"Military / Army / Navy / Marines" Essays

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Guerrilla Warfare Is a Successful Tactic Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (818 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Guerilla Warfare

The Efficacy of Guerilla Warfare

Terrorists, in some ways, are just as organized and effective as a police force or the military. The police force and more so with the military, there is a great abundance of resources and supplies dedicated for training purposes. Terrorists and militarized groups from third world countries often have to be more inventive because of their lack of financing and lack of supplies. Guerilla warfare is a way that terrorists and groups from third world countries get attention and accomplish some of their goals. Guerilla warfare involves not military personnel, often called civilians, to participate and serve vital functions in guerilla activities. Participants in guerilla warfare have advantages that members of large armies do not. While there are advantages and disadvantages to the use of guerilla warfare, guerilla warfare, overall, is a successful tool of small countries and terrorist organizations.

In Guerilla Warfare, famous revolutionary leader and physician, Che Guevara defines guerilla warfare early on in the text as:

…the basis of the struggle of a people to redeem itself, has diverse characteristics, different facets…geographical and social conditions in each country determine the mode and particular forms that guerrilla warfare will take, there are general laws that hold... (1961, 2)

Guerilla warfare is a type of strategy that takes place within a context where many people are suffering and struggling for basic human rights, despite the political views or agenda of those in power and those without power. Guerilla warfare is a term that was coined in the 20th century, yet there is evidence that guerilla warfare and tactics have existed since the times of ancient human civilizations. Guerilla warfare, according to this definition, is not uniform in practice, but is uniform in philosophy. This means that depending on the physical and social conditions in which guerilla warfare is used will predominantly determine the precise plans and maneuvers of the guerillas. Guerillas have to use what is available in their physical environment, what they may already have access to or possess, what they could gain access to or possess by theft, and what the precise nature of the targets of the warfare are. These are the factors that determine what exactly will play out for guerillas, whether they are from terrorist organizations or from small and/or third world countries.

Guevara continues by arguing that while the form of the guerilla warfare takes varies, the ethos, pathos, and logos of guerilla warfare holds…… [read more]


Ethics in Military Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

This does mean that some military members will lose their life protecting the nation in war times.

On the other hand, if one military member is acting in dishonorable ways, society will deem the integrity of the entire military force as questionable in terms of providing that protection to the nation. Dishonorable actions create a weak link in the military chain that gets other military members injured or dead. It also gives enemies advantages to do more harm not only to military members, but to the society of the nation as well.

Volunteering to military duty requires the signing of a pledge to recognize professionalism, being bound to the same Code of Ethics as other military professionals, accept the responsibilities, and respect matters of confidentiality (FRG Volunteer Code of Ethics, n.d.). This means that regardless of whether the member is paid or volunteer, or regardless of their respective roles, they are expected to perform their duties with the same high ethical standards of integrity. Dishonorable actions, such as the breaking of confidentiality, discredits the entire military force, not just the volunteer member. Honorable actions of the volunteer brings a higher standard of integrity to the entire military force in protecting the honor and independence of the nation.

The duty of the military requires high ethical standards in producing integrity. Each member is responsible for shared responsibilities that include ethical actions, whether they are a paid member or volunteer. Following ethical standards produces the integrity of the military in protection of the honor and independence of the nation. Not following ethical standards produces higher casualties and breaks down the confidence in the military by societal members.

Bibliography

Code of Conduct. (2013). Retrieved from Army Study Guide: http://www.armystudyguide.com/content/army_board_study_guide_topics/code_of_conduct/code-of-conduct-indepth.shtml

FRG Volunteer Code of Ethics. (n.d.). Retrieved from Department of the Army: http://sill-www.army.mil/428thfa/FRG/Forms/FRG%20Volunteer%20Code%20of%20Ethics.pdf

Siang, D. (July-Sept 1998). Professional Military Ethics -- A Soldier's Contract. Journal of Sinapore Armed Forces v24 n3, Retrieved from http://www.mindef.gov.sg/safti/pointer/back/. Retrieved from Journal of .… [read more]


Mission and Vision Statements Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

For example, the mission and vision statements refer to the utility of their products and services. Those services include providing testing, evaluation, and consultation services. Moreover, David (2011) outlines nine components of a successful mission and vision statement. These nine components include a reference to customers; to products and services; to the markets; to technology; to concern for growth; to overall philosophy; to self-concept and differentiation; to concern for public image; and finally, to employees. On most of these counts, the COMOPTEVFOR mission and vision statements are effective.

The customers of COMOPTEVFOR services include mainly the Chief Naval Officer, a position mentioned in the mission statement. The products and services have been mentioned throughout the mission and vision statement. Implicit in the mission and vision statements of COMOPTEVFOR is that the markets are mainly within the United States of America. Technology is indeed a core component of what COMOPTEVFOR does, and although specific systems are not mentioned, the mission and vision statements unequivocally refer to the fact that effective military testing depends on the use of state-of-the-art technology.

Concern for growth is also implied, but not directly stated, such as the commitment to "joint warfighting effects." There is, however, no mention of the future survival or profitability of the organization in either the mission or the vision statements. When it comes to expressing self-concept and differentiating the organization from potential competitors, COMOPTEVOR does fall short. COMOPTEVOR's strategic vision expresses a concern for "creating transparency," which can be construed as related to public image. There is no explicit mention of anything else related to public image other than the maintenance of effective and suitable military systems. Finally, a core strength of the COMOPTEVOR mission and vision statements is the mentioning of the employees: in this case, the sailors, marines, airmen, and soldiers that comprise the American armed forces.

