"Military / Army / Navy / Marines" Essays

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Wars of the Barbary Pirates Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,598 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines, by Gregory Fremont-Barnes

Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey Pub Co, November 2006

Main Theses

Gregory Fremont-Barnes' "Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli,… [read more]


Civil Military Relations Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,314 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Civil-Military Relations

Civil military relations are an important subject of discussion in almost every state. However it is even more crucial in countries undergoing transition to democracy and countries plagued by years of military rule. Armies have a strong hold on politics of all societies, they represent the ultimate defense of a state and stand as the symbol of their… [read more]


Effects of War on Soldiers Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,315 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11

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PTSD

Comparative Study of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder between military and private contractors stationed in Iraq

Americans at War

Conflict is a part of the human condition. Although most would prefer peace, sometimes war represents an inevitable reality. Since the founding of our nations, Americans have been called to serve our nation in the armed forces numerous times. The latest… [read more]


Phoenix Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  75 pages (19,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 50

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¶ … Phoenix Program Lessons to Iraq

Scope and Significance

Summation

The Phoenix Program in Vietnam

Lessons Learned from Phoenix

Applications for Iraq

Selected Bibliography

APPLICATION of PHOENIX PROGRAM LESSONS to IRAQ

It is not at all unusual to hear popular comparisons made between the Vietnam War and the current war in Iraq and though most experts see only a… [read more]


Douglas Macarthur and the Inchon Decision Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,021 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

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Douglas MacArthur and the Inchon Decision

Most historians today would agree that Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) has not "faded away," but remains a source of ongoing research and scholarly investigation concerning his career and the decisions that ultimately contributed to his downfall. A brilliant tactician, military leader and communicator by most accounts, General MacArthur also possessed an oversized ego and some… [read more]


Military Uniform Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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U.S. Army Combat Uniform (ACU)

The battlefield of the 21st century is increasingly being characterized by the need for body armor that can withstand the rigors of a wide range of environmental conditions and recent initiatives by the U.S. Department of Defense and Department of the Army have focused on providing soldiers with an improved combat uniform and the accessories needed in the dynamic combat environment today. One such initiative is the U.S. Army Combat Uniform (ACU) which is the focus of this paper. A review of the relevant literature concerning the ACU is provided below, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

According to a press release concerning the ACU from Army.com (2006), the new ACU is comprised of a jacket, trousers, patrol cap, moisture wicking t-shirt and newly introduced Army Combat Boot (Temperate and Hot Weather) (the New Army Combat Uniform, 2005). The new ACU is a wrinkle-free uniform that features a digitized camouflage pattern (Triggs, 2004). The report from Army.com also notes that the new ACU is the result of lengthy R&D efforts as well as collaboration with the soldiers who will be required to wear it. Moreover, the ACU contributes to the effectiveness of soldiers on the battlefield by providing a uniform that can be customized to the individual mission; providing enhanced functionality and ergonomics over the existing Battle Dress Uniform; and, eliminating the need to provide different types of uniforms for different environments (the New Army Combat Uniform). These attributes combine to make the new ACU appropriate for virtually any conditions around the world. In this regard, the new ACU represents a fundamental overhaul of previous uniform designs. As Col. John Norwood, the project manager for Clothing and Individual Equipment advises, "This isn't about a cosmetic redesign of the uniform. it's a functionality change of the uniform that will improve the ability of Soldiers to execute their combat mission" (quoted in Triggs at p. 3). Initial distribution of the ACU to began in February 2005 and was expected to be completed Army-wide by mid- 2008 (the New Army Combat Uniform).

Although at $88 each, the new ACU costs $34 more than its predecessor, the extra expense for the uniform will be offset by:

Proposed increase, as yet to be determined, in the monthly Clothing Replacement Allowance for enlisted soldiers;

permanent press treatment that eliminates the need for soldiers to pay for costly dry cleaning of their uniforms;

No added cost to soldiers for additional sewing due to the use of hook and pile or pin-on patches, nameplates, and badges;

Army-wide savings realized by streamlining procurement and stockpiling of one uniform for all environments instead of maintaining the BDU in the woodland and desert patterned sets; and,

Decreased manufacturing costs as processes are refined (the New…… [read more]


Length of Tours Overseas and Its Effects on Military Families Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (750 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … military service in America. Specifically it will discuss the length of tours of duty overseas and its effects on military families. Since the War with Iraq began, military personnel have been experiencing lengthened and extended tours of duty, and several tours of duty in the same country, as well. This is detrimental to the safety and welfare of the American soldiers forced to serve extended tours of duty, and it adversely affect their families, as well.

As the war in Iraq drags on, there are a finite number of service people available to fight in the war, largely because recruiting numbers are down, and there is no draft in the country to add to the ranks of fighters, as there was in the Vietnam War (Bender). Because of this, many service members find themselves called to duty in Iraq as many as four different times. In addition, many service members already in Iraq are being called to stay on for extended tours of duty because new troops cannot be trained fast enough to relieve them. Sadly, this puts the burden of defense on a relatively small number of Americans. It puts them at additional risk of being killed or injured in the war, and worst of all, it leaves their families alone and vulnerable at home.

This practice continues, even though many people worry about the effects it will have on service members' families. One reporter notes, "In the latest sign of pressure on troop strength from growing violence in Iraq, the Pentagon said Monday that it had extended the combat tour of 4,000 soldiers, the second time in as many months that an Army brigade has seen its yearlong deployment lengthened" (Barnes). These fighters were ensured they would come home in a year, but because training has lagged behind, and there are simply not enough troops to go around, they are forced to stay in Iraq, away from their families, loved ones, and friends, and in the case of reservists, away from their regular jobs and sources of income, as well. This can be an increasing hardship on the families, as a result.

There is growing concern that this practice of lengthening tours of duty is going to come back to haunt…… [read more]


John Mccain: Military and Moral Influences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,265 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

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John McCain: Military and Moral Influences That Changed Him Both as a Man and a Politician

John McCain is one of the most influential political figures in America. Taking into account the coming presidential campaign, it can be said that he is one of the most important contenders in the race for the White House. However, his early childhood and… [read more]


United States Military Should Expand Its Official Contacts With the Indonesian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (635 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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U.S. Military Involvement in Indonesia

The United States Military Should Expand its Contacts with the Indonesian Military

After the country of Indonesia had declared its independence from the Netherlands, it established a strong military style regime which influenced the social and economic politics of the country. The goal of the Indonesian government has since been to be entirely self sufficient, receiving no foreign aid to help protect its borders or internal security. Despite the wish to be fully independent however, the country is far from reaching its goal. The strong military is unable to furnish itself with enough arms and materials to successfully defend itself against neighboring threats, and much of the military budget comes from illicit activities that the United States sees as illegal. In order to save the republic from falling into Communist hands, such as its neighbors have done, as well as to curb the corrupt government activities which fund the nation's defense budget, the United States Military should try to expand its contacts and role in Indonesian military life.

Under the leadership of President Suharto, the Indonesian military has constantly interfered with the politics of the nation. As an army general, Suharto enforced a strong military regime which practiced a dual role. They embodied the traditional military role, along with a "social-political force in national development," (GlobalSecurity.org). President Suharto believed that through strong internal security, Indonesia would be able to further develop socially and economically. Despite the heavy military influence the national budget spends little on defense. Suharto believed that spending too much national budget or taking too much foreign aid for defense would hinder the economic development of the country. So, Indonesia has looked to illegal activities to fund its defense budget. Pirating, poaching, and smuggling drugs and other goods have been a major source of income for the Indonesian military. The United States cannot simply ignore these illicit tactics for raising…… [read more]


Military Reform in 1874 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,105 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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Military Reforms of 1861-74

It's generally agreed today that state of army truly reflects the standards of living in the country and the attitude of the citizens towards their country. It truly refers to the case with Russian army: today and in the past. Historian records and modern reports from Russia show that despite the patriotism of its citizens, "patriotism… [read more]


Defending and Fighting for Your Country Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,172 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Defending and Fighting for Your Country

In the movie Boyz in the Hood (1991), the father tells his son, "Don't ever go in the Army, Tre. A black man ain't got no place there." The father is talking to his son from about racism in the military, but there are other reasons not to go. In this essay I will… [read more]


Role as a Military Officer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … Role as a Military Officer can be defined in correlation of a couple of fundamental pillars that define the chosen profession and that have contributed to my initial choice of serving in the army.

First of all, my role is to ensure the security of my homeland. Indeed, in a global context that is constantly under threat from the terrorist phenomenon and where extremist groups are working against peace measures and a secure climate, a military officer has to make sure that his fellow nationals are safe from any outside, external factor. I aim, to the best of my ability, to provide my entire efforts in this direction.

In the same framework, my role is to promote and sustain the development and spread of democracy and democratic values worldwide, on a global basis. Indeed, the Western democratic community has based its existence on a commonly accepted set of core values, values that have to be defended at a global level against factors threatening them.

Second of all, my role will be to become a leader in the field of activity I have chosen. The army and the military is, among other things, an enterprise of natural born leaders and this is exactly what I intend to be. A true leader will be able to motivate his men, to lead them into battle, but, at the same time, protect them as the most important assets the commander has. A leader will also need to be an expert in his field, so that the others will follow his orders knowing that these are the best decisions to be taken that respective moment, in the given conditions. General coordination, organization and management will be an among the leader's goals.

A leader has to be…… [read more]


Military Recruiters Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,033 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Military recruiters are often treated as glorified heroes within American society. To serve our nation in the military is the touted to be the highest form of patriotism. Despite the consistent barrage of jingoism in American the truth about military recruitment is that it is an extremely unregulated and at times unethical practice. As the war in Iraq escalated and the military's needs for fresh recruits continue to rise it appears that recruiters are oftentimes resorting to more underhanded and unethical means to confuse and ultimately deceive youths into signing up for the military. Cindy Sheen's story in Buzzflash news exemplifies the deceptive manner in which military recruiters bring aboard fresh new faces to fight America's battles. Her son signed with the U.S. Army only after the military recruiter promised him not only free college, but also that he would never enter into active combat because of his extremely high military competency. Despite these promises, he not only was sent into combat but did not receive approval for a single college class and was killed in action only five hours after his unit was deployed. The story that Cindy tells is a cautionary tell of the consequences of military recruitment deceit. In the past five years, the military has increased its recruiting budget and have given military recruiters significantly more authority and leeway than every before. The consequences of these actions have had a dramatic effect on the recruiting process. Military recruiters use false promises, confusion, and greed to lure hapless youth into joining the military.

Following 9/11 the need for increased military forces has created a ripple effect in military recruitment. According to the New York Times, the U.S. Army recruitment budget has increased nearly threefold since 9/11, and this has been evidenced by the cohesive advertisement campaign to convince American youths to sign up. Military recruiters are the frontlines of recruitment; they have been given almost complete freedom as long as recruitment is successful. Although not many people are aware of it, recruiters work on a commission basis, which means that the more people they recruit the higher their salary and chance for promotion. Without an overall regulatory body to create active policies, recruiters are not held accountable for what they say to recruit individuals. In the case of Cindy Sheen's son, the military recruiter promised him both a specific role in the military as well as money for his college education. He was promised that he would be an assistant chaplain, but once he reached basic training he was told that the position was filled and he was forced to become a cook. These promises though false still had little real harm; however it is the lure of noncombat duties that brings military recruiters to the realm of unethical behavior. Promises of nonmilitary service during wartime is not an isolated incident, but is actually one of the primary lures by the military to increase enrollment. Thousands of recruits are told that they would be assigned noncombat duty… [read more]


Dropping the Atom Bomb Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The orders were approved by Secretary of War Henry Stimson and Army Chief of Staff George Marshall, as well as by President Truman. The instructions listed the targets to be attacked. Hiroshima was an industrial area with many military installations. Nagasaki was a major port with shipbuilding and marine repair facilities. In general, the participants in the decision to use… [read more]


Assessing Corporate Culture Marines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (878 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Marine Corporate Culture

Assessing Corporate Culture (Marines)

In Warrior Culture of the U.S. Marines, Marion F. Sturkey reminds the world that no one joins the Marines, they become Marines by surviving the basic training that sculpts the mind and body (Sturkey pp). An individual earns the title and enters the Brotherhood of Marines, and therein lies his strength, and in return, the strength of the Corps lies in the individual (Sturkey pp). The character is defined by three constant Corps Values, honor courage, and commitment (Sturkey pp).

