army Leadership it Is the Mission Essay

… Army Leadership

It is the mission of the United States Army to protect the nation from threats by fighting and winning the country's wars. For more than 200 years men and women have served in the Army to successfully accomplish this goal, and as an American, I want to join this line of great citizens and defend this nation against any and all threats. The United States of America is a nation unlike any that have ever come before. Founded in liberty, it's whole purpose is to create an environment where everyone is free to accomplish anything they set their mind to. This system is guided and protected by the principles and laws set out in the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution; and the military has been created to protect this nation, and the freedom of its people, from threats that may destroy the peace and order that has been created. In order to do this, the military needs competent and willing people to do the difficult work and make the sacrifices that are necessary; and I feel that I could make a significant contribution to the protection of this great nation by becoming an officer in the U.S. Army.

As an officer in the United States military there are certain expectations that society has in store for me, and they can best be described by the motto "BE-KNOW-DO." An officer is expected to BE a leader, to possess the qualities and attributes that shape character in order that they may be able to motivate, influence, and inspire others to accomplish assigned missions. It is what a leader KNOWS that will give them the ability to be a leader, and in the Army this means knowing tactics,…… [read more]


US Service Capabilities Assessment

… Humanitarian Assistance

In Joint Publication 3-29, the Joint Chiefs of Staff lays out the doctrine for U.S. military support of foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) missions short of war. These capabilities will be deployed in smaller scale contingency (SSC)/MOOTW scenarios, but… [read more]


Military Needs to Step Down Research Paper

… Thus, with the only really functioning economy, the United States became the major protagonist against Soviet aggression during the aptly termed, "Cold War" (Hopf, 1999).

The Cold War with the Soviet Union was based, really, on a high level of mistrust. After World War II the Americans had nuclear weapons capability, they had not been invaded so were on better footing economically, and the Soviet's need for buffer "protective" zones in Eastern and Southern Europe. Then, of course, there was the nature of the Soviet State -- the aim of spreading world communism, and American President Harry Truman's personal dislike and distrust of Joseph Stalin. It was this role that dominated Foreign Policy, military spending, and even personified regional conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, and finally the Middle East for the next several decades.

However, any discussion of the legitimacy of the U.S. military presence abroad must begin by stating that, from a practical standpoint, sustaining the military troops and bases in foreign lands negatively affects the U.S. Although it significantly reinforces the global authority of the U.S. army, the military's international presence hinders the overall welfare of the U.S. and, contrary to popular belief, fails to stimulate the economic development of the U.S.

It is clear to all parties that the U.S. is currently facing a debt crisis. This debt crisis is exacerbated by the excessive military spending, and a reduction of international military presence could greatly aid in the resolution of the debt. Unlike financial problems that can be solved simply by saving money and repaying loans, the U.S. is facing a $15 trillion deficit that requires a more complex solution. To put this astronomical figure in context, $13 trillion stacked in hundred dollar bills would be nearly as tall as the Statue of Liberty, and as wide as a two football stadiums (Visualization). This debt is 20% more than the world's combined GDP (Visualization). In addition to the national debt, the U.S. suffers from unfunded liabilities, which means the U.S. government lacks the funds necessary to pay Medicare, social security, military, and civil servant pensions -- all of which amount to over $114.5 trillion. Visually, this is a stack of hundred dollars as tall as the former World Trade Center and Empire State Building combined (Visualization). These analogies lucidly illustrate the fact that the U.S. needs to decrease… [read more]


United States Military's Efforts to Transform Essay

… ¶ … United States military's efforts to transform into an organization which is integrated and desegregated with regard to African-Americans and women. It addresses the factors associated with the need or perceived need for transformation. It also addresses key forces… [read more]


Law Enforcement Bulletin Article Review

… Gangs Military Weapons Tactics

UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY/LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE

Gangs Deploying Military Hardware, Tactics

Street gangs are increasingly obtaining and deploying military-grade equipment and tactics. Be prepared for increasing levels of force and resistance. Pick your battles: Stay alert to stay alive!