Although the COMOPTEVOR mission and vision statements do not fulfill all the nine components of an effective mission and vision statement, enough of the parameters are fulfilled. COMOPTEVOR would only need to integrate information about how the organization is committed to social and environmental concerns to create a more comprehensive mission and vision. The COMOPTEVOR mission and vision statements do "ensure unanimity of purpose" within the organization in brief, broad, and effective ways (David, 2011, p. 47).

References

COMOPTEVOR (2013). About COMOPTEVOR. Retrieved online: http://www.public.navy.mil/cotf/Pages/aboutus.aspx

COMOPTEVOR (2013). COTF Command mission and strategic vision. Retrieved online: http://www.public.navy.mil/cotf/Pages/mission.aspx

David, F.R. (2011). Strategic…… [read more]


Boer War a Discussion Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (815 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Furthermore, the strength of the Canadian army was illustrated to the world by the battle sof Passchendaele and Vimy Ridge.

The sheer size of the Canadian forces was representative of their dedication to the cause. During the beginning, Canada was still considered a self-governing colony. However, war progressed, Canada independence surfaced by their military reputation which was earned on the battlefield. The Canadian government retained its authority over its own military, which eventually led to the creation of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. The Canadian Expeditionary Force was maintained by voluntary enlistment until the MILITARY SERVICE ACT of August 1917 introduced conscription. In total 619-636 officers and men served in the CEF, of whom 142,588 were enlisted under the Military Service Act; 424,589 served overseas. The peak strength of the CEF at any one point was 388-038 all ranks in July 1918 (The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2012). The British still tried to retain control over Canadian forces, yet as the Canadian military began to become more confident its own abilities this set the stage for the entire country to begin to question its dedication to its imperial rulers.

Conclusion

Canada continued to struggle for its independence against the British as the military evolution provided the backbone of this effort. However, Britain continued to maintain their position that Canada was one of their dominions for as long as they possibly could. Furthermore, the Americans were initially resistant to the idea of Canadian independence simply because they believed that it would give the British increased control of the region. For example, if the British retained control, then they would possess more influence in the League of Nations. However despite the American resistance, Canada's military performance in the First World War signaled that the country was ready to free itself from foreign command. Later the Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28th, 1919. Canada's signature to this treaty gave them their independence which was internationally recognized.

Works Cited

CBC. (2001). The Boer War. Retrieved from Canada - A People History: http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPISCONTENTSE1EP11CH2PA3LE.html

Morton, D. (N.d.). Epilogue. Retrieved from Images of a Forgotten War: http://www3.nfb.ca/ww1/independence.php

The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2012). Canadian Expeditionary Force. Retrieved from The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/canadian-expeditionary-force

The Loyal Edmonton Regiment Museum. (2010). Boer War. Retrieved from Canadian Military HIstory: http://www.lermuseum.org/en/canadas-military-history/boer-war/… [read more]


Bonus Army Invades Washington Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

25 for each day served abroad & #8230; in the year 1945" (Ellis 296), is also pilloried mercilessly by the author as another in a long line of official bait-and-switches. Referencing quotes given at the time by President Hoover and Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt, both dismissive of the American Legion's request for immediate payment of bonus certificates as discordant with federal budgetary constraints, Ellis again grounds his writing in established fact before instilling his personal sense of outrage. His weapon of choice again becomes the personal tragedy of Walter W. Waters and the millions of WWI veterans suffering similar fates, "the jobless truck driver from Philadelphia, once with the Fifteenth Engineers, his wife holding the only job in the family & #8230; the coal miner from Morgantown, West Virginia, proud of his record in the Rainbow Division, out of work for the past eighteen months, a grown man getting pocket money from his paw and maw" (Ellis 298). By providing such searing glimpses into the sorrow and hardship endured by the working class, and especially WWI veterans, as the Great Depression dawned, Ellis transforms dry historical tracts into a touching narrative of rebellion and redemption.

Despite the unbridled optimism expressed by Waters, who famously declared to a throng of weary protestors that "We are going to stay here until the veteran's bill is passed!" (Ellis 298), and his compatriots among the Bonus Expeditionary Force during the movement's infancy, the article concludes with the tragic triumph of the empowered over the impoverished. Ellis covers both the political machinations undertaken by ambitious politicians and the military maneuvering deployed to drive away the Bonus Army marchers with equal fervor. Of the "legislator's apprehension" within their "fear-soaked chamber," Ellis wryly observes that as "the debate dragged on & #8230; every now and then a Senator would tiptoe to a window, peek down on the multitude, anxiously shake his head, creep back into the chamber" (304). Of the violent and riotous melee used to displace the Bonus Army's protests, in which two marchers were slain and scores more were wounded, Ellis notes the historical nature of the firsts involved, writing that "it was the first time in American history that federal troops had been summoned by a President to attack American citizens in their national capital" (312). The disgraceful actions of General Douglas MacArthur are given special attention by the author, who time and again implies that the commander's direct refusal to obey orders given by President Hoover should be considered treasonous betrayals of his moral and military duty. Ultimately, political expediency won out over the morality of honoring a governmental guarantee,…… [read more]


Pride in Serving Military Compare Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,112 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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What greater responsibility can there be!

True, that the military can become complex with politics, economics, or family dynamics intruding and agonizing the recruit. Attrition is rife. There are stories too of sexual harassment in the army and of conflicts with friends both within and without the army life due to being a soldier. On the other hand, this is a blip on the horizon when compared to the wider picture.

True, too, that there are movies and books such as the famous movie "Born on the 1st of July" and Hemmingway's series that are critical of war and dispel their romantic myth, and indeed romanticism of war can be harmful. The grill and gut of killing is no fun. I am not talking about that. What I am considering rather is war done for the purpose of mankind, or not even war but rather activities involved in protection of defenseless people and activities dedicated to prevention of another war. These I consider heroic and magnificent.