Honor requires the ultimate standard in ethical and moral conduct, and a Marine must never lie, cheat, or steal, must adhere to a code of personal integrity and be accountable for his actions, and above all, must never sully the reputation of his Corps (Sturkey pp). Courage is honor in action, moral strength, heeding the inner voice of conscience and doing what is right in spite of adverse consequences (Sturkey pp). Commitment is total dedication to Corps and Country, and is a combination of selfless determination and relentless dedication to excellence (Sturkey pp). And once a Marine, always a Marine, for there is no such thing as an ex-Marine or former-Marine, only reserve, retired or veteran Marines (Sturkey pp). These three Corps Values make up the bedrock of each individual Marine's character, and are the foundation of the Corps itself (Sturkey pp). These values have been handed down from generation to generation and are the reason why the U.S. Marines are the most respected and revered fighting force on earth (Sturkey pp).

After the Korean War, the armed forces developed a Code of Conduct that was approved by the President of the United Sates in 1955, and contains six articles that create a comprehensive guide for all American military forces and embraces statements of dedication to the U.S. And the cause of freedom, conduct on the battlefield, and conduct as a prisoner of war (Sturkey pp). Sturkey points out that this new Code is not a part of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, but is a personal conduct mandate for all member of the American armed forces throughout the world (Sturkey pp). The articles basically read:

Article I: I am prepared to give my life in their defense.

Article II: I will never surrender of my own free will.

Article III: If I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available.

Article IV: If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners.

Article V: If captured, I am required to give name, rank, service, number, and date of birth.

Article VI: I…… [read more]


Commanders by Bob Woodward Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Commanders by Bob Woodward. Specifically, it will argue the question "Was the Bush Administration effective in identifying political objectives and applying military resources to accomplish those objectives?" Chapters 7-15 of Bob Woodward's "The Commanders" include discussions of the 1989 Panama invasion, civilian manipulation of the military, and how the administration engineered and pulled off a military invasion during… [read more]


Adverse Affects of Poor Integrity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Military Integrity

Adverse Affects of Poor Integrity

The Seven Core Army Values, Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage, are the essence of being a solider (Living pp). The Soldier's Code that states, to "treat others with dignity and respect while expecting others to do the same," is a vital ingredient of Army value (Living pp).

During… [read more]


Coed Military Training Imagine a Father Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Coed Military Training

Imagine a father actually encouraging the arrangement in which his eighteen-year-old daughter "for her benefit" shares a bedroom with the next-door neighbor's eighteen-year-old son, for months on end, and as he leaves and turns out the light, he happily says, "now be good, kids" (Hart pp). Most people would consider this parent totally irresponsible, and might even wonder whether he was some undercover pornographer or worse (Hart pp). However, for all intents and purposes, the armed forces are doing this and more to the sons of daughters of America that they are responsible for every day, no matter how destructive coed housing and other training practices are to military readiness and to the troops themselves (Hart pp).

In 1998, an eleven member team headed by Former Senator Nancy Kassebaum, examined the issue of mixed-sex training, and concluded after a full scale investigation including inspections and thousands of service member interviews, that mixed-sex basic training and housing should be ended (Hart pp).

However, although the report should have been a red flag regarding the integrated training policy adopted by the Army, Air Force, and Navy, the most that came from the report was that the Army agreed to install partitions in the barracks to discourage sexual encounters (Hart pp). The unanimous recommendations by six women and five men were surprising, considering the diverse makeup of the panel, a mix of retired military officers, a civil rights lawyer and three female college professors (Scarborough pp). After reviewing evidence of disciplinary problems and lack of teamwork, the panelists urged the military services to keep the sexes in separate barracks at the platoon level for the ten-week of basic training, yet, men and women would still train together, sometimes, when small same-sex unites join to make up larger companies (Scarborough pp).

There were so many female recruits who were unable to pass hand grenade tossing tests at one Army base that authorities simply changed the standards, setting different requirements for male and female recruits, reports analyst James Anderson of the Heritage Foundation, in his paper, "Boot Camp or Summer Camp? Restoring Rigorous Standards to Basic Training" (Hart pp). Anderson says that in an effort to entice and retain women, basic training has become much more feminized, de-emphasizing toughness and rigor (Hart pp). At Great Lakes Naval Training Center, recruits are now shown a video that tells them that "anyone can make it through boot camp," when actually the point should be that not everyone can make it (Hart pp). According to one Army recruit who expected boot camp to be tough, said, "this is like summer camp" (Hart pp). Anderson states that "all the emphasis on physical and mental toughness that would enable a soldier to outlast or outperform a capable enemy on the field of battle is being systematically removed from U.S. armed forces basic training" (Hart pp). It appears that political correctness now rules the Pentagon (Hart pp).

After more than forty years of effort, the military appears to… [read more]


Army Structure From 3-Brigade Division Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,902 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

With the Division-86 system change, the Army also published a Training and Doctrine Command guide in order to execute successful implementation. On October 1, 1982, the Command published tables of organization and equipment in order to implement this second attempt at achieving the heavy division concept. The tables, which outlined both armored division and mechanized infantry, set out five variations… [read more]


Labor Relations the Military Policy of Don Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Labor Relations

The military policy of "Don't ask, don't tell" was developed to be a compromise between those who felt homosexuals should be allowed to serve in the military, and those who wished them banned. However, due to multiple international conflicts, such as the war in Iraq, the Pentagon has issued a stop loss order for military personnel, and the discharge of openly gay military members has, in many cases, been suspended, by simply ignoring claims of homosexuality or using the loophole that was devised to be able to retain members if needed. It is this hypocritical waffling that is one of the military's biggest labor relations issues that needs to be addressed immediately.

Labor Relations

Introduction:

With the arduous war in Iraq, the precarious situation in Korea, plus the plethora of other obligations the military has, military labor is spread thin, at best. For this reason, labor relations has become an increasingly important topic. This paper will explore the military policy of, "Don't ask, don't tell" and whether or not the war in Iraq could change the Pentagon's position on allowing gays in the military to serve openly. In addition, it will analyze the labor relations issue in the military, in general, and whether or not theses issues should be addressed now or in the future.

The Military Policy of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell":

The military policy commonly known as, "Don't ask, don't tell" is Public Law 103-160. President Bill Clinton introduced the law as a compromise between those who felt homosexuals should be allowed to serve in the military and those who wanted a complete ban of homosexuals in the military. Colin Powell drafted the actual policy, which reads in part:

Sexual orientation will not be a bar to service unless manifested by homosexual conduct. The military will discharge members who engage in homosexual conduct, which is defined as a homosexual act, a statement that the member is homosexual or bisexual, or a marriage or attempted marriage to someone of the same gender (as cited in "Don't ask, don't tell," 2005).

A built in loophole in this policy includes the fact that the military may choose to retain openly homosexual service members, if it's "for the good of the service" (Prince, 2002).

Homosexual acts have always been illegal in the United State Military. Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and prior to that under the Articles of War, sodomy has been one of the punitive offenses. Laws, to this manner, were implemented due to the belief that homosexuals posed a security risk to the military. It has been believed that homosexuals are an easier target for blackmail. With the threat that their sexual orientation could be disclosed, they could be coerced into performing treasonable acts ("Don't ask, don't tell," 2005).

In addition, these policies were developed due to the fact that the presence of homosexuals was objectionable to many of the heterosexual service members. There is worry that allowing openly gay service member would lead to the… [read more]


Air Power Command and Control Lessons Learned at Operational Level of War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Vietnam: A Bird's Eye View of the historical and strategic past of U.S. Operations

Strategic Setting

The territory of the former French colony of Vietnam was occupied by two opposing armies, that of the North Vietnamese, armed by the Soviets, and the South Vietnamese, backed first by the French, then later by the Americans. Vietnam at the time of the conflict was divided into two opposing nations, as Korea is, still, to this day. (Phan, 2002)

Opposing Forces

Ho Chi Minn, a communist nationalist led the North Vietnamese. The United States Air force was devoted to training the VNAF (South Vietnamese Air Forces) to fight for this evolving independent nation, an objective that was not achieved.

Command Relationships / Adjustments made to Doctrine

From the beginning, the White House was criticized as exercising undue influence over the waging of the war. For instance, during the first major air offensive known as "Operation Rolling Thunder," the White House, it was alleged selected targets designed for public relations rather than real strategic value. It did not focus on advice from military leaders from the actual theater of operations. "President Johnson and Secretary McNamara maintained detailed tactical control of the missions. President Johnson and his advisors chose the targets from an Armed Forces' suggested list." (Humphrey, 1980, p.36)

All the while during this first operation, the South Vietnamese remained unable to effectively mobilize civilians to support their cause, nor function independently, while the North Vietnamese nationalist emphasis on their own struggle, the North's perceived resistance to foreign forces during "Rolling Thunder," and its greater perceived independence from the Soviet Union by the Vietnamese themselves all rallied support to the cause. (Thies, 1980)

Of course, this independence goes against the White House 'domino' theory that preached that if Vietnam were to fall under Soviet control, so would the rest of South East Asia, much along the lines of Eastern Europe. However, this view did not take into consideration recent Vietnamese resistance to colonial French oppression, the actual level of Soviet influence over the Vietcong, and fundamentally highlights the faulty analogy of Europe and East Asia. (Phan, 2002)

Employment Concepts

Another less well publicized aspect of the analogies of World War II and the Vietnamese Conflict is the use of the carpet bombing that proved so successful in trampling the remnants of Nazi Germany, and so ineffective in taking Vietnam. True, the tactical focus of Vietnam was largely a land war. Techniques such as carpet-bombing supplanted strategic land objectives in the theater of operations. This was also true of World War II. But rather than being waged against an already dispirited populace, Rolling Thunder was waged against an opposition force rallying to the cry of freedom, in its eyes, from colonialism. It thus failed partly "because North Vietnam was immune to conventional coercion due to its applied revolutionary warfare" (Phan, 2002) and the graduated increases in intensity of the campaign proved a colossal failure, as it gave the North Vietnamese time to regroup, recoup their… [read more]


Women in Combat the Participation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

During the Persian Gulf War, for example, Air Force Captain Anne Weaver Worster flew a refueling tanker deep into Iraqi airspace four times so fighters and bombers could increase their range. In doing so, Worster brought her plane and its flammable cargo within range of air to surface missiles and anti-aircraft fire. Army Major Rhonda Cornum volunteered for a helicopter mission to rescue the pilot of a downed F-16 plane. Cornum's Black Hawk was shot down, and she was held prisoner for a week before being released (Eskind 1991). Additionally, many people in the field assert that the distinctions between combat and non-combat duties were arbitrary. For example, women in the Army were still banned from direct combat divisions such as infantry. However, they were allowed to work on Patriot Missile Units, a division charged with shooting down incoming Scud missiles. Navy women could not serve aboard combat ships like destroyers, but they were on support ships that provided combat logistical support during the gulf operations. Female members of the Marine Corps were also banned from combat. However, 170 female leathernecks of the 2nd Marine Support Group were stationed in the desert, near the Kuwaiti border when the ground attacks began.

For all intents and purposes, women have been serving in positions that have placed them in danger, regardless of whether or not a position was identified as a combat zone.

Both sides do agree on one important point.

Women who want to serve in the military should possess the necessary physical, mental and emotional attributes. Female soldiers are finding greater acceptance today because, like their male counterparts, the women who serve pass the required battery of physical, emotional and intellectual tests. American women have served in various military capacities since the Revolutionary War. They have been nurses, reservists, navigators, pilots and, since the 1993 Gulf War, combatants. As a result of the growing role of technology in warfare, women also increasingly serve as operators of weapons and heavy machinery, tasks that routinely take them into combat zones. Despite the naysayers, soldiers -- both male and female -- are showing that military personnel should be judged based on their abilities and not on their gender. For these reasons, women should not be excluded from combat positions solely on the basis of their gender.

Works Cited

Charon, Mona. "Eight Good Reasons to Oppose Women in the Military." In Current Issues and Enduring Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. 6th ed. Sylvan Barnet and Hugo Bedau, eds. New York: Bedford St. Martins Press, 2004.

Eskind, Amy. "A Post-Gulf Memorial Day" Arms and the Woman." The Washington Post, May 26, 1991. ProQuest Database.

Norwood, Vivian. "Eight Reasons Why Women Should Be in the Military." In Current Issues and Enduring Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. 6th ed. Sylvan Barnet and…… [read more]


Military and Athletic Heroes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Realistically, they aren't, but in our society, a person deserves what he can command.... And if Tom Cruise can negotiate thirty million for a movie, and if Jack Nicholson can demand forty million for making Batman, who's to say that it's absurd for an athlete to make three million or five million a year? In reality, we know they're not worth it, but if the marketplace allows it, so be it." (Cosell 214). As long as people are willing to part with their hard-earned money to witness the best athletes in the world go head-to-head, the athletes will continue to make outrageous sums of money.

Soldiers, on the other hand, may be a superior form of hero but their marketplace value is far lower than their social value. A society could function without athletes, but it would be extremely difficult to run society without some form of military order (Shea, 4). Military heroes, although they do exist, are not good vehicles through which to sell products. No one would ever buy, for instance, George Washington brand running shoes; but when the new "Jordan's" come out, every ten-year-old boy in the country desperately wants them. Athletes can be strongly tied to products, but soldiers would have difficulty selling anything other than combat boots or "Hummers."