National Gang Intervention Center 2007

National Gang Intervention Center 2007

Street gangs have been acquiring military-grade hardware, as indicated by:

Increasing civilian arrests for illegal purchase/posession of weaponry from private-sector Department of Defense contractors (1)

Congressional testimony and increasing nationwide arrests for stolen military offensive and defensive hardware sold at gun shows and by private individuals going back nearly two decades (2)

LAPD San Bernaardino arrested a parolee in 2006 in posession of a military rocket launcher (3)

Recent and increasing arrests of ex-military for selling assault weapons to gang members (4)

2. Street gangs have increasing access to military combat tactics and training:

Gang affiliation by active personnel "is pervasive throughout" every branch of the U.S. military (5)

Gang deployment of military training against police is increasing (6)

Convictions of active-duty military personnel for gang-attributed crimes including homicide, armed robbery and narcotics posession / sale have increased (7)

Tactics and equipment can be deployed for assault, defense or support (first aid; escape, etc.) (8)

3. How can I predict if gang members will deploy combat tactics or equipment?

YOU CAN'T

4. How should I respond to increasing possibility of military-level combat with gangs on the streets?

Stay alert, stay alive: PREVENT and AVOID engaging superior hostile force by gang members

Assume all situations carry the potential to deteriorate into combat-level hostilities

Predict potential assault, defense and escape opportunities AT ALL TIMES in the field, especially in areas where gang activity is intense or very intense

PREVENT military-level conflict with superior force and tactics: recognize and AVOID situations as if military assault and defense by gang members is always possible and likely

Document all gang-related evidence wherever possible, to increase prosecutors' ability to reduce crime before gangs take the opportunity to deploy combat tactics and illegal hardware. File appropriate STEP Act reports outlined in Manual of Policy and Procedures to alert CLEAR/HEAT/SAGE teams (9)

It is our…… [read more]


Evolution of U.S. Military Combat Operations and Chemistry Warfare Defense Research Paper

… ¶ … Evolution of Nuclear Weapons

The evolution of chemical and biological weapons

The evolution of U.S. military combat operations began sometime in the 1775 (Doughty et al.,1995). An examination of the American military combat operations can be traced from… [read more]


Civilian and Military Organizational Competencies Term Paper

… According to "Managing Supply Chains," the Department of Defense has long funded major research to improve logistics. Over the past 15 years, the commercial world has developed innovations in supply-chain management, including methods that exploit information technology systems to streamline and monitor business processes. The article quotes William Pagonis, Sears logistics executive and retired Army logistics expert "IT technology has jumped so dramatically in the last 20 years and particularly in the past five years that the DoD is finding it better to go out and get technology from the civilian sector" (2003). Borrowing technology between civilian and military managements shows the convergence between the two.

The military has looked to the commercial world for ideas on efficiency and continuous process improvement in other logistical areas as well, resulting in the Army's adoption of Lean and Six Sigma, two independently developed improvement tools. Army Materiel Command officials first used the tools developed at Toyota and Motorola respectively to better wage the global war on terrorism and enable transformation (Reese, 2006).

Another aspect where basic competencies between civilian and military organizations are similar is the way in which the military and companies like Wal-Mart approach sustainability and supply chain management. According to military logistics experts, the specialized military supply-chain consists of three tiers:

The first tier supports movement of commodities such as food, medicine, and clothing (the equivalent of Wal-Mart's operations)

The second tier supports transport of major components such as weapons systems that require maintenance over time

The third tier provides movements of large numbers of troops and equipment through the deployment chain into difficult environments

Because of the comparability of Wal-Mart's supply chain with the first step of the military's logistical operations, experts continue to analyze the implications of Wal-Mart's sustainability initiative for national defense acquisitions strategies (Smith, 2010).

Ideas flow both ways between commercial and military environments. The Internet had its beginnings as a cloistered defense communication network, from which it has since evolved into a web of digital shopping and entertainment outlets. One area where the business world stands to dramatically improve would be to adapt military supply chain techniques to improve performance. Whereas the military manages its logistics with the performance metric of availability for its end-customer, the soldier, the commercial world manages its logistics with internal performance metrics, not from the perspective of the end-customer. As any number of consumers will agree, the commercial world often loses sight of the end-customer; the commercial world needs to emulate the military and focus on customer-centric performance metrics ("Managing Supply Chains," 2003).

To sum up, reviewing both commercial and military operations clearly shows areas where both use similar organizational competencies to plan and implement information technology and related procedures and processes.