Unfortunately, all too often the military has been depicted in a negative way by pacifists or those who have had negative experience or those (usually but not always, radical liberals) who have some agenda or other. Yes, there are some soldiers who have acted immorally and see the military as fodder for aggrandizement and opportunity for ambition and callousness. All too often, unfortunately, stories of heroic soldiers who risk their lives for their country and colleagues go underrepresented if not ignored and fail to receive the attention that they should. Their actions are as important as the firemen who jumped into the Twin Tower son September 11 and who sacrificed their lives for the victims. Firemen sacrifice their lives daily for individuals. Our police force does too. The military does likewise, but too often the military are condemned.

My initial objectives in describing my pride for the militia were to draw on their manner of expanding the recruit's imagination and human interest. That happens and the recruit becomes a far fully engaged individual with a plethora of friends and contacts and better able to deal with conflict in all ways for the military has taught him to do so. He is more in touch with his life and, likely, appreciates life more. Serving in the military can give one numerous advantages and I see such a human as potentially more deserving of our admiration that one who serves in various other positions. For this reason, I see the military as expanding beyond merely developing one's imagination: it makes the recruit fully human; it makes him more in touch with the world and ironically and counter-intuitively more caring about others (due to the fact that he endeavors to protect them to the extent that she sacrifices her life to do so). It is this latest fact that makes me supremely proud of belonging to the military for few other jobs provide us with the same purpose. Working the corporate life certainly does not.

Reference

Sandifer,… [read more]


Terrorism and the Military (Apa) Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,887 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Colleagues of the Muslim Army officer said that he had expressed outrage that the United States was involved in a war against Muslims, and that Muslims should rise up and attack Americans in retaliation. (Sherwell, 2009) Hasan was extremely upset at the United States' war in Iraq, didn't feel that the U.S. should be there, and actually expressed happiness at… [read more]


Army Reserve/National Guard Retention Impact Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,986 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

37.8% of responders were married for the first time and > 50% were married for the first time or remarried. The responders also indicated, an interesting distribution of dependents, with 34 of 111 having 0, yet 48 of 111 having 1, and 24 of 111 having 2.

The problems of mobilization, according to the survey results were rather interesting as the very serious problems were reported to be, (E.) lost seniority, promotion opportunity or job responsibility at civilian job, (K) increase chances for marital separation or divorce, (M) burden on spouse. Considering the number of respondents surveyed indicating to be married, (M) is certainly believable. 36 respondents skipped question(s) 15 & 16, which is roughly 1/3, likely due to mixed feelings regarding their mobilization mission and whether they felt their family was well cared for by the unit's Family Readiness Program.

General Recommendations

Increase level of interaction between Family Support programs, staff members and enlisted soldiers.

Focus on improving the quality of core living standards during deployment for family and soldiers.

Increase in-kind pay and services to soldiers if pay raise is unattainable.

Negotiate to provide better subsidy purchasing programs to the Army Reserve under the Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Emergency Management Association.

Increase programs that create a community environment for family members of soldiers, a form of social support group that is facilitated via the Family Support programs.

Conclusion

The introduction within Chapter One of this thesis speaks to the importance of emotional and financial support from the nuclear family unit. Additionally, the level of responsibility many actively enlisted Army Reservists and reserves in other branches have in our civilian careers can cause considerable financial loss to these interests should a deployment arise. Losing these earnings will have a considerable impact on the financial support of the family unit and also determine the morale of the family going forward.

Again, the ramifications of not rendering a positive solution to these issues will be the continuing negative impact on retention in the Army Reserves and the continued decrease in the reenlistment ratio. The attrition of new recruits to the reserve branches increases the role of the more seasoned members and is likely to increase the frequency of deployment for these soldiers.

My hypothesis to improve soldier retention via the guarantee of a five-year reprieve from future deployments is likely to meet with a positive response given the conclusion from the literature review and from the survey results. The need to reduce the pressure on families regarding whether to leave the army will be reduced since there will be a number of years for civilian earnings after deployment, thereby reducing the financial, emotional, and economic burdens on soldiers and families. To reduce the level of attrition, the military can make a few relatively low cost (if any) adjustments to policy. I hypothesize the military's best interest is to view the soldier…… [read more]


Worst Faults a Military Leader Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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There was a comforting presumption that neither nation-state wished to be annihilated. However, this same comfort is not offered when combating terrorists who are willing to die for their cause. Also, versus apparent logical self-interest, terrorist groups are not necessarily associated with a national cause (or only diffusely, as with Palestinian statehood) and may simply attack for attention rather than… [read more]


Military IT: Army Knowledge Online Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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In a sense, the AKO shrinks the bureaucratic obstacles of the military while simultaneously maintaining a network of unparalleled enormity. (Rouse, p. 1)

The negative impacts that may be said to emerge from the AKO largely revolve on its relatively cumbersome nature. Due to the extra precautions which must be taken to protect sensitive information and the steps that are taken toward identity verification, many end-users have complained about the system's technological limitations. According to some servicemen and women, limitations in the system include a slower-than-desirable speed of operation and some problems with universal web browser compatibility. While extra steps must surely be taken to produce the adequate level of security restriction for potentially sensitive information and correspondence, the technological shortcomings of the AKO have led some would-be end-users to favor their own email platforms over the mandatory system. (DDS, p. 1) In fact, the DDS reports that only 10% of active servicemen make use of the system today.

3) your recommendations for improving and enhancing your chosen information system.

Recommendations for improving this system largely revolve on improving its efficiency without sacrificing its security capabilities. This calls for a refinement of the knowledge sharing technology while reducing the emphasis on email service and other functionalities which are fully available outside of the AKO today. This will involve moving toward a cloud-based strategy of data-basing for the improvement of speed, efficiency and accessibility.

