"Military / Army / Navy / Marines" Essays

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Military Needs to Step Down Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Thus, with the only really functioning economy, the United States became the major protagonist against Soviet aggression during the aptly termed, "Cold War" (Hopf, 1999).

The Cold War with the Soviet Union was based, really, on a high level of mistrust. After World War II the Americans had nuclear weapons capability, they had not been invaded so were on better footing economically, and the Soviet's need for buffer "protective" zones in Eastern and Southern Europe. Then, of course, there was the nature of the Soviet State -- the aim of spreading world communism, and American President Harry Truman's personal dislike and distrust of Joseph Stalin. It was this role that dominated Foreign Policy, military spending, and even personified regional conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, and finally the Middle East for the next several decades.

However, any discussion of the legitimacy of the U.S. military presence abroad must begin by stating that, from a practical standpoint, sustaining the military troops and bases in foreign lands negatively affects the U.S. Although it significantly reinforces the global authority of the U.S. army, the military's international presence hinders the overall welfare of the U.S. and, contrary to popular belief, fails to stimulate the economic development of the U.S.

It is clear to all parties that the U.S. is currently facing a debt crisis. This debt crisis is exacerbated by the excessive military spending, and a reduction of international military presence could greatly aid in the resolution of the debt. Unlike financial problems that can be solved simply by saving money and repaying loans, the U.S. is facing a $15 trillion deficit that requires a more complex solution. To put this astronomical figure in context, $13 trillion stacked in hundred dollar bills would be nearly as tall as the Statue of Liberty, and as wide as a two football stadiums (Visualization). This debt is 20% more than the world's combined GDP (Visualization). In addition to the national debt, the U.S. suffers from unfunded liabilities, which means the U.S. government lacks the funds necessary to pay Medicare, social security, military, and civil servant pensions -- all of which amount to over $114.5 trillion. Visually, this is a stack of hundred dollars as tall as the former World Trade Center and Empire State Building combined (Visualization). These analogies lucidly illustrate the fact that the U.S. needs to decrease… [read more]

United States Military's Efforts to Transform Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … United States military's efforts to transform into an organization which is integrated and desegregated with regard to African-Americans and women. It addresses the factors associated with the need or perceived need for transformation. It also addresses key forces that shaped the policies pursued in order to achieve these transformations as well as key policies enacted to affect the… [read more]

Law Enforcement Bulletin Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Gangs Military Weapons Tactics


Gangs Deploying Military Hardware, Tactics

Street gangs are increasingly obtaining and deploying military-grade equipment and tactics. Be prepared for increasing levels of force and resistance. Pick your battles: Stay alert to stay alive!

National Gang Intervention Center 2007

National Gang Intervention Center 2007

Street gangs have been acquiring military-grade hardware, as indicated by:

Increasing civilian arrests for illegal purchase/posession of weaponry from private-sector Department of Defense contractors (1)

Congressional testimony and increasing nationwide arrests for stolen military offensive and defensive hardware sold at gun shows and by private individuals going back nearly two decades (2)

LAPD San Bernaardino arrested a parolee in 2006 in posession of a military rocket launcher (3)

Recent and increasing arrests of ex-military for selling assault weapons to gang members (4)

2. Street gangs have increasing access to military combat tactics and training:

Gang affiliation by active personnel "is pervasive throughout" every branch of the U.S. military (5)

Gang deployment of military training against police is increasing (6)

Convictions of active-duty military personnel for gang-attributed crimes including homicide, armed robbery and narcotics posession / sale have increased (7)

Tactics and equipment can be deployed for assault, defense or support (first aid; escape, etc.) (8)

3. How can I predict if gang members will deploy combat tactics or equipment?


4. How should I respond to increasing possibility of military-level combat with gangs on the streets?

Stay alert, stay alive: PREVENT and AVOID engaging superior hostile force by gang members

Assume all situations carry the potential to deteriorate into combat-level hostilities

Predict potential assault, defense and escape opportunities AT ALL TIMES in the field, especially in areas where gang activity is intense or very intense

PREVENT military-level conflict with superior force and tactics: recognize and AVOID situations as if military assault and defense by gang members is always possible and likely

Document all gang-related evidence wherever possible, to increase prosecutors' ability to reduce crime before gangs take the opportunity to deploy combat tactics and illegal hardware. File appropriate STEP Act reports outlined in Manual of Policy and Procedures to alert CLEAR/HEAT/SAGE teams (9)

It is our…… [read more]

Evolution of U.S. Military Combat Operations and Chemistry Warfare Defense Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Evolution of Nuclear Weapons

The evolution of chemical and biological weapons

The evolution of U.S. military combat operations began sometime in the 1775 (Doughty et al.,1995). An examination of the American military combat operations can be traced from the campaigns as well as changing practices that have defined the Western warfare. It begins with the Anglo-American wars during… [read more]

Civilian and Military Organizational Competencies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


According to "Managing Supply Chains," the Department of Defense has long funded major research to improve logistics. Over the past 15 years, the commercial world has developed innovations in supply-chain management, including methods that exploit information technology systems to streamline and monitor business processes. The article quotes William Pagonis, Sears logistics executive and retired Army logistics expert "IT technology has jumped so dramatically in the last 20 years and particularly in the past five years that the DoD is finding it better to go out and get technology from the civilian sector" (2003). Borrowing technology between civilian and military managements shows the convergence between the two.

The military has looked to the commercial world for ideas on efficiency and continuous process improvement in other logistical areas as well, resulting in the Army's adoption of Lean and Six Sigma, two independently developed improvement tools. Army Materiel Command officials first used the tools developed at Toyota and Motorola respectively to better wage the global war on terrorism and enable transformation (Reese, 2006).

Another aspect where basic competencies between civilian and military organizations are similar is the way in which the military and companies like Wal-Mart approach sustainability and supply chain management. According to military logistics experts, the specialized military supply-chain consists of three tiers:

The first tier supports movement of commodities such as food, medicine, and clothing (the equivalent of Wal-Mart's operations)

The second tier supports transport of major components such as weapons systems that require maintenance over time

The third tier provides movements of large numbers of troops and equipment through the deployment chain into difficult environments

Because of the comparability of Wal-Mart's supply chain with the first step of the military's logistical operations, experts continue to analyze the implications of Wal-Mart's sustainability initiative for national defense acquisitions strategies (Smith, 2010).

Ideas flow both ways between commercial and military environments. The Internet had its beginnings as a cloistered defense communication network, from which it has since evolved into a web of digital shopping and entertainment outlets. One area where the business world stands to dramatically improve would be to adapt military supply chain techniques to improve performance. Whereas the military manages its logistics with the performance metric of availability for its end-customer, the soldier, the commercial world manages its logistics with internal performance metrics, not from the perspective of the end-customer. As any number of consumers will agree, the commercial world often loses sight of the end-customer; the commercial world needs to emulate the military and focus on customer-centric performance metrics ("Managing Supply Chains," 2003).

To sum up, reviewing both commercial and military operations clearly shows areas where both use similar organizational competencies to plan and implement information technology and related procedures and processes.

Works Cited

Lopez, C.T. Staff Sgt. (2006). Headquarters Air Force realigns similar to 'J-staff" model. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123015891

Managing supply chains: What the military can teach business (and vice-versa). 2003. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm;jsessionid=a830fe1c16ad9a882ac02226606e4c53601e?articleid=894

Price, D.E. (2004). Organizing for expeditionary operation transforming… [read more]

Leadership Practice Concepts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,382 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Army Comradeship: Important to Military Institution

Army Final Paper


Perhaps there is no organization in the world that is as disciplined, motivated and sophisticated as the United States military. Divided into different service groups, namely, the army, the air force and the navy, this organization consists of the best trained men and women. Not only are… [read more]

Diversity in the Military Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,469 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Diversity Training Programs for the U.S. Armed Forces

Because its members are drawn from all walks of life in society and disparate geographic locations, one of the most diverse organizations in the United States is its armed forces. This diverse collection of individuals must function as a seamless and well-integrated team, particularly during combat operations, in order to… [read more]

Military Intervention Humanitarian Aid and ICC Reformation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (841 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Military intervention, humanitarian aid, ICC & Africa

Military intervention or peacekeeping, humanitarian aid, and the International Criminal Court (ICC) are all noble, useful, and imperfect institutions designed to cope with crisis situations. They are humankind's flawed attempts to rescue itself from bad circumstances, some of which are humankind's own doing. The benefits of these actions are sometimes not adequate to meet the needs of the beneficiaries; other times, the viewpoints of the benefactors and the beneficiaries are not identical. Just because they are flawed, however, does not mean that such activities and institutions should be abandoned. Like all complex human endeavors, they can be evaluated, analyzed, and improved.

Military intervention is perhaps the most difficult activity to reform. Deploying armed troops into a chaotic situation, often between opposing forces mixed in with desperate and terrified civilians is risky and extremely complicated. Firstly, there is the issue of impartiality, which can negatively affect militarily strategic goals. Taking sides can more quickly stop the violence but create enemies for the intervening forces, whereas true impartiality can make the troops ineffective on the battlefield, bringing little positive change to the crisis (Betts 21). Additionally, unanticipated things will happen when a large force of foreign soldiers enter into an already disturbed situation. Long-term peacekeeping operations sometimes result in sexual exploitation of local women, disruptions of the normal economic and governing order, and changes in gender roles (Aoi, de Coning, and Thakur).

Aoi, de Coning, and Thakur suggest planning for these unintended consequences by taking a complex systems approach to military interventions. They say there should be real-time monitoring of forces on the ground and an acceptance that unintended events and interactions are inevitable. Coupled with unambiguous rules of engagement and clear force mandates, the negative affects of such operations may be lessened.

Humanitarian aid operations can be negatively affected by corruption. Paul Harvey notes that in the past few years there have been news reports of corrupt activities in aid operations in Somalia, Liberia, and Iraq. In the case of Uganda, Bailey's "most striking observation" was the lack of concrete evidence of corruption; a lot of the problems may have been due to inefficiency or incompetence (9). Still, her research uncovered widespread perception that corruption was taking place, including adding false names or fake households on to recipient lists, paying fees to get on aid registration lists, selective exclusion from lists, registration of ineligible recipients, the sale of ration cards, and camp leaders taking and/or selling food. Also sometimes workers not paid by aid…… [read more]

Leadership Development Developing Business Plan

Business Plan  |  2 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Leadership Development

Developing The Leader Within You

AAFES: John Maxwell's principles

AAFES: John Maxwell's principles

As a military-led organization, Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) is characterized by a strong sense of integrity and respect for organizational hierarchies. There is also a strong sense of devotion to the individuals the organization serves: the U.S. armed services. The military itself clearly passes 'the mentorship test,' in the words of John C. Maxwell's book Developing your leadership potential when he asks the question "am I true to my leader" (Maxwell 2000, p.46). The military makes a strong commitment to its people, including their development as human beings as well as soldiers. Hence, the need for AAFES, which provides recreational services to soldiers.

Also according to Maxwell, an organization must be true to its followers and vision. AAFES, because it is partially funded by Congress and is not responsible for being 'in the black' like a completely for-profit corporation (although it is expected to be efficient and not waste taxpayer money) must balance a need for profitability with the needs of its servicemen and servicewomen clientele. But applying a for-profit, consumer-based approach of soliciting marketing advice from servicemen could actually improve its ability to be responsive to their demands.

One of the cornerstones of leadership is setting priorities, and in this instance, the greatest priority is serving the armed forces with recreational and dining facilities. Finding what types of amenities are desired will enable AAFES to better serve the armed forces, realize its mission, and also have more money to invest in its efforts. According to Maxwell, 20% of organizational priorities will garner 80% of production demand (Maxwell 2000, p.20). In other words, setting priorities enables the organization to channel its resources more effectively and garner a superior return upon its investment.