Works Cited

Lopez, C.T. Staff Sgt. (2006). Headquarters Air Force realigns similar to 'J-staff" model. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123015891

Managing supply chains: What the military can teach business (and vice-versa). 2003. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm;jsessionid=a830fe1c16ad9a882ac02226606e4c53601e?articleid=894

Price, D.E. (2004). Organizing for expeditionary operation transforming… [read more]


Leadership Practice Concepts Term Paper

… Army Comradeship: Important to Military Institution

Army Final Paper

DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANIZATION

Perhaps there is no organization in the world that is as disciplined, motivated and sophisticated as the United States military. Divided into different service groups, namely, the… [read more]


Diversity in the Military Term Paper

… ¶ … Diversity Training Programs for the U.S. Armed Forces

Because its members are drawn from all walks of life in society and disparate geographic locations, one of the most diverse organizations in the United States is its armed forces.… [read more]


Military Intervention Humanitarian Aid and ICC Reformation Essay

… Military intervention, humanitarian aid, ICC & Africa

Military intervention or peacekeeping, humanitarian aid, and the International Criminal Court (ICC) are all noble, useful, and imperfect institutions designed to cope with crisis situations. They are humankind's flawed attempts to rescue itself from bad circumstances, some of which are humankind's own doing. The benefits of these actions are sometimes not adequate to meet the needs of the beneficiaries; other times, the viewpoints of the benefactors and the beneficiaries are not identical. Just because they are flawed, however, does not mean that such activities and institutions should be abandoned. Like all complex human endeavors, they can be evaluated, analyzed, and improved.

Military intervention is perhaps the most difficult activity to reform. Deploying armed troops into a chaotic situation, often between opposing forces mixed in with desperate and terrified civilians is risky and extremely complicated. Firstly, there is the issue of impartiality, which can negatively affect militarily strategic goals. Taking sides can more quickly stop the violence but create enemies for the intervening forces, whereas true impartiality can make the troops ineffective on the battlefield, bringing little positive change to the crisis (Betts 21). Additionally, unanticipated things will happen when a large force of foreign soldiers enter into an already disturbed situation. Long-term peacekeeping operations sometimes result in sexual exploitation of local women, disruptions of the normal economic and governing order, and changes in gender roles (Aoi, de Coning, and Thakur).

Aoi, de Coning, and Thakur suggest planning for these unintended consequences by taking a complex systems approach to military interventions. They say there should be real-time monitoring of forces on the ground and an acceptance that unintended events and interactions are inevitable. Coupled with unambiguous rules of engagement and clear force mandates, the negative affects of such operations may be lessened.

Humanitarian aid operations can be negatively affected by corruption. Paul Harvey notes that in the past few years there have been news reports of corrupt activities in aid operations in Somalia, Liberia, and Iraq. In the case of Uganda, Bailey's "most striking observation" was the lack of concrete evidence of corruption; a lot of the problems may have been due to inefficiency or incompetence (9). Still, her research uncovered widespread perception that corruption was taking place, including adding false names or fake households on to recipient lists, paying fees to get on aid registration lists, selective exclusion from lists, registration of ineligible recipients, the sale of ration cards, and camp leaders taking and/or selling food. Also sometimes workers not paid by aid…… [read more]


Leadership Development Developing Business Plan

… Leadership Development

Developing The Leader Within You

AAFES: John Maxwell's principles

AAFES: John Maxwell's principles

As a military-led organization, Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) is characterized by a strong sense of integrity and respect for organizational hierarchies. There is also a strong sense of devotion to the individuals the organization serves: the U.S. armed services. The military itself clearly passes 'the mentorship test,' in the words of John C. Maxwell's book Developing your leadership potential when he asks the question "am I true to my leader" (Maxwell 2000, p.46). The military makes a strong commitment to its people, including their development as human beings as well as soldiers. Hence, the need for AAFES, which provides recreational services to soldiers.

Also according to Maxwell, an organization must be true to its followers and vision. AAFES, because it is partially funded by Congress and is not responsible for being 'in the black' like a completely for-profit corporation (although it is expected to be efficient and not waste taxpayer money) must balance a need for profitability with the needs of its servicemen and servicewomen clientele. But applying a for-profit, consumer-based approach of soliciting marketing advice from servicemen could actually improve its ability to be responsive to their demands.

One of the cornerstones of leadership is setting priorities, and in this instance, the greatest priority is serving the armed forces with recreational and dining facilities. Finding what types of amenities are desired will enable AAFES to better serve the armed forces, realize its mission, and also have more money to invest in its efforts. According to Maxwell, 20% of organizational priorities will garner 80% of production demand (Maxwell 2000, p.20). In other words, setting priorities enables the organization to channel its resources more effectively and garner a superior return upon its investment.