Works Cited:

Army Knowledge Online (AKO). (2013). Portal. AKOlogin.us.army.mil.

Defense Systems Staff (DSS). (2013). Army Knowledge Online Transitions to Next-Generation Enterprise Services. Defense Systems.com.

Rouse, M. (2011). Army Knowledge Online…… [read more]


Military Deployment Affects Military Families Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (4,773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Unfair? Obviously. But while 18 states require that students pass an exit exam to graduate from high school, not one has a reciprocal agreement that would help students such as Jones (Peterson, 2001)."

Even when students make it through all of the red tape that they have encountered through four years of high school while under deployment orders, they often… [read more]


Marines Build Leaders That Last Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

By entrusting low-ranking officers with critical battle decisions, marines are forced to pay close attention to the skills of the people they choose to trust with responsibility. (Freedman, Inc.) Empowerment, Freedman says, is "carried to an extreme by allowing someone at the lowest level of the organization to make decisions that can impact the success of the organization's most important missions" (Freedman, Forbes). This also allows lower-level officers who might be out of touch with the chain of command to "jettison pre-established plans, make up new ones as the situation demands, and commandeer the resources they need to carry them out" (Freedman, Forbes).

Nothing can quite compare with Marine Corps training and combat service to stretch your leadership skills in bringing people together to accomplish a mission," according to Phillip Rooney, vice-chairman of the ServiceMaster Company. Rooney endured Officer Candidate School and returned to teach there. For Rooney, nothing prepares an individual for the challenges of operating a business than training in the U.S. Marine Corps. (Freedman, Inc.) Freedman asserts that another successful technique of the Marines is rewarding failure. Marines view failure not as "the best possible learning experience" (Freedman, Forbes). In addition, the Marines also allow every soldier to be a team member.

Another aspect of training that helps the Marines build great leaders is their mentoring program that links junior Marines with more experienced Marines. Experience is a great tool and mentoring is an important aspect of instilling leadership qualities in junior Marines. The Marines believe:

The relation between officers and men should in no sense be that of superior and inferior nor that of master and servant, but rather that of teacher and scholar. In fact, it should partake of the nature of the relationship between father and son to the extent that officers are responsible for the physical, mental and moral welfare as well as the discipline and military training of the young men under their command. (General Lejeune qtd. On Marines)

Clearly, successful leaders come from pushing individuals to exceed beyond what they think they can do. The Marines establish this type of training by instilling a sense of responsibility through accepting challenges and accepting failure as a part of the learning experience. Coupled with mentoring, these techniques go far when developing soldiers that are courageous and committed.

Works Cited

Core Values. Marines Online. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://marines.com/about_marines/corpsvalues.asp

Real Leadership. Marines Online. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://marines.com/officer_programs/realleadership.asp?format=flash

Nelson, Wallace. "Leadership." Marines. November 1995. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9603154667&db=mth

Freedman, David. "Corps Values." Inc. Online. April 1998. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://www.inc.com/magazine/19980401/906.html

Few Good Principles." Forbes Online. May 2000. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://www.forbes.com/asap/2000/0529/201_print.html… [read more]


Navy Operating Systems: The U Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Automated condition-based maintenance recording and management for the ship's main propulsion and auxiliary equipment, is also key.

Conclusion/Summary

By instituting a 'smart ship' that makes use of COTS systems, the Navy is able to make use of operating systems common to the commercial world such as UNIX, Linux, Solaris, and Intel. Yet the COTS systems also has the advantage of meeting the National Electronic Manufacturer Association (NEMA) standards or MIL-S-901D Class A near explosives survivability requirements, and feature space-saving designs for maximum viewing in cramped spaces. "Rugged chassis and bodies, reinforced mounts, and polymer shocks absorb the jars, knocks, and rigors of a field environment, while an outer enclosure protects from the elements." (Interface, 2004)

However, the smart ship concept has come under a great deal of criticism, over the course of its institution. During its inception, the Navy began running shipboard applications under Microsoft Windows NT so that fewer sailors would be needed to control key ship functions. But the very information technology on which the ships depend also makes them vulnerable if the COTS technology should fail, or if bad data is fed into the computers during maneuvers without proper technical and human controls. Still, the reduction in volunteerism for the armed services necessitates continued development of the Smart Ship concept, preferably with secure yet compatible elements with commercial software. (Slabodkin, 1998)

Works Cited

Intergraph Solutions Group. (2004). "Rugged Hardware for Harsh Environment." Retrieved on March 18, 2004 at http://solutions.intergraph.com/profiles/rugged.asp

Slabodkin, Gregory. (1998). "Software Glitches." Government News. Retrieved on March 18, 2004 at http://www.gcn.com/archives/gcn/1998/july13/cov2.htm… [read more]


Military Accountability the Importance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. military in Iraq, a great deal of the focus on accountability has been in trying to determine who was responsible for the torture and mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners. Recently, Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski has been temporarily suspended from her command of the 800th Military Police Brigade. Brig. Gen. Karpinski has been accused by Army investigators for "paying too little attention to day-to-day operations of the Abu Ghraib prison and for not moving firmly enough to discipline soldiers for violating standard procedures" at Abu Ghraib prison. In addition, Spc. Jeremy Sivits (on of seven members of the 372nd Military Police Company that have been charged) has been given the maximum penalty in a first-class court martial stemming from the abuses at Abu Ghraib (CNN.com).

Important in this discussion of accountability is the adherence of the U.S. military to requirements of the Geneva conventions, which provide protections for the basic rights of war and civilian prisoners in times of armed conflict. In accepting the Geneva Conventions as models of conduct, the U.S. military then implicitly agrees to be bound by these rules. As such, any violations of the Geneva Conventions must be dealt with by the U.S. military. In this sense, the U.S. military is then held accountable to the protections outlined within the Geneva Conventions.