By the nature of our definition of a hero, as someone who devotes his or her life to something greater than oneself, it becomes apparent that not all athletes can be considered heroes but simply all solders must be. In the United States "democratic conscription has in every instance occurred as the voluntary dedication of a nation's resources to the cause of defense." (Clarkson 128). This means that everyone who signs a contract with the military is volunteering their life, should it be called upon, in addition to giving up several years of that life. Regardless of the heroic actions of the soldier after joining the military, by signing the contract they have already demonstrated their devotion to something greater than themselves.

Unfortunately, military life is not particularly lucrative. For the very fact that every citizen has the option to join at some time in their life it is unlike professional sports -- soldiers are not a novelty. The pay is simply low. The average annual compensation to a basic recruit in the United States armed forces is thirteen thousand six hundred thirty-nine dollars (salary.com). This is approximately they same amount full-time work at a fast-food restaurant will bring in. The only advantage the military offers is the assistance they give for higher education after service is completed. Sadly, it is for this reason that the typical military recruit of today is a kid in an economic bind, looking for a way to finance his or her education. Pay is able to stay so low because these recruits are looking to the long-term benefits of a military career.

Military heroes are all over, whether famous or not. Solders volunteer in this country to be placed in… [read more]


Military Accountability the Importance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. military in Iraq, a great deal of the focus on accountability has been in trying to determine who was responsible for the torture and mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners. Recently, Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski has been temporarily suspended from her command of the 800th Military Police Brigade. Brig. Gen. Karpinski has been accused by Army investigators for "paying too little attention to day-to-day operations of the Abu Ghraib prison and for not moving firmly enough to discipline soldiers for violating standard procedures" at Abu Ghraib prison. In addition, Spc. Jeremy Sivits (on of seven members of the 372nd Military Police Company that have been charged) has been given the maximum penalty in a first-class court martial stemming from the abuses at Abu Ghraib (CNN.com).

Important in this discussion of accountability is the adherence of the U.S. military to requirements of the Geneva conventions, which provide protections for the basic rights of war and civilian prisoners in times of armed conflict. In accepting the Geneva Conventions as models of conduct, the U.S. military then implicitly agrees to be bound by these rules. As such, any violations of the Geneva Conventions must be dealt with by the U.S. military. In this sense, the U.S. military is then held accountable to the protections outlined within the Geneva Conventions.

In conclusion, the importance of accountability in the U.S. military can hardly be overstated. If the U.S. military is not held accountable for its actions, it stands to lose a great deal of credibility both within the international community and at home. If the U.S. military is not accountable for its actions, the U.S. can never legitimately take a moral stance against regimes that mistreat or abuse individuals. Further, a U.S. military that is not accountable to the people of the United States violates some of the most dearly held tenets of democracy.

Works Cited

Aceves, William J. Investigating war crimes: The struggle for accountability hits home. The San Diego Union-Tribune, November 4, 1999, Thursday. 31 May 2004. http://www.kimsoft.com/1997/nogun12.htm

CNN.com. Former Iraq prison head suspended. Tuesday, May 25, 2004 Posted: 10:39 PM EDT (0239 GMT). 31 May 2004. http://www.cnn.com/2004/U.S./05/25/karpinski.iraq.ap/index.html… [read more]


Navy Operating Systems: The U Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Automated condition-based maintenance recording and management for the ship's main propulsion and auxiliary equipment, is also key.

Conclusion/Summary

By instituting a 'smart ship' that makes use of COTS systems, the Navy is able to make use of operating systems common to the commercial world such as UNIX, Linux, Solaris, and Intel. Yet the COTS systems also has the advantage of meeting the National Electronic Manufacturer Association (NEMA) standards or MIL-S-901D Class A near explosives survivability requirements, and feature space-saving designs for maximum viewing in cramped spaces. "Rugged chassis and bodies, reinforced mounts, and polymer shocks absorb the jars, knocks, and rigors of a field environment, while an outer enclosure protects from the elements." (Interface, 2004)

However, the smart ship concept has come under a great deal of criticism, over the course of its institution. During its inception, the Navy began running shipboard applications under Microsoft Windows NT so that fewer sailors would be needed to control key ship functions. But the very information technology on which the ships depend also makes them vulnerable if the COTS technology should fail, or if bad data is fed into the computers during maneuvers without proper technical and human controls. Still, the reduction in volunteerism for the armed services necessitates continued development of the Smart Ship concept, preferably with secure yet compatible elements with commercial software. (Slabodkin, 1998)

Works Cited

Intergraph Solutions Group. (2004). "Rugged Hardware for Harsh Environment." Retrieved on March 18, 2004 at http://solutions.intergraph.com/profiles/rugged.asp

Slabodkin, Gregory. (1998). "Software Glitches." Government News. Retrieved on March 18, 2004 at http://www.gcn.com/archives/gcn/1998/july13/cov2.htm… [read more]


Marines Build Leaders That Last Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

By entrusting low-ranking officers with critical battle decisions, marines are forced to pay close attention to the skills of the people they choose to trust with responsibility. (Freedman, Inc.) Empowerment, Freedman says, is "carried to an extreme by allowing someone at the lowest level of the organization to make decisions that can impact the success of the organization's most important missions" (Freedman, Forbes). This also allows lower-level officers who might be out of touch with the chain of command to "jettison pre-established plans, make up new ones as the situation demands, and commandeer the resources they need to carry them out" (Freedman, Forbes).

Nothing can quite compare with Marine Corps training and combat service to stretch your leadership skills in bringing people together to accomplish a mission," according to Phillip Rooney, vice-chairman of the ServiceMaster Company. Rooney endured Officer Candidate School and returned to teach there. For Rooney, nothing prepares an individual for the challenges of operating a business than training in the U.S. Marine Corps. (Freedman, Inc.) Freedman asserts that another successful technique of the Marines is rewarding failure. Marines view failure not as "the best possible learning experience" (Freedman, Forbes). In addition, the Marines also allow every soldier to be a team member.

Another aspect of training that helps the Marines build great leaders is their mentoring program that links junior Marines with more experienced Marines. Experience is a great tool and mentoring is an important aspect of instilling leadership qualities in junior Marines. The Marines believe:

The relation between officers and men should in no sense be that of superior and inferior nor that of master and servant, but rather that of teacher and scholar. In fact, it should partake of the nature of the relationship between father and son to the extent that officers are responsible for the physical, mental and moral welfare as well as the discipline and military training of the young men under their command. (General Lejeune qtd. On Marines)

Clearly, successful leaders come from pushing individuals to exceed beyond what they think they can do. The Marines establish this type of training by instilling a sense of responsibility through accepting challenges and accepting failure as a part of the learning experience. Coupled with mentoring, these techniques go far when developing soldiers that are courageous and committed.

Works Cited

Core Values. Marines Online. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://marines.com/about_marines/corpsvalues.asp

Real Leadership. Marines Online. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://marines.com/officer_programs/realleadership.asp?format=flash

Nelson, Wallace. "Leadership." Marines. November 1995. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9603154667&db=mth

Freedman, David. "Corps Values." Inc. Online. April 1998. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://www.inc.com/magazine/19980401/906.html

Few Good Principles." Forbes Online. May 2000. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://www.forbes.com/asap/2000/0529/201_print.html… [read more]


Military Deployment Affects Military Families Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (4,773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Unfair? Obviously. But while 18 states require that students pass an exit exam to graduate from high school, not one has a reciprocal agreement that would help students such as Jones (Peterson, 2001)."

Even when students make it through all of the red tape that they have encountered through four years of high school while under deployment orders, they often… [read more]


Neuropharmacology and the Military Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (1,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Military and Neuropharmacology: The Use of Stimulants for Increased Perforjmance and Cognitive Perception

Annotated Bibiliography

Farah, MJ, Smith, ME, Ilieva, I and Hamilton, RG (2012) Cognitive Enhancement. Penn State University. Retrieved from: http://www.psych.upenn.edu/~mfarah/pdfs/Cog%20Enh%20review.pdf

This article reports that cognitive enhancement can be defined as the "improvement of cognitive ability in normal healthy individuals." (p.1) There are various ways to up the levels of the cognitive ability of the individual including meditation and physical activity however; it is reported that the term cognitive enhancement is most often spoken of in regards to brain interventions through pharmaceuticals and stimulation to the brain. Stimulants are inclusive of methlphenidate and amphetamine which are drugs given to individuals with ADHD and both of which are medications that impact cognition through bringing about an increased in the catecholamines in the individual's prefrontal cortex and the regions that project to it known as the subcortical and cortical regions. This study reports that no systematic research has been conducted on the use of these agents for cognitive enhancement although preliminary studies do indicate that these agents are successful in bringing about enhancement to the individual's cognition.

II. Giordano, J. And Wurzman, R. Neurotechnologies as weapons in national intelligence and defense -- An overview. Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics and Policy. 2011. Potomac Institute Press. Retrieved from: http://www.synesisjournal.com/vol2_no2_t1/GiordanoWurzman_2011_2_1.pdf

This articles reviews the use of neuroscience in regards to its possible use in defense and intelligence operations and for the purpose of providing the United States military with an edge over those whom they go into combat against. Stated specifically in this report is " Pharmacologic

stimulants (e.g., amphetamines) and various ergogenics (e.g., anabolic steroids) have been used to augment combatant vigilance, and sedatives (e.g., barbiturates) have been employed to alter cognitive inhibition and facilitate cooperation during interrogation." (p.4) It is related that agents such as stimulants are used in the military for the purpose of cognitive enhancement as well as improvement of troop motor performance. Cognitive and motoric stimulants reported on in this study include CNS Stimulants such as amphetamines, methylphenidate, and permoline with the effects of these agents including arousal increases, attentional increases, mood elevation as well as anxiety and depression. Physical side effects are reported to include decrease in appetite, sleeplessness, heart rate increases, and a dry mouth.

III. Opportunities in Neuroscience for Future Army Applications (2015) National Research Council of the National Academies. The National Academies Press. Washington DC. Retrieved from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12500&page=R1

This report relates that breakthroughs most recently in technology make provision of "quantitative physiological metrics of human attentiveness, performance, and neural functioning to gauge cognitive fitness and degradation to below an individual's baseline performance optimum." (2015, p.5) The knowledge concerning the functioning of the body and brain can well utilize performance degradation due to stressors that are physiological and neurophysiological in nature. Fatigue is addressed in this report in regards to military personal and specifically in regards to soldiers and their cognitive and physical performance. It is reported that CNS fatigue may result… [read more]


Historical Analysis of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Case Study

Case Study  |  8 pages (2,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Statement of the Purpose:

The purpose of this case study is to provide a description of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers a chronological summary of key events in its history, an evaluation of its effectiveness in achieving its ever-changing mission and lessons learned from these experiences. One of the primary strengths of… [read more]


Military Research on Human Subjects Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

If this issue arises, it is not unfeasible that locals could blame the anthropologist as a collaborator with the U.S. military. The AAA pointed out that when working for the military there is almost an inevitable conflict of interest between the needs of the discipline of anthropology, the local population, and the military itself. The relationship in the military program is also a critical violation of the principle of informed consent, which the AAA demands be freely given. "Anthropologists work in a war zone under conditions that make it difficult for those they communicate with to give "informed consent" without coercion, or for this consent to be taken at face value or freely refused" (Weinberger 2007). Someone living in Iraq when the U.S. was occupying the nation might find it difficult to differentiate between the civilian statuses of a white anthropologist accompanying a member of the U.S. Army and assume that the anthropologist was acting in a military capacity along with the soldier. Not only would this make the Iraqi feel forced to respond to the anthropologist's questions, it also would potentially corrupt the data derived from the investigative process, given the sensation of coercion in the relationship.

While the desire of the U.S. military to better understand Islamic and other cultures is commendable and a necessary part of international security policy, using civilian anthropologists with a potential conflict of interest between academia and the military is ultimately not a wise decision nor does it support the interests of the anthropological profession as a whole. If fact-finding from an anthropological perspective is to be accomplished, it should be handled by members of the U.S. military explicitly in a military capacity that have no such conflict of interest.

References

Weinberger, S. (2007). Anthropology ass'n blasts Army's "Human Terrain" Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/2007/11/anthropology-as/… [read more]


Why We'll Keep Going to War: Theory Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,814 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

] [8: Micah Zenko, Between Threats and War: U.S. Discrete Military Operations in the Post-Cold War World (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010), 7.]