To determine what servicemen require, AAFES can combine traditional consumer, marketing research by polling its users; using small marketing focus groups; and also using the demographic knowledge of the military, such as gender and race, to gain a clearer portrait of users. Are swimming pools or golf courses more popular? What types of crafts and art activities are desired for adults and children?…… [read more]


Guard and Reserve Military Families Thesis

… ¶ … guard and reserve military families face during and after deployment and an assessment of the effectiveness of resources provided

The present study will contain a literature review in Chapter Two which will provide the information sought after in… [read more]


Respectable Army the Military Origins of the Republic 1763-1789 Research Proposal

… ¶ … Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic 1763-1789

James Kirby Martin and Mark Edward Lender. A Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic, 1763-1789. Arlington Heights, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, 1982.

The myth of the American Revolution runs as follows -- America was made up of a rag-tag band of soldiers, ordinary yeoman farmers with little professional training. Through grit and a little bit of guile and guerrilla warfare, they won the independence of the new republic. Their spirit and devotion to liberty triumphed over British military professionalism. However, in a Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic 1763-1789 historians James Kirby Martin and Mark Edward Lender dissect this dearly-cherished American cultural myth and search for the real truth. They state that if the American colonists had not assembled what George Washington called a 'respectable' army, based upon professional servicemen for hire, America would never have won its independence. These two historians paint an often-unflattering picture of the early citizen soldiers. These land-owning men wanted independence without paying the price of 'getting their hands' dirty. They expressed disdain of the 'real' soldiers conscripted later on, the soldiers who were mainly responsible for America's victory. America underwent a notable shift in its philosophy of defense, even before the creation of the new American nation. Americans had to realize that a man with a musket was not enough to protect a modern nation, and an organized standing army was necessary for a nation-state to thrive and survive.

The authors are uniquely qualified as a duo to write this military and cultural history, given that one has a background primarily in Revolutionary and colonial studies, the other in military history. Both men have collaborated before on histories of the period. James Kirby Martin is a Distinguished University Professor of History at the University of Houston, Texas. According to the university's history department website, Martin is a specialist in Colonial and Revolutionary American studies, and has authored many works 18th century America, most of which focus on the intersection of social and political history, such as Drinking in America: A History, 1620-1980, which he also wrote in conjunction with Mark Edward Lender. According to the Kean University website, Lender is a specialist in military history at Kean University but he also has a background in colonial social history which infuses his work beyond studies of mere military tactics.

Martin and Lender's central thesis is that what exists of the historical evidence of the period does not support the idea that the noble, unprofessional soldiers known as minutemen led the American fight for liberty. A dislike of an organized, standing army may have been articulated by some patriotic zealots before the fighting actually began. But the idea that farmers and country gentlemen could single-handedly oppose Her Majesty's Army was quashed by a cruel reality. Early victories may have occurred at Lexington and Concord but as the winter grew colder and crops began to rot in the field, men began to desert… [read more]


Terrorist Attack on the U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983 Term Paper

… Terrorist Attack on the U.S. Marine Compound at the Beirut Airport in 1983

In the early morning hours of October 23rd, 1983, a truckload of explosives would introduce America into a new era of terrorism. Forever gone would be the… [read more]


African-American Soldier's Experience in Vietnam Term Paper

… African-American Soldiers in Vietnam

Mister Backlash, Mister Backlash,

Just who do you think I am?

You raise my taxes, freeze my wages,

Send my son to Vietnam..." Langston Hughes ("The Backlash Blues")

War is hell. The cliche still works, years… [read more]


Canadian Navy During WW2 Term Paper

… Sarty Roger -the Maritime Defence of Canada and Marc Milner - the implications of technological Backwardness: the Canadian Navy 1939-45. The main objective will be to discuss the state of the Canadian naval fleet during the Second World War, debate… [read more]


Marketing Audit on a Local Navy Recruiting District Term Paper

… Marketing Audit on a Local Navy Recruiting District

Marketing Audit of a local Navy Recruiting District

NAME and ADDRESS of (the division of) the organization or company you have chosen to examine.