In conclusion, the importance of accountability in the U.S. military can hardly be overstated. If the U.S. military is not held accountable for its actions, it stands to lose a great deal of credibility both within the international community and at home. If the U.S. military is not accountable for its actions, the U.S. can never legitimately take a moral stance against regimes that mistreat or abuse individuals. Further, a U.S. military that is not accountable to the people of the United States violates some of the most dearly held tenets of democracy.

Works Cited

Aceves, William J. Investigating war crimes: The struggle for accountability hits home. The San Diego Union-Tribune, November 4, 1999, Thursday. 31 May 2004. http://www.kimsoft.com/1997/nogun12.htm

CNN.com. Former Iraq prison head suspended. Tuesday, May 25, 2004 Posted: 10:39 PM EDT (0239 GMT). 31 May 2004. http://www.cnn.com/2004/U.S./05/25/karpinski.iraq.ap/index.html… [read more]


Military and Athletic Heroes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Realistically, they aren't, but in our society, a person deserves what he can command.... And if Tom Cruise can negotiate thirty million for a movie, and if Jack Nicholson can demand forty million for making Batman, who's to say that it's absurd for an athlete to make three million or five million a year? In reality, we know they're not worth it, but if the marketplace allows it, so be it." (Cosell 214). As long as people are willing to part with their hard-earned money to witness the best athletes in the world go head-to-head, the athletes will continue to make outrageous sums of money.

Soldiers, on the other hand, may be a superior form of hero but their marketplace value is far lower than their social value. A society could function without athletes, but it would be extremely difficult to run society without some form of military order (Shea, 4). Military heroes, although they do exist, are not good vehicles through which to sell products. No one would ever buy, for instance, George Washington brand running shoes; but when the new "Jordan's" come out, every ten-year-old boy in the country desperately wants them. Athletes can be strongly tied to products, but soldiers would have difficulty selling anything other than combat boots or "Hummers."

By the nature of our definition of a hero, as someone who devotes his or her life to something greater than oneself, it becomes apparent that not all athletes can be considered heroes but simply all solders must be. In the United States "democratic conscription has in every instance occurred as the voluntary dedication of a nation's resources to the cause of defense." (Clarkson 128). This means that everyone who signs a contract with the military is volunteering their life, should it be called upon, in addition to giving up several years of that life. Regardless of the heroic actions of the soldier after joining the military, by signing the contract they have already demonstrated their devotion to something greater than themselves.

Unfortunately, military life is not particularly lucrative. For the very fact that every citizen has the option to join at some time in their life it is unlike professional sports -- soldiers are not a novelty. The pay is simply low. The average annual compensation to a basic recruit in the United States armed forces is thirteen thousand six hundred thirty-nine dollars (salary.com). This is approximately they same amount full-time work at a fast-food restaurant will bring in. The only advantage the military offers is the assistance they give for higher education after service is completed. Sadly, it is for this reason that the typical military recruit of today is a kid in an economic bind, looking for a way to finance his or her education. Pay is able to stay so low because these recruits are looking to the long-term benefits of a military career.

Military heroes are all over, whether famous or not. Solders volunteer in this country to be placed in… [read more]


Women in Combat the Participation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

During the Persian Gulf War, for example, Air Force Captain Anne Weaver Worster flew a refueling tanker deep into Iraqi airspace four times so fighters and bombers could increase their range. In doing so, Worster brought her plane and its flammable cargo within range of air to surface missiles and anti-aircraft fire. Army Major Rhonda Cornum volunteered for a helicopter mission to rescue the pilot of a downed F-16 plane. Cornum's Black Hawk was shot down, and she was held prisoner for a week before being released (Eskind 1991). Additionally, many people in the field assert that the distinctions between combat and non-combat duties were arbitrary. For example, women in the Army were still banned from direct combat divisions such as infantry. However, they were allowed to work on Patriot Missile Units, a division charged with shooting down incoming Scud missiles. Navy women could not serve aboard combat ships like destroyers, but they were on support ships that provided combat logistical support during the gulf operations. Female members of the Marine Corps were also banned from combat. However, 170 female leathernecks of the 2nd Marine Support Group were stationed in the desert, near the Kuwaiti border when the ground attacks began.

For all intents and purposes, women have been serving in positions that have placed them in danger, regardless of whether or not a position was identified as a combat zone.

Both sides do agree on one important point.

Women who want to serve in the military should possess the necessary physical, mental and emotional attributes. Female soldiers are finding greater acceptance today because, like their male counterparts, the women who serve pass the required battery of physical, emotional and intellectual tests. American women have served in various military capacities since the Revolutionary War. They have been nurses, reservists, navigators, pilots and, since the 1993 Gulf War, combatants. As a result of the growing role of technology in warfare, women also increasingly serve as operators of weapons and heavy machinery, tasks that routinely take them into combat zones. Despite the naysayers, soldiers -- both male and female -- are showing that military personnel should be judged based on their abilities and not on their gender. For these reasons, women should not be excluded from combat positions solely on the basis of their gender.

Works Cited

Charon, Mona. "Eight Good Reasons to Oppose Women in the Military." In Current Issues and Enduring Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. 6th ed. Sylvan Barnet and Hugo Bedau, eds. New York: Bedford St. Martins Press, 2004.

Eskind, Amy. "A Post-Gulf Memorial Day" Arms and the Woman." The Washington Post, May 26, 1991. ProQuest Database.