To determine what servicemen require, AAFES can combine traditional consumer, marketing research by polling its users; using small marketing focus groups; and also using the demographic knowledge of the military, such as gender and race, to gain a clearer portrait of users. Are swimming pools or golf courses more popular? What types of crafts and art activities are desired for adults and children?…… [read more]

Guard and Reserve Military Families Thesis

Thesis  |  19 pages (5,196 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … guard and reserve military families face during and after deployment and an assessment of the effectiveness of resources provided

The present study will contain a literature review in Chapter Two which will provide the information sought after in this study. Chapter Three will provide information on the methodology of the present study while Chapter Four will relate the… [read more]

Respectable Army the Military Origins of the Republic 1763-1789 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,347 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic 1763-1789

James Kirby Martin and Mark Edward Lender. A Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic, 1763-1789. Arlington Heights, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, 1982.

The myth of the American Revolution runs as follows -- America was made up of a rag-tag band of soldiers, ordinary yeoman farmers with little professional training. Through grit and a little bit of guile and guerrilla warfare, they won the independence of the new republic. Their spirit and devotion to liberty triumphed over British military professionalism. However, in a Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic 1763-1789 historians James Kirby Martin and Mark Edward Lender dissect this dearly-cherished American cultural myth and search for the real truth. They state that if the American colonists had not assembled what George Washington called a 'respectable' army, based upon professional servicemen for hire, America would never have won its independence. These two historians paint an often-unflattering picture of the early citizen soldiers. These land-owning men wanted independence without paying the price of 'getting their hands' dirty. They expressed disdain of the 'real' soldiers conscripted later on, the soldiers who were mainly responsible for America's victory. America underwent a notable shift in its philosophy of defense, even before the creation of the new American nation. Americans had to realize that a man with a musket was not enough to protect a modern nation, and an organized standing army was necessary for a nation-state to thrive and survive.

The authors are uniquely qualified as a duo to write this military and cultural history, given that one has a background primarily in Revolutionary and colonial studies, the other in military history. Both men have collaborated before on histories of the period. James Kirby Martin is a Distinguished University Professor of History at the University of Houston, Texas. According to the university's history department website, Martin is a specialist in Colonial and Revolutionary American studies, and has authored many works 18th century America, most of which focus on the intersection of social and political history, such as Drinking in America: A History, 1620-1980, which he also wrote in conjunction with Mark Edward Lender. According to the Kean University website, Lender is a specialist in military history at Kean University but he also has a background in colonial social history which infuses his work beyond studies of mere military tactics.

Martin and Lender's central thesis is that what exists of the historical evidence of the period does not support the idea that the noble, unprofessional soldiers known as minutemen led the American fight for liberty. A dislike of an organized, standing army may have been articulated by some patriotic zealots before the fighting actually began. But the idea that farmers and country gentlemen could single-handedly oppose Her Majesty's Army was quashed by a cruel reality. Early victories may have occurred at Lexington and Concord but as the winter grew colder and crops began to rot in the field, men began to desert… [read more]

Terrorist Attack on the U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  21 pages (5,892 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Terrorist Attack on the U.S. Marine Compound at the Beirut Airport in 1983

In the early morning hours of October 23rd, 1983, a truckload of explosives would introduce America into a new era of terrorism. Forever gone would be the days where terrorist attacks were small-scale, poorly thought out, schemes. In its stead was the new breed of terrorist. These… [read more]

African-American Soldier's Experience in Vietnam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,555 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


African-American Soldiers in Vietnam

Mister Backlash, Mister Backlash,

Just who do you think I am?

You raise my taxes, freeze my wages,

Send my son to Vietnam..." Langston Hughes ("The Backlash Blues")

War is hell. The cliche still works, years after someone first uttered those words. It always will work whether it is Iraq, Vietnam, or Omaha Beach. But when… [read more]

Canadian Navy During WW2 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,437 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Sarty Roger -the Maritime Defence of Canada and Marc Milner - the implications of technological Backwardness: the Canadian Navy 1939-45. The main objective will be to discuss the state of the Canadian naval fleet during the Second World War, debate on the main factors that led to this situation, the tactics and the strategy adopted by the Canadian navy rulers… [read more]

Marketing Audit on a Local Navy Recruiting District Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (4,570 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Marketing Audit on a Local Navy Recruiting District

Marketing Audit of a local Navy Recruiting District

NAME and ADDRESS of (the division of) the organization or company you have chosen to examine.

US Navy Recruiting District, Los Angeles

5051 Rodeo Road

The organization's MISSION

The mission of Navy Recruiting District Los Angeles is to recruit high quality men and women… [read more]

British Marines in American Revolution &amp War of 1812 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,305 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … British Marinesduring the Amer Revolution War and the War of 1812

The American Revolution is considered to be one of the most important political events in the history of the U.S., as well as a turning point in the development of military tactics and warfare. From a political perspective, it represented the moment in which the American colonies… [read more]

Study of Military History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The role of the non-commissioned officer (NCO) was integrated into the history of the United States since its first days and has continued to evolve ever since. It began in 1775 with the birth of the Continental Army. Similar to the American Army, it blended the different aspects of the French, British and Prussian traditions into a unique American… [read more]

Building Coalitions Early Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There are many high-level interconnected government relationships that I must deal with daily, and have been working in this job since 1998 at the cabinet level. I hold the title of Senior Civilian Protocol Officer and must communicate both policy and guidance to VA employees throughout the world. In addition to working with these individuals, I also work with Congressional committee staff, White House staff, and those in other governmental organizations, which allows me to learn about and communicate with many different kinds of people on many different levels.

The fourth and final example of building coalitions comes from 2000, when I led a team of 50 individuals to establish and create the USO Exhibit located in the Pentagon. Now in it's fifth year, the exhibit is viewed by over 100,000 tourists per year, and cost $50,000 to create. During the creation of the exhibit, I coordinated staff policy, maintained focus, and met goals and objectives for the Secretary of Defense. For our performance, my team and I received honor awards; I also received the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Service Award.

The performance that I have continued to give to each organization that I have been involved with throughout my career has helped me to win support for many of my ideas and has created important relationships with many colleagues. Leadership roles are valuable to me, and I ensure that customer complaints are handled properly and new procedures are implemented, as well as ensuring that there is a consensus developed among all of those that are participating in a particular project so that it can run smoothly and be completed on time. By building coalitions I have the opportunity to share my experience…… [read more]

Expeditionary Air Base Tallil Airbase Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,117 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" In the thought organizing process Dobbins reports that a model was developed for organization of thoughts in relation to 'aiding his understanding of the complex nature in the operation of air-based generators and the generation of airpower in order to "keep Airmen or commanders from concentrating on only one aspect of that process to the detriment of the whole."… [read more]

Military Dualism in Culture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In other words, Scarborough's arguments regarding supposed dualities of cultures may in fact be a difficulty between men and women in all workplaces, not so much between officers and civilians.

Lastly, the author suggests that if the military embraces a less organizationally enclosed and paranoid structure of top-down hierarchy, military and civilian culture might be better integrated. The military's assumptions and expectations regarding a high level of behavior regarding adultery, for instance, are seen as evidence of its contrary spirit to the more lax civilian ethos and culture. The author even quotes military individuals who state, stone faced, that the suggestion is that the problem is with the civilian culture, not with the military, and that the military culture is absolute keystone cold right and the civilian culture is wrong regarding sexual matters in a way that highlight the author's argument from emotions and expressed attitudes, rather than logic.

But military personnel, as they are entrants into an organizational framework, and agree to that code of conduct for a time -- they do not necessarily intend to uphold it for their entire life, nor do they agree personally with every principle, any more than a lawyer agrees with every law. Although civilian life imposes less stringent requirements upon itself, the military is a professional organization, intended to do a professional job to the best of its ability, and part of the military profession requires certain levels of secrecy and hierarchy. Much as a lawyer or a doctor must function in a different way in his or her personal life and professional life, so must a military individual. Some individuals are constitutionally incapable of doing so, and fall prey to the stresses of the profession. However, the implications are not cultural, however, but vocational, and the changes to the military code of ethics, although implicated by social changes regarding gender, are not to blame nor a source to look to ameliorate the abuses detailed by Scarborough.

Bibliography of Works Cited and Consulted

Scarborough, Rowan. (17 March 1999)"Army to try video cameras for mixed-barracks safety." The Washington Times.

Scarborough, Rowan. (, 1 July 2004) "Zarqawi Targets…… [read more]

Gangs in the Military Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Sheley; Zhang; Brody; Wright, 1995)

The amount of risks experienced by youth presently has influenced the military society to find out novel strategies to surmount these risks. The Department of Defense has embarked on a forceful plan based on the latest in youth development theory and research, to congregate the wants of military youth and their families. When we look to the future, the military community's concentration on serving youth will stress upon consistent, coordinated efforts. The Strategic Youth Action Plan presents a guide which will make sure that youth programs and services efficiently favor military youth during the 21st century. During September 1988, DoD funded a Strategic Youth Action Planning Conference to find out the strategies to support military youth in a better way. (Jackson, 1998)

Stakeholders from nearly each segment of the community, together with youth, participated in the conference to talk about youth matters and needs. They recognized many areas for modification, including standardizing policies and programs, capitalizing internal and external partnerships, and guaranteeing command support for youth and youth programs. Collectively, the members approved that their objective was a common platform for the future and formed the Strategic Youth Action Plan to attain it. The Strategic Youth Action Plan comprises of ten goals. The initial eight concentrate on the distinctive confrontations experienced by military youths, including recurrent relocations and severances from family for long periods. The last two goals point at health services particular to adolescent growth and development and wants of risk-group youth. These goals will act as guidance for youth, commanders, parents and communities in their endeavor to offer wide-ranging and receptive youth programs. (Jackson, 1998)

Gang activity persecutes the entire establishment not just a limited individuals. Everybody has an involvement in it either by way of enlightening themselves, their family members and their soldiers or by coming across and reporting doubtful activities. To sum up there is a necessity for providing wide-ranging Youth Programs, guarantee command support and involvement, encourage involvement of the youth, identify and sustain family participation, build up standard policies, enlarge partnerships and teamwork, make sure sufficient resources, guarantee specialized wholehearted adults perform in unison with the youth, prop up health services for adolescent growth and development, deal with the wants of the risk-group youth to thwart the mounting issues of gangs in military.


Jackson, Lonnie. (1998) "Gangbusters: Strategies for Prevention and Intervention." Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.

Knox, G.M. (1993) "An Introduction to Gangs" Buchanan, MI: VandeVere Publishing, Ltd.

Mitchell, Miller, J; Rush, Jeffrey P. (1996) "Gangs: A Criminal…… [read more]

English Military Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In 1066, the Normans invaded and conquered England. The Normans' great contribution to the English military was the castle. They began building the first castles there, and used them as bases from which to control the surrounding countryside. This also brought the art of siege warfare to its zenith. This changed the focus from a walled community surrounded by fields… [read more]

Army as a Profession Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Army Profession

Since the United States committed to maintaining a standing army, the profession of arms has been built into the system. However, factors like the all-volunteer service, and the lack of a designated agency to address matters of professionalism directly have led to questions of whether or not the United States Army is a profession. There are several factors that underscore the fact that the Army is a profession, including the nature, structure, and function of the Army in the United States. The criteria of membership are clearly elucidated in Army documents and doctrine. Moreover, there is now a pressing need to redefine the nature of Army service and leadership as fully professional in light of the threat of private mercenary enterprise. The Army is most definitely a profession, and must remain one for ethical reasons. The core professional functions of the Army include developing expertise in key areas of strategic specialization, anticipating the hybrid threats of the future, and protecting the ethical codes under which the Army operates. Trust and ethics are the primary criteria of professionalism in the Profession of Arms.

The Army is a profession because it trains personnel in areas of expertise, with broad applications within the military institution as well as in the private sector. One of the defining features of a "profession" is the emphasis on "uniquely expert work." Army personnel are trained to be effective and develop mastery. Moreover, army professionals "require years of study and practice before they are capable of expert work," upon which society depends. Within the Army framework, professionals are trained for years and develop areas of specialization. These areas of specialization and their respective fields would not be accessible in any other sector. Only within the United States Army can soldiers receive the level of expertise in areas as diverse as strategic analysis, engineering, and political theory. [1: United States Army. "The Profession of Arms." 2010, p. 5] [2: Ibid, p. 5]

Another core feature of a profession is the provision of services that are essential and which cannot be provided in any other manner. Just as a patient needs a doctor to perform surgery, a citizen needs the Army to accomplish specific goals. Ensuring the welfare of the nation and protecting its boundaries are core goals that demand skillful responses. No Army function is arbitrary. On the contrary, tight budgets and resource constraints, coupled with rapidly emerging new threats makes it so that every single Army function has a direct purpose, function, and procedure. Because of its emphasis on professionalism and training, the Army stands prepared for the hybrid threats of the future like cyberterrorism, and transnational terrorism. The Army trains personnel who are uniquely skilled in specific areas of expertise that, when combined, create a potent professional unit. [3: United States Army. "America's Army: Our Profession." Sept 2014.]

Professionalism entails gaining and maintaining the public trust, which is why the Army must remain committed to its core ethical goals and prove accountability. One of the… [read more]

Unequal Professional Dialogue: American Civil-Military Relations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In other words, they are told more about their roles and how to perform in those roles as the need arises. In order for any person to become a competent member of the military staff, they should demonstrate they are proficient in what they know. Therefore, they should complete these programs that will eventually go on to make them intellectually competent as well.

Another reason why professional military education is needed because the military needs to have a firm grasp on the civil military relations. These relations are crucial because they include dealings with both ordinary people and institutions that have a great impact on the military [footnoteRef:3]These institutions ultimately include the legislative debate over the funding of the military, the regulation and the use of the military and the bargaining between the military and civilian lines as I is relevant to implement the national security policy in the country. As a democratic nation, it is very important for the military to identify and solve all the problems that go on to hamper the civil and military relations [footnoteRef:4] [3: James Burk, 'Theories Of Democratic Civil-Military Relations', Armed Forces & Society 29, iss 1 (2002): 7 -- 29.] [4: Donald B. Connelly, 'The Unequal Professional Dialogue: American Civil-Military Relations And The Professional Military Ethic' (2010).]

The staff colleges that go on to give professional military education are vital for the mental and intellectual development of the officers. They basically go on to reinforce the professional aspects of empiricism, administration, specialized knowledge and decent knowledge about arms. Furthermore, enrolling in professional education, the students also get an opportunity to form good relations with military practitioners. They are able to interact with both the students and the teachers. These professional relations that are created in this way aid these students in the long run and facilitate in the formation of transnational community bonds. It has been speculated that these bonds help in the transmission of knowledge between the linked military. Furthermore, they also make a good impact on the influence on armed forces on both national and international levels.

Lastly, it should be seen that army professional and practitioners should able to see all the military problems with the same perspective. This similar perspective will only be present in the entire army if they have been given the same professional military education before their practice. Specialized professions such as medicine and law also require a corporate body of knowledge so that they can excel. Therefore, army officers require shared knowledge consisting of concepts present in warfare theories that have been created from experience and history. All of this would therefore enable a collective understanding of how different components come together and provide success to the army.

All in all, it should be seen that colleges and professional military education is going to create, implement, refine and preserve this entire of specialized professional knowledge. This knowledge is being directed to enhance the performance and the overall competency of the army. Education in any… [read more]

Black Soldiers in WWII Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


None of this information was widely available to the public at the time. The service of black Americans was not considered newsworthy. Although there were prominent figures, notably Eleanor Roosevelt, who attempted to raise social consciousness, blacks were largely viewed as inferior. Their military service was not considered to be of consequence. There was still considerable prejudice in the U.S.… [read more]

Testing) Materials -- Sensitive Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Unnecessary suffering


Military necessity





2 points

Question 8

1. Providing freedom of action in space for friendly forces, and when directed, denies it to an adversary, is a function of which space mission area?



Space Support


Space Enhancement


Space Control


Force Application

2 points

Question 9

1. Humanitarian purposes for… [read more]

Army Change Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Therefore this means that these leaders will guide their troops in the right direction according to what is specified in the army change process. This will help the troops as they prepare for their combat operation set before them or even training they are set to take in garrison since they will be aware of what is expected of them.

Third the SCG/CSM should know how to enter the army change control criteria. This is quite important since it guides them on how they will help the troops in entering or embracing the army change process. With this knowledge they will know how to prepare their troops on the process of army change and how they will go about it and what the entire process entails (Oracle and/or its affiliates, 2013).

Understanding the army change process generally helps the SCG/CSM track various states of army change. Notifying the relevant stakeholders involved in the change process with use of an approval framework and finally generation of an official documentation which will be used for future reference. This understanding helps the SCG/CSM to assist in the transformation from a force which focuses on counterinsurgency operations to an army which is adaptable when it comes to its operations and able to meet the wide range of combat commander requirements as part of the joint force .It thus is quite important for the SCG/CSM to be conversant with the army change process and everything it entails so that they can guide their troupes accordingly depending on the combat mission they are set to face.


Oracle and/or its affiliates, (2013). Setting Up Military Rank Change Notification and Documentation. Retrieved March 17, 2014 from http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E39904_01/hcm92pbr0/eng/hcm/hhaw/task_SettingUpMilitaryRankChangeNotificationandDocumentation-407f6c.html… [read more]

Rules of Engagement in Afghanistan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In Afghanistan, it is difficult enough to determine exactly who the enemy really is, let alone determine where the enemy is. When the determination of who and where has been sufficiently analyzed, the American soldier should have the right to engage. As Zinke so succinctly puts it "what's happening is we're losing our ability to fight overseas" (2014, para 6). Instead of the ROE assisting our soldiers, according to Zinke it is being turned into a "document that can be used effectively against us" (para. 3).

Another protagonist against the ROE is Dana West who has been around the Afghanistan war for a number of years. In 2009 West wrote "we should fight all wars to destroy the enemies" (West, 2009). Then in 2014 she reiterated "what they are doing to our military, our treasury, our power and our prestige is an unconscionable national betrayal" (West, 2014, para. 1). These are harsh words from the standpoint that our Commander in Chief is the person who most strongly advocates for the implementation and adherence to the ROE. Obama's justification is that the Americans must do more than just kill enemy soldiers, they must also be even more than one hundred percent sure that other casualties not take place. According to Newsweek, this is a laudable and achievable goal.

Newsweek states "the war aim in a war against terror is not territory, or access to resources, or conversion to our political way of life...it is the protection of civilians within the rule of law" (Bobbitt, 2010, p. 42).

Newsweek's assertion is an interesting one, but is it one that is realistic? Most likely not, at least according to this author. The problem with that type of war aim is that who goes to war to protect civilians within the rule of law? Seriously? It cannot even be easily imagined that a President, even one as ignorant to the law as the current one, would go before Congress and say...the reason we are going to war is because the civilians are not being afforded the opportunity to participate in the rule of law. Of course, that reason is much better than attempting to win a war so foreigners will like Americans. Ms. West writes that "this policy of sacrificing American troops to make the barbarians of Afghanistan 'like us' should come before at the very least a Congressional hearing" (West, 2014). This author concurs with that…… [read more]

Military vs. Police Intelligence Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Direct patrolling and constant vigilance is a critical component of the military mindset in light of the fact that the enemy is always looking for a way to strike: "Reconnaissance is a normal part of soldiering as are systems to record and utilise information gathered. The use of directed patrolling, and the specific tasking of patrols, for intelligence purposes is a norm. This can be used for both human intelligence and data collection" (Gillvray n.d. 3).

Since 9/11 there has been an attempt to refocus the orientation of police evidence-gathering to make it simulate that of a military organization, given the growing awareness that local law enforcement agencies are on the front lines of defending the U.S. against terrorist threats. Federal grants were used to fund special intelligence and counterterrorism units within police organizations and fusion centers were created to coordinate evidence-sharing between local and national agencies. However, these bodies have been criticized because the "lack clear guidelines for managing data collection and dissemination" (New report, 2013, The Brennan Center). Also, unlike the military, the police must be mindful of not violating the civil rights of the persons they are investigating, yet another frequent criticism in the reconfiguration of police operations in the post-9/11 reality.

Although police agencies have tried to adopt the 'constant' intelligence-gathering model, there have also been criticisms that this has resulted in an increase in the accumulation of irrelevant data which has led to both an erosion of civil liberties and to difficulties in processing what information has been accumulated. With a "a loosely coordinated information sharing network with data collected according to varying local standards and with insufficient quality control, accountability, or oversight" there can often be wide variations in the competency of the personnel and the quality of the information (New report, 2013, The Brennan Center). The coordinated and unified mindset of military operations is another advantage of military intelligence-gathering.

This is not to assert that military intelligence is foolproof, of course. The military has been criticized for consistently fighting 'the last war' and not shifting its mindset from focusing on nation states to non-state actors. Threats to the U.S. not in the form of consistent, direct engagement can easily fall through the cracks. However, the lack of police operations fluent in languages or cultures outside of the dominant one of their nation combined with difficulty identifying what intelligence is appropriate to gather on a consistent basis suggests that greater training and coordination of police efforts in investigations according to that of the military's approach might be beneficial and improve U.S. security.


Berkowitz, B. (2003). The difference between intelligence and evidence. RAND. Retrieved

from: http://www.rand.org/commentary/2003/02/02/WP.html

Gillvray, M. (n.d.). Military-police interaction: The need for specialisation and co-operation in peace-keeping intelligence. OSS Net. Retrieved from:


New report: Police intelligence gathering lacks effective standards. (2013). The Brennan Center.

Retrieved from:

http://www.brennancenter.org/press-release/new-report-police-intelligence-gathering-l acks-effective-standards-threatening… [read more]

Brigade the 56Th Heavy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


There are across-the-board problems with coordination that must be addressed for the BCT to successfully transition to Train / Ready.

capacity to of the units to function effectively and efficiently

Description of vision for the Brigade

I want to see the HBCT exceed it past levels of high quality leadership and functioning. The characteristic of the HBCT that I want to restore as the absolute commitment of leadership to continually improve and to build and sustain engagement of the officers and the non-commissioned officers. I believe the Battalions can be find distinction as members of the best maneuver brigade in the Forces Command, rather than seeking distinction as stand-out battalions at great cost to the Brigade. The driver of positive change for the Brigade is renewed interest in accomplishing the mission under the best possible leadership. Through the efforts of the commanders and officers, I believe that the issues that currently plague the Brigade can be ameliorated, and a path forward can be established that will circumvent the type of problems that have beset the Brigde.

Plans for measuring success to achieve that vision driver of the change is the Outline of process to solve the problem and implement the vision synthesize the organizational development processes and apply them write your response as an argumentative essay.

write your essay in first person to take personal credit for your leadership knowledge, skills, and abilities.

Always cite your sources using either footnotes or endnotes IAW the Turabian style (7th Edition) of documentation

What is the critical leadership problem facing the 56th HBCT Brigade Commander and how will you, as the new brigade commander, improve the organization?

Assessment Rubric

Evaluative Criteria Communications Criteria Score

90 Points

Apply critical-thinking skills to identify, explain, and defend the selection of the critical leadership problem. Use relevant facts and assumptions from the 56th HBCT case study to support your argument.

Describe your vision for the brigade and how you will measure effectiveness in achieving that vision.

Describe the process you will use to solve the problem and implement your vision based on the readings and lesson material from L100.

10 Points

(1) The introduction clearly states the thesis and introduces major points.

(2) Major points are fully developed using clear reasoning.

(3) The conclusion reinforces the thesis and major points.