US Navy Recruiting District, Los Angeles

5051 Rodeo… [read more]


British Marines in American Revolution and War of 1812 Term Paper

… ¶ … British Marinesduring the Amer Revolution War and the War of 1812

The American Revolution is considered to be one of the most important political events in the history of the U.S., as well as a turning point in… [read more]


Study of Military History Term Paper

… NCO

The role of the non-commissioned officer (NCO) was integrated into the history of the United States since its first days and has continued to evolve ever since. It began in 1775 with the birth of the Continental Army. Similar… [read more]


Building Coalitions Early Term Paper

… There are many high-level interconnected government relationships that I must deal with daily, and have been working in this job since 1998 at the cabinet level. I hold the title of Senior Civilian Protocol Officer and must communicate both policy and guidance to VA employees throughout the world. In addition to working with these individuals, I also work with Congressional committee staff, White House staff, and those in other governmental organizations, which allows me to learn about and communicate with many different kinds of people on many different levels.

The fourth and final example of building coalitions comes from 2000, when I led a team of 50 individuals to establish and create the USO Exhibit located in the Pentagon. Now in it's fifth year, the exhibit is viewed by over 100,000 tourists per year, and cost $50,000 to create. During the creation of the exhibit, I coordinated staff policy, maintained focus, and met goals and objectives for the Secretary of Defense. For our performance, my team and I received honor awards; I also received the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Service Award.

The performance that I have continued to give to each organization that I have been involved with throughout my career has helped me to win support for many of my ideas and has created important relationships with many colleagues. Leadership roles are valuable to me, and I ensure that customer complaints are handled properly and new procedures are implemented, as well as ensuring that there is a consensus developed among all of those that are participating in a particular project so that it can run smoothly and be completed on time. By building coalitions I have the opportunity to share my experience…… [read more]


Expeditionary Air Base Tallil Airbase Term Paper

… " In the thought organizing process Dobbins reports that a model was developed for organization of thoughts in relation to 'aiding his understanding of the complex nature in the operation of air-based generators and the generation of airpower in order… [read more]


Military Dualism in Culture Essay

… In other words, Scarborough's arguments regarding supposed dualities of cultures may in fact be a difficulty between men and women in all workplaces, not so much between officers and civilians.

Lastly, the author suggests that if the military embraces a less organizationally enclosed and paranoid structure of top-down hierarchy, military and civilian culture might be better integrated. The military's assumptions and expectations regarding a high level of behavior regarding adultery, for instance, are seen as evidence of its contrary spirit to the more lax civilian ethos and culture. The author even quotes military individuals who state, stone faced, that the suggestion is that the problem is with the civilian culture, not with the military, and that the military culture is absolute keystone cold right and the civilian culture is wrong regarding sexual matters in a way that highlight the author's argument from emotions and expressed attitudes, rather than logic.

But military personnel, as they are entrants into an organizational framework, and agree to that code of conduct for a time -- they do not necessarily intend to uphold it for their entire life, nor do they agree personally with every principle, any more than a lawyer agrees with every law. Although civilian life imposes less stringent requirements upon itself, the military is a professional organization, intended to do a professional job to the best of its ability, and part of the military profession requires certain levels of secrecy and hierarchy. Much as a lawyer or a doctor must function in a different way in his or her personal life and professional life, so must a military individual. Some individuals are constitutionally incapable of doing so, and fall prey to the stresses of the profession. However, the implications are not cultural, however, but vocational, and the changes to the military code of ethics, although implicated by social changes regarding gender, are not to blame nor a source to look to ameliorate the abuses detailed by Scarborough.

Bibliography of Works Cited and Consulted

Scarborough, Rowan. (17 March 1999)"Army to try video cameras for mixed-barracks safety." The Washington Times.

Scarborough, Rowan. (, 1 July 2004) "Zarqawi Targets…… [read more]


Gangs in the Military Term Paper

… (Sheley; Zhang; Brody; Wright, 1995)

The amount of risks experienced by youth presently has influenced the military society to find out novel strategies to surmount these risks. The Department of Defense has embarked on a forceful plan based on the latest in youth development theory and research, to congregate the wants of military youth and their families. When we look to the future, the military community's concentration on serving youth will stress upon consistent, coordinated efforts. The Strategic Youth Action Plan presents a guide which will make sure that youth programs and services efficiently favor military youth during the 21st century. During September 1988, DoD funded a Strategic Youth Action Planning Conference to find out the strategies to support military youth in a better way. (Jackson, 1998)