Technology is more advanced today; the internet has become the new ground for organized crime and global terrorism. As mentioned earlier on, threats no longer operate from specific physical locations, and are hence, less clearly identifiable. Governments may have no mechanisms to track down such illegal activities, given that it is now possible to plan for a criminal activity in one location, and execute it in another at the touch of a button. In most cases, the parties involved belong to, and operate from entirely different countries. In other words, threats are multidimensional, multifaceted, and multifunctional, and the only way to counter them is to transform the military from the traditional state-centric system to a multidimensional, multifaceted, and multifunctional option.

Bibliography

ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army, http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014).

Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).

Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014),

Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014

Zenko, Micah. Between Threats and War: U.S. Discrete Military Operations in the Post-Cold War World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.… [read more]


Comparison of Today's Warfare to Napoleonic Era Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,373 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

He used the maneuver to dictate where and how the battles would progress. With such a strategy, he placed his soldiers into the rear whilst cutting the communications and supplies of his opponents. The strategy had an adverse effect on the enemies and ended up killing his opponents' morale. In today's warfare most, militants use maneuver that is placing the enemy in a disadvantageous position by applying flexible combat power. They also insist on surprise attacks like striking the opponents at a time, manner, or place when they are mostly unprepared

In the Napoleonic era, they used infantry tactics, which insists on the use of the flintlock musket, the smoothbore, and the standard weapon. The flintlock musket is famous for its short effective range that hits a man-size target of 50 yards. Most soldiers during the Napoleonic era were coerced to stay in the battlefields. The non-commissioned officers and the officers carried halberds and swords to keep the men in the infantry in the firing line. Each soldier was forced to put on a military uniform that is colorful and visible from a distance. In today's warfare, they also have infantry in the military. The army branch fights on foot and is prepared to fight, engage, as well as defeat the opponents in a face-to-face combat. These individuals bear the brunt of the battle and in most cases suffer the greatest in terms of casualties. In today's army, they are the backbone and continually undergo physical training that is psychologically demanding and stressful. It emphasizes teamwork mainly in the deployment of sustained aggression. The role of the infantry in both periods is to engage and kill the enemies at close range

In the Napoleonic era, the troop movements had extreme speed. Napoleon maintained speed on the marches, strikes, and movements of his army. A number of factors contributed to the Napoleon's flexible movements as the division of the army into independent bodies and avoidance of lengthy supply lines

. Napoleon's army instead acquired food from the surrounding environment by either paying friendly countries for food or foraging. Most cases his enemies were unsettled and confused as he intricately coordinated attacks on profound scales. In today's warfare period, time management and speed are used as tactics for overcoming the enemies. They insist on speed and minimize time wastage. The rate is extremely high mainly due to technological advancement and advanced information technology

In conclusion, it is evident that the tactics and strategies used during the Napoleonic era have developed over the years as individuals adopt the use of technology. There has been increased innovation in weapons. In the Napoleonic era they used Musket Model guns, the soldiers in the Napoleonic era used other weapons such as pikes, swords, melee combat and bayonets while in today's warfare, they use nuclear weapons and satellites. The current warfare tactics adopted by many countries wielding strong military power have relations to those of the Napoleonic Era. Its influence cannot be underestimated because it established a… [read more]


Advertising Old Navy Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

" The videos will be distributed on YouTube and Facebook, while print ads will run in publications including Maxim. Mobile elements will include a game, style-finder, video gallery, store locator and coupons. A third video shilling "Jack Ash" leisurewear hasn't been completed but could launch this fall.

By poking fun at these characters Old Navy can promote their more mainstream appeal to reach their target demographic.

Despite the particulars of the current campaign, one of the interesting aspects in reaching this demographic is the delivery platform. The 79 million Millennials in the U.S. have an estimated purchasing power of $170 billion dollars per year, making them a highly attractive segment for brands to target, according to comScore vice president Bert Miklosi (TechJournal, 2014). However, to reach this demographic it takes a new generation of skills. This demographic is known for their ability to use any form of technology to find media, the seek constant stimulation, and they are prone to multitasking. Therefore, grabbing their attention is not something that can be easily designed. It is recommended that the Old Navy campaign markets their new campaign via smartphone devices. There are a range of different options for smartphone applications. One popular option is through apps such as Pandora in which many users listen to free radio type features in exchange for random ads. Old Navy would be well suited to pursue an option like this to meet their target market.

Works Cited

Advertising Age. (2011, June 8). Behind the Campaign: Old Navy Goes After Men in New Ad Push. Retrieved from Adage: http://adage.com/article/news/navy-targets-campaign-men/228051/

Elliot, S. (2011, February 17). Old Navy Replaces Mannequins With Music. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/old-navy-replaces-mannequins-with-music/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0

TechJournal. (2014, January 24). Digital marketing works better for Millennials than TV. Retrieved from TechJournal: http://www.techjournal.org/2012/01/digital-marketing-works-better-for-millennials-than-tv/… [read more]


Rules of Engagement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

ABSTRACT

This document analyzes the present controversy regarding the implementation of Rules of Engagement (ROE) for American military personnel overseas. The employment of ROE in Afghanistan serves as a case study for a policy that is becoming increasingly problematic and hazardous to U.S. troops in this part of the world. Salient factors related to this issue include the propensity for manipulating ROE to serve the political objectives of bureaucratic forces in Washington, D.C., and the fallacious facilitation of ROE as a strategy for war. Ultimately, it appears as though ROE in this case study is presenting a conflict of interest to soldiers which results in a reduction in their efficacy in the field for the sake of America's political image. The author believes this fact should be changed.… [read more]


Rules of Engagement in Warfare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

6). Our politicians may be promising outcomes to the American people they cannot deliver, largely because legislators typically have no military experenience. When bureaucrats establish ROE, they often create rules that unintentionally hamper the American soldier who is fully engaged with dangerous enemies. Some of these rules are detrimental to the American soldier and American lives are often lost because of ROE. Politicians sometimes focus so much on winning the heart and minds of occupied populations that war-fighters' lives are jeopardized, sometimes by the very people politicians hope to placate.

Michael Jenkins is a decorated combat veteran who has received the Department of the Army's highest award for his service. According to Jenkins (2013) "the Rules of Engagement in Afghanistan created an unwanted psychology in our soldiers (and) the fear of retribution and the fear of being court-martialed pre-destined the forces to lose against the nation's enemies." Jenkins understands what the ROE dilemma and how ROE-manipulation generates more of a hindrance than a help to the soldier in the field: "the ROE have become an enemy, soldiers are afraid to take risks" (Jenkins, 2013).

It can be argued that soldiers, under the duress of combat, need the ability to react in sometimes unstructured manners; they need authority and autonomy to take certain risks without fear of reprisal or retribution from superiors. At a minimum, they should have the right to protect themselves from direct threats to their lives instead of being burdened with guidelines that "can be entangled with political agendas and philosophies" (Vallely, 2013, para 3).

According to Zinke (2014), the ROE in Afghanistan seem to be making "Afghan dwellings virtual safe… [read more]


Intelligence Failures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  22 pages (6,133 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The Central Intelligence Agency was created in the wake of WWII and saw a further diffusion of power within the intelligence community itself. This agency made its bones as a force behind the cold war and was central in the conducting of those operations. The CIA consistently overestimated future Soviet nuclear capabilities with far reaching political consequences. It is now… [read more]


Jomini and Clausewitz Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,538 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

This reinforced the notion that war truly can be considered an art form, which is open to a number of interpretations and actions.

Specifically Jomini and Clausewitz complement each other when it comes to diplomatic relations. For Clausewitz, diplomacy is at the heart of all military operations, including not only leadership support, but also support from the public. It is only with public support that military morale can be maintained. With leadership support, the practical aspects of warfare can be sufficiently funded. These types of support then work in tandem to assure a high morale and higher possibility of victory for the military force. Although Jomini considers diplomacy as one of the final steps towards victory, which implies a linear process, it is nonetheless an important component. Indeed, the author himself acknowledges that allied forces are an important component in the war effort, showing that the linear process, even for Jomini, can at times be modified to become more integrated.

The conclusion is therefore that, although the two authors generally follow divergent ideas and strategies for integrating war and its efforts, they do complement each other in terms of theory and specific practical applications. As such, the theorists' work can usefully be applied together in order to help military strategists achieve an optimal sense of prowess and secure victory.

References

Baron De Jomini, Antoine Henri. 1862. The Art of War. J.B. Lippincott…… [read more]


War Has Undoubtedly Shaped Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (5,137 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 25

SAMPLE TEXT:

Vietnam emerged from the war as a potent military power within Southeast Asia, but its agriculture, business, and industry were disrupted, large parts of its countryside were scarred by bombs and defoliation and laced with land mines, and its cities and towns were heavily damaged. A mass exodus in 1975 of people loyal to the South Vietnamese cause was followed… [read more]


African-Americans in the U.S. Armed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,268 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. War efforts in virtually every major military campaign in which this country embarked upon, and despite the fundamental contributions to labor that African-Americans had made to the establishment of the U.S., and despite the fact that slavery was now outlawed, the sentiments of prejudice and bigotry that had manifested itself in the most dangerous period for African-Americans the epoch… [read more]


Intelligence Community the History Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11

SAMPLE TEXT:

Intelligence Community

The history of deception and intelligence is deeply seated within the American way of life and the roots of democracy. The creation of the republic which began with a declaration of independence from a tyrant monarch gave birth to the institution that is protected by intelligence gathering techniques and operations.

Since that time, enemies of the state have… [read more]


Training Most Important Area Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Their perspective is practical and strategic and goal-focused and they are able to deal with the moral uncertainties of the moment-by-moment choices posed by combat. [4: Tony Pfaff, "Resolving ethical challenges in an era of persistent conflict," SSI Studies, 2003:3:5]

Training soldiers to be resilient means fostering this already-existing capacity in some troops and providing opportunities for personal growth in this area for other soldiers. By doing so, the military can substantially decrease the likelihood of troops developing PTSD. Perhaps the most obvious way to foster hardiness is through preparedness exercises that simulate the actual environments in which troops will find themselves. By experimenting with 'as if' situations, soldiers are able to better prepare for 'as is' situations. While the pretend scenario is never the same as the reality, repetition can be a valuable teaching tool. However, this is not the same as the old-fashioned idea that a solider must be broken down mentally to serve with distinction. Rather, talking about potential scenarios can also reduce the mental anxiety of uncertainty and encourages the development of confidence in his or her capacity to make choices. "It can be hard for soldiers to quickly shift to different rules of engagement (Do I knock on the door, or kick it down?)."[footnoteRef:5] [5: Bartone, Barry, & Armstrong, 2009: 2]

Leaders must also use their modeling and mentorship skills to illustrate cognitive strategies that reinforce this need for resilience and hardiness: "Especially as regards stressful and ambiguous events, military leaders can apply hardiness qualities to facilitate generalized positive interpretations or 'sense-making' among unit members. Leaders do this through actions, policies, and personal example, and in this way they increase stress resilience throughout the organization."[footnoteRef:6] Even when facing a setback, a resilient leader is able to dig deep and find a way to give the situation a positive 'spin,' such as honoring the efforts of soldiers in the face of great odds. [6: Paul T. Bartone, "Chapter 6: New Wine in Old Bottles: Leadership and Personality in the Military Organization," 1]

It is also important to remember that the stressors of military life alone are not limited to actual combat-related activity and violence. Sometimes isolation, inaction, and the anticipation of future threats can be equally stressful on a day-to-day basis vs. actual critical incidents. Rote marching, patrolling, and engaging in monitoring of the ground of civilian activities can lead troops to engage in daydreaming of home or to engage in unproductive 'what if' thinking. Offering troops productive mental coping mechanisms to cope with boredom is essential, whether through 'fun' activities whenever possible such as exercise or friendly sports competition, or when movement is restricted through at very minimum as reasonable a 'balanced' workload as possible for soldiers. [footnoteRef:7] Pushing troops constantly to the breaking point on every level can wear down and compromise the resiliency of even the best soldiers. [7: Bartone, Barry, Armstrong, 2009: 3]

It should be noted that such mental strength does not mean intransigence, and leaders must still be flexible when… [read more]


General George S. Patton Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (982 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

During the First World War in 1917, General George Smith Patton became the first officer to be allotted to the U.S. Tank Corps until 1920 when the Corps was abolished. He not only total command of the Corps but also developed concepts, guided processes, and even influence the design of their uniforms. After achieving victory with his troops in the Battle of Cambrai in France, Patton established himself as one of the major tank warfare experts. He brilliantly maneuvered approximately 350 tanks and took a bullet in the leg during this battle through which he received the Distinguished Service Cross for heroism. This was one of the medals he collected during his lifetime in military service.

The peak of General George S. Patton military career occurred during World War II when he used defense techniques and audacious assault to lead the 7th American army to victory at the Sicilian invasion in 1943. He was then granted command of the 3rd United States Army by President Eisenhower in 1944, which swept across France by capturing every town. One year later, Patton led his army to cross the Rhine and entered into the heart of Germany where they captured 10,000 miles within 10 days. This was a major breakthrough in capturing an enemy's territory and releasing Germany from the Nazi's. Patton's success in liberating Germany by the end of the Second World War was followed by assuming command of the 15th Army in the American-occupied Germany.