Norwood, Vivian. "Eight Reasons Why Women Should Be in the Military." In Current Issues and Enduring Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. 6th ed. Sylvan Barnet and…… [read more]


FDR and LDB, War Leaders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

FDR and LDB, War Leaders

Franklin D. Roosevelt was considered by many to be an amazing leader. He was elected President of the United States for four terms, a feat unheard of even today. He also demonstrated many leadership qualities that made him stand out from past and current political leaders. Numerous scholars and research agree FDR was not just… [read more]


Military Diversity in the Armed Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,758 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. Armed Forces. Created by 2009 as part of the National Defense Authorization Act (Trevor & Ernes, 1998), the Military Leadership Diversity Commission issued its findings and recommendations on how the departments of defense can promote the representation of females, the youth, and diverse races within the military, during the times when the entire nation faces high expectations of becoming… [read more]


Brigade the 56Th Heavy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

There are across-the-board problems with coordination that must be addressed for the BCT to successfully transition to Train / Ready.

capacity to of the units to function effectively and efficiently

Description of vision for the Brigade

I want to see the HBCT exceed it past levels of high quality leadership and functioning. The characteristic of the HBCT that I want to restore as the absolute commitment of leadership to continually improve and to build and sustain engagement of the officers and the non-commissioned officers. I believe the Battalions can be find distinction as members of the best maneuver brigade in the Forces Command, rather than seeking distinction as stand-out battalions at great cost to the Brigade. The driver of positive change for the Brigade is renewed interest in accomplishing the mission under the best possible leadership. Through the efforts of the commanders and officers, I believe that the issues that currently plague the Brigade can be ameliorated, and a path forward can be established that will circumvent the type of problems that have beset the Brigde.

Plans for measuring success to achieve that vision driver of the change is the Outline of process to solve the problem and implement the vision synthesize the organizational development processes and apply them write your response as an argumentative essay.

write your essay in first person to take personal credit for your leadership knowledge, skills, and abilities.

Always cite your sources using either footnotes or endnotes IAW the Turabian style (7th Edition) of documentation

What is the critical leadership problem facing the 56th HBCT Brigade Commander and how will you, as the new brigade commander, improve the organization?

Assessment Rubric

Evaluative Criteria Communications Criteria Score

90 Points

Apply critical-thinking skills to identify, explain, and defend the selection of the critical leadership problem. Use relevant facts and assumptions from the 56th HBCT case study to support your argument.

Describe your vision for the brigade and how you will measure effectiveness in achieving that vision.

Describe the process you will use to solve the problem and implement your vision based on the readings and lesson material from L100.

10 Points

(1) The introduction clearly states the thesis and introduces major points.

(2) Major points are fully developed using clear reasoning.

(3) The conclusion reinforces the thesis and major points.

(4) Style is concise, primarily in active voice, and generally free of errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

(5) Proper use of citations IAW ST 22-2.

US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE

Command and General Staff Officer Course (CGSOC)…… [read more]


Military vs. Police Intelligence Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Direct patrolling and constant vigilance is a critical component of the military mindset in light of the fact that the enemy is always looking for a way to strike: "Reconnaissance is a normal part of soldiering as are systems to record and utilise information gathered. The use of directed patrolling, and the specific tasking of patrols, for intelligence purposes is a norm. This can be used for both human intelligence and data collection" (Gillvray n.d. 3).

Since 9/11 there has been an attempt to refocus the orientation of police evidence-gathering to make it simulate that of a military organization, given the growing awareness that local law enforcement agencies are on the front lines of defending the U.S. against terrorist threats. Federal grants were used to fund special intelligence and counterterrorism units within police organizations and fusion centers were created to coordinate evidence-sharing between local and national agencies. However, these bodies have been criticized because the "lack clear guidelines for managing data collection and dissemination" (New report, 2013, The Brennan Center). Also, unlike the military, the police must be mindful of not violating the civil rights of the persons they are investigating, yet another frequent criticism in the reconfiguration of police operations in the post-9/11 reality.

Although police agencies have tried to adopt the 'constant' intelligence-gathering model, there have also been criticisms that this has resulted in an increase in the accumulation of irrelevant data which has led to both an erosion of civil liberties and to difficulties in processing what information has been accumulated. With a "a loosely coordinated information sharing network with data collected according to varying local standards and with insufficient quality control, accountability, or oversight" there can often be wide variations in the competency of the personnel and the quality of the information (New report, 2013, The Brennan Center). The coordinated and unified mindset of military operations is another advantage of military intelligence-gathering.

This is not to assert that military intelligence is foolproof, of course. The military has been criticized for consistently fighting 'the last war' and not shifting its mindset from focusing on nation states to non-state actors. Threats to the U.S. not in the form of consistent, direct engagement can easily fall through the cracks. However, the lack of police operations fluent in languages or cultures outside of the dominant one of their nation combined with difficulty identifying what intelligence is appropriate to gather on a consistent basis suggests that greater training and coordination of police efforts in investigations according to that of the military's approach might be beneficial and improve U.S. security.

References

Berkowitz, B. (2003). The difference between intelligence and evidence. RAND. Retrieved

from: http://www.rand.org/commentary/2003/02/02/WP.html

Gillvray, M. (n.d.). Military-police interaction: The need for specialisation and co-operation in peace-keeping intelligence. OSS Net. Retrieved from:

http://www.oss.net/dynamaster/file_archive/071105/5f76ef27354227c11803b8cbc7e8956e/005%20Gillvray%20UK%20on%20Military-Police%20Interaction.doc

New report: Police intelligence gathering lacks effective standards. (2013). The Brennan Center.