Stakeholders from nearly each segment of the community, together with youth, participated in the conference to talk about youth matters and needs. They recognized many areas for modification, including standardizing policies and programs, capitalizing internal and external partnerships, and guaranteeing command support for youth and youth programs. Collectively, the members approved that their objective was a common platform for the future and formed the Strategic Youth Action Plan to attain it. The Strategic Youth Action Plan comprises of ten goals. The initial eight concentrate on the distinctive confrontations experienced by military youths, including recurrent relocations and severances from family for long periods. The last two goals point at health services particular to adolescent growth and development and wants of risk-group youth. These goals will act as guidance for youth, commanders, parents and communities in their endeavor to offer wide-ranging and receptive youth programs. (Jackson, 1998)

Gang activity persecutes the entire establishment not just a limited individuals. Everybody has an involvement in it either by way of enlightening themselves, their family members and their soldiers or by coming across and reporting doubtful activities. To sum up there is a necessity for providing wide-ranging Youth Programs, guarantee command support and involvement, encourage involvement of the youth, identify and sustain family participation, build up standard policies, enlarge partnerships and teamwork, make sure sufficient resources, guarantee specialized wholehearted adults perform in unison with the youth, prop up health services for adolescent growth and development, deal with the wants of the risk-group youth to thwart the mounting issues of gangs in military.

References

Jackson, Lonnie. (1998) "Gangbusters: Strategies for Prevention and Intervention." Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.

Knox, G.M. (1993) "An Introduction to Gangs" Buchanan, MI: VandeVere Publishing, Ltd.

Mitchell, Miller, J; Rush, Jeffrey P. (1996) "Gangs: A Criminal…… [read more]


English Military Term Paper

… In 1066, the Normans invaded and conquered England. The Normans' great contribution to the English military was the castle. They began building the first castles there, and used them as bases from which to control the surrounding countryside. This also… [read more]


Army as a Profession Essay

… Army Profession

Since the United States committed to maintaining a standing army, the profession of arms has been built into the system. However, factors like the all-volunteer service, and the lack of a designated agency to address matters of professionalism directly have led to questions of whether or not the United States Army is a profession. There are several factors that underscore the fact that the Army is a profession, including the nature, structure, and function of the Army in the United States. The criteria of membership are clearly elucidated in Army documents and doctrine. Moreover, there is now a pressing need to redefine the nature of Army service and leadership as fully professional in light of the threat of private mercenary enterprise. The Army is most definitely a profession, and must remain one for ethical reasons. The core professional functions of the Army include developing expertise in key areas of strategic specialization, anticipating the hybrid threats of the future, and protecting the ethical codes under which the Army operates. Trust and ethics are the primary criteria of professionalism in the Profession of Arms.

The Army is a profession because it trains personnel in areas of expertise, with broad applications within the military institution as well as in the private sector. One of the defining features of a "profession" is the emphasis on "uniquely expert work." Army personnel are trained to be effective and develop mastery. Moreover, army professionals "require years of study and practice before they are capable of expert work," upon which society depends. Within the Army framework, professionals are trained for years and develop areas of specialization. These areas of specialization and their respective fields would not be accessible in any other sector. Only within the United States Army can soldiers receive the level of expertise in areas as diverse as strategic analysis, engineering, and political theory. [1: United States Army. "The Profession of Arms." 2010, p. 5] [2: Ibid, p. 5]

Another core feature of a profession is the provision of services that are essential and which cannot be provided in any other manner. Just as a patient needs a doctor to perform surgery, a citizen needs the Army to accomplish specific goals. Ensuring the welfare of the nation and protecting its boundaries are core goals that demand skillful responses. No Army function is arbitrary. On the contrary, tight budgets and resource constraints, coupled with rapidly emerging new threats makes it so that every single Army function has a direct purpose, function, and procedure. Because of its emphasis on professionalism and training, the Army stands prepared for the hybrid threats of the future like cyberterrorism, and transnational terrorism. The Army trains personnel who are uniquely skilled in specific areas of expertise that, when combined, create a potent professional unit. [3: United States Army. "America's Army: Our Profession." Sept 2014.]

Professionalism entails gaining and maintaining the public trust, which is why the Army must remain committed to its core ethical goals and prove accountability. One of the… [read more]


Unequal Professional Dialogue: American Civil-Military Relations Research Paper

… In other words, they are told more about their roles and how to perform in those roles as the need arises. In order for any person to become a competent member of the military staff, they should demonstrate they are proficient in what they know. Therefore, they should complete these programs that will eventually go on to make them intellectually competent as well.

Another reason why professional military education is needed because the military needs to have a firm grasp on the civil military relations. These relations are crucial because they include dealings with both ordinary people and institutions that have a great impact on the military [footnoteRef:3]These institutions ultimately include the legislative debate over the funding of the military, the regulation and the use of the military and the bargaining between the military and civilian lines as I is relevant to implement the national security policy in the country. As a democratic nation, it is very important for the military to identify and solve all the problems that go on to hamper the civil and military relations [footnoteRef:4] [3: James Burk, 'Theories Of Democratic Civil-Military Relations', Armed Forces & Society 29, iss 1 (2002): 7 -- 29.] [4: Donald B. Connelly, 'The Unequal Professional Dialogue: American Civil-Military Relations And The Professional Military Ethic' (2010).]

The staff colleges that go on to give professional military education are vital for the mental and intellectual development of the officers. They basically go on to reinforce the professional aspects of empiricism, administration, specialized knowledge and decent knowledge about arms. Furthermore, enrolling in professional education, the students also get an opportunity to form good relations with military practitioners. They are able to interact with both the students and the teachers. These professional relations that are created in this way aid these students in the long run and facilitate in the formation of transnational community bonds. It has been speculated that these bonds help in the transmission of knowledge between the linked military. Furthermore, they also make a good impact on the influence on armed forces on both national and international levels.

Lastly, it should be seen that army professional and practitioners should able to see all the military problems with the same perspective. This similar perspective will only be present in the entire army if they have been given the same professional military education before their practice. Specialized professions such as medicine and law also require a corporate body of knowledge so that they can excel. Therefore, army officers require shared knowledge consisting of concepts present in warfare theories that have been created from experience and history. All of this would therefore enable a collective understanding of how different components come together and provide success to the army.

All in all, it should be seen that colleges and professional military education is going to create, implement, refine and preserve this entire of specialized professional knowledge. This knowledge is being directed to enhance the performance and the overall competency of the army. Education in any… [read more]


Black Soldiers in WWII Term Paper

… None of this information was widely available to the public at the time. The service of black Americans was not considered newsworthy. Although there were prominent figures, notably Eleanor Roosevelt, who attempted to raise social consciousness, blacks were largely viewed… [read more]


Testing) Materials -- Sensitive Research Paper

… Unnecessary suffering

B.

Military necessity

C.

Proportionality

D.

Distinction/Discrimination

2 points

Question 8

1. Providing freedom of action in space for friendly forces, and when directed, denies it to an adversary, is a function of which space mission area?

Answer… [read more]


Army Change Process Term Paper

… Therefore this means that these leaders will guide their troops in the right direction according to what is specified in the army change process. This will help the troops as they prepare for their combat operation set before them or even training they are set to take in garrison since they will be aware of what is expected of them.

Third the SCG/CSM should know how to enter the army change control criteria. This is quite important since it guides them on how they will help the troops in entering or embracing the army change process. With this knowledge they will know how to prepare their troops on the process of army change and how they will go about it and what the entire process entails (Oracle and/or its affiliates, 2013).

Understanding the army change process generally helps the SCG/CSM track various states of army change. Notifying the relevant stakeholders involved in the change process with use of an approval framework and finally generation of an official documentation which will be used for future reference. This understanding helps the SCG/CSM to assist in the transformation from a force which focuses on counterinsurgency operations to an army which is adaptable when it comes to its operations and able to meet the wide range of combat commander requirements as part of the joint force .It thus is quite important for the SCG/CSM to be conversant with the army change process and everything it entails so that they can guide their troupes accordingly depending on the combat mission they are set to face.

Reference

Oracle and/or its affiliates, (2013). Setting Up Military Rank Change Notification and Documentation. Retrieved March 17, 2014 from http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E39904_01/hcm92pbr0/eng/hcm/hhaw/task_SettingUpMilitaryRankChangeNotificationandDocumentation-407f6c.html… [read more]


Rules of Engagement in Afghanistan Research Proposal

… In Afghanistan, it is difficult enough to determine exactly who the enemy really is, let alone determine where the enemy is. When the determination of who and where has been sufficiently analyzed, the American soldier should have the right to engage. As Zinke so succinctly puts it "what's happening is we're losing our ability to fight overseas" (2014, para 6). Instead of the ROE assisting our soldiers, according to Zinke it is being turned into a "document that can be used effectively against us" (para. 3).