Patton's Death and Legacy:

General George S. Patton died 12 days while receiving treatment in a hospital after sustaining injuries from an automobile accident where he broke his neck. He was later buried among the soldiers who lost their lives in Luxembourg's Battle of the Bulge.

Patton's memoir was published in 1970 and is considered as one of the most brilliant and sophisticated army commanders in the United States. He is remembered for his great soldierly qualities that were accompanied by the most colorful personalities ("Patton's Career A Brilliant One," 2010). In addition to being an expert of unprintable brand of eloquence, Patton sometimes created phrases that will forever remain in the traditions of the United States Army.

In conclusion, General George Smith Patton is arguably one of the most brilliant and successful soldiers in the United States army. Patton's success and brilliance is not only attributed to his military tactics but also attributed to the great victories he achieved in battles in North Africa, the Western Front, and Sicily. According to reports by Nazi generals, General Patton was the most feared of all United States field commanders.

Bibliography:

Bio: True Story. "George Patton Biography." A+E Television Networks, LLC, September 21,

2013, http://www.biography.com/people/george-patton-9434904

On This Day. "Patton's Career A Brilliant One." The New York Times Company, September 21,

2013, http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1111.html

The Official Website of General George S. Patton, JR. "Biography." The Official Website of General George S. Patton, JR.,…… [read more]


Civilian &amp Military Leaders Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (746 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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[2: Foster, 93]

To gain such support requires a clear goal in mind, one which is strategically or morally meaningful enough to justify risking American lives. It also requires a proportional use of force: the likely gains should be in proportion to the level of risk assumed. This requires members of the civilian government to clearly establish policies for the undertaking and to communicate objectives to the American public; it requires civilian leaders to understand the full, present capabilities of the military in a realistic fashion. Ideally, there should be seamless continuity between policy and action. If secrecy is required in some facets of a military action, it should be supported by generally-accepted ethical principles, not as a cover-up of incompetence or because the original intention of the mission had gotten wildly out-of-hand.

America remains faced with a threat which will not go away. "We are confronted by an enemy who would replace secular governments with theocratic regimes hostile to our national interests and values."[footnoteRef:3] To fight such an enemy requires intensive intelligence-gathering as well as a military which is securely funded and supported by the public. But to win that support means that the values of America must still be upheld, and that includes an open dialogue between citizens and their leaders whom they elect and who govern the policies that will eventually be pursued by the military. The military has the primary role of ensuring that the U.S. is victorious, but civilian leaders often have a greater role in determining what that victory should resemble and hold the purse strings when it comes to allocating the resources needed to attain that goal. Rather than despairing of their inability of civilian leaders and the public to understand, the military must learn to work with representatives of civil authority in an effective fashion. [3: Jeffrey D. McCausland, "Developing strategic leaders for the 21st century, SSI, 2008, xii]

Bibliography

Foster, Gregory. "Civil-Military Relations: The Postmodern Democratic Challenge, World

Affairs; winter 2005; 167(3): 91

McCausland, Jeffrey D. "Developing…… [read more]


Leadership Different for Joint Operations? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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However, regardless of such concerns, international joint missions are likely to increase rather than decrease in the future. Possessing diverse capabilities and the ability to integrate those capabilities are vital. "Urban environments and other complex terrain will increasingly characterize areas of operation that may include both humanitarian crisis conditions and combat operations."[footnoteRef:4] Often, partner nations may have greater knowledge of the geography and politics of the region. [3: Richard Myers, "Capstone concept for joint operations," U.S. Department of Defense, 2005, available http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/dod/ccjov2.pdf (3 Sept 2013)] [4: Myers, 5]

Even within the U.S. military, there have been philosophical conflicts when different branches have had to engage in an integrated mission. For example, in the effort in Somalia, the effort to bring peace and stability in the form of the United Task Force (UNITAF) Somalia brought together both the capabilities of the Marines and the Army (ARFOR). It was discovered that while "division staffs tend to focus on tactics…an ARFOR must have an operational perspective; divisions do not usually become involved in relationships with commands and organizations at echelons above corps and are not adept at them. For an ARFOR, interaction at these echelons is routine and vital." [footnoteRef:5] Even different components of a single, national military have clashing organizational cultures and assumptions which can only intensify when militaries combining soldiers of different nationalities and places of origins combine. This is not to make excuses for failure: rather it means that soldiers must prepare for an inevitable transition period and leaders must be able to adapt their strategy to the needs of the holistic effort, rather than applying a template of command in a cookie-cutter fashion. [5: David Johnson, "Preparing potential senior Army leaders for the future," RAND, September 2002, 8 ]

Bibliography

Fielder, Dave "Defining command, leadership, and management success factors within operations." PKSOI Factors. June 2011

Johnson, David. "Preparing potential senior Army leaders for the future." RAND, September

2002

Myers, Richard. "Capstone concept for joint operations." U.S. Department of Defense, 2005.

Available http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/dod/ccjov2.pdf (3 Sept 2013)… [read more]


Vietnam -- Rules of Engagement Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Of the Army generals who served in Vietnam, "Nearly a third stated that [search and destroy] was 'not sound'… and 51% thought it 'left something to be desired'" (Wiest, 2007). Westmoreland predicted that the enemy would "…run out of men" -- as a way of justifying search and destroy and the rules of engagement he followed were failures because the terrain "…favored" the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong (Wiest).

Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara

The rules of engagement for pilots flying attack missions over North Vietnam "…were created by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara"; in 1965 surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites were "off-limits" according to McNamara's ROEs (Santoli, 2011). "We watched them being built and become operational, but were not permitted by [McNamara] to take them out…it was ludicrous" (Santoli). But after a SAM shot down an RF-4 Air Force plane, McNamara authorized air strikes on those missile sites (Santoli). The mission "…was just stupid…it causes troops in the field to lose confidence in their military leadership" (Santoli).

President Lyndon Johnson

President Johnson's biggest worry didn't seem to be about winning the war, it was fear that if he changed the ROEs and allowed the bombing of Hanoi and, the bombing of the harbor at Haiphong, the Chinese might get involved because those targets were just south of the Chinese border. The "political meddling" by Johnson "handicapped U.S. military effectiveness," James Forest explains. American military veterans recall "with disgust" that Johnson's rules of engagement imposed "limits on the numbers of sorties" over the north, which "ultimately lost the war despite overwhelming U.S. military superiority" (Forest, 2011).

Johnson met weekly for lunch with McNamara, advisor McGeorge Bundy, and others and basically decided which targets were acceptable under Johnson's evolving and changing rules of engagement. Johnson's target decisions were "…relayed from Johnson through Secretary McNamara" to Westmorland and on to his commanders. But Air Force and Navy brass "…chafed at [Johnson's] rules of engagement" because it made their attacks "…predictable and easy to counter" as the North Vietnamese moved assets; Johnson was going on old intelligence, which "…endangered U.S. airmen" (Head, 2011).

In conclusion, it is clear from the history that the U.S. lost the War in Vietnam largely due to the limited and often wrong-headed rules of engagement that the politicians in Washington handed down to the men fighting in the jungles of Vietnam. Those ROEs were not always followed, of course, but when a ROE was ignored by an officer, that individual could well lose his standing and be dismissed.

Works Cited

Birtle, A.J., U.S. Congress, Armed Services Committee, and Center of Military History.

U.S. Army counterinsurgency and contingency operations doctrine, 1942-1976.

Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Dranke, R.J. (1992). The Rules of Defeat: The Impact of Aerial Rules of Engagement on USAF Operations in North Vietnam, 1965-1968. School of Advanced Airpower Studies.

Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: U.S. Air Force.

Forest, J.J. (2007). Countering Terrorism and Insurgency in the 21st Century: Strategic and Tactical Considerations. ISBN: 0275990346, 9780275990343.

Head, W.P.… [read more]


Managing Recruitment Performance and Development Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 5

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Managing Recruitment, Performance, And Development

American Army: Recruitment, compensation, management, performance and development

Army functions as the land-based branch of the U.S. armed force. It is the biggest and earliest developed branch of 7 U.S. uniformed services. The Army reports to the Division of Defense and is comprised of 3 elements: the active element, the conventional army; and 2 reserve… [read more]


Interview Study Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,991 words)
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Transcript Analysis

Phenomenology Approach

Phenomenological approach focuses on the description of what people experience. This analysis should also focus on explaining the concept of the interaction of individuals or participants with the experience they have for the execution of the interview (Pringle et al., 2011). Phenomenological analysis is also essential in elucidating the importance of using methods to capture the… [read more]


Defense Strategy Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1

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Defence Strategy

Defense Strategy

Reading the tea leaves on Obama's new military strategy

The new military strategy unveiled by the U.S. president Obama attracts a number of criticisms. The strategy is a lucrative undertaking that brings to the people a vivid demonstration of how the U.S. has been successful in maintaining peace and stability from every external attack. Numerous attacks have been directed at the U.S. presidential dominance and military activities. The U.S. is one of the states that have existed amidst a number of military combats. The unveiling of a strategy by the president comes at a time when there are numerous problems probed in the military system. Therefore, the article on "Reading the Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy" is subject to a number of criticisms and undoing.

There are several mistakes committed by the Government Accountability Office in the United States of America. With this regard, it is not a vivid time to unveil a new military strategy since everything happening inside and outside the U.S. are intense threats and probable attacks from the enemies. The death of Osama Bin Laden has been taken as one of the breakthroughs by the U.S. military system. Nonetheless, more has not been done to achieve the central peace that ensures the country together with its citizens have been saved from external and internal threats. Retaliations are possible from the defeated bodies. It becomes easy for the state to be subjected to military action without having to consider what best suits its peace and harmony from the internal and external enemies.

The most critical undertaking that is supposed to be emphasized by the military strategy is the trend at which the enemies report insecurity from the technological applications. For instance, the strategy has less to impact on cyber security. There are several cases of hostile intrusion and cyber attacks in the country. Intrusion is happening into the government and federal security system. The strategy is bleak into handling this matter with respective advances. In many cases, the U.S. has not eradicated attacks since they have shifted their mechanisms and approaches. For instance, the war has turned into a cold affair. It has taken technological pathways. According to the strategy, the country is yet to have installed cyber apartments and security personnel. The act to oversee this activity is still way off. Though the nation has done well in achieving some of the proposals and acts against terrorism and establishing measures of security and remedy measures, the entire act on insecurity through cyber crimes has not been implemented fully.

From the article, the country is set to shift its relations with Europe. Moreover, the president has suggested the need for the U.S. To evolve its old continent: this is yet to be realized by the state. However, the reduction of troops in Europe and other parts of the hotspots of war is a general threat to the existence of peace in the United States of America. As part of shielding Europe… [read more]


Civil War Essay

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The North had better railroad systems (twice as many tracks as the South). The authors suggest the South's railroad situation was bleak, and by 1864 "…had almost collapsed" (377). The North had the advantage of 186,000 African-Americans who fought against the South. The industrialization of the North was beefed up in great amounts during the war. The North financed the war largely on citizens buying government bonds.

Southern currency was just paper money causing "disastrous inflation" (388) and the South faced "massive shortages of almost everything" (food riots broke out in the South because males went off to war leaving ineffective plantations -- run by slaves and women). Unlike the south, the North had an effective navy that transported supplies effectively; and while the South thought England and France would intervene on its behalf (because of Europe's need for cotton) that never transpired, which played into the hands of the North.

Southern Advantages: The North had to pretty much take the fight to the South, and hence Southern armies were for the most part fighting on their own land; hence, they had a lot of support from home folks and had familiarity with the lay of the land as well. The populations in the South were of course hostile to Northern soldiers, which was an advantage to the South. Further, the authors suggest Southerners were far more firmly committed to their beliefs (in slavery and state's right) than the North (there were divisions within the Northern population about the need to go to war). Also, the North had trouble getting enough soldiers to volunteer to fight, so a draft law was enacted (and was resisted widely; riots broke out) and in fact there was great dissention in the North towards the idea of a Civil War but the South was more unified. The South had more experienced military leaders than the North.

Why did the North win the Civil War? Strategy made all the difference for the North; along with more troops and far deeper resources the North outlasted and out-fought the South. The North managed to control the Mississippi River, blocking any Confederate trade or troop movement. Ulysses Grant's forces controlled Kentucky and half of Tennessee, and gradually the North pushed deeper into the South and the Confederates were unable to contain that movement. Also, speaking of better strategies, Grant (at Gettysburg and elsewhere) was "…not afraid to absorb massive casualties as long as he was inflicting similar casualties on his opponents" (404). When Sherman marched from Atlanta to the sea, cutting a "sixty-mile wide swath of desolation across Georgia," and when Grant cut off all rail access for Lee…… [read more]


Media With the Military Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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This may motivate or influence some viewers to join the military or support the decision of a family member, friend, colleague, etc., to join the military and provide service for his/her country. Certainly there will be some viewers who will object to the imagery and the operations. They may be motivated to speak out against the military and military actions. They may furthermore take action such as grassroots organizing and social activism. This is the same risk that the military has faced since the days of the Vietnam broadcasts. Though there is no absolute control over every broadcast, the military reserves the right to exert editorial power to preserve operational secrecy and to maintain the public image of the military.

The cons for the media include direct contact with potentially fatal danger. A war zone is not a safe place. Film and television equipment can be bulky and fragile. There is moderate to exceptional risk to their bodies and to their equipment. Therefore, there is substantial chance that the footage could not make it back to the country of broadcast due to damage suffered personally or technically. Journalists abroad in war zones do not also receive the best treatment. They often suffer forms of harassment from the military they accompany as well as from the military and citizens from the opposing side. On the other hand, there is a good chance that there are people from the opposing side that welcome the press and the coverage so that the greater world can see their experience and situation. There may be some messages that people from the opposing side want desperately to communicate to viewers at home of the opposing side. Going into a war zone for a journalist or media professional, in many cases, is a type of premium merit badge of the industry. For example, a large group of the most famous journalists and news media professionals in the United States of America have provided coverage in war zones, such as Tom Brokaw and Peter Jennings. Thus a pro-for journalists who provide battle coverage will likely prosper in the industry upon their return.

References:

Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2012). Press Freedom vs. Military Censorship. Web, Available from: http://www.crf-usa.org/america-responds-to-terrorism/press-freedom-versus-military-censorship.html. 2012 November 09.

Ricchiardi, S. (2006). Dangerous Assignment. American Journalism Review, Web, Available from: http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4003. 2012 November 10.… [read more]


Ethics in Anthropology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (640 words)
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The attempts to westernize these states provide an opportunity for anthropologist to step in and suggest how the aims of the conflict can be met without creating western type democracies in these states. There is a clear distinction between winning a war and change the people of the country.

The argument of do no harm fails to accept that the very presence of troops in the country is harm. It is no longer possible to not do any harm as a nation. However, it may be a gross dereliction of duty if as scientists; anthropologists fail to assist in reducing the possible harm. This element appears to be lost in the debate. Whether anthropologists provide the military with intelligence or not, the military will act. The main question is how to reduce harm; since harm will come. Anthropologist can play a pivotal role in reducing cultural harm and shaping the image other nations have of American action and military behavior.

Additionally, the work of anthropologists allows for the formation of lasting community ties as well as the discovery of knowledge previously unknown. This new knowledge can be a vital step in reducing the prejudice that exists between the warring groups and begin the process toward peace. While the anthropologist may not be able to prevent the war their work can promote cultural understanding and ultimately move the discussion toward peace. This is important because the military has a focus on the quantitative elements of the war but the anthropologist provides the qualitative assessment that is needed to save lives. Anthropologists are able to add meaning and understanding to the militaries action this will reduce casualties on both sides of the divide. The more ethical action may in fact be to do the least harm.… [read more]


Aviation Brigadier General William Billy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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It was probably a point of pride to Mitchell that he was even vilified by three separate presidents.

Fall from Grace

The main issue that General Mitchell had throughout his military career was that he did not know how to use tact when talking to his superior officers. He foresaw the efficacy of powered aircraft as an indispensable military weapon, but he was not able to give evidence of this to his superiors without alienating many of them. The proverbial "last straw" was placed when a naval airship was destroyed n a storm and one of his best friends, acting as commander, was killed. Hickman (2012) related that

"following the loss of the U.S. Navy airship USS Shenandoah, Mitchell issued a statement accusing the military's senior leadership of "almost treasonable administration of the national defense" and incompetence. As a result of these statements, he was brought up on court-martial charges for insubordination at the direction of President Calvin Coolidge."

This court martial was national news and lasted for several weeks at the end of which Mitchell was found guilty and resigned his commission. One of the court martial judges, Mitchell's boyhood friend General Douglas McArthur, wrote afterward "that he was wrong in the violence of his language is self-evident; that he was right in his thesis is equally true and incontrovertible (Sterner, 2008).

Lasting Effects

The greatest achievement that Billy Mitchell had was the formation of a separate U.S. Air Force more than a decade after his death. He had predicted that Japan would bomb Pearl Harbor more than a decade before it happened, he had tirelessly tried to bring the military into the twentieth century, and he was roundly vilified for all of his efforts. The top brass and civilian military secretaries hated him because of his brash language, but he was proved right in so many ways after his death. That the Air Force is vital on the battlefield cannot be denied. Brigadier General Billy Mitchell has become one of the most revered figures in U.S. aviation history because he was such a staunch advocate for military air power. He may have been wrong in his approach to his superiors, but he was correct in his stance.

Reason for Choosing

That Billy Mitchell is a hero of aviation cannot be denied. It is impossible to look at current conflicts around the globe and imagine U.S. involvement without air power. In the first Gulf War, Navy and Air Force fighter pilots flew thousands of missions from aircraft carriers and numerous airbases that protected ground forces and assured their success. After that war, a no fly zone was established so that the defeated Iraqi Army would stay that way. During World War II, the Army Air Corps dropped thousands of paratroops behind German enemy lines prior to D-Day who were instrumental in securing the battlefield for Allied troops and ensuring the success of the venture. Again, it is impossible to imagine modern warfare without air power.

However, this is not… [read more]


DOS Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,100 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Strategy and Tactics

Warfare and military planning in the late 20th and early 21st centuries is quite different than ever before. There has been a clear shift in thought about warfare, and what it takes to triumph not only on, but off the battlefield. Instead of conflict focusing on industrial war, politicians move in a focus it as war among the people -- a shift in which the outcome of any conflict cannot be resolved solely through military expertise. The 20th century is not really an anomaly in the number and robustness of conflict; each century has its warfare, revolutions, civil wars, and internal strife. What makes the 20th century unique, though, it that modern technology, for the first time ever, was able to kill and maim at a level unprecedented in history? In fact, at the end of World War II and the succeeding years of the Cold War, technology was finally able to do the unthinkable -- destroy the entire planet and all of human civilization with by pressing a few buttons (Smith, 2007).

This is the real challenge for modern military planners -- there is no real map of the way the post-Cold War World works since "today we have a world in which sophisticated weapons, information technology, and global communications are available on the open market," as opposed to richer, more developed nations being the only ones who could afford such power (Rife, 1998). Taking a clue from the 1992 book Men are from Marx, Women are from Venus, in which relationship counsel John Gray asserted that most problems in relationships arise because of the fundamental difference in gender, Colonel Rickey Rife of the Army War College proposes that the post-Cold War world is so ambiguous that foreign policy leadership almost speaks a different language than defense experts. They may have the same overall goal, but diplomacy (State) and defense (Military) have merged together to form an uneasy partnership that often seems to work at opposite ends of the spectrum.

One very standard definition of war states that it is a quarrel between nations conducted by force -- when two groups are unable to communicate reasonably and meaningfully or when a group's nature is collectively aggressive (Somerville, 1975, p. 199). In the modern era, the economic, cultural and political structure of the world has changed and with it the nature of war has become ill-defined and rather murky. Violence from terrorist or fringe groups without a clear political agenda, conflicts that cause, above all, humanitarian issues, and simply groups that have no interest in utilizing diplomacy make statecraft almost impossible, yet without statecraft in the modern age, the military is rather hobbled (Watkins, 2009).

Certainly, if there is but one thing that many of the events of the early 21st century taught us, it is that cross-communication and the ability to functionalize one goal is vital. 9/11, terrorist attacks, even Hurricane Katrina all pointed to the need for a "successful, long-term 'relationship' [that] requires a thorough… [read more]


U.S. Intelligence Strategy History Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 5

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One of the most important aspects of this was that intelligence collaboration was finding its start during this time. At this time, during 1942, Army staff were cut back by the hief of Staff General Georg C. Marshall, and the operations in the War Department Operations Division were also centralaized. Duties that were historically handled by administartive personnel were now… [read more]


Japanese-Americans in the West Coast Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
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The Communist China's influence in North Vietnam and North Vietnam desire to exert its totalitarian form of government on the South, that had a legitimate government, had to be checked. Kings subscribes to Christian ideals which advocates for freedom of all men.

North Vietnam definitely had no regards for the southerner's individual rights. It was therefore America's moral responsibility to protect the freedoms of the citizens of South Vietnam. As a matter of fact, America being a signatory of SEATO was obliged to defend any form of external attack on the organization members. Responding to treaty obligation did not in anyway make America a cruel manipulator of the poor. These two subjects are parallel and have no point of convergence. Were it not for Lyndon Johnson, some of the civil rights liberties currently enjoyed by the American citizenry would still be a mirage away.

Case III

Dr Cornel West analysis of King's legacy and Obama administration is spot on. However, he was wrong by asserting that one can only love others if he loves his own family, neighborhood, and synagogue. This is not absolutely true as one can even love total strangers. His assertion that Obama administration bailed out companies that were "too big to fall" is misleading. I wonder the kind of company that can be too big to fall. Who thought AIG and General Motors could be caught in the cross-fires of economic meltdown. You can imagine how failure of such companies would impact American people. I disagree with West sentiments that president Obama has done little for African-Americans. Obama is the President of the United States of America not the president of African-American. Problems that are unique to African-Americans can be resolved in myriad platforms. However, issues dealing with equal opportunity that the blacks are denied, can be addressed…… [read more]


War Why a Military Presence in Afghanistan Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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War

Why a military presence in Afghanistan will fuel conflict and turmoil within the country

Why the people of Afghanistan will be better served with a military presence within the country

Concluding Remarks

The war in Afghanistan has been a contentious issue for both developed nations and those around the world. The middle east, and in particular, Afghanistan, has had a profound impact on global prosperity and the resultant quality of life for all stakeholders involved. As such, this conflict has major implications for developed countries. Currently many individuals within Europe and American want their respective troops out of Afghanistan. A survey of over 1000 individuals showed that nearly 68% thought that troops should be removed from the territory (BBC news, 2008). I believe these 68% of individuals to be correct. However, the war on terror does have its merits. Although, some form of presence is needed, I believe having military present on foreign soil can do both harm and good to all countries involves.

First, it is in my contention that a foreign military presence in Afghanistan only exacerbates the overall conflict within the country. I think it would be possible to have a presence within the country without having to have the military directly involved in the overall situation. Some military would be needed for security purposes of individual personnel who are very important to their respective countries, but nowhere the extent that we currently see. I believe this middle ground approach is warranted as it is a compromise to both arguments for and against foreign presence in Afghan. A military presence is perceived to be forceful method of negotiation. Force, in many respects is not a respectable and long-term solution to problems for many reasons. One, it does not attempt to have sympathy or apathy for the opponent viewpoint. It instead shuns their views in favor of ones own. This creates an aura of supremacy, which is not accepted well by Afghanistan or any negotiation partner. America, Europe and other developed nations are essentially saying, "Solve your problems the way we solve ours, or else you will be punished with force." Short-term, this method will indeed work as nations will be forced to bow to the ultimate military prowess of the developed nations. However, only resentment will arise in the long-term, which ultimately will breed animosity on the part of the Afghan people. Furthermore, military unrest breeds casualties. Many of these casualties will be of the innocent variety. Many innocent Afghan people will ultimately lose their lives over this military presence in the Middle East. If an innocent American or European is…… [read more]


How Leaders Inspire Soldiers Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (987 words)
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¶ … Leaders Inspire Soldiers

Over the last several years, the issue of effective military leadership has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a transformation in the way technology and battlefield tactics are being utilized. For most soldiers, these changes have meant that they will use different tools in conducting modern warfare. As a result, some commanders believe that there has been a shift in the kinds of tools and tactics that are utilized to inspire others. To fully understand the best leadership attributes requires examining those techniques that are most effective. This will help everyone to comprehend what tools must be used to inspire their soldiers. (Laver, 2008, pp. 1 -- 9)

The Best Leadership Attributes

According to Harvey (2008), there are several attributes that are most commonly embraced among all great military leaders to include:

Courage under fire.

The ability to think calmly and rationally on the battlefield.

Determination.

Stamina.

Resolution during times of challenge.

Seizes opportunities.

Improvement.

The use of diplomacy.

Focused on raising morale.

A strong devotion to their own men.

These areas are illustrating how all leaders will embrace many common attributes in conjunction with one another. This is regardless of the changes in technology or battlefield strategies. These ideas will help all military commanders to effectively inspire their soldiers. (Harvey, 2008)

A good example of this can be seen with Irwin Rommel. Here is an individual, who was able to inspire true passion within his soldiers. The way that this occurred, was through willingness to: lead by example, strong determination, having a sense of charisma and he seized upon his opportunities. The combination of these factors helped Rommel to create military victories, in situations where he was outnumbered and outgunned. During the early part of World War II, this was the basic approach that he used as a part of the blitzkrieg (in France and North Africa). These events helped to instill confidence in his men. As a result, this is illustrating how these basic characteristics are what helped to make Rommel such a successful leader. (Harvey, 2008)

Moreover, there are other military commanders who used similar tactics to inspire their soldiers. One the better examples can be seen with General Norman Schwarzkopf. He was the U.S. commander during the 1991 Gulf War with Iraq. At the time, there were considerable amounts of concern surrounding the operation. This is because, most American forces were inexperienced in fighting heavy amounts of combat. While the Republican Guard of Iraq, fought numerous bloody battles against the Iranians during the 1980s. This sparked concerns that America was an aging power, which was very weak militarily. (Hughes, 2002) (Tucker, 2010, pp. 1081 -- 1082)

During the buildup, Schwarzkopf promised that the total number of casualties would be minimized through a new kind of strategy. This is because he had seen the problems associated with: inept commanders and unresponsive officials (from his time as a platoon leader…… [read more]


Leadership of Wellington the British Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,031 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Wellesley surveyed the surrounding ground and used it to his army's advantage. He understood that he had finer, higher ground from which to ford the river and begin his attack, and he was able to use his better ground to direct his troops and cavalry against the enemy flanks. As the Maratha forces were able to counter Wellesley's moves with "European efficiency," the future duke was able to recognize his opponent's skill and intention and react accordingly, and thus he was able to protect his own flanks while destroying those of his opponent's. (Cavendish). At Assay, we also see the eventual Duke of Wellington adhere to Harvey's ninth trait -- that of a "penchant for fighting against superior odds that could catch a complacent enemy unawares" (Harvey, p xlvi). In this battle according to Harvey's numbers, Wellesley's force numbered roughly twenty-four thousand infantry and cavalry to the Maratha's forces approximately two-hundred thousand infantry and cavalry (Harvey, p. 194). Even though the British and their allies were greatly outnumbered, the superior skill of Wellesley's leadership allowed the British army not only to array well against greatly increased numerical odds, but to prevail in an absolute victory against those odds as well.

The last part of Harvey's list contain those traits that really could not be evident in a maverick commander at the beginning of his career (though Wellesley did satisfy the "high intelligence" trait). These traits, though there, could not be developed without age or experience; but nevertheless, they can be seen in a young commander. For example, Harvey tells us that excellent field commanders have a "fatherly devotion" to their own men and that they have great interest in "improving morale" of their troops, and we can glean Wellesley's feelings by his reaction to not only Assay, but also to other battles in the Indian Campaigns (Harvey, p xlvi). We learn in Maverick that Wellesley was "horrified" after surveying the carnage after the fall of Srirangapatna, and by his comments toward the end of his life where he not only allowed that Assay was his greatest battlefield victory, but that he was torn by the great cost in lives to his troops (Cavendish).

The above discusses only in part Wellesley's adherence to Harvey's schema, and it would take discussing the rest of the Duke's military career to see how he fits the remaining traits found in most maverick commanders. But with what we do see at Assay, we find that Wellesley did not attain his command because he was the "mere brother" of India's Governor-General, but because for whatever reason, be it his nature, experience and education or a combination of some or the three, he had those characteristics and qualities that define truly effective and victorious battlefield commanders.

References

Cavendish, Richard. (2003) History Today. www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/battle-assaye

Harvey, R. (2008). Maverick Military Leaders, the Extraordinary Battles of Washington, Nelson, Patton, Rommel, and Others. Skyhorse Pub Co Inc.… [read more]


Qualities of Washington Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Qualities of Washington

In his book Maverick Military Leaders, Robert Harvey outlines sixteen traits evidenced in the life of most, if not all, maverick military leaders. In the case of George Washington, the most relevant of these are "resolution in the face of terrible setbacks," "an ability to improvise and seize unexpected tactical advantage on the battlefield," and "a fatherly devotion to [his] own men, seeing to their needs during the long periods of inaction and refusing to risk their lives unnecessarily" (Harvey, 2008, p. xlvi). After examining Washington's military exploits during the American Revolution, it will become clear that a large part of his success against the British stemmed from embodying these three traits, because they helped Washington, and the colonial military, overcome immense odds.

Washington's resolution in the face of terrible setbacks is evident throughout the American Revolution, because the Continental Army continuously faced demoralizing defeats and difficulties. For example, in 1776, Washington's "whole campaign from New York to Delaware had been a string of disasters, defeats, miscalculations and retreats" (Harvey, 2008, p. 52). His force had been reduced to just 3,000 from an initial 20,000, and even those that remained were demoralized (Harvey, 2008, p. 52). Nevertheless, Washington was able to recover from this string of defeats and encourage his men, so that on Christmas night of that year, he completed his famous crossing of the Delaware river in "a beautifully executed and heroic (under the arctic conditions) night ambush" (Harvey, 2008, p. 54-55). Where lesser military leaders might have given up after the disastrous campaign of the summer and fall, Washington was able to stay resolute in the face of overwhelming odds, and he carried this trait with him for the rest of the Revolution. His success with crossing the Delaware following months of defeat is only one example of the way in which Washington was able to remain steadfast in his dedication to the cause in the face of difficulties, because the Continental Army would face even more defeat and despair in the months ahead.

The example of the crossing of the Delaware similarly demonstrates Washington's ability to improvise and seize unexpected tactical advantages, because from the British perspective, he simply should not have been able to do what he did on Christmas night, 1776. The British did not pursue the rebel army across the Delaware river in November, based on the "belief that victory was now inevitable and that a mopping up of the remnants of American forces was all that would be required the following spring" (Harvey 53). Instead, the allowed the Continental Army to escape, under the belief that their depleted numbers, supplies, and morale would keep them from achieving any kind of substantial success or advance. Recognizing "the British state of complacency and lack of preparation," Washington realized that "this was too good an opportunity to miss, even…… [read more]


Jeremy Black's Rethinking Military History Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Rethinking Military History

The goal of Jeremy Black's book Rethinking Military History is simultaneously modest and groundbreaking, in that he considers it "a short 'ideas book'" that nevertheless attempts "to re-position military history at the beginning of the twenty-first century" by identifying and challenging what he views as the central problems facing military history.

He recognizes the potentially hubristic quality… [read more]


World War II Japan's Wars Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,154 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Yet in the end, Japan's own racism and imperialism alienated potential Asian allies like Ba Maw in Burma, since its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere "proved to be as overweening as the Westerners had been before" (Dower 1987). According to the "Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus," produced by the Japanese bureaucracy in 1942-43, Japan intended to be the dominant power in Asia permanently once the Western powers were defeated. In the Pacific after the initial surrenders of 1941-42, very few Allied troops gave up or took prisoners, while the Japanese glorified the suicidal experience of the kamikazes and banzai charges as the highest ideal of heroism and self-sacrifice. In reality, millions of Asians died as a result of Japanese atrocities and slave labor, far more than the number of whites killed in the Pacific War (Dower 1944).

After Pearl Harbor, the United States was still very badly prepared for war against Germany and Japan, whose military organizations had far more combat experience. Almost all the troops who fought in the war were civilian volunteers or draftees given the miniscule size of the professional Army in 1920-40, and in the end the ability of the U.S. To train and equip them in a very rapid time was a remarkable accomplishment. Franklin Roosevelt and George Marshall have always received their share of the credit for organizing the resources to equip this vast new and untested force, finding the best combat leadership available and setting the overall strategic goals. On the other hand, Hitler's deficiencies as a military leader, let alone his moral and psychological defects, are also very well-known. His orders to the Germany Army to stand and fight to the last man in Stalingrad, North Africa and Normandy aroused genuine hatred and despair among his professional military officers, allowing entire armies to be surrounded and destroyed. Combined with his genocidal orders and massive atrocities against civilians (particularly on the Eastern Front), general military revulsion against his leadership culminated in the coup attempt of July 20, 1944. Needless to say, no such events ever occurred among the Western Allies.

Japan was going to surrender in 1945 even if the atomic bombs were not dropped and that no invasion would ever have been necessary. It navy, air force and merchant marine were already destroyed and over sixty cities had been firebombed into ashes. Their only condition was that the Emperor not be removed, and in the end the Truman administration agreed to this rather than prosecuting Hirohito as a war criminal. At the time in the summer of 1945, all the top military and civilian officials of the administration except Secretary of State James Byrnes had already advised Truman to accept the Japanese surrender on this condition. Yet when the Potsdam Declaration was issued in July 1945, Harry Truman and Secretary of State James Byrnes removed the condition that would have allowed the emperor to remain in power. These weapons were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, and… [read more]


Strategy for Peace Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Peace Strategy

A Strategy for Peace

America's global strategy for security, defense and diplomatic interaction is highly complex and today, increasingly contingent upon the implications of globalization. With the deconstruction of commercial and trade barriers, the U.S. has sought to increasingly counterbalance its use of full-fledged military tactics with a combination of more targeted strategic operations and the use of economic pressures such as sanctions to achieve diplomatic goals. While recent patterns relating to the dispatching of major fighting forces to Iraq and Afghanistan have marked something of a departure from this trend, the greater long-term thrust of post Cold War decision-makers has been toward a 'strategy of peace.' And in fact, many of the philosophical concepts unveiled in Melvin Laird's strategy seem prescient in their applicability to the current global landscape. That said, some aspects of Laird's strategy will differ considerably from those recommendable today, largely as a product of their being constructed at the height of the Vietnam War and our prolonged ideological and military conflict with the Soviet Union. While the ambitions provided in Laird's memorandum to then President Nixon are admirable, their orientation is steeped in Cold War thinking. As the discussion hereafter will show, while many of the ideas put forth in Laird's memorandum are pertinent to decisions that the Obama administration must currently face, the peace strategy of the present administration must divorce its reading of this policy recommendation from its Cold War context.

Laird's Strategy:

First, we consider that a number of recommendations in Laird's text are not simply advisable today, but in fact are directly indicative of what would eventually be adopted as post Cold War military policy. Thus, the first aspect of Laird's text that we consider is one which calls for a reduced emphasis on the tactics of military invasion and a heightened reliance on specialized partnership is conflicted regions. According to Laird, one of the major planning goals of his strategic recommendation called for "a larger share of free world security burden to be taken by those free world nations which have enjoyed major U.S. support since World War II, rapid economic growth and a relatively low defense contribution." (Laird, p. 5)

Here, Laird begins to lay out a plan for strategic coordination with a greater proportion of friends, partners and allies, as well as with defense forces comprised of local inhabitants of conflicted regions. This proposes a way of reducing the number of standing military personnel for the United States while simultaneously reducing the number of American soldiers which must be in harm's way. At a time when the United States relied on the draft in order to man its military operations in Vietnam and those prior in the 20th century, this would represent a progressive step for U.S. Defense policy. To this end, it has proven of particular relevance in the face of 21st century military challenges which are more commonly defined by the need to contain local insurgencies or loosely affiliated armed fundamentalist groups. Accordingly, Nagl… [read more]


Garibaldi Christopher Hibbert's Award-Winning Biography Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,437 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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It was during this time that he first became an international hero and celebrity, at least in the liberal and democratic nations.

He remained in exile in Morocco, New York and Peru until 1854, with the prime minister of Piedmont, the Comte di Cavour, employed him to form an Italian Legion to unify the country. Even though Garibaldi was a… [read more]


Compare and Contrast the Military Decision-Making Process MDMP With the Joint Operation Planning Process JOPP Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (625 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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JOPP v. MDMP

JOPP v MDMP

One way of comparing JOPP and MDMP is within and without. The two planning operations share many similarities, particularly within their tactical objectives and the art and science delivering those outcomes, but JOPP's wider jurisdiction outside the AO, and to higher levels of command are the most important differentiating attributes, themselves composites of multiple interlocking procedures.

Both procedures share similar objectives and methods. JOPP and MDMP use iterative and collaborative planning to achieve commander-centric but adaptive field objectives through a series of similar steps. In general, the two models share the same number of wider steps (seven); the result is products directing specific but broad objectives and orders to assets on the battlefield, and this is achieved through adaptive COA formation and analysis that starts with command but includes feedback from staff and ongoing adaptation as orders are developed, tested through wargaming, verified, authorized and then refined back downward into detailed commands achieving particular deliverables. These steps go from wider overall mission and timeline analysis, where the output is a mission statement, the Joint Force Commander initial intent statement and a list of commander's critical information requirements, which are to be fulfilled by staff toward the next stages of plan development, Course Of Action (COA) development. The COAs under both JOPP and MDMP set out the purpose of the mission, the physical boundaries and exactly how, where, when and in what order war fighting functions will deploy. Both iterative models contain multiple steps within this stage as staff fulfills command's information requirements as wargaming and comparison reveals all the enemy's possible COAs, to which command responds by anticipating and refining all possible actions, reactions and counteractions in both directions across the theater, and methods of evaluating those effects.

In specific, where these procedures differ within the procedures in technical ways that affect how the different forces…… [read more]


Spanish Irish Relations in the 16th Century Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,794 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Spanish-Irish Relations in the 16th Century

Role of Ireland within the Priorities of Spanish Government between 1580-1604

The overthrow of the Munster settlement in 1598, followed by the intervention of Spain to assist Hugh O'Neill and his confederates, brought it home to Queen Elizabeth and her advisers that a real possibility existed that England's interest in Ireland would be obliterated,… [read more]


Effects of the Defense Authorization Act of 1916 and 1920 on the National Guard Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 28

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¶ … Defense Authorization Act of 1916 & 1920 on the National Guard

In 1790, President George Washington and Henry Knox, who was a military leader at that time tried to persuade the Continental Congress to establish a federally controlled militia, and despite their convincing argument about the benefits that the United States would derive from such military policy, the… [read more]


Military vs. Domestic Public Safety Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Many agencies can make an effort to get close to that level, but this researcher does not see that actually taking place. However, that does not mean that domestic public safety agencies cannot be prepared for critical incidents. Police and firefighters, for example, are more prepared than the average citizen or the average individual who works at a public safety agency. By looking at what specific safety agencies do with their time, talents, and resources, it is easy to see how some can be more prepared than others. Of course, there are some agencies that keep some of what they do "under wraps" for various reasons, so it can be difficult to judge the level of preparedness that they actually have for critical incidents.

When a domestic public safety agency does have to handle a critical incident, that agency often brings in the military so that it is able to get some help with whatever has gone wrong. The National Guard, for example, is often called in when there are disasters such as hurricanes or excessive flooding. That is done because of the level of preparedness the military has, but also because the military has equipment that domestic public safety agencies simply do not possess. It is sometimes that equipment that is the most significant need in a critical incident. When domestic safety agencies partner with the military to handle a critical incident, everyone gets the benefit of the experiences of other people who have trained very differently from them. That is good news for the people who need help in that incident, because they receive more help - and of different kinds - than they would if only one group was assisting. Even though the military has the preparedness advantage when it comes to critical incident management, that does not mean that domestic public safety agencies have nothing to offer.

References

Dupuy, T.N. (1992). Understanding War: History and Theory of Combat. London: Leo Cooper.

Thompson, J. (1991). Lifeblood of war: Logistics in armed conflict.…… [read more]


Mexico Army's Punitive Expedition Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Mexico

Army's punitive expedition

The Punitive Expedition is the name of a military campaign that the government of the United States took place in Mexico to capture revolutionary leader Pancho Villa, who had attacked a U.S. outpost on March 9th of 1916 sending a military expedition to trap Francisco Villa on March 14 of 1916.

In the history of relations… [read more]


Powers and Rights Assessment

Assessment  |  10 pages (3,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. federal court system and wage litigation warfare? What is the background and current status of this issue?

The chances of this depend on whether or not a successful act of terror actually occurred. If one did occur, the U.S. court system basically requires that the person or persons would get the chance to face their accusers, which means a… [read more]


Cyber Terrorism and Warfare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,784 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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Cyber-crime, Cyber-Terrorism, And Cyber-Warfare

Since the earliest days of the first primitive computer information networks and information systems, a perpetual evolutionary war has existed between entities relying on those computer systems and entities seeking to exploit those systems by acquiring unauthorized access to them or to disrupt them maliciously. This dynamic precedes the contemporary Internet Age by more than a… [read more]


Military Logistics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (4,026 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Military Logistics

PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

An analysis of how the battlefield logistics contractor policy in the Department of Defense can be reformed has been performed. This analysis came from the surveying of 26 program managers, but did not include the Air Force. The research was based on existing data that was compiled by the researcher, and it… [read more]


Revolutionary People at War the Continental Army and American Character 1775-1783 Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character

The book by Charles Royster is certainly well thought out and well presented in terms of the sequence of the chapters, the illustrations, the informative Prologue and the tightly written narrative. Too often historical records of wars and contentious periods in American history contain far too much emotionally patriotic -- even jingoistic -- narrative. Royster knows how to tell a story well, even one that has been part of the history of America for 230 years or so; after all, whether the book is about history, or science, or philosophy, if the author does not excel at story-telling, the reader is left out in the cold. Royster keeps the reader interested and involved.

How did the Continental Army -- a rag-tag group of patriots that were out-manned, out-gunned, with less training than the enemy -- manage to defeat the mighty British army? This book offers a vast storehouse of information to answer that specific question. Royster does it without breathlessly pushing any particular point-of-view on the reader, although he does use religion as a theme.

Royster does have a point-of-view. And he expresses it throughout the book, but rather than the reader suffering from strong editorial whiplash, the viewpoint and theme Royster presents is quite digestible. For example, in his Prologue (Royster 1979, 10) the author is setting the stage for his storytelling of the actual combat. He writes that the British army called the colonial fighters "a chickenhearted race of farmers, dry goods dealers, and slave drivers" (Royster 1979, 10). And the British weren't the only ones to verbally malign the colonial fighters; they were called the "loyalists" and they called the revolutionary army "A vagabond Army of Ragamuffins, with Paper Pay, bad clothes and worse spirits" (Royster, 1979 10).

Undaunted by the taunting, the revolutionaries were confident because they were counting on God's plan for this young country, Royster explains on pages 13 and 14. Meanwhile as the war began the American troops believed they had "two strengths" to ensure their "superiority"; one was they trained utilizing basic fighting techniques without a lot of razzle-dazzle showmanship for the public; and the second strength was simply, as Royster writes on page 25, that Americans possessed "natural," or "native," or "innate" courage against the enemy.

A key and interesting portion of the book is when General George Washington arrived in Massachusetts to take control of the continental army. The discipline was outrageously loose and the men were in jeopardy because of poor sanitation (men would "ease themselves" -- have bowel movements -- where they happened to be in camp), because of the reckless firing of their muskets, because of homesickness and overall dearth of solid training (Royster, 1979 58-63). However, as Royster explains on pages 96-98, the Continental Army "…began to develop the character that it retained throughout the war" and moreover, in June 1776 the "Americans' skill and dedication in serving their guns surprised…… [read more]


Japanese Preparation and Attack Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

In this regard, Hill emphasizes that, "[Pearl Harbor] convinced a majority of Americans to escalate to total war against Germany; most Americans believed that Germany was either an accomplice or the political master of Japan, thus making Hitler at least as guilty as Japan for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The attack on Pearl Harbor was the defining event for U.S. entrance into World War II, not only as it regarded the Pacific theater, but also the European theater."

Long-term significance. The long-term significance of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was the utter destruction of the Japanese empire, with Hiroshima and Nagasaki representing only a tithe of the destruction that was visited on the island nation through incendiary bombings of most major cities.

References

Burns, G.E. (2011). "The War Years." Pan American Historical Foundation. [online] available:

http://www.panam.com/cgi-bin/_textdisplay_0.asp?display=WARYEARS&refer=

264168681&call=D.

Czarnecki, J., Worth, R., Noch, M.C., Horan, M.E. & DiGiulian, T. (2011). Order of battle:

Pearl Harbor -- December 7, 1941. [online] available: http://www.navweaps.com / index_oob/OOB_WWII_Pacific/OOB_WWII_Pearl_Harbor.htm.

Divine, R.A. (1969). Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

Edgar, B. (1999). Warrior of Kokoda: A Biography of Brigadier Arnold Potts. St. Leonards,

NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Flamiano, D. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,

Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):

23-24.

Hill, R.F. (2003). Hitler Attacks Pearl Harbor: Why the United States Declared War on Germany. Boulder,… [read more]


Thailand Scenario Force Capabilities Vignettes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Other troop estimates MIGHT based upon the 2011 Cobra Gold, which was scheduled to conclude Feb. 18 involved 11,220 people, including 7,200 U.S. service members, including he U.S. Marine Aircraft Group 36, the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing and the 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force. The multinational forces were deployed in Korat using Thailand's Utapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield in Chanthaburi province and other close support facilities. These facilities lie about 180 miles west of a four day artillery clash along the Thai-Cambodian border between the Thai and Cambodian armies (Ehrlich) .

Coalition forces are of primary importance in a support role both in terms of equip and advisors. Due its primarily counterinsurgency role in the south of country against Moslem guerillas, the royal Thai Army's ground force battalions operate separately and therefore lack the strength of unity. In terms of joint and combined C2 structures that might be considered, Thailand has a highly capable communications system in place. Such unity can be established by means of an adequate communications network. This author suggests that the United States supports the Thais by means of capability deployments that would include including C3I and language capabilities. Equipment systems such as the Command Post Of the Future (COPF) designed by DARPA make the coordination of everything from satellite to individual radio communications possible ("Defense Update") . Additionally, logistical support such as ground force fires and specialized reinforcement units would probably be required. In terms of communications, the U.S. should only need to establish a support network to coordinate integrate military communications and operations in the host country.

Myanmar Scenario

Myanmar's armed forces have been increasingly reorienting themselves to defend against what they feel could be a possible U.S.-led foreign invasion. Frequently,… [read more]


Skills, and Professional Attributes Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Furthermore, personality theory is going to be important to consider, since the way an individuals' personality is able to adapt to trauma plays a huge role in the way one coming home from war and suffering from PTSD could integrate back into the regular world.

The main characteristics of the culturally skilled practitioner

The most authoritative review in recent years, by researchers from Columbia University and other institutions, suggested that nearly 19% of Vietnam War veterans succumbed to PTSD as a direct result of military combat. In addition, "The more severe the exposure to war zone stresses, the greater the likelihood of developing post-traumatic stress disorder and having it persist for many years," said Bruce P. Dohrenwend, an epidemiologist at Columbia University. (McKenna, 2006).

Fast forward to the current occupation of Iraq. The Defense Department reports, based on a sample survey of over 1,600 Army soldiers and Marines, that around one-third (30%) of those who had been in "intense combat" were diagnosed with such mental health problems as PTSD and depression. Incidence appeared higher among soldiers deployed to Iraq at least twice and for more than six months at a time (Bookman, 2007). So distressing is the occupation, according to an Army study, that one in six of close 1 million soldiers "surged" to Afghanistan and Iraq will very likely be afflicted with PTSD (Allis, op. cit.).

As far as my focus is concerned, I will have to be aware of the way culture affects incidents of PTSD. The problem here is that there is a lack of studies reflecting on this, since PTSD seems to be prevalent across all cultures active in military duty. Regardless, cultural sensitivity will be crucial, because the way one responds to one's own culture, or responds to others, can be influenced by culture. Thus, even conversational practice, so often used by the counselor, is something that can be culturally sensitive. The psychologist should therefore prepare by being away of the culture of the individual suffering from PTSD, and use this to understand how the culture may affect the counseling interaction, and not necessarily the PTSD, since PTSD seems to affect all cultures.

References

Allis, S. & Globe Staff (2005). "Frontline" examines war's psychological toll: [THIRD Edition]. Boston Globe, p .E.5.

Bookman, J. (2007, May 9). OUR OPINIONS: War strains troops, U.S. credibility: [Main Edition]. The Atlanta Journal - Constitution, p. a.14.

Mckenna, Phil (2006). Stress syndrome affected one in five Vietnam veterans. (August 21) Boston Globe, p. C.3.…… [read more]


Representations of War Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

Under normal circumstances, the life of one soldier would not be as important as to risk the lives of seven men, however, Ryan is the last remaining male descendent in his family as it is revealed during the course of the film that all of his brothers, who enlisted in the Armed Forces, were killed.[footnoteRef:15] The film's narrative is inspired… [read more]


Civil Liberties and Temporary Security Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

(Billy Budd VIII)

The irony here is that the lawless method of conscription means that naval service is taken advantage of by those who wish to escape the reach of the law. In other words, military service in Billy Budd is not just a form of prison, it is a form of escaping literal debtors' prison or worse penalty for… [read more]


Army Nco Creed - Interpretation Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,527 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. Army Sergeants Major Academy, where in terms of summary it is known as a creed. "An official ethical code is the Moral and Ethical Responsibilities of Leaders; Noncommissioned Officer's creed. Though, there is no copy of the Creed which is published. The search by Army for the history of the Creed was on. Soldiers who presented themselves before boards… [read more]


Child Soldiers Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

This way children are the first target to any enemy and are used as frontline targets becoming the first to give and receive the attack. In most of the cases as it is expected kids die in crossfire, if in the event they survive the minefields and are able to dodge away from the bullet then they become murderers. Everything… [read more]

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