Retrieved from:

http://www.brennancenter.org/press-release/new-report-police-intelligence-gathering-l acks-effective-standards-threatening… [read more]


Rules of Engagement in Afghanistan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

In Afghanistan, it is difficult enough to determine exactly who the enemy really is, let alone determine where the enemy is. When the determination of who and where has been sufficiently analyzed, the American soldier should have the right to engage. As Zinke so succinctly puts it "what's happening is we're losing our ability to fight overseas" (2014, para 6). Instead of the ROE assisting our soldiers, according to Zinke it is being turned into a "document that can be used effectively against us" (para. 3).

Another protagonist against the ROE is Dana West who has been around the Afghanistan war for a number of years. In 2009 West wrote "we should fight all wars to destroy the enemies" (West, 2009). Then in 2014 she reiterated "what they are doing to our military, our treasury, our power and our prestige is an unconscionable national betrayal" (West, 2014, para. 1). These are harsh words from the standpoint that our Commander in Chief is the person who most strongly advocates for the implementation and adherence to the ROE. Obama's justification is that the Americans must do more than just kill enemy soldiers, they must also be even more than one hundred percent sure that other casualties not take place. According to Newsweek, this is a laudable and achievable goal.

Newsweek states "the war aim in a war against terror is not territory, or access to resources, or conversion to our political way of life...it is the protection of civilians within the rule of law" (Bobbitt, 2010, p. 42).

Newsweek's assertion is an interesting one, but is it one that is realistic? Most likely not, at least according to this author. The problem with that type of war aim is that who goes to war to protect civilians within the rule of law? Seriously? It cannot even be easily imagined that a President, even one as ignorant to the law as the current one, would go before Congress and say...the reason we are going to war is because the civilians are not being afforded the opportunity to participate in the rule of law. Of course, that reason is much better than attempting to win a war so foreigners will like Americans. Ms. West writes that "this policy of sacrificing American troops to make the barbarians of Afghanistan 'like us' should come before at the very least a Congressional hearing" (West, 2014). This author concurs with that…… [read more]


Army Change Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Therefore this means that these leaders will guide their troops in the right direction according to what is specified in the army change process. This will help the troops as they prepare for their combat operation set before them or even training they are set to take in garrison since they will be aware of what is expected of them.

Third the SCG/CSM should know how to enter the army change control criteria. This is quite important since it guides them on how they will help the troops in entering or embracing the army change process. With this knowledge they will know how to prepare their troops on the process of army change and how they will go about it and what the entire process entails (Oracle and/or its affiliates, 2013).

Understanding the army change process generally helps the SCG/CSM track various states of army change. Notifying the relevant stakeholders involved in the change process with use of an approval framework and finally generation of an official documentation which will be used for future reference. This understanding helps the SCG/CSM to assist in the transformation from a force which focuses on counterinsurgency operations to an army which is adaptable when it comes to its operations and able to meet the wide range of combat commander requirements as part of the joint force .It thus is quite important for the SCG/CSM to be conversant with the army change process and everything it entails so that they can guide their troupes accordingly depending on the combat mission they are set to face.

Reference

Oracle and/or its affiliates, (2013). Setting Up Military Rank Change Notification and Documentation. Retrieved March 17, 2014 from http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E39904_01/hcm92pbr0/eng/hcm/hhaw/task_SettingUpMilitaryRankChangeNotificationandDocumentation-407f6c.html… [read more]


Testing) Materials -- Sensitive Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Unnecessary suffering

B.

Military necessity

C.

Proportionality

D.

Distinction/Discrimination

2 points

Question 8

1. Providing freedom of action in space for friendly forces, and when directed, denies it to an adversary, is a function of which space mission area?

Answer

A.

Space Support

B.

Space Enhancement

C.

Space Control

D.

Force Application

2 points

Question 9

1. Humanitarian purposes for… [read more]


Black Soldiers in WWII Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

None of this information was widely available to the public at the time. The service of black Americans was not considered newsworthy. Although there were prominent figures, notably Eleanor Roosevelt, who attempted to raise social consciousness, blacks were largely viewed as inferior. Their military service was not considered to be of consequence. There was still considerable prejudice in the U.S.… [read more]


Unequal Professional Dialogue: American Civil-Military Relations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

In other words, they are told more about their roles and how to perform in those roles as the need arises. In order for any person to become a competent member of the military staff, they should demonstrate they are proficient in what they know. Therefore, they should complete these programs that will eventually go on to make them intellectually competent as well.

Another reason why professional military education is needed because the military needs to have a firm grasp on the civil military relations. These relations are crucial because they include dealings with both ordinary people and institutions that have a great impact on the military [footnoteRef:3]These institutions ultimately include the legislative debate over the funding of the military, the regulation and the use of the military and the bargaining between the military and civilian lines as I is relevant to implement the national security policy in the country. As a democratic nation, it is very important for the military to identify and solve all the problems that go on to hamper the civil and military relations [footnoteRef:4] [3: James Burk, 'Theories Of Democratic Civil-Military Relations', Armed Forces & Society 29, iss 1 (2002): 7 -- 29.] [4: Donald B. Connelly, 'The Unequal Professional Dialogue: American Civil-Military Relations And The Professional Military Ethic' (2010).]

The staff colleges that go on to give professional military education are vital for the mental and intellectual development of the officers. They basically go on to reinforce the professional aspects of empiricism, administration, specialized knowledge and decent knowledge about arms. Furthermore, enrolling in professional education, the students also get an opportunity to form good relations with military practitioners. They are able to interact with both the students and the teachers. These professional relations that are created in this way aid these students in the long run and facilitate in the formation of transnational community bonds. It has been speculated that these bonds help in the transmission of knowledge between the linked military. Furthermore, they also make a good impact on the influence on armed forces on both national and international levels.

Lastly, it should be seen that army professional and practitioners should able to see all the military problems with the same perspective. This similar perspective will only be present in the entire army if they have been given the same professional military education before their practice. Specialized professions such as medicine and law also require a corporate body of knowledge so that they can excel. Therefore, army officers require shared knowledge consisting of concepts present in warfare theories that have been created from experience and history. All of this would therefore enable a collective understanding of how different components come together and provide success to the army.

All in all, it should be seen that colleges and professional military education is going to create, implement, refine and preserve this entire of specialized professional knowledge. This knowledge is being directed to enhance the performance and the overall competency of the army. Education in any… [read more]


Army as a Profession Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Army Profession

Since the United States committed to maintaining a standing army, the profession of arms has been built into the system. However, factors like the all-volunteer service, and the lack of a designated agency to address matters of professionalism directly have led to questions of whether or not the United States Army is a profession. There are several factors that underscore the fact that the Army is a profession, including the nature, structure, and function of the Army in the United States. The criteria of membership are clearly elucidated in Army documents and doctrine. Moreover, there is now a pressing need to redefine the nature of Army service and leadership as fully professional in light of the threat of private mercenary enterprise. The Army is most definitely a profession, and must remain one for ethical reasons. The core professional functions of the Army include developing expertise in key areas of strategic specialization, anticipating the hybrid threats of the future, and protecting the ethical codes under which the Army operates. Trust and ethics are the primary criteria of professionalism in the Profession of Arms.

The Army is a profession because it trains personnel in areas of expertise, with broad applications within the military institution as well as in the private sector. One of the defining features of a "profession" is the emphasis on "uniquely expert work." Army personnel are trained to be effective and develop mastery. Moreover, army professionals "require years of study and practice before they are capable of expert work," upon which society depends. Within the Army framework, professionals are trained for years and develop areas of specialization. These areas of specialization and their respective fields would not be accessible in any other sector. Only within the United States Army can soldiers receive the level of expertise in areas as diverse as strategic analysis, engineering, and political theory. [1: United States Army. "The Profession of Arms." 2010, p. 5] [2: Ibid, p. 5]

Another core feature of a profession is the provision of services that are essential and which cannot be provided in any other manner. Just as a patient needs a doctor to perform surgery, a citizen needs the Army to accomplish specific goals. Ensuring the welfare of the nation and protecting its boundaries are core goals that demand skillful responses. No Army function is arbitrary. On the contrary, tight budgets and resource constraints, coupled with rapidly emerging new threats makes it so that every single Army function has a direct purpose, function, and procedure. Because of its emphasis on professionalism and training, the Army stands prepared for the hybrid threats of the future like cyberterrorism, and transnational terrorism. The Army trains personnel who are uniquely skilled in specific areas of expertise that, when combined, create a potent professional unit. [3: United States Army. "America's Army: Our Profession." Sept 2014.]

Professionalism entails gaining and maintaining the public trust, which is why the Army must remain committed to its core ethical goals and prove accountability. One of the… [read more]


Client Letter and Office Memo Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Divestiture Defense for Criminal Disrespect Charge

Dear Sgt. Payne

Your father contacted me in regards to your pending criminal case for disrespecting a superior officer under UCMJ Article 91. Having conducted some preliminary research into the legal issues at hand, I am pleased to provide you with the below information regarding possibilities for an acquittal in this matter.

Facts

After yelling and cursing at your First Sergeant, you were charged with a violation of Article 91 of the UCMJ for disrespecting a superior officer. There is a question as to whether or not a divestiture defense is appropriate in this case.

Without more details of the incident and the period leading up to it being known, it is impossible to determine whether a divestiture defense can be applied in this situation. If your superior officer has been habitually conducting himself in a way that perceptibly demeans the level of stature and respect that he is expected to command in his role as a First Sergeant, or if he was conducting himself in such a manner at the time of the incident for which charges have been brought against you, he has also divested himself of a worthiness to demand the respect -- and the legal assurance of that respect -- granted to him under Article 91 of the UCMJ. Furthermore, if unwarranted and demeaning provocation took place instigating the act of disrespect for which you are charged, a divestiture defense would be equally applicable.

Explanation

The 1984 Manual for Court Martial as well as several precedent setting cases both before and after the publication of this edition of the manual clearly defines the scope of expectations in regards to the behavior of a superior officer in maintaining the legal right to the respect and proper treatment of that officer by other members of the armed forces. Essentially, if the superior officer identified as the victim in your case in any way engaged in conduct that substantially departed form the expectation of performance and behavior attached to his rank and office, a divestiture of his legal right to respect is implied and present, rendering the charges against you moot.

If, however, the First Sergeant were acting in the clear performance of his duties either through explicit communication or through the implications of the circumstances surrounding the event for which charges were brought, divestiture would not be present nor an applicable defense, as in United States v. Diggs.

The lack of details I have received regarding this case make it difficult to determine which set of precedents most applies to your situation, and therefore whether or not a divestiture defense exists for the charges against you and what the best way to proceed in this matter on your behalf would be. In further communications with this office, the surrounding details of your case will be made apparent and we will proceed from there, with the combined knowledge of circumstances and relevant precedents.

I hope that this information will provide you with some… [read more]


Immigrants Serving in the U.S. Military Research Paper

Research Paper  |  30 pages (8,783 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

Except for the indigenous Native American population, the United States is truly a country of immigrants. Indeed, most modern Americans can trace their ancestry to the nations of Europe, Asia and Africa and it is reasonable to suggest that the vast majority of U.S. citizens today have ancestors who were immigrants at some point. It is not surprising, then, that… [read more]


American Army Generals-Robert E. Lee and Ulysses Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … American Army Generals-Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant

Comparison and Contrast: Robert E. Lee vs. Ulysses S. Grant

Ironically, for a man whose name is synonymous with the Confederate cause, