"Military / Army / Navy / Marines" Essays

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Army Leadership it Is the Mission Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Army Leadership

It is the mission of the United States Army to protect the nation from threats by fighting and winning the country's wars. For more than 200 years men and women have served in the Army to successfully accomplish this goal, and as an American, I want to join this line of great citizens and defend this nation against any and all threats. The United States of America is a nation unlike any that have ever come before. Founded in liberty, it's whole purpose is to create an environment where everyone is free to accomplish anything they set their mind to. This system is guided and protected by the principles and laws set out in the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution; and the military has been created to protect this nation, and the freedom of its people, from threats that may destroy the peace and order that has been created. In order to do this, the military needs competent and willing people to do the difficult work and make the sacrifices that are necessary; and I feel that I could make a significant contribution to the protection of this great nation by becoming an officer in the U.S. Army.

As an officer in the United States military there are certain expectations that society has in store for me, and they can best be described by the motto "BE-KNOW-DO." An officer is expected to BE a leader, to possess the qualities and attributes that shape character in order that they may be able to motivate, influence, and inspire others to accomplish assigned missions. It is what a leader KNOWS that will give them the ability to be a leader, and in the Army this means knowing tactics,…… [read more]

Building Coalitions Early Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There are many high-level interconnected government relationships that I must deal with daily, and have been working in this job since 1998 at the cabinet level. I hold the title of Senior Civilian Protocol Officer and must communicate both policy and guidance to VA employees throughout the world. In addition to working with these individuals, I also work with Congressional committee staff, White House staff, and those in other governmental organizations, which allows me to learn about and communicate with many different kinds of people on many different levels.

The fourth and final example of building coalitions comes from 2000, when I led a team of 50 individuals to establish and create the USO Exhibit located in the Pentagon. Now in it's fifth year, the exhibit is viewed by over 100,000 tourists per year, and cost $50,000 to create. During the creation of the exhibit, I coordinated staff policy, maintained focus, and met goals and objectives for the Secretary of Defense. For our performance, my team and I received honor awards; I also received the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Service Award.

The performance that I have continued to give to each organization that I have been involved with throughout my career has helped me to win support for many of my ideas and has created important relationships with many colleagues. Leadership roles are valuable to me, and I ensure that customer complaints are handled properly and new procedures are implemented, as well as ensuring that there is a consensus developed among all of those that are participating in a particular project so that it can run smoothly and be completed on time. By building coalitions I have the opportunity to share my experience…… [read more]

Expeditionary Air Base Tallil Airbase Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,117 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" In the thought organizing process Dobbins reports that a model was developed for organization of thoughts in relation to 'aiding his understanding of the complex nature in the operation of air-based generators and the generation of airpower in order to "keep Airmen or commanders from concentrating on only one aspect of that process to the detriment of the whole."… [read more]

Combatant Commander's Revised Mission Statement Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Combat Commanders Revised Mission Statement

Based upon the accompanying INTSUM, OPREP-3, and Warning Order for the Bangladesh scenario provide a Combatant Commander's revised mission statement. Ensure that this statement includes the elements of "who, what, when, where, and why."

The crisis in Bangladesh requires that combat commanders must be prepared for a humanitarian mission. This will be accomplished using U.S.… [read more]

US Military Involvement in the Korean Conflict Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Korean Conflict

How did the Korean conflict begin? What were the dynamics behind this war? How and why did the United States get involved? How was the Korean conflict linked to the Cold War? These and other issues will be addressed in this paper. Thesis: The Korean conflict was indeed the first battle of the Cold War, and the United… [read more]

How Is the U.S. Army Utilizing the Human Resource Model Today? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,504 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … U.S. Army Utilizing the Human Resource Model Today

A human resource model is a performance framework that oversees conduction of tasks from an efficient point-of-view with the intention of attaining mutual objectives. The model works to manage the availability and essence of the most indispensable resource in management, the people. The model finds and controls major people as… [read more]

U.S. Military Organizational Culture the Competitive Edge Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


U.S. military organizational culture

The competitive edge that the U.S. military continuously enjoy is greatly linked to its strong corporate culture in the entire nation. U.S. military was built on three fundamental beliefs of significant capabilities in both defense and power projection. Consequently, these principles of operation have enabled U.S. military to instill a unique culture amongst its branches like the Continental Navy, Continental Army, and the continental Marines. As a basis for their integrity, the military organization advocates for strong military values that include strength, alertness, and defensive capabilities at all times. In light of customer service, the company exists to serve its country, support the friends of the nation and its structures, and give back to the local community through security services. Finally, in regards to defense, U.S. military has created a culture of innovativeness, diversity in services, and teamwork (Culture). This analyzes five theoretical constructs and the influences that shape U.S. military organizational culture and their impact in public administration management in the United States.

US military built its organizational culture based on the personality of its founder, Second Continental Congress. Second Continental Congress started this organization as just a small organization that was fostered at protecting the country from the external influences and threats like the world wars. Currently, U.S. military has is multinational departments running other retails stores countries such as Canada, Brazil, China, among others.

Second Continental Congress is credited as being among the pioneer employers that referred to the security matters in the country as lethal. The strength of the Second Continental Congress, positive attitude, and nurturing heart gave the organization the qualities of charismatic performance that was directed at influencing safekeeping of the strategies of security in the country. Evidently, military personnel have been made to believe that they do not work for someone, but instead assist in getting the work executed in the country. As such, the perception that has been created amongst the employees is that those who work and perform extraordinary equally get a great share of the organization's profitability and the success of the country security details.

Organizational ethics is the second factor that influences and shapes the culture of any organization as the U.S. military organization. Ethics refers to the rule of acceptable code of conduct and behavior (Driskill & Brenton, 2005). U.S. military stores have been keen on observing ethical standards of fairness, honesty, and service to both individual people and the nation as a whole. Cases of fraud, exploitation, or…… [read more]

Military Bearing to the Mission Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Steadfastness is a most important characteristic of military bearing. In the absence of reliability, an individual can neither carry out his duties appropriately in the terminal nor be relied upon by their colleague, or sequence of command to execute their military obligations satisfactorily. Which means punctuality as well as reliability is never optional to any military member for the reason that lack of the two in a military member not only hampers the undertaking of the command but of the whole NAVY.

Respect, bravery as well as dedication are termed as NAVY core principles that tend to be instilled in every serviceman's life the moment the oath of enlistment is pledged. Respect is the uprightness that an individual takes upon himself for them to be able conscientiously execute the orders from the officials appointed. Bravery on the other hand is described as the ability to affirm ones values as well as morals that has been installed in them by the NAVY. Dedication is therefore the commitment that is exemplified in the manner in which of each and every individual executes the orders given to them. In the absence of any of the said NAVY core principles, the rest make no meaning. These core principles structure the foundation of military bearing. And this is how they assist in mission readiness and camaraderie.


To armed forces members, military bearing remains immeasurable hodgepodge of regulations as well as ethics that rule their day-to-day lives. For example, a proper as well turned-out uniform, acknowledging individual's facing whereabouts, the manner in which one in that order address their seniors, as well as upholding promptness for whichever General Quarters, residence, or watch. Maintaining a spotless uniform reflects to other service members the delight that one bears in the responsibility they hold in services they offer to…… [read more]

Military Operations Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,073 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


These initiatives may involve interagency exercises and simulations that are supported and conducted by combatant commands and Services. Secondly, space capabilities to support the full spectrum of operations would require the development of forensic capabilities to attribute weapons of mass destruction in a quick and accurate manner. These forensic capabilities can be developed through better cooperation between agencies, partners, and allies.

The cyber domain can support the full range of military operations now and in the future by ongoing development of unmanned technologies for different missions. America should remain committed and devote its efforts towards intellectual and technical innovation because of strategic environment changes due to technological change. The need for ongoing development of cutting-edge technologies for a range of missions is because of the use of technology by adversaries to create sophisticated methods of causing threats and harm. These measures support the execution of the full range of military operations now and in the future because it provides innovation, full dimensional protection, and precision engagement.

Capability Area to Accept Risk:

Similar to most of the country's military operations, the Air Force has experienced a period of tremendous changes and challenges in the past decade. Some of the major changes include movement of unprecedented personnel and equipment to remote areas, introduction of new technologies, and creation of intelligence, control, and command operations. Since these changes have been characterized with significant challenges, there is need to determine the capability area the air force can best accept risk in the future, though it's a difficult process. Based on recent events, the capability area where the Air Force can best accept risk is cyber domain since potential savings have not been fully realized in installations (Donley par, 15). The Air Force can accept risk in this area by tracking efficiencies in research and development, training, logistics, and installation support. This is a logical area of extra risk because the Air Force needs to consolidate scarce resources in maintaining and realizing an increasingly efficient basing structure.

In conclusion, the full range of military operations now and in the future provides a spectrum for the Army to balance between fighting to win present wars and being prepared for the next one. This spectrum not only requires joint efforts from different stakeholders but also necessitates efficiency in certain capability areas for effective execution. Air, space, and cyber domains are the major capability to support the full range of military operations now and in the future. While these domains are associated with certain risks, effectiveness in their execution provides necessary support to this spectrum.

Works Cited:

"Air, Space, & Cyberspace Power in the 21st-Century." 38th IFPA-Fletcher Conference on National Security Strategy and Policy. The Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, Inc., 21 Jan. 2010. Web. 13 Sept. 2013. .

Donley, Michael. "Sec. Donley: How Low Can The Air Force Go? -- EXCLUSIVE." Breaking Defense. Breaking Media, Inc., 9 Jan. 2013. Web. 13 Sept. 2013. .

United States. Joint Chiefs of Staffs. Director for Strategic Plans and Policy. Joint… [read more]

Trainbands Those That Were Early Colonies Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Those that were early colonies had made their settlement among pockets of Indian inhabitants and wanted a method of safety. The colonists put together "basic tactical unit" or trainbands (common defense p. 5). Usually, these components were not held to any specific arrangement or values so every colonies trainband differed in organization size and. The structure and background of… [read more]

Flight and Its Impact Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (4,224 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13


Military -- Flight and its Impact on the U.S. Military

Though military use of flight was slow in the earliest days of 20th Century America, Post-World War IU.S. military involvements rapidly accelerated the development of flight, revolutionizing warfare. Initially a matter of curiosity during the Wright Brothers' historic flight, aviation gradually gained ground in the mindset of the U.S. Military.… [read more]

Enemy of the U.S. Military Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,181 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The problem lies in the fact that bullet-points are too small to convey full meaning of what the bullet-point is attempting to sum-up. Bullet-points, because of their briefness, are often used to present a single point without reference to any interconnection with other issues. For instance, when discussing the cause of a conflict bullet-points cannot present the complicated political, economic, and social forces which may have played a part. One General who has a particular dislike of bullet-points is General McMaster, who stated that without reference to all the aspects of a war's origin, "it becomes a targeting exercise." (Bumiller, 2010) His meaning, of course, is that without a full understanding of the reasons behind the war, the military cannot solve the fundamental underlying problems causing the war; and that bullet-points do not provide the information necessary to solve the underlying issues.

Microsoft PowerPoint is a program that can aid in the presentation of information to an audience by the creation of graphics that can present complicated information in a simplified manner. In many fields this type of program can be used as a means of presenting information in a brief, but informative way that will give the target audience a better understanding of the information being presented. However, in some cases the over-use of PowerPoint can, instead of simplifying matters, lead to problems. This has been the case within the U.S. military, which has come to rely on PowerPoint presentations as a "magic-bullet" that can solve all the problems faced by a modern military. Unfortunately, the reliance on PowerPoint has created a major backlash within the ranks of the military as they reject what has been called "death by PowerPoint." Too many soldiers are using too much of their time to create PowerPoint presentations. "PowerPoint Rangers," as these soldiers have come to be called, are not solving the problems faced by the military but are creating more complex ones. In short, PowerPoint is becoming too important and the military is spending too much of its resources on a program that cannot provide the necessary intelligence in order to win wars.