(4) Style is concise, primarily in active voice, and generally free of errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

(5) Proper use of citations IAW ST 22-2.


Command and General Staff Officer Course (CGSOC)…… [read more]

Military Diversity in the Armed Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,758 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


S. Armed Forces. Created by 2009 as part of the National Defense Authorization Act (Trevor & Ernes, 1998), the Military Leadership Diversity Commission issued its findings and recommendations on how the departments of defense can promote the representation of females, the youth, and diverse races within the military, during the times when the entire nation faces high expectations of becoming… [read more]

FDR and LDB, War Leaders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


FDR and LDB, War Leaders

Franklin D. Roosevelt was considered by many to be an amazing leader. He was elected President of the United States for four terms, a feat unheard of even today. He also demonstrated many leadership qualities that made him stand out from past and current political leaders. Numerous scholars and research agree FDR was not just… [read more]

Military IT: Army Knowledge Online Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In a sense, the AKO shrinks the bureaucratic obstacles of the military while simultaneously maintaining a network of unparalleled enormity. (Rouse, p. 1)

The negative impacts that may be said to emerge from the AKO largely revolve on its relatively cumbersome nature. Due to the extra precautions which must be taken to protect sensitive information and the steps that are taken toward identity verification, many end-users have complained about the system's technological limitations. According to some servicemen and women, limitations in the system include a slower-than-desirable speed of operation and some problems with universal web browser compatibility. While extra steps must surely be taken to produce the adequate level of security restriction for potentially sensitive information and correspondence, the technological shortcomings of the AKO have led some would-be end-users to favor their own email platforms over the mandatory system. (DDS, p. 1) In fact, the DDS reports that only 10% of active servicemen make use of the system today.

3) your recommendations for improving and enhancing your chosen information system.

Recommendations for improving this system largely revolve on improving its efficiency without sacrificing its security capabilities. This calls for a refinement of the knowledge sharing technology while reducing the emphasis on email service and other functionalities which are fully available outside of the AKO today. This will involve moving toward a cloud-based strategy of data-basing for the improvement of speed, efficiency and accessibility.

Works Cited:

Army Knowledge Online (AKO). (2013). Portal. AKOlogin.us.army.mil.

Defense Systems Staff (DSS). (2013). Army Knowledge Online Transitions to Next-Generation Enterprise Services. Defense Systems.com.

Rouse, M. (2011). Army Knowledge Online…… [read more]

Worst Faults a Military Leader Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There was a comforting presumption that neither nation-state wished to be annihilated. However, this same comfort is not offered when combating terrorists who are willing to die for their cause. Also, versus apparent logical self-interest, terrorist groups are not necessarily associated with a national cause (or only diffusely, as with Palestinian statehood) and may simply attack for attention rather than… [read more]

Military Lessons Learned Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


A shared frame of reference is reported to be key in group common understanding. A shared mental model for information and communication procedures is reported to be the primary base in developing "SSA appropriate to current mission goals." (Cantu and Cantu, nd, p.5) Continuous and effective communication is also reported as being critical in the sharing of interests and in gaining an awareness that is comprehensive of the priorities of all actors in crisis planning.

III. Military Lessons Learned to Assist in More Effective Mission Success

The military lessons learned that would assist in more effective success in military missions include that there is a critical need for continuous communication that is effective in nature since this will enable coordinated action and will result in a shared frame of reference. It is extremely important that all involved be aware of what stage of completion the mission has reached the mission goals, the mission strategy, and the appropriate tactics to accomplish the mission. All actors must work in unison and cooperatively in order to realize success and effectiveness in a military operation. With today's technological advances, there are many ways to communicate even across long distances and this technology enables today's military in realizing success in its mission goals and objectives.

Summary and Conclusion

This study has examined military strategy and mission requirements for realization of effective and successful missions and noted that a shared frame of reference and continuous communication that is effective to be critical towards mission success.

Works Cited

Cantu, DA, and Cantu, S. (nd) The Vietnam War: A National Dilemma. Series: Conflicts and Foreign Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.learner.org/courses/amerhistory/pdf/Vietnam-War_L-One.pdf

Semling, C. And Rist, U. (nd) Shared Situational Awareness in Civil-Military Partnership. DS CC70 / Systemic Analysis & Human Factors. Ottobrun, Germany.… [read more]

Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy" and "America's Path: Grand Strategy for the Next Generation," focus on President Obama's new strategy of promoting growth and jobs while ensuring national security. However, these articles could be misleading in a way. In light of the president's action towards national security and the climate, it is unclear whether the government may afford to act on national security and climate change at a time when the global economy is under recovery. These articles could be misleading in some way because they imply that actions towards protection could be more costly than it saves. Stabilizing security by empowering the military saves the economy than it would cost to mitigate the effects of insecurity (Art, 2012).

The articles contain a new defense strategy created to yield approximately $450 billion in budget savings achievable in the next decade. However, the articles have failed to detail programs that must be trimmed or cut in terms of budget. Instead, the articles outline a generalized vision guiding the defense budget decisions of the administration. These articles maintain that the strategy will ensure an effective and safe nuclear deterrent; however, they do not explain the number of nuclear weapons required for deterrence and the costs involved modernizing and maintaining the U.S. military force (Art, 2012). Nevertheless, the strategy articles, "Reading the Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy" and "America's Path: Grand Strategy for the Next Generation," clearly articulate that it is possible to achieve diverse goals with a small nuclear force. This will minimize the volume of nuclear weapons in the U.S. inventory including their role in the national strategy of U.S..

This plan has attracted remarkable argument across the government. From the two ambitious articles, it is difficult to understand that they are referring to the policy community. It would have been better had the authors thought harder before arguing in the articles. Writers such as Pollack have confessed to having been wrong about nations such as Iraq. In his article, he provides little evidence of his arguments. While most of the administrations get some wrist-slapping light, Pollack argues that the Bush policy is breathtakingly ignorant, arrogant and reckless (Art, 2012).

Most of the judgments in the articles are as sound as the criticism on Bush administration. Because of the stability, prosperity and democratization after the Post-Cold war, it is fundamentally correct argue that the U.S. must commit itself to help the messy countries such as Middle East to come to par. The article proposes a grand strategy similar to America's engagement in the World War II with Europe. Although it is irrational, it is challenging given the global increasing dependency on Middle East oil (Art, 2012).

Basing on the two articles, the challenge is that the U.S. needs to recapitalize every one of the three legs of the atomic triad, and they do not have the money to do it. The articles outline nothing about the part of U.S. atomic weapons in defense policy, but… [read more]

Attack on Pearl Harbor Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Japan and WWII

The Japanese naval attack on Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands was a devastating loss for the United States, both in terms of the loss of vessels and lives in the U.S. Pacific Fleet and in terms of the political and psychological shock waves that the surprise attack caused. But notwithstanding that tremendous blow to American military… [read more]

Conscription in Turkey Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,404 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13


Military Conscription Reforms in Turkey: A Financial or Professional Approach

Military conscription in Turkey has its roots in the late Ottoman Empire. The system was adopted as a means of giving the nation military workforce, and was a tool of military modernization, especially in the Turkish Republic. According to Dogra Ozgur (2008), military conscription modernized the Turkish army in terms… [read more]

Guerrilla Warfare Is a Successful Tactic Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (818 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Guerilla Warfare

The Efficacy of Guerilla Warfare

Terrorists, in some ways, are just as organized and effective as a police force or the military. The police force and more so with the military, there is a great abundance of resources and supplies dedicated for training purposes. Terrorists and militarized groups from third world countries often have to be more inventive because of their lack of financing and lack of supplies. Guerilla warfare is a way that terrorists and groups from third world countries get attention and accomplish some of their goals. Guerilla warfare involves not military personnel, often called civilians, to participate and serve vital functions in guerilla activities. Participants in guerilla warfare have advantages that members of large armies do not. While there are advantages and disadvantages to the use of guerilla warfare, guerilla warfare, overall, is a successful tool of small countries and terrorist organizations.

In Guerilla Warfare, famous revolutionary leader and physician, Che Guevara defines guerilla warfare early on in the text as:

…the basis of the struggle of a people to redeem itself, has diverse characteristics, different facets…geographical and social conditions in each country determine the mode and particular forms that guerrilla warfare will take, there are general laws that hold... (1961, 2)

Guerilla warfare is a type of strategy that takes place within a context where many people are suffering and struggling for basic human rights, despite the political views or agenda of those in power and those without power. Guerilla warfare is a term that was coined in the 20th century, yet there is evidence that guerilla warfare and tactics have existed since the times of ancient human civilizations. Guerilla warfare, according to this definition, is not uniform in practice, but is uniform in philosophy. This means that depending on the physical and social conditions in which guerilla warfare is used will predominantly determine the precise plans and maneuvers of the guerillas. Guerillas have to use what is available in their physical environment, what they may already have access to or possess, what they could gain access to or possess by theft, and what the precise nature of the targets of the warfare are. These are the factors that determine what exactly will play out for guerillas, whether they are from terrorist organizations or from small and/or third world countries.

Guevara continues by arguing that while the form of the guerilla warfare takes varies, the ethos, pathos, and logos of guerilla warfare holds…… [read more]

Eb Sledge With the Old Breed Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


E.B. Sledge, With the Old Breed

There most assuredly are two different representations of the author of With The Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa, E.B. Sledge, that the reader can discern while perusing through this memoir. One of these men is the actual soldier, a 19-year-old boy horrified by the ravages of war and the exacting toll it takes… [read more]

Ethics in Military Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This does mean that some military members will lose their life protecting the nation in war times.

On the other hand, if one military member is acting in dishonorable ways, society will deem the integrity of the entire military force as questionable in terms of providing that protection to the nation. Dishonorable actions create a weak link in the military chain that gets other military members injured or dead. It also gives enemies advantages to do more harm not only to military members, but to the society of the nation as well.

Volunteering to military duty requires the signing of a pledge to recognize professionalism, being bound to the same Code of Ethics as other military professionals, accept the responsibilities, and respect matters of confidentiality (FRG Volunteer Code of Ethics, n.d.). This means that regardless of whether the member is paid or volunteer, or regardless of their respective roles, they are expected to perform their duties with the same high ethical standards of integrity. Dishonorable actions, such as the breaking of confidentiality, discredits the entire military force, not just the volunteer member. Honorable actions of the volunteer brings a higher standard of integrity to the entire military force in protecting the honor and independence of the nation.

The duty of the military requires high ethical standards in producing integrity. Each member is responsible for shared responsibilities that include ethical actions, whether they are a paid member or volunteer. Following ethical standards produces the integrity of the military in protection of the honor and independence of the nation. Not following ethical standards produces higher casualties and breaks down the confidence in the military by societal members.


Code of Conduct. (2013). Retrieved from Army Study Guide: http://www.armystudyguide.com/content/army_board_study_guide_topics/code_of_conduct/code-of-conduct-indepth.shtml

FRG Volunteer Code of Ethics. (n.d.). Retrieved from Department of the Army: http://sill-www.army.mil/428thfa/FRG/Forms/FRG%20Volunteer%20Code%20of%20Ethics.pdf

Siang, D. (July-Sept 1998). Professional Military Ethics -- A Soldier's Contract. Journal of Sinapore Armed Forces v24 n3, Retrieved from http://www.mindef.gov.sg/safti/pointer/back/. Retrieved from Journal of .… [read more]

Military Strategy in Korean Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Two Wars: Korean and Vietnam Wars are critical in the history of the United States under the influence of communism. Some of the factors that led to the success of the case of the Korean War include role of the UN Security Council, public support, and amphibious support. In the contrary, the case of the Vietnam War was a failure because of lack of public support, ambiguity of the enemy, lack of social and political solutions, and terrain. This is an indication of the need to adopt and implement appropriate strategies in the art of war.


Mehta, Harish C. 2012. "Fighting, Negotiating, and Laughing: The Use of Humour in the Vietnam War." Historian 74, no. 4: 743-788.

Schell, Jonathan. 2013. "The Real Vietnam War." Nation 296, no. 5: 20-24.

Hee Kyung, Suh. 2012. "War and Justice: Just Cause of the Korean War." Korea Journal 52,

no. 2: 5-29.

Krebs, Marjori M. 2009. "The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember." Social Studies 100,

no. 6: 273-278.

Waldman, Thomas. 2010. "Shadows of Uncertainty': Clausewitz's Timeless Analysis of Chance in War." Defence Studies 10, no. 3: 336-368.

Hee Kyung, Suh. 2012. "War and Justice: Just Cause of the Korean War." Korea Journal 52, no. 2: 5-29.

Krebs, Marjori M. 2009. "The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember." Social Studies 100, no. 6: 273-278.

Mehta, Harish C. 2012. "Fighting, Negotiating, and Laughing: The Use of Humour in the…… [read more]

Mission and Vision Statements Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


For example, the mission and vision statements refer to the utility of their products and services. Those services include providing testing, evaluation, and consultation services. Moreover, David (2011) outlines nine components of a successful mission and vision statement. These nine components include a reference to customers; to products and services; to the markets; to technology; to concern for growth; to overall philosophy; to self-concept and differentiation; to concern for public image; and finally, to employees. On most of these counts, the COMOPTEVFOR mission and vision statements are effective.

The customers of COMOPTEVFOR services include mainly the Chief Naval Officer, a position mentioned in the mission statement. The products and services have been mentioned throughout the mission and vision statement. Implicit in the mission and vision statements of COMOPTEVFOR is that the markets are mainly within the United States of America. Technology is indeed a core component of what COMOPTEVFOR does, and although specific systems are not mentioned, the mission and vision statements unequivocally refer to the fact that effective military testing depends on the use of state-of-the-art technology.

Concern for growth is also implied, but not directly stated, such as the commitment to "joint warfighting effects." There is, however, no mention of the future survival or profitability of the organization in either the mission or the vision statements. When it comes to expressing self-concept and differentiating the organization from potential competitors, COMOPTEVOR does fall short. COMOPTEVOR's strategic vision expresses a concern for "creating transparency," which can be construed as related to public image. There is no explicit mention of anything else related to public image other than the maintenance of effective and suitable military systems. Finally, a core strength of the COMOPTEVOR mission and vision statements is the mentioning of the employees: in this case, the sailors, marines, airmen, and soldiers that comprise the American armed forces.

Although the COMOPTEVOR mission and vision statements do not fulfill all the nine components of an effective mission and vision statement, enough of the parameters are fulfilled. COMOPTEVOR would only need to integrate information about how the organization is committed to social and environmental concerns to create a more comprehensive mission and vision. The COMOPTEVOR mission and vision statements do "ensure unanimity of purpose" within the organization in brief, broad, and effective ways (David, 2011, p. 47).


COMOPTEVOR (2013). About COMOPTEVOR. Retrieved online: http://www.public.navy.mil/cotf/Pages/aboutus.aspx

COMOPTEVOR (2013). COTF Command mission and strategic vision. Retrieved online: http://www.public.navy.mil/cotf/Pages/mission.aspx

David, F.R. (2011). Strategic…… [read more]

Course of Action Decision Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Action Decision Brief

"What you want to do is to weigh all the numerous issues, distinguishing that in war some data could be wrong, that a lot is missing totally, and there are all sorts of essentials over which you have no control…. You have got to weigh all of these things and come to a decision as… [read more]

Educational Advantages of the Military Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Lessening the Educational Disadvantages of Military Culture

The educational culture of the military bears little resemblance to that of popular culture or health culture. Indeed, the military lifestyle is for the most part a Spartan one in which the members undergo a strict regime of physical strength-training. It should also be noted that the military lifestyle is severe to a greater extent than the lifestyle afforded by other cultures. Certainly, military culture is not for everyone, and prospective enlistees should be cognizant of the many advantages and disadvantages associated with military life. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the most pertinent advantages and disadvantages, and concludes with strategies that can be deployed in order to lessen the disadvantages.

One of the chief advantages of military life is the extreme level of group solidarity that one gains from the military; individuals spend all of their time with a select group of fellow enlistees, and people quickly learn the value of cooperation and the strength in having a strong support group available at all times. Those who struggle with personal motivation or who have never had a supportive influence in their lives are likely to find particular satisfaction in the military lifestyle. It has also been shown that the military lifestyle better prepares people for relationships later in life, particularly with regard to marriage and raising a family (Teachman, 2009). Additionally, military culture places a premium on physical fitness, and enlistees generally find themselves in the excellent physical condition. In this regard, one of the advantages to education in the military is that it is not limited to the classroom or the training ground but also refers to educating oneself on how best to treat their bodies.

It could be argued that the advantages listed above are also disadvantages of military culture, as the lifestyle of group solidarity clashes strongly with the individualistic ethos promoted by contemporary Western culture. In order to lessen the potential disadvantage of the group ethos, it is important to place a premium on interpersonal relations while at the same time retaining one's own personal values. With regard to the severe physical fitness regimen, enlistees should not view the harsh training lifestyle as a disadvantage but must apply a positive perspective to it, valuing the superior conditioning that they will achieve. One of the most successful ways of lessening the educational disadvantages of military culture is simply to view the same disadvantages from a positive standpoint, appreciating the benefits of the group dynamic and physical strength.

In addition to the physical benefits of the military, another benefit of the lifestyle is the technological acumen that enlistees acquire. Those who have an interest in technology are especially well-positioned to thrive in the military…… [read more]

Military Law &amp Justice Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Military Law and Military Justice?

Military justice, also known as military law is a set of procedures and laws that govern members of the armed forces. Different states have designed distinct and separate bodies of law governing their armed forces. Other states have adopted the use of special judicial in enforcing military justice (McCormack 9). Military justice has unique legal issues such as preservation of proper discipline and order, the legal nature of orders and proper conduct within members of the military force. Some states allow their system of military justice to handle civil offences, which have been committed by members of their armed forces. Military justice differs from the implementation of military authority on civilians as a form of civil authority. This is commonly referred to as martial law and is often declared in times of emergency such as civil unrest or war. Most states have restrictions as to when and how martial law should be enforced or declared (Hall 21).

Military justice (military law), as a branch of law regulating the government's military force, is entirely disciplinary in nature. This penal law includes has incorporated the analogous elements of civilian criminal law. The law has many and varied sources that have considerable relationships with the constitution. However, since the public law emerged from the constitution, the primary source of the law that governs the military force has been considered the constitution (McCormack 27). Apart from the constitution, other sources have been associated with the emergence of military law. Some of these sources are written while others are unwritten that govern the military establishments, as well. The international law was the source of the law on treaties and war that affect the establishments of the military. Congress law made significant contributions to statutes of the military justice such as the uniform code. Customs and usage of the armed forces and the court system have contributed to the daily decisions in clarifying the gray areas: these have all added up to the present military law (McCormack 44).

Elucidate the Laws of War. What is a Just War?

In order for a war to qualify as a just war, it must meet a dozen of principles. First, force has been seen to be a source of destruction and many people assume that it should not be used. Therefore, need to use force must be overcome by use of viable and peaceful war alternatives. It must be made clear that the alternatives being used are fruitless and a war can be a just. Secondly, the cause of the war must be just in nature: this means that the principal aim of the war must be to correct a profound, grave, and enduring evil that might directly impair the safety or freedom of the people who are contemplating the war (McCormack 51).

Thirdly, a competent and lawful authority must consent to the use of violence. Therefore, the nation must design internal laws on the usage of military violence so that war… [read more]

Boer War a Discussion Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (815 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Furthermore, the strength of the Canadian army was illustrated to the world by the battle sof Passchendaele and Vimy Ridge.

The sheer size of the Canadian forces was representative of their dedication to the cause. During the beginning, Canada was still considered a self-governing colony. However, war progressed, Canada independence surfaced by their military reputation which was earned on the battlefield. The Canadian government retained its authority over its own military, which eventually led to the creation of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. The Canadian Expeditionary Force was maintained by voluntary enlistment until the MILITARY SERVICE ACT of August 1917 introduced conscription. In total 619-636 officers and men served in the CEF, of whom 142,588 were enlisted under the Military Service Act; 424,589 served overseas. The peak strength of the CEF at any one point was 388-038 all ranks in July 1918 (The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2012). The British still tried to retain control over Canadian forces, yet as the Canadian military began to become more confident its own abilities this set the stage for the entire country to begin to question its dedication to its imperial rulers.


Canada continued to struggle for its independence against the British as the military evolution provided the backbone of this effort. However, Britain continued to maintain their position that Canada was one of their dominions for as long as they possibly could. Furthermore, the Americans were initially resistant to the idea of Canadian independence simply because they believed that it would give the British increased control of the region. For example, if the British retained control, then they would possess more influence in the League of Nations. However despite the American resistance, Canada's military performance in the First World War signaled that the country was ready to free itself from foreign command. Later the Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28th, 1919. Canada's signature to this treaty gave them their independence which was internationally recognized.

Works Cited

CBC. (2001). The Boer War. Retrieved from Canada - A People History: http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPISCONTENTSE1EP11CH2PA3LE.html

Morton, D. (N.d.). Epilogue. Retrieved from Images of a Forgotten War: http://www3.nfb.ca/ww1/independence.php

The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2012). Canadian Expeditionary Force. Retrieved from The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/canadian-expeditionary-force

The Loyal Edmonton Regiment Museum. (2010). Boer War. Retrieved from Canadian Military HIstory: http://www.lermuseum.org/en/canadas-military-history/boer-war/… [read more]

Presence of Non-Romans Throughout the History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Presence of Non-Romans

Throughout the history of Rome, there were a series of transformations that were taking place. One area where this was most evident is inside the Roman army. As these changes, were designed to deal with current and future challenges. Yet, many of these adjustments were based upon: addressing underlying needs and reflecting the social changes that were… [read more]

Bonus Army Invades Washington Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


25 for each day served abroad & #8230; in the year 1945" (Ellis 296), is also pilloried mercilessly by the author as another in a long line of official bait-and-switches. Referencing quotes given at the time by President Hoover and Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt, both dismissive of the American Legion's request for immediate payment of bonus certificates as discordant with federal budgetary constraints, Ellis again grounds his writing in established fact before instilling his personal sense of outrage. His weapon of choice again becomes the personal tragedy of Walter W. Waters and the millions of WWI veterans suffering similar fates, "the jobless truck driver from Philadelphia, once with the Fifteenth Engineers, his wife holding the only job in the family & #8230; the coal miner from Morgantown, West Virginia, proud of his record in the Rainbow Division, out of work for the past eighteen months, a grown man getting pocket money from his paw and maw" (Ellis 298). By providing such searing glimpses into the sorrow and hardship endured by the working class, and especially WWI veterans, as the Great Depression dawned, Ellis transforms dry historical tracts into a touching narrative of rebellion and redemption.

Despite the unbridled optimism expressed by Waters, who famously declared to a throng of weary protestors that "We are going to stay here until the veteran's bill is passed!" (Ellis 298), and his compatriots among the Bonus Expeditionary Force during the movement's infancy, the article concludes with the tragic triumph of the empowered over the impoverished. Ellis covers both the political machinations undertaken by ambitious politicians and the military maneuvering deployed to drive away the Bonus Army marchers with equal fervor. Of the "legislator's apprehension" within their "fear-soaked chamber," Ellis wryly observes that as "the debate dragged on & #8230; every now and then a Senator would tiptoe to a window, peek down on the multitude, anxiously shake his head, creep back into the chamber" (304). Of the violent and riotous melee used to displace the Bonus Army's protests, in which two marchers were slain and scores more were wounded, Ellis notes the historical nature of the firsts involved, writing that "it was the first time in American history that federal troops had been summoned by a President to attack American citizens in their national capital" (312). The disgraceful actions of General Douglas MacArthur are given special attention by the author, who time and again implies that the commander's direct refusal to obey orders given by President Hoover should be considered treasonous betrayals of his moral and military duty. Ultimately, political expediency won out over the morality of honoring a governmental guarantee,…… [read more]

Leadership Traits in the Face of Battle Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Leadership Traits in the Face of Battle

What leadership traits are needed when a military officer and his men are under fire in a war zone? How to real leaders respond to the terror of war? What qualities to soldiers look for in their officers as the troops are being led into battle? These and other issues will be discussed… [read more]

Anglo Chinese War the Historical Discussion Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,723 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


¶ … Anglo Chinese War

The historical discussion of the First Anglo-Chinese War (frequently referred to as the First Opium War) included a variety of competing perspectives even as the war was still being fought, because either side viewed the war in entirely different contexts.

In largely the same fashion, for years the historiography of the first Anglo-Chinese war developed… [read more]

Military Lessons Learned From Vietnam Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


From a strictly military perspective, though, some of the more salient lessons learned from the War in Vietnam that can help me achieve my professional goals today include the need to:

1. Be nonjudgmental;

2. Learn the facts before forming an opinion;

3. Embrace cultural diversity in health care;

4. Develop collaborative practice among nursing teams; and,

5. Promote team work, respect and support for each other.

All of the foregoing are directly related to what one U.S. Army officer considered the most important lesson learned in Vietnam: "Of all the 'lessons learned' from the Vietnam war the need for flexibility in both thought and action is perhaps the most critical" (Summers, 1982, p. 139).


Given its impact on the American consciousness and the cost in lives, it is little wonder that scholars continue to analyze the War in Vietnam to determine what the United States did right and what it did wrong. The research showed that although the U.S. lost the war, a number of valuable lessons learned have been identified that can be used to good effect on the battlefields as well in the workplaces of the 21st century concerning the need for professionalism and teamwork.


Davison, K. (2008). From tactical planning to operational design. Military Review, 88(5), 33-34.

Logisticians. (2012). Bureau of Labor and Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov / oes/current/oes131081.htm.

Porter, M.E. (1990). Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: The Free Press.

Summers, H.G. (1982). On strategy: A critical analysis of the…… [read more]

Military Role at the U.S.A. -- Mexico Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Military role at the U.S.A. -- Mexico Border

This paper explores the reasons why the military should be involved in guarding the border between the U.S. And Mexico. The paper considers the relations between the two countries from a historical perspective,… [read more]

America and the Great War Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


World War I

American Participation in World War I

When America declared war against Germany and Austria in 1917, the Armed Forces of the United States were rather unimpressive in the eyes of the Europeans. Europe had been at war for several years and the participants considered themselves to have the most experienced and most capable forces in the world. And the Americans' performance in recent military expeditions left much to be desired. While the Europeans fought hard, gritty battles, the American military was failing to capture a simple Mexican bandit named Pancho Villa. In spite of this, the Americans were an industrialized nation with huge population, and within a year of declaring war against Germany and her allies, the Americans would not only raise an army the strength of which equaled any in the world, but one that would play an invaluable role in the Allied victory.

It was on April 6th 1917 that Congress acceded to President Woodrow Wilson's request and declared war against Germany, officially entering the conflict. But the United States was far from ready to immediately intervene on the side of the Allies. The performance of the American Army in 1916 expedition into Mexico after Pancho Villa led the Germans to believe that "the United States would be in no position to add significant military strength to the Allies." (Ziegler 38) and they had some right to think this as the United States Army consisted of "just 128,000 and 81,000 Reservists, and lacking almost all the equipment necessary for modern warfare…." (Henry 3)

However, the Germans' were wrong and within two and a half months of the American declaration of war, "more than 500,000 men had volunteered in the American Army and Navy." (the World War 158) and these troops were desperately needed by the Allies. By the beginning of 1918, the Russian withdrawal from the war was imminent, the British had suffered catastrophic losses during their 1917 campaigns, the Italians had been soundly defeated at Caporetto, "and the demoralized state of the French army made an enormous infusion of American troops imperative." (Ziegler 61) but when the new Communist government in Russia made peace with Germany, freeing up hundreds of thousands of German troops, they decided to make one last all out offensive against the Allies in the West.

It was in March of 1918 that the Germans sent 65 divisions against the Western Front in their last chance gamble to win the war before the arrival of the Americans in large numbers. And their gamble almost worked, the Germans drove a wedge between the British and French armies and pushed their way close enough to Paris to…… [read more]

Army at Dawn by Rick Atkinson Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Army at Dawn by Rick Atkinson

It is rare and encouraging that war blunders and lessons learned throughout the course of history are uncovered in such a well-researched and compelling manner. The book "An Army at Dawn" engages its readers due to its novel like narrative. Atkinson uses his many a year's experience of newspaper to craft a master-piece, covering the initial thrust of Allied forces in North America.

The Allied attack (1942-43) begins on the eve of operation TORCH, the audacious invasion of Morocco and Algeria. The Initial victories intoxicating the army of overwhelming confidence soon fades away; when damages suffered in form of increasing casualties resulted in low morale and vanquishes the chance of a quick decisive victory. The Allies discover that they are dolefully not ready to fight and win this war. Furthermore, they had to endure an impulsive and potentially catastrophic cross-channel assault which served as an exhausting "testing ground" for an amateur American army. Lessons learned were translated into better and more cohesive war plans and rise of a breed of leadership within the Allied forces. Lastly, by including Great Britain to what Atkinson refers as a "junior partner" in the war front, North Africa marked the beginning of American dominion, geographically as well as politically.


The theme here; a progression by which the initially shaky American troops and sketchy leadership turned into a great Army and history-making commanders, proved a stepping stone for the freedom of Europe and the demolition of the Third Reich; a larger-than-life story of valor and catastrophe, of miscalculation and continuing triumph.

By amalgamating storytelling and historical facts derived from battle memoirs and soldiers' letters and other official sources, Atkinson has drafted a master piece. Along with using the men's words directly, Atkinson also combines these collective observations in his own way to paint a vivid picture of the goings on. An example:

"We shall attack for sixty days and then, if we have to, for sixty more. If we go forward with desperation, if we go forward with utmost speed and fight, these people cannot stand against us." (Page 37) - An Army at Dawn

There are more than 100 pages of references, that's the brilliant depth of research conducted by Atkinson. The author is not just telling us the historic facts but also telling us individual stories of soldiers, the thoughts and the fears on both sides. The usage of maps to make the user understand the terrain and the strategy is very convincing and keeps the reader engaged.

The author also gives us interesting characters of Eisenhower, Montgomery, Patton, Bradley and Rommel. Patton being the war enthusiast and believer of valor and courage was the most interesting and engaging one. Also conflicts between personalities such as Eisenhower and Montgomery, Patton's…… [read more]

U.S. Army Eo Program Equality Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Inappropriate commentary based upon one's sexuality can be a lot less explicit, and unintended, than remarks based upon one's race. However, there are fairly strict definitions and codes regarding remarks of a sexual nature that the armed forces is unwilling to tolerate. Such statements may be extremely casual, such as the referring to a female employee by a colloquial term such as "babe." Despite the actual intention of such a comment, which may actually be quite innocent, there is little tolerance from this sort of behavior, or any other, that the receiving party may deem as offensive, as the following quotation explicitly states.

Soldiers and civilians must understand that what they may consider to be joking or horseplay must be evaluated on its appropriateness and offensiveness as perceived by the recipient… In determining whether such behavior constitutes sexual harassment, a primary concern is the impact of the act upon the victim, not the intent of the alleged harasser. An excuse such as, "I was only joking" is irrelevant (No author, 2008, p. 50).

This quotation demonstrates the fact that jokes of this nature, or of those that are based upon sex, race, religion, etc. are "irrelevant" to the work being performed by the armed forces, and are therefore intolerable.

The elimination of such unnecessary comments based upon race or sex will only strengthen the equal opportunity environment that the armed forces have long sought to provide for its employers and their families. Inappropriate remarks or racial jokes have no place in such a setting.


No author. (2008). Army Regulation 600-20. Retrieved from http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r600_20.pdf

No author. (1994). Department of the Army Pamphlet 350-20 Retrieved from http://www.armyg1.army.mil/eo/docs/dap350_20.pdf… [read more]

What Would Happen if the Drinking Age Were Raised in the Military? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Military Drinking Age

What would happen if the drinking age were raised in the military?

George Will once said, "Sensible politics begins with epistemological modesty about what one can know about a complicated society" (2011).

One can certainly argue that sensible journalism begins in much the same way. The writer, the researcher, the journalist, must acknowledge that there are certain… [read more]

Naval Force for Today Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … U.S. Navy be doing today?

The question asked in the title of this paper is a good one. Of course the U.S. Navy should be following its mission statement as closely as possible: "The Mission of the Navy is to maintain, train, and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas" (http://www.navy.mil). But moreover, there are other things the Navy can do and in many cases is doing today, and those will be reviewed in this paper.

The Navy -- What Should it be focused on in 2012?

The Navy is doing a great service to many countries in the world by coming to the aid of vessels in the high seas that are being attacked by pirates. Countless times Somali pirates have attacked ships and taken the people on board as hostages. According to Coastweek.com, Somali pirates are currently holding nearly 200 hostages. The European Union (EU) has a group of countries that have banded together to form "EU Navel Force Somalia"; the group released a statement (published by Xinhua) that indicates there are "…currently 199 men and one woman held hostage in Somalia following the pirating of their ships in the Indian Ocean" (www.coastweek.com).

The pirates hold hostages, control vessels, and demand ransom for the safe return of these captured civilians and their vessels. There is some evidence that hostages have been abused, even tortured. Overall an estimated 2,317 merchant seamen have been held hostage by these pirates for an average of five months, according to the EU statement.

The point here is, the U.S. Navy has intercepted a number of pirate attacks and it should continue to be vigilant in that regard. The Navy cannot patrol all the high seas looking for these scoundrels, but when a call for help is heard, the Navy should -- and does -- respond with all due haste and uses force if necessary. That brings up another question. When the Navy encounters pirate terrorists, should those pirates be killed on the spot?

There is a Combined Task Force 150 currently sailing in the Gulf of Aden (the site of most pirates' activities); this group is dominated by the U.S. Navy, and on December 19 the U.S. Navy…… [read more]

Military Mst Military Sexual Trauma Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


So, based on the statistics, it's clear that there is a cloud looming over military relationships. That cloud is the potential for MST.

Cultural Empowerment

Well, the solution to the problem of MST is to modify the culture of the U.S. military. A complete overhaul is not required as by and large the military represents the best and the brightest the country has to offer. But clearly soldiers need training on what it means to "sin by silence." Those who've been abused need to speak about it, tell others about it, and feel empowered by their ability to overcome it (self-efficacy and self-management may be the most powerful forces that lead to positive rehabilitation for those experiencing MST). This is the best way to precipitate real change -- create awareness. Additionally, top military brass needs to support those who speak out about MST. Clearly, they are not doing enough either.


To solve the problem of MST, the cultural identity of the military needs to be amended to include a hyper-sensitivity to sexual abuse, sexual harassment, rape, etc. Instances of such behavior must be reported. And those who report such behavior should be praised for exhibiting those aforementioned virtues. As it's been said, evil prospers when good men do nothing. By creating a more responsible and ethical cultural identity and environment, relationships will improve and expectations will be met. The result will be an empowered community that works together to truly become a force for good.

Works Cited

Cater, J., & Leach, J. (2011). Veterans, Military Sexual Trauma and PTSD:

Rehabilitation Planning Implications. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation

Counseling, 42(2), 33-40 Retrieved from Proquest at http://proquest.umi.com/pqdwebdid=2388951171&sid=6&Fmt=6&clientId=2944


Hyun, J., Pavao, J., & Klinerling, R. (2009). Military Sexual Trauma. PTSD Research

Quarterly, 20(2), 13.

Street, A., Stafford, J., Mahan, C., & Hendricks, A. (2008). Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: Prevalence and health correlates. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 45, 409-420.

U.S. Department of Defense. (2010). Department of Defense Fiscal year 2009 annual report on sexual assault in military. Retrieved from http://www.sapr.mi… [read more]

Ucmj as a Military Specialist Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For instance, the United States Air Force Writer (AFW) provides an example of the document filled out by the superior non-commissioned officer in reporting the failure of a soldier to adhere to 'other lawful orders.' Accordingly, the document quoted hereafter directs its charges at the offending officer, reporting that "on 19 July 2011, you were told at 2300 to relieve A1C Blank from the Passenger Service Counter at midnight. At 1201am SSgt Smith intercepted you going to have a cigarette before relieving or checking with A1C Blank. After been told by SSgt Smith twice to report to the PSC you were found outside smoking seconds later. You have continually demonstrated irresponsible and selfish behavior toward SSgt Smith. Your failure to adhere to these standards leaves you in violation of Article 92 of the UCMJ, Failure to obey order or regulation by a noncommissioned officer." (AFW, p. 1)

Here, Powers indicates that the range of potential punishments is likely to be a great deal less severe given the lesser practical and moral hazards of such disobedience. Here, the outcome can be the forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 3 months unless a lesser penalty such as revocation of weekend leave can be resolved between commanding and offending officers.


The primary exception to Article 92 which is identified by the language of the internal military bylaw is that which protects ineptitude from punishment. Here, Powers indicates that the UCMJ makes special notation that personnel failing to perform adequately in response to either general or other lawful orders as a result of incapacity or ineptitude, are, where it can be demonstrated that genuine effort has been put forth, not to be penalized under the terms of Article 92. Powers notes that "for example, a recruit who has tried earnestly during rifle training and throughout record firing is not derelict in the performance of duties if the recruit fails to qualify with the weapon." (Powers, p. 2)

Consequences of Compliance with Unlawful Orders:

The specific notation of 'lawful orders' indicates that some discretion remains with the individual soldier such that in the event that unlawful orders are invoked, the officer is intended to resist and take the proper steps to presume rank from the offending officer. Previous court martial cases are available to us to demonstrate the serious consequences of failing this discretion, with many atrocities during the Vietnam War highlight this distinction between lawful and unlawful orders. Accordingly, Powers tells that "in United States v. Keenan, the accused (Keenan) was found guilty of murder after he obeyed in order to shoot and kill an elderly Vietnamese citizen. The Court of Military Appeals held that 'the justification for acts done pursuant to orders does not exist if the order was of such a nature that a man of ordinary sense and understanding would know it to be illegal.'" (Powers1, p. 1) This imposes a duty upon military personnel to be aware of that which is lawful and that which is not before… [read more]

Army Problem Solving vs. Rapid Decision-Making and Synchronization Process Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Army problem solving vs. Rapid decision making

The concept of problem solving is a daily occurrence in the military and it is a systematic way of arriving at the best possible solution to a crisis or a problem. It also involves risk management techniques that need the army leaders to remain objective while undertaking such decisions and can be used to gauge individuals' critical thinking skills (Business Dictionary, 2011). The seven most important stapes in solving problems in the army are as follows;

Identification of the problem- this is one of the most crucial steps since the real problem may not be as obvious as it seems. There should be sufficient time and energy directed towards the identification of the problem. There should be much focus on the root cause of the problem as the symptoms may just be the reasons why the problem was identified. The critical questions at this step that will help in the identification of the problem are who does the problem affect? What is affected? When did the problem occur? Where is the problem? And why did the problem occur?

Gathering of information- once the problem has been identified, there is a continuous gathering of information that goes on to the very last step of the problem solving. One of the most significant sources of information are the primary sources which includes people with the first hand experience of the problem and may be witnessed the problem. Here, there are two types of information that will help in proceeding with the problem solving; facts-verifiable pieces of information with objective reality and assumptions-pieces of information accepted as being true in the absence of facts. The army leader will also look into the opinions which are personal views of various people. Then he will organize the information so as to verify its accuracy. There should be two or more people who are supposed to verify the factual aspects of the gathered information.

Develop criteria- this is the next step where a standard test or rule by which the information gathered will be judged is developed, it is the measure of value of the pieces of information. The test of suitability has five major aspects as Suitability-does the criteria solve the problem and is it legal and ethical, Feasibility-fits within available resources, Acceptability-worth the cost or risk, Distinguish-ability-differs significantly from other solutions and Completeness-contains the critical aspects of solving the problem from start to finish.

Generate possible solutions-at this stage the army leaders will consider the opinions and advice of their seniors and advance some few and most relevant solutions to the problems that are at hand, bearing in mind that too many options may result into wasted time. This stage has two major aspects as generate options i.e. State the problem and make sure all participants understand it, appoint someone to record all ideas, withhold judgment of ideas, encourage independent thoughts, aim for quantity, not quality, combine one's thoughts with those of others. Summarize the solution in… [read more]

Pride in Serving Military Compare Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,112 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


What greater responsibility can there be!

True, that the military can become complex with politics, economics, or family dynamics intruding and agonizing the recruit. Attrition is rife. There are stories too of sexual harassment in the army and of conflicts with friends both within and without the army life due to being a soldier. On the other hand, this is a blip on the horizon when compared to the wider picture.

True, too, that there are movies and books such as the famous movie "Born on the 1st of July" and Hemmingway's series that are critical of war and dispel their romantic myth, and indeed romanticism of war can be harmful. The grill and gut of killing is no fun. I am not talking about that. What I am considering rather is war done for the purpose of mankind, or not even war but rather activities involved in protection of defenseless people and activities dedicated to prevention of another war. These I consider heroic and magnificent.

Unfortunately, all too often the military has been depicted in a negative way by pacifists or those who have had negative experience or those (usually but not always, radical liberals) who have some agenda or other. Yes, there are some soldiers who have acted immorally and see the military as fodder for aggrandizement and opportunity for ambition and callousness. All too often, unfortunately, stories of heroic soldiers who risk their lives for their country and colleagues go underrepresented if not ignored and fail to receive the attention that they should. Their actions are as important as the firemen who jumped into the Twin Tower son September 11 and who sacrificed their lives for the victims. Firemen sacrifice their lives daily for individuals. Our police force does too. The military does likewise, but too often the military are condemned.

My initial objectives in describing my pride for the militia were to draw on their manner of expanding the recruit's imagination and human interest. That happens and the recruit becomes a far fully engaged individual with a plethora of friends and contacts and better able to deal with conflict in all ways for the military has taught him to do so. He is more in touch with his life and, likely, appreciates life more. Serving in the military can give one numerous advantages and I see such a human as potentially more deserving of our admiration that one who serves in various other positions. For this reason, I see the military as expanding beyond merely developing one's imagination: it makes the recruit fully human; it makes him more in touch with the world and ironically and counter-intuitively more caring about others (due to the fact that he endeavors to protect them to the extent that she sacrifices her life to do so). It is this latest fact that makes me supremely proud of belonging to the military for few other jobs provide us with the same purpose. Working the corporate life certainly does not.


Sandifer,… [read more]

Military Components Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Military Components

There is much to be learned through well-constructed readings regarding ethical values, loyalty, and leadership in the military. When it comes to today's conflict dynamics, in a world that is increasingly dangerous, a soldier must be prepared -- intellectually as well as physically and emotionally -- for what might be in the immediate future. Thesis: what emerges from these narratives is the fact that the Army is changing, and is attempting to train soldiers to become more ethically alert notwithstanding difficult assignments. The duties of an NCO go beyond education and chain of command. The modern NCO needs to embrace creativity, must be flexible and must understand that his men are hungry for leadership.

The Ethical NCO

David Crozier explains in detail the kinds of ethical dilemmas that face today's soldier. Crozier discusses the importance of "critical decision making" in a world where "competing value systems" can very quickly disappear and humanity and morality fade into the background. By that he means before a soldier pulls the trigger and takes another life, there needs to be an ethical dimension to what he or she is asked to do. Certainly there is killing to be done in the line of duty for a soldier in a war zone, but as Chaplain Major Mark Johnson explains -- and is quoted by Crozier -- "with war come dilemmas of ethical and moral consequences." In Afghanistan, for example, a soldier must be more than just vigilant and psychologically prepared; a soldier must have a moral background and have respect for people and property. A soldier in the Army must live up to core values (Loyalty, duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage), but the core values that a soldier was raised with also comes into play (Crozier).

"It gets a little bit different when you get into combat," Crozier quotes from remarks by Sgt. Major Russell Faulkner. It boils down to what kind of family you were raised in, how you look up to your role models, and what you have learned in the Army, because reacting to violence or the threat of violence isn't a matter of just knee-jerk firing off rounds. The four "don'ts" that Sgt. Maj. David Bass puts forward offer cover a lot of territory when it comes to thinking ethically. Don't: a) embarrass yourself; b) embarrass your unit; c) embarrass the Army; and d) "don't be 'that guy'" (Crozier). And if a soldier has not had an upbringing in a family that has good ethical values, that soldier must be molded with even more intensity in the Army, because he can't fall back on family values so he must learn new values as an NCO.

What I learned from this reading was that a soldier must be very well prepared in order to determine if that target has something in his hands, and if so, there should be no moral compunction at all because you don't have time to think. You must pull the trigger,… [read more]

Advancements in Military Technology and Information Superiority Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Advancements in Military Technology and Information Superiority So Important in the American Victory over Japan in the Pacific War?

The Importance of the Advancements in Military Technology and Information in the American Victory over Japan in the Pacific War

The war in the Pacific theatre of operations was unlike the one waged in Europe whereby conventional battlefield operations… [read more]

Terrorism and the Military (Apa) Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,887 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Colleagues of the Muslim Army officer said that he had expressed outrage that the United States was involved in a war against Muslims, and that Muslims should rise up and attack Americans in retaliation. (Sherwell, 2009) Hasan was extremely upset at the United States' war in Iraq, didn't feel that the U.S. should be there, and actually expressed happiness at… [read more]

How the Army Manages Transformation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Army Manages Transformation -- General George Casey

Part ONE, summary: The author of this article / interview, J.P. Donlon, introduces the article by pointing out that the American combat involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq showed leaders that clearly, those actions were "organizationally out of balance." They were out of balance because the new battlefield involves terrorism, and so the U.S. Army must be fine-tuning counterterrorism strategies. General Casey was asked to explain when the realization was made that big changes were needed. He said the need for the transformation came about following September 11. The new army will have a "versatile mix of multipurpose forces," he said, in answer to Donlon's question. There will be many units, including intelligence, engineers, logistics, and communication units, and new training will be required, he continued.

How will technology be used in the new configuration of the army? Casey was asked. One thing he emphasized was the need for training, starting at the highest levels of the military. "We sill send a senior brigadier to a university's business school for a week," he explained, and following that that officer will take an "advanced course" within a specific industry so he will understand how to employ that particular technology in an army context (Donlon). The general said he will be visiting computer giant DELL in Texas, not to learn about the computer or digital technologies, but to see how DELL deals with organizational change. He had recently also gone to Google and Cisco to see how they use technology "to enhance their ability to adapt" (Donlon).

When asked about the military threat that China might pose, he dodged the question; when asked about the recession and how the army intends to convince Congress to go along with the cost of transforming the army, he said "we can't afford not to modernize" (Donlon). The general ended with the statement that it takes "vision and courage" for a leader to go forward; he must "look to the future & #8230;and say, 'OK, this is what we are doing'" (Donlon).

Part TWO: Paraphrase: In a world that is increasingly…… [read more]

Front Line of Defense Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Likewise, organizational behaviorists have also examined the broad array of other human resource practices in the various military services over the years. In this regard, Griffin and O'Leary-Kelly report that organizational behavior studies have shown that "some of the strongest resistance to diversity occurs when there is a highly autonomous group with elite status. For example, Special Forces units in… [read more]

Army Reserve/National Guard Retention Impact Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,986 words)
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37.8% of responders were married for the first time and > 50% were married for the first time or remarried. The responders also indicated, an interesting distribution of dependents, with 34 of 111 having 0, yet 48 of 111 having 1, and 24 of 111 having 2.

The problems of mobilization, according to the survey results were rather interesting as the very serious problems were reported to be, (E.) lost seniority, promotion opportunity or job responsibility at civilian job, (K) increase chances for marital separation or divorce, (M) burden on spouse. Considering the number of respondents surveyed indicating to be married, (M) is certainly believable. 36 respondents skipped question(s) 15 & 16, which is roughly 1/3, likely due to mixed feelings regarding their mobilization mission and whether they felt their family was well cared for by the unit's Family Readiness Program.

General Recommendations

Increase level of interaction between Family Support programs, staff members and enlisted soldiers.

Focus on improving the quality of core living standards during deployment for family and soldiers.

Increase in-kind pay and services to soldiers if pay raise is unattainable.

Negotiate to provide better subsidy purchasing programs to the Army Reserve under the Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Emergency Management Association.

Increase programs that create a community environment for family members of soldiers, a form of social support group that is facilitated via the Family Support programs.


The introduction within Chapter One of this thesis speaks to the importance of emotional and financial support from the nuclear family unit. Additionally, the level of responsibility many actively enlisted Army Reservists and reserves in other branches have in our civilian careers can cause considerable financial loss to these interests should a deployment arise. Losing these earnings will have a considerable impact on the financial support of the family unit and also determine the morale of the family going forward.

Again, the ramifications of not rendering a positive solution to these issues will be the continuing negative impact on retention in the Army Reserves and the continued decrease in the reenlistment ratio. The attrition of new recruits to the reserve branches increases the role of the more seasoned members and is likely to increase the frequency of deployment for these soldiers.

My hypothesis to improve soldier retention via the guarantee of a five-year reprieve from future deployments is likely to meet with a positive response given the conclusion from the literature review and from the survey results. The need to reduce the pressure on families regarding whether to leave the army will be reduced since there will be a number of years for civilian earnings after deployment, thereby reducing the financial, emotional, and economic burdens on soldiers and families. To reduce the level of attrition, the military can make a few relatively low cost (if any) adjustments to policy. I hypothesize the military's best interest is to view the soldier…… [read more]

Army Developed Its Counterinsurgency Campaign Tactics Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Army developed its counterinsurgency campaign tactics in the Philippines and Cuba based upon their experiences campaigning against the American Indians. The most resounding feature of these campaigns and the key to the victories that happened was an almost unbroken record of success in working with local aboriginal peoples to fight low-intensity (counterinsurgency) campaigns. The string of campaigns stretched over one… [read more]

Homosexuals in the Military Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Homosexuals in the Military

The matter of gays in the military has been a hot political dispute ever since the commencement of Don't Ask, Don't Tell. Essentially, liberals want to permit gays to candidly serve in the military, while conservatives want to keep the present Don't Ask, Don't Tell, policy, or desire to ban gays from serving in the… [read more]

My Role as a Military Officer Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Role as a Military Officer

Why do I want to be a Military Officer?

It is my belief that as a military officer, I have the ability to live up to the ethical standards that were outline by General George Marshall is his book Armed Forces Officer. ("The Armed Forces Officer," 1988) Where, I know that as a leader I can inspire those who serve below and above me. This is because I always try to embrace the principals of flexibility, balance and a desire to achieve my objectives no matter what. In today's world, these elements are necessary as the overall mission of the military has been changing to fight a new enemy, in a different kind of war. For officers, this means that they must serve not only the role as a leader, but help ensure that the personnel under their command demonstrate the flexibility to adapt to various situations. Based upon my experience I believe that I am more than qualified to fill this role, as I can show those who are serving under my command the proper way to live more productive lives. This is significant, because an officer is similar to teacher / coach, who can show everyone around them those key distinctions that can make them better people. Over the course of time, this will not only have a positive impact on the mission, but it will also help prepare everyone for life. In my opinion, the best officers are those who not only demonstrated flexibility and balance, but they also wanted to make a positive impact upon the people they are serving with. I have the same kind of belief, as I want to be an officer to make a positive impact on: my country, community and the members of the armed forces I serve with. This is why, I believe that I am the ideal officer that military needs to adapt to challenging, yet changing missions we will face in the future.

What does society expect from me as a Military Officer?

Society expects officers to be: to honest, disciplined, professional and willing to give their life in defense of the nation. ("The Armed Forces Officer," 1988) When you look at the first part of what society expect from military officers, integrity, it is clear that they will always show the highest standards at all times. The reason why, is because officers are given a special responsibility from: the President, in defense of the nation. This means, that this special trust given to those individuals who are protecting freedom, is something that can not be taken lightly. Where, those officers who violate this trust will reflect poorly on all officers who serve in the armed forces. As result, honesty is trait that society demands from all military officers, who are entrusted with this responsibility.

The second part of what society expects from officers, discipline, highlights how they must place the interest of the military / nation above their own. This… [read more]

Private Security Contractors Thesis

Thesis  |  14 pages (4,504 words)
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Private Military Contractors

Private Security Contractors

This paper

Private Military Contractors

Private Military Contractors (PMCs) are a necessary but imperfect tool in today's rapidly changing and increasingly unstable world, utilized by the United State military, rife with ethical and other complications. Today's world is burgeoning with modern, powerful democratic states. As a means of filling roles once reserved exclusively for… [read more]

Battle of Marathon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Battle of Marathon: Strategy and Significance

The Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. between the Athenians and the Persian army remains one of history's most famous battles. Despite being hugely outnumbered, the Athenian army managed to repel the Persian ranks and force them to flee back to their ships and eventually back to the lands from whence they had come.… [read more]

Finding Oneself in the United States Armed Forces Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,272 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Finding oneself in the United States Armed Forces

'Proud to serve:' Why the military has made me who I am today

It has been a long journey for me. At one point in my life, I swore I would have nothing to do with the military, despite having grown up a military 'brat.' But I have come to see that serving in the military and being around those who have served this great country has made me what I am today -- and fostered within me the qualities I like best about myself. It is too easy to ignore the great blessings we live with in America -- freedom, prosperity, and safety. People must force themselves to seek challenges; challenges do not always present themselves automatically in modern life. In the military, every day is a challenge, a positive test of a soldier's skills and drive. That is why I believe that the ability to enlist in the United States Armed Forces is an integral component of any individual's optimal and complete sense of fulfillment. Serving in the army is not just a job: it is entering an extended family that offers unequivocal love. It offers the opportunity to demonstrate honor, commitment, and devotion to this entire nation and provides a foundation of security, freedom, and equality for the nation.

The army is a diverse family that exposes an individual to many different peoples and cultures. Growing up a typical 'military brat,' I experienced this firsthand. As a tiny child, I did not always like this -- all too often, I had to leave friends behind, and fight to make new ones. This made me a stronger person and also gave me greater understanding of the diversity of world -- I could not pretend that my own way of seeing things was the only way. My family also gave me a core sense of values that lived within me, no matter where we were. I came to see that so long as I stayed true to myself, I was home: "every where could be home to some extent" although it was "not home to some degree" (Iyer 259).

The military does not simply 'take' from those who serve: it also gives back a great deal to the men and women who wear its uniform. My father was the first member of his family ever to attend college. The military made it financially possible to do so, and not only did he get his BA (an undreamed-of accomplishment when he was a child); he went on to get his MA and PhD. My mother did not serve, never graduated high school, but she was determined that I would follow my father's example, as was he -- my father was one of the reasons that I decided to enter the armed forces, and I plan on following in his footsteps and get my MA and PhD as well. This ability to broaden one's mind through travel and education is yet another… [read more]

Army Soldiers Creed Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Army Soldiers Creed

Citizens who are not soldiers cannot begin to understand the personal, emotional and patriotic importance of being an American soldier. Being an American soldier is more than a job and more than a function in society. It is more even than a way of life. Being an American is just that: a state of being. There is nothing more important in the world than your work as a soldier. There is nothing greater in the world than the United States of America.

An American soldier has a mindset that does not accept either defeat or weakness. The mission comes first, and takes the top position in the mind of the American soldier until it is completed. All other weaknesses are secondary to completing the mission.

This does not however mean that soldiers forget each other. Soldiers never leave their fallen comrades. If someone should be injured on a mission, it is vitally important to see that person to safety until the mission is complete. Soldiers view each other as parts of a…… [read more]

Army Engineers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,583 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Evolution of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

An adage suggests that an army moves on its stomach, but the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers would likely suggest that it moves on passable roadways, rivers and bridges. During its 230-year history, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has been transformed from its earliest form as superintendents of the… [read more]

Ethics of Media vs. Military Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,767 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Ethics of Media vs. Military

The issue of the military and its relationship with the press is greatly varied and complex. The military for example has of necessity upheld a code of secrecy for the purpose of protecting its procedures during warfare. On the other hand, recent and past revelations by media investigations have brought to light some questionable practices… [read more]

World History Civilization Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


History of Military & Weapons Systems

The military and weapons systems are critical components employed by the state in ensuring two aspects; one would be their internal security and the other being to deter other states from engaging them into any form of armed conflict. An advanced and sophisticated military and weapons system translates into a more secure state and more importantly creates a condition wherein any form of hostile actions from other states are deterred. Throughout time, states have been consistently improving their military capabilities; they have made active strides in making weapons that can inflict substantial collateral damage and casualties with the effective use of technology. Moreover, weapons that can instill fear into the enemy were developed. Weapons and military systems were predicated on the use of force, as such the more force utilized corresponds to greater chances that the state's interest is upheld. This is the tipping point in any form of conflict resolution; states with advanced military and weapons system are seen as dominant players that set the rules of the game in the international arena.

The Romans can be cited as a good example of how dominant states can become with the possession of an advanced military and weapons system. The Roman Army was divided into units known as legions, which combined from 4,500 to 6,000 men. Each legion was divided into smaller groups of 60 to 120 legionnaires, as the soldiers were called. Because these smaller groups could separate and attack an enemy from the sides and rear as well as the front, the Roman Army had much maneuverability. The weapons developed during this time was the double edged swords used by the infantry, the iron headed ram utilized for breaking down gates and walls, offensive weapons such as catapults which functions at throwing iron darts and ballistae used to hurl heavy stones at the enemy. (Stearns et.al. 1991, 217) With the strength of the Roman Army they were able to expand Rome's sphere of influence throughout Europe and in Africa. Roman soldiers were professionally trained in the art of warfare and their military leaders have been honed by their battlefield experience and were defined by their tactical prowess. The Roman Army gave the Roman Empire a distinct advantage over their enemies because of the characteristics I have mentioned.

With the collapse of the Roman Empire, the world witnessed a shift from the focus on the Army to the Navy. During the 1400s, the emergence of Portugal, Spain and England as military powers was grounded on their superior Navy strength. Their ships were heavily armed and could carry the infantry to other places, as a result their expansionist views were well served by their Navy. The Spanish Armada was dreaded by other states because of its armaments and was extensively used to set forth Spanish influence to other parts of the world. During this time, the introduction of gun powder and firearms replaced the swords of the infantry and the canon was likewise used… [read more]

Influence of Digital Dependance on the US Military Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Digitization of the U.S. Military

The development of digital technology has revolutionized the business and private culture of the day. With digital information technology businesses and individuals can occupy space hundreds or even thousands of miles away from other individuals or organizations and still maintain relatively instantaneous contact and access to information. The information and intelligence exchange in… [read more]

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