Another protagonist against the ROE is Dana West who has been around the Afghanistan war for a number of years. In 2009 West wrote "we should fight all wars to destroy the enemies" (West, 2009). Then in 2014 she reiterated "what they are doing to our military, our treasury, our power and our prestige is an unconscionable national betrayal" (West, 2014, para. 1). These are harsh words from the standpoint that our Commander in Chief is the person who most strongly advocates for the implementation and adherence to the ROE. Obama's justification is that the Americans must do more than just kill enemy soldiers, they must also be even more than one hundred percent sure that other casualties not take place. According to Newsweek, this is a laudable and achievable goal.

Newsweek states "the war aim in a war against terror is not territory, or access to resources, or conversion to our political way of life...it is the protection of civilians within the rule of law" (Bobbitt, 2010, p. 42).

Newsweek's assertion is an interesting one, but is it one that is realistic? Most likely not, at least according to this author. The problem with that type of war aim is that who goes to war to protect civilians within the rule of law? Seriously? It cannot even be easily imagined that a President, even one as ignorant to the law as the current one, would go before Congress and say...the reason we are going to war is because the civilians are not being afforded the opportunity to participate in the rule of law. Of course, that reason is much better than attempting to win a war so foreigners will like Americans. Ms. West writes that "this policy of sacrificing American troops to make the barbarians of Afghanistan 'like us' should come before at the very least a Congressional hearing" (West, 2014). This author concurs with that…… [read more]


Military vs. Police Intelligence Essay

… Direct patrolling and constant vigilance is a critical component of the military mindset in light of the fact that the enemy is always looking for a way to strike: "Reconnaissance is a normal part of soldiering as are systems to record and utilise information gathered. The use of directed patrolling, and the specific tasking of patrols, for intelligence purposes is a norm. This can be used for both human intelligence and data collection" (Gillvray n.d. 3).

Since 9/11 there has been an attempt to refocus the orientation of police evidence-gathering to make it simulate that of a military organization, given the growing awareness that local law enforcement agencies are on the front lines of defending the U.S. against terrorist threats. Federal grants were used to fund special intelligence and counterterrorism units within police organizations and fusion centers were created to coordinate evidence-sharing between local and national agencies. However, these bodies have been criticized because the "lack clear guidelines for managing data collection and dissemination" (New report, 2013, The Brennan Center). Also, unlike the military, the police must be mindful of not violating the civil rights of the persons they are investigating, yet another frequent criticism in the reconfiguration of police operations in the post-9/11 reality.

Although police agencies have tried to adopt the 'constant' intelligence-gathering model, there have also been criticisms that this has resulted in an increase in the accumulation of irrelevant data which has led to both an erosion of civil liberties and to difficulties in processing what information has been accumulated. With a "a loosely coordinated information sharing network with data collected according to varying local standards and with insufficient quality control, accountability, or oversight" there can often be wide variations in the competency of the personnel and the quality of the information (New report, 2013, The Brennan Center). The coordinated and unified mindset of military operations is another advantage of military intelligence-gathering.

This is not to assert that military intelligence is foolproof, of course. The military has been criticized for consistently fighting 'the last war' and not shifting its mindset from focusing on nation states to non-state actors. Threats to the U.S. not in the form of consistent, direct engagement can easily fall through the cracks. However, the lack of police operations fluent in languages or cultures outside of the dominant one of their nation combined with difficulty identifying what intelligence is appropriate to gather on a consistent basis suggests that greater training and coordination of police efforts in investigations according to that of the military's approach might be beneficial and improve U.S. security.

References

Berkowitz, B. (2003). The difference between intelligence and evidence. RAND. Retrieved

from: http://www.rand.org/commentary/2003/02/02/WP.html

Gillvray, M. (n.d.). Military-police interaction: The need for specialisation and co-operation in peace-keeping intelligence. OSS Net. Retrieved from:

http://www.oss.net/dynamaster/file_archive/071105/5f76ef27354227c11803b8cbc7e8956e/005%20Gillvray%20UK%20on%20Military-Police%20Interaction.doc

New report: Police intelligence gathering lacks effective standards. (2013). The Brennan Center.

Retrieved from:

http://www.brennancenter.org/press-release/new-report-police-intelligence-gathering-l acks-effective-standards-threatening… [read more]

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