PowerPoint presentations plague the U.S. military with most senior officers receiving several presentation each day. General David Petraeus called such briefings "just agony," yet the military relies on such types of presentations almost exclusively. In order to create these faulty means of information transmission the military spends an inordinate amount of time, personnel, and resources creating so many PowerPoint presentations that the information tends to blur. Commanders say that these presentations, which have become the main means of transmitting information, contain less information than a five-page paper on a specific subject. This is because of the program's reliance on bullet-points and their conciseness. Each bullet-point must contain a single piece of information without any reference to interconnected information, and as a result, the bullet-points present isolated information without reference to other issues that may be involved. Then in order to include the important associated information, but still using the… [read more]

Military -- British Royal Navy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


, 1989, p. 64.] [6: Ibid., p. 16.] [7: Rodger, pp. 250-1.]

This "wedding" of Great Britain's military and economic interests under the protection of the Royal Navy made the Royal Navy the "supreme industrial activity"[footnoteRef:8] and greatly contributed to the social belief in the myth that liberty and the strength of the Royal Navy were intimately connected.[footnoteRef:9] As a result of the belief that the Royal Navy was essential to the economy and to Britain's safety from its enemies, the Royal Navy had no difficulty in manning its ships with an eager populace.[footnoteRef:10] What is more, the myth spilled over into politics in which the Royal Navy's officers, coming from many different backgrounds[footnoteRef:11], occupied many local and national political offices and heavily influenced Great Britain's laws and funding for the Royal Navy.[footnoteRef:12] As a result, the Royal Navy was amply protected, fostered and funded.[footnoteRef:13] With all these geographic, economic, social and political forces contributing to its growth, the Royal Navy grew to be the dominant maritime force by the beginning of the 18th Century. [8: Ibid., p. 582.] [9: Ibid., pp. 312-3.] [10: Ibid., p. 313.] [11: Ibid., p. 115.] [12: Ibid., p. 389.] [13: Ibid.]


Great Britain's geography, society, economy and politics provided a nourishing network that made the Royal Navy the dominant maritime force in the world by the beginning of the 18th Century. Geographically, Great Britain was both given access to international markets and protected by its island existence, tides and winds. Economically, Great Britain saw early on that the sea was vital to its economic and military interests, allowing it to protect its significant trade, build an efficient economic system within its boundaries and dominate internationally. Understandably, the public realized that its economic strength, liberty and protection from enemies were intimately connected with its naval strength. This emphasis on maritime interests fostered a political climate in which naval officers came from all sorts of backgrounds within Great Britain and held influential political offices both locally and nationally. The political sway of these officers allowed them to ensure that the Royal Navy was well-manned and well-funded. Consequently, all these geographic, economic, social and political forces built a navy that became the premiere maritime global force by the 18th Century.


Kennedy, Paul M. The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (Paperback). Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2006.

Rodger, N.A.M. The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2005.

Starr, Chester G. The Influence of Sea Power on…… [read more]

Amateur Armies and Initial Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


[footnoteRef:4] [4: Woodworth, 61]

But perhaps most damningly, regarding the Union forces, was the fact that once the initial fervor wore low, conscription became a necessity. The Enrollment Act of March 1863 required all men ages 20-45 to register for the draft, which would be instituted if a district fell below the federally-mandated quota.[footnoteRef:5] Resistance to the draft grew, and many grumbled that they did not want to fight to keep a South in a Union, when it wished to leave. Furthermore, the way in which the draft was implemented -- allowing men to temporarily buy their way out of the draft for the price of three hundred dollars or to purchase a poorer man to go in their place -- only inflamed class tensions. At the time, three hundred dollars was a working class man's annual salary.[footnoteRef:6] [5: Woodworth, 227] [6: Woodworth, 227]

Thus, the initial use of volunteer armies was a disaster. They shoved untested recruits with little real knowledge and understanding of the rigors of warfare to the front lines. When recruitment of new volunteers proved difficult, the public was resistant to instituting a draft after the war began, and felt that it was sending men -- mainly poorer men -- to their deaths in a conflict with an uncertain end date and of uncertain value. The inexperience of the Union forces in particular likely prolonged the war, given that the Union had superior military might to the Confederacy. Yet neither side really sustained an advantage using short-term militia. Loyalty to the army, a sense of personal investment in the strategy undertaken, and coolness in battle was something which could only be won through sustained experience, which the short-term volunteer army did not possess.


Woodworth, Steven E. This Great…… [read more]

Sun Tzu and Military Classics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" Giap's forces forgot another Sun Tzu principle, however, that of moral influence, when they massacred 5,000 people at Hue and turned the civil population against them. Once the locations of the small and isolated VC units were revealed, the U.S. military was able to destroy them quickly with its superior firepower, especially when the anticipated popular uprising in the cities never occurred. At the same time, though, Giap won a moral victory with public opinion in the U.S., which turned against the war and Lyndon Johnson politically, so in that respect his offensive was a major victory even though it had also been "a military disaster for North Vietnam."

If the Americans were outclassed in generalship during the Vietnam War, they did much better against the Germans at Normandy in 1944, once again by following Sun Tzu's strategies. Dwight Eisenhower made highly effective use of deception by convincing Hitler that the real attack would come at Calais, which led him to keep many of his best units, including the Panzers, in the wrong places -- and none of these could be moved without his permission. Sun Tzu also taught that using double agents was essential in warfare, and in World War II the British Operation Double Cross had turned almost even German spy, and these were used to feed the enemy false information. Because the British had also broken the German Enigma machine codes, they also knew a great deal about the enemy's thoughts and perceptions, which was very useful in keeping them deceived in the run up to D-Day.

Sun Tzu also believed in a war of movement, however, and would not have approved of how the Allies were caught up fighting in the hedgerow country at Normandy for three months, but he would have endorsed Operation Cobra, which launched diversionary attacks toward Caen to attract the attention of the Germans, then broke out of Normandy from the other side in a surprise flanking maneuver led by General Patton, that drove rapidly across France. This was in accord with Sun Tzu's principle that it was always desirable to make the enemy prepare for an attack on one flank to make him weaken his defenses in the areas where the real attack would take place. This was a classic Sun Tzu maneuver, in fact, and led to victory on the Western front, while commanders who did not follow his strategy and got bogged down in prolonged wars or attrition or frontal attacks and sieges on strong defensive positions often ended up losing the war. Generals in the Civil War and World War I, for example, ignored his maxims to "only fight if a position is critical" and "there is some ground that should not be contested" to their detriment and that of their armies.


Harvey, R. (2008). Maverick Military Leaders: The Extraordinary Battles of Washington, Nelson, Patton, Rommel, and Others. New York: Skyhorse Pub Co Inc.

Sun Tzu. The Art of War. History.com…… [read more]

Military Needs to Step Down Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Thus, with the only really functioning economy, the United States became the major protagonist against Soviet aggression during the aptly termed, "Cold War" (Hopf, 1999).

The Cold War with the Soviet Union was based, really, on a high level of mistrust. After World War II the Americans had nuclear weapons capability, they had not been invaded so were on better footing economically, and the Soviet's need for buffer "protective" zones in Eastern and Southern Europe. Then, of course, there was the nature of the Soviet State -- the aim of spreading world communism, and American President Harry Truman's personal dislike and distrust of Joseph Stalin. It was this role that dominated Foreign Policy, military spending, and even personified regional conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, and finally the Middle East for the next several decades.

However, any discussion of the legitimacy of the U.S. military presence abroad must begin by stating that, from a practical standpoint, sustaining the military troops and bases in foreign lands negatively affects the U.S. Although it significantly reinforces the global authority of the U.S. army, the military's international presence hinders the overall welfare of the U.S. and, contrary to popular belief, fails to stimulate the economic development of the U.S.

It is clear to all parties that the U.S. is currently facing a debt crisis. This debt crisis is exacerbated by the excessive military spending, and a reduction of international military presence could greatly aid in the resolution of the debt. Unlike financial problems that can be solved simply by saving money and repaying loans, the U.S. is facing a $15 trillion deficit that requires a more complex solution. To put this astronomical figure in context, $13 trillion stacked in hundred dollar bills would be nearly as tall as the Statue of Liberty, and as wide as a two football stadiums (Visualization). This debt is 20% more than the world's combined GDP (Visualization). In addition to the national debt, the U.S. suffers from unfunded liabilities, which means the U.S. government lacks the funds necessary to pay Medicare, social security, military, and civil servant pensions -- all of which amount to over $114.5 trillion. Visually, this is a stack of hundred dollars as tall as the former World Trade Center and Empire State Building combined (Visualization). These analogies lucidly illustrate the fact that the U.S. needs to decrease… [read more]

Civilian and Military Organizational Competencies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


According to "Managing Supply Chains," the Department of Defense has long funded major research to improve logistics. Over the past 15 years, the commercial world has developed innovations in supply-chain management, including methods that exploit information technology systems to streamline and monitor business processes. The article quotes William Pagonis, Sears logistics executive and retired Army logistics expert "IT technology has jumped so dramatically in the last 20 years and particularly in the past five years that the DoD is finding it better to go out and get technology from the civilian sector" (2003). Borrowing technology between civilian and military managements shows the convergence between the two.

The military has looked to the commercial world for ideas on efficiency and continuous process improvement in other logistical areas as well, resulting in the Army's adoption of Lean and Six Sigma, two independently developed improvement tools. Army Materiel Command officials first used the tools developed at Toyota and Motorola respectively to better wage the global war on terrorism and enable transformation (Reese, 2006).

Another aspect where basic competencies between civilian and military organizations are similar is the way in which the military and companies like Wal-Mart approach sustainability and supply chain management. According to military logistics experts, the specialized military supply-chain consists of three tiers:

The first tier supports movement of commodities such as food, medicine, and clothing (the equivalent of Wal-Mart's operations)

The second tier supports transport of major components such as weapons systems that require maintenance over time

The third tier provides movements of large numbers of troops and equipment through the deployment chain into difficult environments

Because of the comparability of Wal-Mart's supply chain with the first step of the military's logistical operations, experts continue to analyze the implications of Wal-Mart's sustainability initiative for national defense acquisitions strategies (Smith, 2010).

Ideas flow both ways between commercial and military environments. The Internet had its beginnings as a cloistered defense communication network, from which it has since evolved into a web of digital shopping and entertainment outlets. One area where the business world stands to dramatically improve would be to adapt military supply chain techniques to improve performance. Whereas the military manages its logistics with the performance metric of availability for its end-customer, the soldier, the commercial world manages its logistics with internal performance metrics, not from the perspective of the end-customer. As any number of consumers will agree, the commercial world often loses sight of the end-customer; the commercial world needs to emulate the military and focus on customer-centric performance metrics ("Managing Supply Chains," 2003).

To sum up, reviewing both commercial and military operations clearly shows areas where both use similar organizational competencies to plan and implement information technology and related procedures and processes.

Works Cited

Lopez, C.T. Staff Sgt. (2006). Headquarters Air Force realigns similar to 'J-staff" model. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123015891

Managing supply chains: What the military can teach business (and vice-versa). 2003. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm;jsessionid=a830fe1c16ad9a882ac02226606e4c53601e?articleid=894

Price, D.E. (2004). Organizing for expeditionary operation transforming… [read more]

Military Technology -- Civil War Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,996 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


A man named Jonathan Letterman, who was Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac, created the "…first organized transport…" of wounded soldiers. He innovated the design of "ambulances," which moved along with each division of soldiers, with a line sergeant in charge. There were "…two stretcher-bearers and one driver per [horse-drawn] ambulance, and they went into a battlefield and picked up the wounded and delivered them quickly to "…dressing stations and then to field hospitals" (PBS). While this innovation sounds like a simple logical answer as to what should be done with injured soldiers, the PBS article points out that previous to Letterman's system of transporting the wounded, ambulance crews usually were made up of "…a ragtag group of soldiers who were otherwise unfit for fighting" and were not competent doing the task of removing injured troops (PBS).

How effective was the Union naval blockade?

There is no doubt that the technologically advanced vessels built by the Union navy contributed in substantial ways to the demise of the Confederate effort. To wit, a research paper published by the Air War College (authored by Colonel David J. Murphy) points out that some scholars have asserted that the Confederate army lost the war not because of the blockade but rather for the following reasons: a) the collapse of the rail system in the South; and b) a feeling of "religious guilt" in the South that "triggered a collapse in morale" (Murphy, 1999, p. 2). But Murphy insists that while some scholars point to the fact that the South "easily" penetrated the Union navy's blockade of the ports -- and that Confederate leaders were "largely unconcerned about the economic effects" of the blockade -- the historic facts do not support those assertions.

Certainly the collapse of the rail system in the South contributed to the Confederate's demise, but Murphy points out that it was the blockade that "…starved the South of needed replacement rails, locomotives, and tolling stock" (2). Moreover, Murphy explains that the big, major victories by the North did not happen until the Confederates were "…suffering from blockade induced shortages" (3).

In conclusion, while there were major technological advances that helped both the North and the South in the Civil War -- including hot air balloons, telegraph facilities, rail transportation and more effective weaponry -- the North had more technologies and superior technologies and those innovations helped shut down the Confederate efforts.

Works Cited

Harvey, A.D. (2012). Was the American Civil War the First Modern War? The Journal of the Historical Association / History, 97(327), 272-280.

History. (2008). Civil War Technology. Retrieved October 16, 2013, from http://www.history.com.

Marten, J. (2012). How Technology Shaped the Civil War. Scientific American. Retrieved October 16, 2013, from http://www.scientificamerican.com.

Millett, A.R., and Masiowski, P. (2012). For the Common Defense. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Murphy, D.J. (1999) Naval Strategies During the American Civil War. Air War College…… [read more]

Military Leadership Merits Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,065 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


After being informed on August 3rd, 1943 that Private Charles H. Kuhl was suffering from "battle fatigue," and therefore could not perform his duties, Patton exploded in a fit of rage, slapping the shell-shocked soldier while belittling him for his alleged cowardice and ordering him back to the front lines, and while this act of willful aggression against men under his command may have been dismissed as an isolated incident, Patton managed to slap another sidelined soldier and send him back into battle just one week later (Blumenson, 1974). This lapse in judgment resulted in a reprimand from President Dwight D. Eisenhower himself, who wrote to Patton expressing his severe disapproval, stating while he "clearly understands that firm measures are necessary in order to secure the desired objectives & #8230; this does not excuse brutality, abuse of the sick, nor exhibition of uncontrollable temper in front of subordinates" (Blumenson, 1974), and Patton was forced to apologize to the troops he assaulted, as well as to make several speeches to the those under his command expressing remorse. His fellow generals universally distanced themselves from Patton's conduct, and his reputation was irrevocably altered due to these flashes of contempt for the inaction of others.

Despite the ramifications of what many termed "the slap heard round the world," Patton's legacy as a feared opponent for those pitted against him on the field of battle preceded him, and he played an integral role in the Allied invasion of Normandy while acting in a reduced role as a result of the assault scandal. With American military leaders suddenly doubting Patton's ability to control himself, he was not chosen to lead an expeditionary force during the invasion of Normandy, but the fact that Nazi generals believed Patton to be America's most capable commander allowed the Allies to engage in an act of subterfuge and misdirection which changed the course of world history forever after. By feeding the Nazi high command with a steady stream of misinformation designed to mislead them into thinking Patton would be leading the crucial entrance into the fiercely defended French occupied territories -- a rouse that the Germans were all to ready to believe due to their reverence of Patton's exploits against them in Northern Africa and Italy -- the Allies managed to gain the tactical advantage they needed to gain an upper hand in WWII that they would never lose. Patton's abilities on the battlefield were so respected in his day that even when not in command, the very suggestion of his presence was enough to motivate massive deployments of resources and personnel, and this astounding ability to strike fear into the heart of the enemy even from afar played a foundational role in the American's subsequent defeat of Nazi Germany and the Axis powers. For that reason alone, the relatively minor controversies which dogged Patton throughout his long career should not be used to discredit the multitude of contributions he made to the defense of American interests abroad.


Atkinson,… [read more]

English Military Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In 1066, the Normans invaded and conquered England. The Normans' great contribution to the English military was the castle. They began building the first castles there, and used them as bases from which to control the surrounding countryside. This also brought the art of siege warfare to its zenith. This changed the focus from a walled community surrounded by fields… [read more]

Gangs in the Military Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Sheley; Zhang; Brody; Wright, 1995)

The amount of risks experienced by youth presently has influenced the military society to find out novel strategies to surmount these risks. The Department of Defense has embarked on a forceful plan based on the latest in youth development theory and research, to congregate the wants of military youth and their families. When we look to the future, the military community's concentration on serving youth will stress upon consistent, coordinated efforts. The Strategic Youth Action Plan presents a guide which will make sure that youth programs and services efficiently favor military youth during the 21st century. During September 1988, DoD funded a Strategic Youth Action Planning Conference to find out the strategies to support military youth in a better way. (Jackson, 1998)

Stakeholders from nearly each segment of the community, together with youth, participated in the conference to talk about youth matters and needs. They recognized many areas for modification, including standardizing policies and programs, capitalizing internal and external partnerships, and guaranteeing command support for youth and youth programs. Collectively, the members approved that their objective was a common platform for the future and formed the Strategic Youth Action Plan to attain it. The Strategic Youth Action Plan comprises of ten goals. The initial eight concentrate on the distinctive confrontations experienced by military youths, including recurrent relocations and severances from family for long periods. The last two goals point at health services particular to adolescent growth and development and wants of risk-group youth. These goals will act as guidance for youth, commanders, parents and communities in their endeavor to offer wide-ranging and receptive youth programs. (Jackson, 1998)

Gang activity persecutes the entire establishment not just a limited individuals. Everybody has an involvement in it either by way of enlightening themselves, their family members and their soldiers or by coming across and reporting doubtful activities. To sum up there is a necessity for providing wide-ranging Youth Programs, guarantee command support and involvement, encourage involvement of the youth, identify and sustain family participation, build up standard policies, enlarge partnerships and teamwork, make sure sufficient resources, guarantee specialized wholehearted adults perform in unison with the youth, prop up health services for adolescent growth and development, deal with the wants of the risk-group youth to thwart the mounting issues of gangs in military.


Jackson, Lonnie. (1998) "Gangbusters: Strategies for Prevention and Intervention." Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.

Knox, G.M. (1993) "An Introduction to Gangs" Buchanan, MI: VandeVere Publishing, Ltd.

Mitchell, Miller, J; Rush, Jeffrey P. (1996) "Gangs: A Criminal…… [read more]

Military Dualism in Culture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In other words, Scarborough's arguments regarding supposed dualities of cultures may in fact be a difficulty between men and women in all workplaces, not so much between officers and civilians.

Lastly, the author suggests that if the military embraces a less organizationally enclosed and paranoid structure of top-down hierarchy, military and civilian culture might be better integrated. The military's assumptions and expectations regarding a high level of behavior regarding adultery, for instance, are seen as evidence of its contrary spirit to the more lax civilian ethos and culture. The author even quotes military individuals who state, stone faced, that the suggestion is that the problem is with the civilian culture, not with the military, and that the military culture is absolute keystone cold right and the civilian culture is wrong regarding sexual matters in a way that highlight the author's argument from emotions and expressed attitudes, rather than logic.

But military personnel, as they are entrants into an organizational framework, and agree to that code of conduct for a time -- they do not necessarily intend to uphold it for their entire life, nor do they agree personally with every principle, any more than a lawyer agrees with every law. Although civilian life imposes less stringent requirements upon itself, the military is a professional organization, intended to do a professional job to the best of its ability, and part of the military profession requires certain levels of secrecy and hierarchy. Much as a lawyer or a doctor must function in a different way in his or her personal life and professional life, so must a military individual. Some individuals are constitutionally incapable of doing so, and fall prey to the stresses of the profession. However, the implications are not cultural, however, but vocational, and the changes to the military code of ethics, although implicated by social changes regarding gender, are not to blame nor a source to look to ameliorate the abuses detailed by Scarborough.

Bibliography of Works Cited and Consulted

Scarborough, Rowan. (17 March 1999)"Army to try video cameras for mixed-barracks safety." The Washington Times.

Scarborough, Rowan. (, 1 July 2004) "Zarqawi Targets…… [read more]

Army Developed Its Counterinsurgency Campaign Tactics Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Army developed its counterinsurgency campaign tactics in the Philippines and Cuba based upon their experiences campaigning against the American Indians. The most resounding feature of these campaigns and the key to the victories that happened was an almost unbroken record of success in working with local aboriginal peoples to fight low-intensity (counterinsurgency) campaigns. The string of campaigns stretched over one… [read more]

Homosexuals in the Military Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Homosexuals in the Military

The matter of gays in the military has been a hot political dispute ever since the commencement of Don't Ask, Don't Tell. Essentially, liberals want to permit gays to candidly serve in the military, while conservatives want to keep the present Don't Ask, Don't Tell, policy, or desire to ban gays from serving in the… [read more]

My Role as a Military Officer Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Role as a Military Officer

Why do I want to be a Military Officer?

It is my belief that as a military officer, I have the ability to live up to the ethical standards that were outline by General George Marshall is his book Armed Forces Officer. ("The Armed Forces Officer," 1988) Where, I know that as a leader I can inspire those who serve below and above me. This is because I always try to embrace the principals of flexibility, balance and a desire to achieve my objectives no matter what. In today's world, these elements are necessary as the overall mission of the military has been changing to fight a new enemy, in a different kind of war. For officers, this means that they must serve not only the role as a leader, but help ensure that the personnel under their command demonstrate the flexibility to adapt to various situations. Based upon my experience I believe that I am more than qualified to fill this role, as I can show those who are serving under my command the proper way to live more productive lives. This is significant, because an officer is similar to teacher / coach, who can show everyone around them those key distinctions that can make them better people. Over the course of time, this will not only have a positive impact on the mission, but it will also help prepare everyone for life. In my opinion, the best officers are those who not only demonstrated flexibility and balance, but they also wanted to make a positive impact upon the people they are serving with. I have the same kind of belief, as I want to be an officer to make a positive impact on: my country, community and the members of the armed forces I serve with. This is why, I believe that I am the ideal officer that military needs to adapt to challenging, yet changing missions we will face in the future.

What does society expect from me as a Military Officer?

Society expects officers to be: to honest, disciplined, professional and willing to give their life in defense of the nation. ("The Armed Forces Officer," 1988) When you look at the first part of what society expect from military officers, integrity, it is clear that they will always show the highest standards at all times. The reason why, is because officers are given a special responsibility from: the President, in defense of the nation. This means, that this special trust given to those individuals who are protecting freedom, is something that can not be taken lightly. Where, those officers who violate this trust will reflect poorly on all officers who serve in the armed forces. As result, honesty is trait that society demands from all military officers, who are entrusted with this responsibility.

The second part of what society expects from officers, discipline, highlights how they must place the interest of the military / nation above their own. This… [read more]

Private Security Contractors Thesis

Thesis  |  14 pages (4,504 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Private Military Contractors

Private Security Contractors

This paper

Private Military Contractors

Private Military Contractors (PMCs) are a necessary but imperfect tool in today's rapidly changing and increasingly unstable world, utilized by the United State military, rife with ethical and other complications. Today's world is burgeoning with modern, powerful democratic states. As a means of filling roles once reserved exclusively for… [read more]

Finding Oneself in the United States Armed Forces Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,272 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Finding oneself in the United States Armed Forces

'Proud to serve:' Why the military has made me who I am today

It has been a long journey for me. At one point in my life, I swore I would have nothing to do with the military, despite having grown up a military 'brat.' But I have come to see that serving in the military and being around those who have served this great country has made me what I am today -- and fostered within me the qualities I like best about myself. It is too easy to ignore the great blessings we live with in America -- freedom, prosperity, and safety. People must force themselves to seek challenges; challenges do not always present themselves automatically in modern life. In the military, every day is a challenge, a positive test of a soldier's skills and drive. That is why I believe that the ability to enlist in the United States Armed Forces is an integral component of any individual's optimal and complete sense of fulfillment. Serving in the army is not just a job: it is entering an extended family that offers unequivocal love. It offers the opportunity to demonstrate honor, commitment, and devotion to this entire nation and provides a foundation of security, freedom, and equality for the nation.

The army is a diverse family that exposes an individual to many different peoples and cultures. Growing up a typical 'military brat,' I experienced this firsthand. As a tiny child, I did not always like this -- all too often, I had to leave friends behind, and fight to make new ones. This made me a stronger person and also gave me greater understanding of the diversity of world -- I could not pretend that my own way of seeing things was the only way. My family also gave me a core sense of values that lived within me, no matter where we were. I came to see that so long as I stayed true to myself, I was home: "every where could be home to some extent" although it was "not home to some degree" (Iyer 259).

The military does not simply 'take' from those who serve: it also gives back a great deal to the men and women who wear its uniform. My father was the first member of his family ever to attend college. The military made it financially possible to do so, and not only did he get his BA (an undreamed-of accomplishment when he was a child); he went on to get his MA and PhD. My mother did not serve, never graduated high school, but she was determined that I would follow my father's example, as was he -- my father was one of the reasons that I decided to enter the armed forces, and I plan on following in his footsteps and get my MA and PhD as well. This ability to broaden one's mind through travel and education is yet another… [read more]

Army Soldiers Creed Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Army Soldiers Creed

Citizens who are not soldiers cannot begin to understand the personal, emotional and patriotic importance of being an American soldier. Being an American soldier is more than a job and more than a function in society. It is more even than a way of life. Being an American is just that: a state of being. There is nothing more important in the world than your work as a soldier. There is nothing greater in the world than the United States of America.

An American soldier has a mindset that does not accept either defeat or weakness. The mission comes first, and takes the top position in the mind of the American soldier until it is completed. All other weaknesses are secondary to completing the mission.

This does not however mean that soldiers forget each other. Soldiers never leave their fallen comrades. If someone should be injured on a mission, it is vitally important to see that person to safety until the mission is complete. Soldiers view each other as parts of a…… [read more]

Army Engineers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,583 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Evolution of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

An adage suggests that an army moves on its stomach, but the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers would likely suggest that it moves on passable roadways, rivers and bridges. During its 230-year history, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has been transformed from its earliest form as superintendents of the… [read more]

Ethics of Media vs. Military Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,767 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Ethics of Media vs. Military

The issue of the military and its relationship with the press is greatly varied and complex. The military for example has of necessity upheld a code of secrecy for the purpose of protecting its procedures during warfare. On the other hand, recent and past revelations by media investigations have brought to light some questionable practices… [read more]

World History Civilization Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


History of Military & Weapons Systems

The military and weapons systems are critical components employed by the state in ensuring two aspects; one would be their internal security and the other being to deter other states from engaging them into any form of armed conflict. An advanced and sophisticated military and weapons system translates into a more secure state and more importantly creates a condition wherein any form of hostile actions from other states are deterred. Throughout time, states have been consistently improving their military capabilities; they have made active strides in making weapons that can inflict substantial collateral damage and casualties with the effective use of technology. Moreover, weapons that can instill fear into the enemy were developed. Weapons and military systems were predicated on the use of force, as such the more force utilized corresponds to greater chances that the state's interest is upheld. This is the tipping point in any form of conflict resolution; states with advanced military and weapons system are seen as dominant players that set the rules of the game in the international arena.

The Romans can be cited as a good example of how dominant states can become with the possession of an advanced military and weapons system. The Roman Army was divided into units known as legions, which combined from 4,500 to 6,000 men. Each legion was divided into smaller groups of 60 to 120 legionnaires, as the soldiers were called. Because these smaller groups could separate and attack an enemy from the sides and rear as well as the front, the Roman Army had much maneuverability. The weapons developed during this time was the double edged swords used by the infantry, the iron headed ram utilized for breaking down gates and walls, offensive weapons such as catapults which functions at throwing iron darts and ballistae used to hurl heavy stones at the enemy. (Stearns et.al. 1991, 217) With the strength of the Roman Army they were able to expand Rome's sphere of influence throughout Europe and in Africa. Roman soldiers were professionally trained in the art of warfare and their military leaders have been honed by their battlefield experience and were defined by their tactical prowess. The Roman Army gave the Roman Empire a distinct advantage over their enemies because of the characteristics I have mentioned.

With the collapse of the Roman Empire, the world witnessed a shift from the focus on the Army to the Navy. During the 1400s, the emergence of Portugal, Spain and England as military powers was grounded on their superior Navy strength. Their ships were heavily armed and could carry the infantry to other places, as a result their expansionist views were well served by their Navy. The Spanish Armada was dreaded by other states because of its armaments and was extensively used to set forth Spanish influence to other parts of the world. During this time, the introduction of gun powder and firearms replaced the swords of the infantry and the canon was likewise used… [read more]

Influence of Digital Dependance on the US Military Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Digitization of the U.S. Military

The development of digital technology has revolutionized the business and private culture of the day. With digital information technology businesses and individuals can occupy space hundreds or even thousands of miles away from other individuals or organizations and still maintain relatively instantaneous contact and access to information. The information and intelligence exchange in… [read more]

Wars of the Barbary Pirates Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,598 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines, by Gregory Fremont-Barnes

Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey Pub Co, November 2006

Main Theses

Gregory Fremont-Barnes' "Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli,… [read more]

Civil Military Relations Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,314 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Civil-Military Relations

Civil military relations are an important subject of discussion in almost every state. However it is even more crucial in countries undergoing transition to democracy and countries plagued by years of military rule. Armies have a strong hold on politics of all societies, they represent the ultimate defense of a state and stand as the symbol of their… [read more]

Effects of War on Soldiers Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,315 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11



Comparative Study of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder between military and private contractors stationed in Iraq

Americans at War

Conflict is a part of the human condition. Although most would prefer peace, sometimes war represents an inevitable reality. Since the founding of our nations, Americans have been called to serve our nation in the armed forces numerous times. The latest… [read more]

Phoenix Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  75 pages (19,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 50


¶ … Phoenix Program Lessons to Iraq

Scope and Significance


The Phoenix Program in Vietnam

Lessons Learned from Phoenix

Applications for Iraq

Selected Bibliography


It is not at all unusual to hear popular comparisons made between the Vietnam War and the current war in Iraq and though most experts see only a… [read more]

Douglas Macarthur and the Inchon Decision Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,021 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Douglas MacArthur and the Inchon Decision

Most historians today would agree that Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) has not "faded away," but remains a source of ongoing research and scholarly investigation concerning his career and the decisions that ultimately contributed to his downfall. A brilliant tactician, military leader and communicator by most accounts, General MacArthur also possessed an oversized ego and some… [read more]

Military Uniform Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


U.S. Army Combat Uniform (ACU)

The battlefield of the 21st century is increasingly being characterized by the need for body armor that can withstand the rigors of a wide range of environmental conditions and recent initiatives by the U.S. Department of Defense and Department of the Army have focused on providing soldiers with an improved combat uniform and the accessories needed in the dynamic combat environment today. One such initiative is the U.S. Army Combat Uniform (ACU) which is the focus of this paper. A review of the relevant literature concerning the ACU is provided below, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

According to a press release concerning the ACU from Army.com (2006), the new ACU is comprised of a jacket, trousers, patrol cap, moisture wicking t-shirt and newly introduced Army Combat Boot (Temperate and Hot Weather) (the New Army Combat Uniform, 2005). The new ACU is a wrinkle-free uniform that features a digitized camouflage pattern (Triggs, 2004). The report from Army.com also notes that the new ACU is the result of lengthy R&D efforts as well as collaboration with the soldiers who will be required to wear it. Moreover, the ACU contributes to the effectiveness of soldiers on the battlefield by providing a uniform that can be customized to the individual mission; providing enhanced functionality and ergonomics over the existing Battle Dress Uniform; and, eliminating the need to provide different types of uniforms for different environments (the New Army Combat Uniform). These attributes combine to make the new ACU appropriate for virtually any conditions around the world. In this regard, the new ACU represents a fundamental overhaul of previous uniform designs. As Col. John Norwood, the project manager for Clothing and Individual Equipment advises, "This isn't about a cosmetic redesign of the uniform. it's a functionality change of the uniform that will improve the ability of Soldiers to execute their combat mission" (quoted in Triggs at p. 3). Initial distribution of the ACU to began in February 2005 and was expected to be completed Army-wide by mid- 2008 (the New Army Combat Uniform).

Although at $88 each, the new ACU costs $34 more than its predecessor, the extra expense for the uniform will be offset by:

Proposed increase, as yet to be determined, in the monthly Clothing Replacement Allowance for enlisted soldiers;

permanent press treatment that eliminates the need for soldiers to pay for costly dry cleaning of their uniforms;

No added cost to soldiers for additional sewing due to the use of hook and pile or pin-on patches, nameplates, and badges;

Army-wide savings realized by streamlining procurement and stockpiling of one uniform for all environments instead of maintaining the BDU in the woodland and desert patterned sets; and,

Decreased manufacturing costs as processes are refined (the New…… [read more]

Length of Tours Overseas and Its Effects on Military Families Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (750 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … military service in America. Specifically it will discuss the length of tours of duty overseas and its effects on military families. Since the War with Iraq began, military personnel have been experiencing lengthened and extended tours of duty, and several tours of duty in the same country, as well. This is detrimental to the safety and welfare of the American soldiers forced to serve extended tours of duty, and it adversely affect their families, as well.

As the war in Iraq drags on, there are a finite number of service people available to fight in the war, largely because recruiting numbers are down, and there is no draft in the country to add to the ranks of fighters, as there was in the Vietnam War (Bender). Because of this, many service members find themselves called to duty in Iraq as many as four different times. In addition, many service members already in Iraq are being called to stay on for extended tours of duty because new troops cannot be trained fast enough to relieve them. Sadly, this puts the burden of defense on a relatively small number of Americans. It puts them at additional risk of being killed or injured in the war, and worst of all, it leaves their families alone and vulnerable at home.

This practice continues, even though many people worry about the effects it will have on service members' families. One reporter notes, "In the latest sign of pressure on troop strength from growing violence in Iraq, the Pentagon said Monday that it had extended the combat tour of 4,000 soldiers, the second time in as many months that an Army brigade has seen its yearlong deployment lengthened" (Barnes). These fighters were ensured they would come home in a year, but because training has lagged behind, and there are simply not enough troops to go around, they are forced to stay in Iraq, away from their families, loved ones, and friends, and in the case of reservists, away from their regular jobs and sources of income, as well. This can be an increasing hardship on the families, as a result.

There is growing concern that this practice of lengthening tours of duty is going to come back to haunt…… [read more]

John Mccain: Military and Moral Influences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,265 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


John McCain: Military and Moral Influences That Changed Him Both as a Man and a Politician

John McCain is one of the most influential political figures in America. Taking into account the coming presidential campaign, it can be said that he is one of the most important contenders in the race for the White House. However, his early childhood and… [read more]

United States Military Should Expand Its Official Contacts With the Indonesian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (635 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


U.S. Military Involvement in Indonesia

The United States Military Should Expand its Contacts with the Indonesian Military

After the country of Indonesia had declared its independence from the Netherlands, it established a strong military style regime which influenced the social and economic politics of the country. The goal of the Indonesian government has since been to be entirely self sufficient, receiving no foreign aid to help protect its borders or internal security. Despite the wish to be fully independent however, the country is far from reaching its goal. The strong military is unable to furnish itself with enough arms and materials to successfully defend itself against neighboring threats, and much of the military budget comes from illicit activities that the United States sees as illegal. In order to save the republic from falling into Communist hands, such as its neighbors have done, as well as to curb the corrupt government activities which fund the nation's defense budget, the United States Military should try to expand its contacts and role in Indonesian military life.

Under the leadership of President Suharto, the Indonesian military has constantly interfered with the politics of the nation. As an army general, Suharto enforced a strong military regime which practiced a dual role. They embodied the traditional military role, along with a "social-political force in national development," (GlobalSecurity.org). President Suharto believed that through strong internal security, Indonesia would be able to further develop socially and economically. Despite the heavy military influence the national budget spends little on defense. Suharto believed that spending too much national budget or taking too much foreign aid for defense would hinder the economic development of the country. So, Indonesia has looked to illegal activities to fund its defense budget. Pirating, poaching, and smuggling drugs and other goods have been a major source of income for the Indonesian military. The United States cannot simply ignore these illicit tactics for raising…… [read more]

Military Reform in 1874 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,105 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Military Reforms of 1861-74

It's generally agreed today that state of army truly reflects the standards of living in the country and the attitude of the citizens towards their country. It truly refers to the case with Russian army: today and in the past. Historian records and modern reports from Russia show that despite the patriotism of its citizens, "patriotism… [read more]

Defending and Fighting for Your Country Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,172 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Defending and Fighting for Your Country

In the movie Boyz in the Hood (1991), the father tells his son, "Don't ever go in the Army, Tre. A black man ain't got no place there." The father is talking to his son from about racism in the military, but there are other reasons not to go. In this essay I will… [read more]

Role as a Military Officer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Role as a Military Officer can be defined in correlation of a couple of fundamental pillars that define the chosen profession and that have contributed to my initial choice of serving in the army.

First of all, my role is to ensure the security of my homeland. Indeed, in a global context that is constantly under threat from the terrorist phenomenon and where extremist groups are working against peace measures and a secure climate, a military officer has to make sure that his fellow nationals are safe from any outside, external factor. I aim, to the best of my ability, to provide my entire efforts in this direction.

In the same framework, my role is to promote and sustain the development and spread of democracy and democratic values worldwide, on a global basis. Indeed, the Western democratic community has based its existence on a commonly accepted set of core values, values that have to be defended at a global level against factors threatening them.

Second of all, my role will be to become a leader in the field of activity I have chosen. The army and the military is, among other things, an enterprise of natural born leaders and this is exactly what I intend to be. A true leader will be able to motivate his men, to lead them into battle, but, at the same time, protect them as the most important assets the commander has. A leader will also need to be an expert in his field, so that the others will follow his orders knowing that these are the best decisions to be taken that respective moment, in the given conditions. General coordination, organization and management will be an among the leader's goals.

A leader has to be…… [read more]

How the Army Manages Transformation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Army Manages Transformation -- General George Casey

Part ONE, summary: The author of this article / interview, J.P. Donlon, introduces the article by pointing out that the American combat involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq showed leaders that clearly, those actions were "organizationally out of balance." They were out of balance because the new battlefield involves terrorism, and so the U.S. Army must be fine-tuning counterterrorism strategies. General Casey was asked to explain when the realization was made that big changes were needed. He said the need for the transformation came about following September 11. The new army will have a "versatile mix of multipurpose forces," he said, in answer to Donlon's question. There will be many units, including intelligence, engineers, logistics, and communication units, and new training will be required, he continued.

How will technology be used in the new configuration of the army? Casey was asked. One thing he emphasized was the need for training, starting at the highest levels of the military. "We sill send a senior brigadier to a university's business school for a week," he explained, and following that that officer will take an "advanced course" within a specific industry so he will understand how to employ that particular technology in an army context (Donlon). The general said he will be visiting computer giant DELL in Texas, not to learn about the computer or digital technologies, but to see how DELL deals with organizational change. He had recently also gone to Google and Cisco to see how they use technology "to enhance their ability to adapt" (Donlon).

When asked about the military threat that China might pose, he dodged the question; when asked about the recession and how the army intends to convince Congress to go along with the cost of transforming the army, he said "we can't afford not to modernize" (Donlon). The general ended with the statement that it takes "vision and courage" for a leader to go forward; he must "look to the future & #8230;and say, 'OK, this is what we are doing'" (Donlon).

Part TWO: Paraphrase: In a world that is increasingly…… [read more]

Advancements in Military Technology and Information Superiority Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Advancements in Military Technology and Information Superiority So Important in the American Victory over Japan in the Pacific War?

The Importance of the Advancements in Military Technology and Information in the American Victory over Japan in the Pacific War

The war in the Pacific theatre of operations was unlike the one waged in Europe whereby conventional battlefield operations… [read more]

Front Line of Defense Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Likewise, organizational behaviorists have also examined the broad array of other human resource practices in the various military services over the years. In this regard, Griffin and O'Leary-Kelly report that organizational behavior studies have shown that "some of the strongest resistance to diversity occurs when there is a highly autonomous group with elite status. For example, Special Forces units in… [read more]

Military Components Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Military Components

There is much to be learned through well-constructed readings regarding ethical values, loyalty, and leadership in the military. When it comes to today's conflict dynamics, in a world that is increasingly dangerous, a soldier must be prepared -- intellectually as well as physically and emotionally -- for what might be in the immediate future. Thesis: what emerges from these narratives is the fact that the Army is changing, and is attempting to train soldiers to become more ethically alert notwithstanding difficult assignments. The duties of an NCO go beyond education and chain of command. The modern NCO needs to embrace creativity, must be flexible and must understand that his men are hungry for leadership.

The Ethical NCO

David Crozier explains in detail the kinds of ethical dilemmas that face today's soldier. Crozier discusses the importance of "critical decision making" in a world where "competing value systems" can very quickly disappear and humanity and morality fade into the background. By that he means before a soldier pulls the trigger and takes another life, there needs to be an ethical dimension to what he or she is asked to do. Certainly there is killing to be done in the line of duty for a soldier in a war zone, but as Chaplain Major Mark Johnson explains -- and is quoted by Crozier -- "with war come dilemmas of ethical and moral consequences." In Afghanistan, for example, a soldier must be more than just vigilant and psychologically prepared; a soldier must have a moral background and have respect for people and property. A soldier in the Army must live up to core values (Loyalty, duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage), but the core values that a soldier was raised with also comes into play (Crozier).

"It gets a little bit different when you get into combat," Crozier quotes from remarks by Sgt. Major Russell Faulkner. It boils down to what kind of family you were raised in, how you look up to your role models, and what you have learned in the Army, because reacting to violence or the threat of violence isn't a matter of just knee-jerk firing off rounds. The four "don'ts" that Sgt. Maj. David Bass puts forward offer cover a lot of territory when it comes to thinking ethically. Don't: a) embarrass yourself; b) embarrass your unit; c) embarrass the Army; and d) "don't be 'that guy'" (Crozier). And if a soldier has not had an upbringing in a family that has good ethical values, that soldier must be molded with even more intensity in the Army, because he can't fall back on family values so he must learn new values as an NCO.

What I learned from this reading was that a soldier must be very well prepared in order to determine if that target has something in his hands, and if so, there should be no moral compunction at all because you don't have time to think. You must pull the trigger,… [read more]

Army Problem Solving vs. Rapid Decision-Making and Synchronization Process Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Army problem solving vs. Rapid decision making

The concept of problem solving is a daily occurrence in the military and it is a systematic way of arriving at the best possible solution to a crisis or a problem. It also involves risk management techniques that need the army leaders to remain objective while undertaking such decisions and can be used to gauge individuals' critical thinking skills (Business Dictionary, 2011). The seven most important stapes in solving problems in the army are as follows;

Identification of the problem- this is one of the most crucial steps since the real problem may not be as obvious as it seems. There should be sufficient time and energy directed towards the identification of the problem. There should be much focus on the root cause of the problem as the symptoms may just be the reasons why the problem was identified. The critical questions at this step that will help in the identification of the problem are who does the problem affect? What is affected? When did the problem occur? Where is the problem? And why did the problem occur?

Gathering of information- once the problem has been identified, there is a continuous gathering of information that goes on to the very last step of the problem solving. One of the most significant sources of information are the primary sources which includes people with the first hand experience of the problem and may be witnessed the problem. Here, there are two types of information that will help in proceeding with the problem solving; facts-verifiable pieces of information with objective reality and assumptions-pieces of information accepted as being true in the absence of facts. The army leader will also look into the opinions which are personal views of various people. Then he will organize the information so as to verify its accuracy. There should be two or more people who are supposed to verify the factual aspects of the gathered information.

Develop criteria- this is the next step where a standard test or rule by which the information gathered will be judged is developed, it is the measure of value of the pieces of information. The test of suitability has five major aspects as Suitability-does the criteria solve the problem and is it legal and ethical, Feasibility-fits within available resources, Acceptability-worth the cost or risk, Distinguish-ability-differs significantly from other solutions and Completeness-contains the critical aspects of solving the problem from start to finish.

Generate possible solutions-at this stage the army leaders will consider the opinions and advice of their seniors and advance some few and most relevant solutions to the problems that are at hand, bearing in mind that too many options may result into wasted time. This stage has two major aspects as generate options i.e. State the problem and make sure all participants understand it, appoint someone to record all ideas, withhold judgment of ideas, encourage independent thoughts, aim for quantity, not quality, combine one's thoughts with those of others. Summarize the solution in… [read more]

Military Mst Military Sexual Trauma Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


So, based on the statistics, it's clear that there is a cloud looming over military relationships. That cloud is the potential for MST.

Cultural Empowerment

Well, the solution to the problem of MST is to modify the culture of the U.S. military. A complete overhaul is not required as by and large the military represents the best and the brightest the country has to offer. But clearly soldiers need training on what it means to "sin by silence." Those who've been abused need to speak about it, tell others about it, and feel empowered by their ability to overcome it (self-efficacy and self-management may be the most powerful forces that lead to positive rehabilitation for those experiencing MST). This is the best way to precipitate real change -- create awareness. Additionally, top military brass needs to support those who speak out about MST. Clearly, they are not doing enough either.


To solve the problem of MST, the cultural identity of the military needs to be amended to include a hyper-sensitivity to sexual abuse, sexual harassment, rape, etc. Instances of such behavior must be reported. And those who report such behavior should be praised for exhibiting those aforementioned virtues. As it's been said, evil prospers when good men do nothing. By creating a more responsible and ethical cultural identity and environment, relationships will improve and expectations will be met. The result will be an empowered community that works together to truly become a force for good.

Works Cited

Cater, J., & Leach, J. (2011). Veterans, Military Sexual Trauma and PTSD:

Rehabilitation Planning Implications. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation

Counseling, 42(2), 33-40 Retrieved from Proquest at http://proquest.umi.com/pqdwebdid=2388951171&sid=6&Fmt=6&clientId=2944


Hyun, J., Pavao, J., & Klinerling, R. (2009). Military Sexual Trauma. PTSD Research

Quarterly, 20(2), 13.

Street, A., Stafford, J., Mahan, C., & Hendricks, A. (2008). Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: Prevalence and health correlates. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 45, 409-420.

U.S. Department of Defense. (2010). Department of Defense Fiscal year 2009 annual report on sexual assault in military. Retrieved from http://www.sapr.mi… [read more]

Ucmj as a Military Specialist Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For instance, the United States Air Force Writer (AFW) provides an example of the document filled out by the superior non-commissioned officer in reporting the failure of a soldier to adhere to 'other lawful orders.' Accordingly, the document quoted hereafter directs its charges at the offending officer, reporting that "on 19 July 2011, you were told at 2300 to relieve A1C Blank from the Passenger Service Counter at midnight. At 1201am SSgt Smith intercepted you going to have a cigarette before relieving or checking with A1C Blank. After been told by SSgt Smith twice to report to the PSC you were found outside smoking seconds later. You have continually demonstrated irresponsible and selfish behavior toward SSgt Smith. Your failure to adhere to these standards leaves you in violation of Article 92 of the UCMJ, Failure to obey order or regulation by a noncommissioned officer." (AFW, p. 1)

Here, Powers indicates that the range of potential punishments is likely to be a great deal less severe given the lesser practical and moral hazards of such disobedience. Here, the outcome can be the forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 3 months unless a lesser penalty such as revocation of weekend leave can be resolved between commanding and offending officers.


The primary exception to Article 92 which is identified by the language of the internal military bylaw is that which protects ineptitude from punishment. Here, Powers indicates that the UCMJ makes special notation that personnel failing to perform adequately in response to either general or other lawful orders as a result of incapacity or ineptitude, are, where it can be demonstrated that genuine effort has been put forth, not to be penalized under the terms of Article 92. Powers notes that "for example, a recruit who has tried earnestly during rifle training and throughout record firing is not derelict in the performance of duties if the recruit fails to qualify with the weapon." (Powers, p. 2)

Consequences of Compliance with Unlawful Orders:

The specific notation of 'lawful orders' indicates that some discretion remains with the individual soldier such that in the event that unlawful orders are invoked, the officer is intended to resist and take the proper steps to presume rank from the offending officer. Previous court martial cases are available to us to demonstrate the serious consequences of failing this discretion, with many atrocities during the Vietnam War highlight this distinction between lawful and unlawful orders. Accordingly, Powers tells that "in United States v. Keenan, the accused (Keenan) was found guilty of murder after he obeyed in order to shoot and kill an elderly Vietnamese citizen. The Court of Military Appeals held that 'the justification for acts done pursuant to orders does not exist if the order was of such a nature that a man of ordinary sense and understanding would know it to be illegal.'" (Powers1, p. 1) This imposes a duty upon military personnel to be aware of that which is lawful and that which is not before… [read more]

Naval Force for Today Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … U.S. Navy be doing today?

The question asked in the title of this paper is a good one. Of course the U.S. Navy should be following its mission statement as closely as possible: "The Mission of the Navy is to maintain, train, and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas" (http://www.navy.mil). But moreover, there are other things the Navy can do and in many cases is doing today, and those will be reviewed in this paper.

The Navy -- What Should it be focused on in 2012?

The Navy is doing a great service to many countries in the world by coming to the aid of vessels in the high seas that are being attacked by pirates. Countless times Somali pirates have attacked ships and taken the people on board as hostages. According to Coastweek.com, Somali pirates are currently holding nearly 200 hostages. The European Union (EU) has a group of countries that have banded together to form "EU Navel Force Somalia"; the group released a statement (published by Xinhua) that indicates there are "…currently 199 men and one woman held hostage in Somalia following the pirating of their ships in the Indian Ocean" (www.coastweek.com).

The pirates hold hostages, control vessels, and demand ransom for the safe return of these captured civilians and their vessels. There is some evidence that hostages have been abused, even tortured. Overall an estimated 2,317 merchant seamen have been held hostage by these pirates for an average of five months, according to the EU statement.

The point here is, the U.S. Navy has intercepted a number of pirate attacks and it should continue to be vigilant in that regard. The Navy cannot patrol all the high seas looking for these scoundrels, but when a call for help is heard, the Navy should -- and does -- respond with all due haste and uses force if necessary. That brings up another question. When the Navy encounters pirate terrorists, should those pirates be killed on the spot?

There is a Combined Task Force 150 currently sailing in the Gulf of Aden (the site of most pirates' activities); this group is dominated by the U.S. Navy, and on December 19 the U.S. Navy…… [read more]

What Would Happen if the Drinking Age Were Raised in the Military? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Military Drinking Age

What would happen if the drinking age were raised in the military?

George Will once said, "Sensible politics begins with epistemological modesty about what one can know about a complicated society" (2011).

One can certainly argue that sensible journalism begins in much the same way. The writer, the researcher, the journalist, must acknowledge that there are certain… [read more]

U.S. Army Eo Program Equality Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Inappropriate commentary based upon one's sexuality can be a lot less explicit, and unintended, than remarks based upon one's race. However, there are fairly strict definitions and codes regarding remarks of a sexual nature that the armed forces is unwilling to tolerate. Such statements may be extremely casual, such as the referring to a female employee by a colloquial term such as "babe." Despite the actual intention of such a comment, which may actually be quite innocent, there is little tolerance from this sort of behavior, or any other, that the receiving party may deem as offensive, as the following quotation explicitly states.

Soldiers and civilians must understand that what they may consider to be joking or horseplay must be evaluated on its appropriateness and offensiveness as perceived by the recipient… In determining whether such behavior constitutes sexual harassment, a primary concern is the impact of the act upon the victim, not the intent of the alleged harasser. An excuse such as, "I was only joking" is irrelevant (No author, 2008, p. 50).

This quotation demonstrates the fact that jokes of this nature, or of those that are based upon sex, race, religion, etc. are "irrelevant" to the work being performed by the armed forces, and are therefore intolerable.

The elimination of such unnecessary comments based upon race or sex will only strengthen the equal opportunity environment that the armed forces have long sought to provide for its employers and their families. Inappropriate remarks or racial jokes have no place in such a setting.


No author. (2008). Army Regulation 600-20. Retrieved from http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r600_20.pdf

No author. (1994). Department of the Army Pamphlet 350-20 Retrieved from http://www.armyg1.army.mil/eo/docs/dap350_20.pdf… [read more]

Army at Dawn by Rick Atkinson Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Army at Dawn by Rick Atkinson

It is rare and encouraging that war blunders and lessons learned throughout the course of history are uncovered in such a well-researched and compelling manner. The book "An Army at Dawn" engages its readers due to its novel like narrative. Atkinson uses his many a year's experience of newspaper to craft a master-piece, covering the initial thrust of Allied forces in North America.

The Allied attack (1942-43) begins on the eve of operation TORCH, the audacious invasion of Morocco and Algeria. The Initial victories intoxicating the army of overwhelming confidence soon fades away; when damages suffered in form of increasing casualties resulted in low morale and vanquishes the chance of a quick decisive victory. The Allies discover that they are dolefully not ready to fight and win this war. Furthermore, they had to endure an impulsive and potentially catastrophic cross-channel assault which served as an exhausting "testing ground" for an amateur American army. Lessons learned were translated into better and more cohesive war plans and rise of a breed of leadership within the Allied forces. Lastly, by including Great Britain to what Atkinson refers as a "junior partner" in the war front, North Africa marked the beginning of American dominion, geographically as well as politically.


The theme here; a progression by which the initially shaky American troops and sketchy leadership turned into a great Army and history-making commanders, proved a stepping stone for the freedom of Europe and the demolition of the Third Reich; a larger-than-life story of valor and catastrophe, of miscalculation and continuing triumph.

By amalgamating storytelling and historical facts derived from battle memoirs and soldiers' letters and other official sources, Atkinson has drafted a master piece. Along with using the men's words directly, Atkinson also combines these collective observations in his own way to paint a vivid picture of the goings on. An example:

"We shall attack for sixty days and then, if we have to, for sixty more. If we go forward with desperation, if we go forward with utmost speed and fight, these people cannot stand against us." (Page 37) - An Army at Dawn

There are more than 100 pages of references, that's the brilliant depth of research conducted by Atkinson. The author is not just telling us the historic facts but also telling us individual stories of soldiers, the thoughts and the fears on both sides. The usage of maps to make the user understand the terrain and the strategy is very convincing and keeps the reader engaged.

The author also gives us interesting characters of Eisenhower, Montgomery, Patton, Bradley and Rommel. Patton being the war enthusiast and believer of valor and courage was the most interesting and engaging one. Also conflicts between personalities such as Eisenhower and Montgomery, Patton's…… [read more]

America and the Great War Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


World War I

American Participation in World War I

When America declared war against Germany and Austria in 1917, the Armed Forces of the United States were rather unimpressive in the eyes of the Europeans. Europe had been at war for several years and the participants considered themselves to have the most experienced and most capable forces in the world. And the Americans' performance in recent military expeditions left much to be desired. While the Europeans fought hard, gritty battles, the American military was failing to capture a simple Mexican bandit named Pancho Villa. In spite of this, the Americans were an industrialized nation with huge population, and within a year of declaring war against Germany and her allies, the Americans would not only raise an army the strength of which equaled any in the world, but one that would play an invaluable role in the Allied victory.

It was on April 6th 1917 that Congress acceded to President Woodrow Wilson's request and declared war against Germany, officially entering the conflict. But the United States was far from ready to immediately intervene on the side of the Allies. The performance of the American Army in 1916 expedition into Mexico after Pancho Villa led the Germans to believe that "the United States would be in no position to add significant military strength to the Allies." (Ziegler 38) and they had some right to think this as the United States Army consisted of "just 128,000 and 81,000 Reservists, and lacking almost all the equipment necessary for modern warfare…." (Henry 3)

However, the Germans' were wrong and within two and a half months of the American declaration of war, "more than 500,000 men had volunteered in the American Army and Navy." (the World War 158) and these troops were desperately needed by the Allies. By the beginning of 1918, the Russian withdrawal from the war was imminent, the British had suffered catastrophic losses during their 1917 campaigns, the Italians had been soundly defeated at Caporetto, "and the demoralized state of the French army made an enormous infusion of American troops imperative." (Ziegler 61) but when the new Communist government in Russia made peace with Germany, freeing up hundreds of thousands of German troops, they decided to make one last all out offensive against the Allies in the West.

It was in March of 1918 that the Germans sent 65 divisions against the Western Front in their last chance gamble to win the war before the arrival of the Americans in large numbers. And their gamble almost worked, the Germans drove a wedge between the British and French armies and pushed their way close enough to Paris to…… [read more]

Military Role at the U.S.A. -- Mexico Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Military role at the U.S.A. -- Mexico Border

This paper explores the reasons why the military should be involved in guarding the border between the U.S. And Mexico. The paper considers the relations between the two countries from a historical perspective,… [read more]

Military Lessons Learned From Vietnam Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


From a strictly military perspective, though, some of the more salient lessons learned from the War in Vietnam that can help me achieve my professional goals today include the need to:

1. Be nonjudgmental;

2. Learn the facts before forming an opinion;

3. Embrace cultural diversity in health care;

4. Develop collaborative practice among nursing teams; and,

5. Promote team work, respect and support for each other.

All of the foregoing are directly related to what one U.S. Army officer considered the most important lesson learned in Vietnam: "Of all the 'lessons learned' from the Vietnam war the need for flexibility in both thought and action is perhaps the most critical" (Summers, 1982, p. 139).


Given its impact on the American consciousness and the cost in lives, it is little wonder that scholars continue to analyze the War in Vietnam to determine what the United States did right and what it did wrong. The research showed that although the U.S. lost the war, a number of valuable lessons learned have been identified that can be used to good effect on the battlefields as well in the workplaces of the 21st century concerning the need for professionalism and teamwork.


Davison, K. (2008). From tactical planning to operational design. Military Review, 88(5), 33-34.

Logisticians. (2012). Bureau of Labor and Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov / oes/current/oes131081.htm.

Porter, M.E. (1990). Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: The Free Press.

Summers, H.G. (1982). On strategy: A critical analysis of the…… [read more]

Anglo Chinese War the Historical Discussion Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,723 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


¶ … Anglo Chinese War

The historical discussion of the First Anglo-Chinese War (frequently referred to as the First Opium War) included a variety of competing perspectives even as the war was still being fought, because either side viewed the war in entirely different contexts.

In largely the same fashion, for years the historiography of the first Anglo-Chinese war developed… [read more]

Leadership Traits in the Face of Battle Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Leadership Traits in the Face of Battle

What leadership traits are needed when a military officer and his men are under fire in a war zone? How to real leaders respond to the terror of war? What qualities to soldiers look for in their officers as the troops are being led into battle? These and other issues will be discussed… [read more]

Air Power Command and Control Lessons Learned at Operational Level of War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Vietnam: A Bird's Eye View of the historical and strategic past of U.S. Operations

Strategic Setting

The territory of the former French colony of Vietnam was occupied by two opposing armies, that of the North Vietnamese, armed by the Soviets, and the South Vietnamese, backed first by the French, then later by the Americans. Vietnam at the time of the conflict was divided into two opposing nations, as Korea is, still, to this day. (Phan, 2002)

Opposing Forces

Ho Chi Minn, a communist nationalist led the North Vietnamese. The United States Air force was devoted to training the VNAF (South Vietnamese Air Forces) to fight for this evolving independent nation, an objective that was not achieved.

Command Relationships / Adjustments made to Doctrine

From the beginning, the White House was criticized as exercising undue influence over the waging of the war. For instance, during the first major air offensive known as "Operation Rolling Thunder," the White House, it was alleged selected targets designed for public relations rather than real strategic value. It did not focus on advice from military leaders from the actual theater of operations. "President Johnson and Secretary McNamara maintained detailed tactical control of the missions. President Johnson and his advisors chose the targets from an Armed Forces' suggested list." (Humphrey, 1980, p.36)

All the while during this first operation, the South Vietnamese remained unable to effectively mobilize civilians to support their cause, nor function independently, while the North Vietnamese nationalist emphasis on their own struggle, the North's perceived resistance to foreign forces during "Rolling Thunder," and its greater perceived independence from the Soviet Union by the Vietnamese themselves all rallied support to the cause. (Thies, 1980)

Of course, this independence goes against the White House 'domino' theory that preached that if Vietnam were to fall under Soviet control, so would the rest of South East Asia, much along the lines of Eastern Europe. However, this view did not take into consideration recent Vietnamese resistance to colonial French oppression, the actual level of Soviet influence over the Vietcong, and fundamentally highlights the faulty analogy of Europe and East Asia. (Phan, 2002)

Employment Concepts

Another less well publicized aspect of the analogies of World War II and the Vietnamese Conflict is the use of the carpet bombing that proved so successful in trampling the remnants of Nazi Germany, and so ineffective in taking Vietnam. True, the tactical focus of Vietnam was largely a land war. Techniques such as carpet-bombing supplanted strategic land objectives in the theater of operations. This was also true of World War II. But rather than being waged against an already dispirited populace, Rolling Thunder was waged against an opposition force rallying to the cry of freedom, in its eyes, from colonialism. It thus failed partly "because North Vietnam was immune to conventional coercion due to its applied revolutionary warfare" (Phan, 2002) and the graduated increases in intensity of the campaign proved a colossal failure, as it gave the North Vietnamese time to regroup, recoup their… [read more]

Labor Relations the Military Policy of Don Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Labor Relations

The military policy of "Don't ask, don't tell" was developed to be a compromise between those who felt homosexuals should be allowed to serve in the military, and those who wished them banned. However, due to multiple international conflicts, such as the war in Iraq, the Pentagon has issued a stop loss order for military personnel, and the discharge of openly gay military members has, in many cases, been suspended, by simply ignoring claims of homosexuality or using the loophole that was devised to be able to retain members if needed. It is this hypocritical waffling that is one of the military's biggest labor relations issues that needs to be addressed immediately.

Labor Relations


With the arduous war in Iraq, the precarious situation in Korea, plus the plethora of other obligations the military has, military labor is spread thin, at best. For this reason, labor relations has become an increasingly important topic. This paper will explore the military policy of, "Don't ask, don't tell" and whether or not the war in Iraq could change the Pentagon's position on allowing gays in the military to serve openly. In addition, it will analyze the labor relations issue in the military, in general, and whether or not theses issues should be addressed now or in the future.

The Military Policy of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell":

The military policy commonly known as, "Don't ask, don't tell" is Public Law 103-160. President Bill Clinton introduced the law as a compromise between those who felt homosexuals should be allowed to serve in the military and those who wanted a complete ban of homosexuals in the military. Colin Powell drafted the actual policy, which reads in part:

Sexual orientation will not be a bar to service unless manifested by homosexual conduct. The military will discharge members who engage in homosexual conduct, which is defined as a homosexual act, a statement that the member is homosexual or bisexual, or a marriage or attempted marriage to someone of the same gender (as cited in "Don't ask, don't tell," 2005).

A built in loophole in this policy includes the fact that the military may choose to retain openly homosexual service members, if it's "for the good of the service" (Prince, 2002).

Homosexual acts have always been illegal in the United State Military. Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and prior to that under the Articles of War, sodomy has been one of the punitive offenses. Laws, to this manner, were implemented due to the belief that homosexuals posed a security risk to the military. It has been believed that homosexuals are an easier target for blackmail. With the threat that their sexual orientation could be disclosed, they could be coerced into performing treasonable acts ("Don't ask, don't tell," 2005).

In addition, these policies were developed due to the fact that the presence of homosexuals was objectionable to many of the heterosexual service members. There is worry that allowing openly gay service member would lead to the… [read more]

Coed Military Training Imagine a Father Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Coed Military Training

Imagine a father actually encouraging the arrangement in which his eighteen-year-old daughter "for her benefit" shares a bedroom with the next-door neighbor's eighteen-year-old son, for months on end, and as he leaves and turns out the light, he happily says, "now be good, kids" (Hart pp). Most people would consider this parent totally irresponsible, and might even wonder whether he was some undercover pornographer or worse (Hart pp). However, for all intents and purposes, the armed forces are doing this and more to the sons of daughters of America that they are responsible for every day, no matter how destructive coed housing and other training practices are to military readiness and to the troops themselves (Hart pp).

In 1998, an eleven member team headed by Former Senator Nancy Kassebaum, examined the issue of mixed-sex training, and concluded after a full scale investigation including inspections and thousands of service member interviews, that mixed-sex basic training and housing should be ended (Hart pp).

However, although the report should have been a red flag regarding the integrated training policy adopted by the Army, Air Force, and Navy, the most that came from the report was that the Army agreed to install partitions in the barracks to discourage sexual encounters (Hart pp). The unanimous recommendations by six women and five men were surprising, considering the diverse makeup of the panel, a mix of retired military officers, a civil rights lawyer and three female college professors (Scarborough pp). After reviewing evidence of disciplinary problems and lack of teamwork, the panelists urged the military services to keep the sexes in separate barracks at the platoon level for the ten-week of basic training, yet, men and women would still train together, sometimes, when small same-sex unites join to make up larger companies (Scarborough pp).

There were so many female recruits who were unable to pass hand grenade tossing tests at one Army base that authorities simply changed the standards, setting different requirements for male and female recruits, reports analyst James Anderson of the Heritage Foundation, in his paper, "Boot Camp or Summer Camp? Restoring Rigorous Standards to Basic Training" (Hart pp). Anderson says that in an effort to entice and retain women, basic training has become much more feminized, de-emphasizing toughness and rigor (Hart pp). At Great Lakes Naval Training Center, recruits are now shown a video that tells them that "anyone can make it through boot camp," when actually the point should be that not everyone can make it (Hart pp). According to one Army recruit who expected boot camp to be tough, said, "this is like summer camp" (Hart pp). Anderson states that "all the emphasis on physical and mental toughness that would enable a soldier to outlast or outperform a capable enemy on the field of battle is being systematically removed from U.S. armed forces basic training" (Hart pp). It appears that political correctness now rules the Pentagon (Hart pp).

After more than forty years of effort, the military appears to… [read more]

Adverse Affects of Poor Integrity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Military Integrity

Adverse Affects of Poor Integrity

The Seven Core Army Values, Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage, are the essence of being a solider (Living pp). The Soldier's Code that states, to "treat others with dignity and respect while expecting others to do the same," is a vital ingredient of Army value (Living pp).

During… [read more]

Army Structure From 3-Brigade Division Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,902 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


With the Division-86 system change, the Army also published a Training and Doctrine Command guide in order to execute successful implementation. On October 1, 1982, the Command published tables of organization and equipment in order to implement this second attempt at achieving the heavy division concept. The tables, which outlined both armored division and mechanized infantry, set out five variations… [read more]

Commanders by Bob Woodward Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Commanders by Bob Woodward. Specifically, it will argue the question "Was the Bush Administration effective in identifying political objectives and applying military resources to accomplish those objectives?" Chapters 7-15 of Bob Woodward's "The Commanders" include discussions of the 1989 Panama invasion, civilian manipulation of the military, and how the administration engineered and pulled off a military invasion during… [read more]

Assessing Corporate Culture Marines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (878 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Marine Corporate Culture

Assessing Corporate Culture (Marines)

In Warrior Culture of the U.S. Marines, Marion F. Sturkey reminds the world that no one joins the Marines, they become Marines by surviving the basic training that sculpts the mind and body (Sturkey pp). An individual earns the title and enters the Brotherhood of Marines, and therein lies his strength, and in return, the strength of the Corps lies in the individual (Sturkey pp). The character is defined by three constant Corps Values, honor courage, and commitment (Sturkey pp).

Honor requires the ultimate standard in ethical and moral conduct, and a Marine must never lie, cheat, or steal, must adhere to a code of personal integrity and be accountable for his actions, and above all, must never sully the reputation of his Corps (Sturkey pp). Courage is honor in action, moral strength, heeding the inner voice of conscience and doing what is right in spite of adverse consequences (Sturkey pp). Commitment is total dedication to Corps and Country, and is a combination of selfless determination and relentless dedication to excellence (Sturkey pp). And once a Marine, always a Marine, for there is no such thing as an ex-Marine or former-Marine, only reserve, retired or veteran Marines (Sturkey pp). These three Corps Values make up the bedrock of each individual Marine's character, and are the foundation of the Corps itself (Sturkey pp). These values have been handed down from generation to generation and are the reason why the U.S. Marines are the most respected and revered fighting force on earth (Sturkey pp).

After the Korean War, the armed forces developed a Code of Conduct that was approved by the President of the United Sates in 1955, and contains six articles that create a comprehensive guide for all American military forces and embraces statements of dedication to the U.S. And the cause of freedom, conduct on the battlefield, and conduct as a prisoner of war (Sturkey pp). Sturkey points out that this new Code is not a part of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, but is a personal conduct mandate for all member of the American armed forces throughout the world (Sturkey pp). The articles basically read:

Article I: I am prepared to give my life in their defense.

Article II: I will never surrender of my own free will.

Article III: If I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available.

Article IV: If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners.

Article V: If captured, I am required to give name, rank, service, number, and date of birth.

Article VI: I…… [read more]

Dropping the Atom Bomb Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The orders were approved by Secretary of War Henry Stimson and Army Chief of Staff George Marshall, as well as by President Truman. The instructions listed the targets to be attacked. Hiroshima was an industrial area with many military installations. Nagasaki was a major port with shipbuilding and marine repair facilities. In general, the participants in the decision to use… [read more]

Military Recruiters Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,033 words)
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Military recruiters are often treated as glorified heroes within American society. To serve our nation in the military is the touted to be the highest form of patriotism. Despite the consistent barrage of jingoism in American the truth about military recruitment is that it is an extremely unregulated and at times unethical practice. As the war in Iraq escalated and the military's needs for fresh recruits continue to rise it appears that recruiters are oftentimes resorting to more underhanded and unethical means to confuse and ultimately deceive youths into signing up for the military. Cindy Sheen's story in Buzzflash news exemplifies the deceptive manner in which military recruiters bring aboard fresh new faces to fight America's battles. Her son signed with the U.S. Army only after the military recruiter promised him not only free college, but also that he would never enter into active combat because of his extremely high military competency. Despite these promises, he not only was sent into combat but did not receive approval for a single college class and was killed in action only five hours after his unit was deployed. The story that Cindy tells is a cautionary tell of the consequences of military recruitment deceit. In the past five years, the military has increased its recruiting budget and have given military recruiters significantly more authority and leeway than every before. The consequences of these actions have had a dramatic effect on the recruiting process. Military recruiters use false promises, confusion, and greed to lure hapless youth into joining the military.

Following 9/11 the need for increased military forces has created a ripple effect in military recruitment. According to the New York Times, the U.S. Army recruitment budget has increased nearly threefold since 9/11, and this has been evidenced by the cohesive advertisement campaign to convince American youths to sign up. Military recruiters are the frontlines of recruitment; they have been given almost complete freedom as long as recruitment is successful. Although not many people are aware of it, recruiters work on a commission basis, which means that the more people they recruit the higher their salary and chance for promotion. Without an overall regulatory body to create active policies, recruiters are not held accountable for what they say to recruit individuals. In the case of Cindy Sheen's son, the military recruiter promised him both a specific role in the military as well as money for his college education. He was promised that he would be an assistant chaplain, but once he reached basic training he was told that the position was filled and he was forced to become a cook. These promises though false still had little real harm; however it is the lure of noncombat duties that brings military recruiters to the realm of unethical behavior. Promises of nonmilitary service during wartime is not an isolated incident, but is actually one of the primary lures by the military to increase enrollment. Thousands of recruits are told that they would be assigned noncombat duty… [read more]

Battle of Marathon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Battle of Marathon: Strategy and Significance

The Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. between the Athenians and the Persian army remains one of history's most famous battles. Despite being hugely outnumbered, the Athenian army managed to repel the Persian ranks and force them to flee back to their ships and eventually back to the lands from whence they had come.… [read more]

Presence of Non-Romans Throughout the History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Presence of Non-Romans

Throughout the history of Rome, there were a series of transformations that were taking place. One area where this was most evident is inside the Roman army. As these changes, were designed to deal with current and future challenges. Yet, many of these adjustments were based upon: addressing underlying needs and reflecting the social changes that were… [read more]

Military Law &amp Justice Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Military Law and Military Justice?

Military justice, also known as military law is a set of procedures and laws that govern members of the armed forces. Different states have designed distinct and separate bodies of law governing their armed forces. Other states have adopted the use of special judicial in enforcing military justice (McCormack 9). Military justice has unique legal issues such as preservation of proper discipline and order, the legal nature of orders and proper conduct within members of the military force. Some states allow their system of military justice to handle civil offences, which have been committed by members of their armed forces. Military justice differs from the implementation of military authority on civilians as a form of civil authority. This is commonly referred to as martial law and is often declared in times of emergency such as civil unrest or war. Most states have restrictions as to when and how martial law should be enforced or declared (Hall 21).

Military justice (military law), as a branch of law regulating the government's military force, is entirely disciplinary in nature. This penal law includes has incorporated the analogous elements of civilian criminal law. The law has many and varied sources that have considerable relationships with the constitution. However, since the public law emerged from the constitution, the primary source of the law that governs the military force has been considered the constitution (McCormack 27). Apart from the constitution, other sources have been associated with the emergence of military law. Some of these sources are written while others are unwritten that govern the military establishments, as well. The international law was the source of the law on treaties and war that affect the establishments of the military. Congress law made significant contributions to statutes of the military justice such as the uniform code. Customs and usage of the armed forces and the court system have contributed to the daily decisions in clarifying the gray areas: these have all added up to the present military law (McCormack 44).

Elucidate the Laws of War. What is a Just War?

In order for a war to qualify as a just war, it must meet a dozen of principles. First, force has been seen to be a source of destruction and many people assume that it should not be used. Therefore, need to use force must be overcome by use of viable and peaceful war alternatives. It must be made clear that the alternatives being used are fruitless and a war can be a just. Secondly, the cause of the war must be just in nature: this means that the principal aim of the war must be to correct a profound, grave, and enduring evil that might directly impair the safety or freedom of the people who are contemplating the war (McCormack 51).

Thirdly, a competent and lawful authority must consent to the use of violence. Therefore, the nation must design internal laws on the usage of military violence so that war… [read more]

Educational Advantages of the Military Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Lessening the Educational Disadvantages of Military Culture

The educational culture of the military bears little resemblance to that of popular culture or health culture. Indeed, the military lifestyle is for the most part a Spartan one in which the members undergo a strict regime of physical strength-training. It should also be noted that the military lifestyle is severe to a greater extent than the lifestyle afforded by other cultures. Certainly, military culture is not for everyone, and prospective enlistees should be cognizant of the many advantages and disadvantages associated with military life. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the most pertinent advantages and disadvantages, and concludes with strategies that can be deployed in order to lessen the disadvantages.

One of the chief advantages of military life is the extreme level of group solidarity that one gains from the military; individuals spend all of their time with a select group of fellow enlistees, and people quickly learn the value of cooperation and the strength in having a strong support group available at all times. Those who struggle with personal motivation or who have never had a supportive influence in their lives are likely to find particular satisfaction in the military lifestyle. It has also been shown that the military lifestyle better prepares people for relationships later in life, particularly with regard to marriage and raising a family (Teachman, 2009). Additionally, military culture places a premium on physical fitness, and enlistees generally find themselves in the excellent physical condition. In this regard, one of the advantages to education in the military is that it is not limited to the classroom or the training ground but also refers to educating oneself on how best to treat their bodies.

It could be argued that the advantages listed above are also disadvantages of military culture, as the lifestyle of group solidarity clashes strongly with the individualistic ethos promoted by contemporary Western culture. In order to lessen the potential disadvantage of the group ethos, it is important to place a premium on interpersonal relations while at the same time retaining one's own personal values. With regard to the severe physical fitness regimen, enlistees should not view the harsh training lifestyle as a disadvantage but must apply a positive perspective to it, valuing the superior conditioning that they will achieve. One of the most successful ways of lessening the educational disadvantages of military culture is simply to view the same disadvantages from a positive standpoint, appreciating the benefits of the group dynamic and physical strength.

In addition to the physical benefits of the military, another benefit of the lifestyle is the technological acumen that enlistees acquire. Those who have an interest in technology are especially well-positioned to thrive in the military…… [read more]

Course of Action Decision Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Action Decision Brief

"What you want to do is to weigh all the numerous issues, distinguishing that in war some data could be wrong, that a lot is missing totally, and there are all sorts of essentials over which you have no control…. You have got to weigh all of these things and come to a decision as… [read more]

Eb Sledge With the Old Breed Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


E.B. Sledge, With the Old Breed

There most assuredly are two different representations of the author of With The Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa, E.B. Sledge, that the reader can discern while perusing through this memoir. One of these men is the actual soldier, a 19-year-old boy horrified by the ravages of war and the exacting toll it takes… [read more]

Conscription in Turkey Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,404 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13


Military Conscription Reforms in Turkey: A Financial or Professional Approach

Military conscription in Turkey has its roots in the late Ottoman Empire. The system was adopted as a means of giving the nation military workforce, and was a tool of military modernization, especially in the Turkish Republic. According to Dogra Ozgur (2008), military conscription modernized the Turkish army in terms… [read more]

Military Strategy in Korean Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Two Wars: Korean and Vietnam Wars are critical in the history of the United States under the influence of communism. Some of the factors that led to the success of the case of the Korean War include role of the UN Security Council, public support, and amphibious support. In the contrary, the case of the Vietnam War was a failure because of lack of public support, ambiguity of the enemy, lack of social and political solutions, and terrain. This is an indication of the need to adopt and implement appropriate strategies in the art of war.


Mehta, Harish C. 2012. "Fighting, Negotiating, and Laughing: The Use of Humour in the Vietnam War." Historian 74, no. 4: 743-788.

Schell, Jonathan. 2013. "The Real Vietnam War." Nation 296, no. 5: 20-24.

Hee Kyung, Suh. 2012. "War and Justice: Just Cause of the Korean War." Korea Journal 52,

no. 2: 5-29.

Krebs, Marjori M. 2009. "The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember." Social Studies 100,

no. 6: 273-278.

Waldman, Thomas. 2010. "Shadows of Uncertainty': Clausewitz's Timeless Analysis of Chance in War." Defence Studies 10, no. 3: 336-368.

Hee Kyung, Suh. 2012. "War and Justice: Just Cause of the Korean War." Korea Journal 52, no. 2: 5-29.

Krebs, Marjori M. 2009. "The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember." Social Studies 100, no. 6: 273-278.

Mehta, Harish C. 2012. "Fighting, Negotiating, and Laughing: The Use of Humour in the…… [read more]

Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy" and "America's Path: Grand Strategy for the Next Generation," focus on President Obama's new strategy of promoting growth and jobs while ensuring national security. However, these articles could be misleading in a way. In light of the president's action towards national security and the climate, it is unclear whether the government may afford to act on national security and climate change at a time when the global economy is under recovery. These articles could be misleading in some way because they imply that actions towards protection could be more costly than it saves. Stabilizing security by empowering the military saves the economy than it would cost to mitigate the effects of insecurity (Art, 2012).

The articles contain a new defense strategy created to yield approximately $450 billion in budget savings achievable in the next decade. However, the articles have failed to detail programs that must be trimmed or cut in terms of budget. Instead, the articles outline a generalized vision guiding the defense budget decisions of the administration. These articles maintain that the strategy will ensure an effective and safe nuclear deterrent; however, they do not explain the number of nuclear weapons required for deterrence and the costs involved modernizing and maintaining the U.S. military force (Art, 2012). Nevertheless, the strategy articles, "Reading the Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy" and "America's Path: Grand Strategy for the Next Generation," clearly articulate that it is possible to achieve diverse goals with a small nuclear force. This will minimize the volume of nuclear weapons in the U.S. inventory including their role in the national strategy of U.S..

This plan has attracted remarkable argument across the government. From the two ambitious articles, it is difficult to understand that they are referring to the policy community. It would have been better had the authors thought harder before arguing in the articles. Writers such as Pollack have confessed to having been wrong about nations such as Iraq. In his article, he provides little evidence of his arguments. While most of the administrations get some wrist-slapping light, Pollack argues that the Bush policy is breathtakingly ignorant, arrogant and reckless (Art, 2012).

Most of the judgments in the articles are as sound as the criticism on Bush administration. Because of the stability, prosperity and democratization after the Post-Cold war, it is fundamentally correct argue that the U.S. must commit itself to help the messy countries such as Middle East to come to par. The article proposes a grand strategy similar to America's engagement in the World War II with Europe. Although it is irrational, it is challenging given the global increasing dependency on Middle East oil (Art, 2012).

Basing on the two articles, the challenge is that the U.S. needs to recapitalize every one of the three legs of the atomic triad, and they do not have the money to do it. The articles outline nothing about the part of U.S. atomic weapons in defense policy, but… [read more]

Military Lessons Learned Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


A shared frame of reference is reported to be key in group common understanding. A shared mental model for information and communication procedures is reported to be the primary base in developing "SSA appropriate to current mission goals." (Cantu and Cantu, nd, p.5) Continuous and effective communication is also reported as being critical in the sharing of interests and in gaining an awareness that is comprehensive of the priorities of all actors in crisis planning.

III. Military Lessons Learned to Assist in More Effective Mission Success

The military lessons learned that would assist in more effective success in military missions include that there is a critical need for continuous communication that is effective in nature since this will enable coordinated action and will result in a shared frame of reference. It is extremely important that all involved be aware of what stage of completion the mission has reached the mission goals, the mission strategy, and the appropriate tactics to accomplish the mission. All actors must work in unison and cooperatively in order to realize success and effectiveness in a military operation. With today's technological advances, there are many ways to communicate even across long distances and this technology enables today's military in realizing success in its mission goals and objectives.

Summary and Conclusion

This study has examined military strategy and mission requirements for realization of effective and successful missions and noted that a shared frame of reference and continuous communication that is effective to be critical towards mission success.

Works Cited

Cantu, DA, and Cantu, S. (nd) The Vietnam War: A National Dilemma. Series: Conflicts and Foreign Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.learner.org/courses/amerhistory/pdf/Vietnam-War_L-One.pdf

Semling, C. And Rist, U. (nd) Shared Situational Awareness in Civil-Military Partnership. DS CC70 / Systemic Analysis & Human Factors. Ottobrun, Germany.… [read more]

Attack on Pearl Harbor Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Japan and WWII

The Japanese naval attack on Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands was a devastating loss for the United States, both in terms of the loss of vessels and lives in the U.S. Pacific Fleet and in terms of the political and psychological shock waves that the surprise attack caused. But notwithstanding that tremendous blow to American military… [read more]

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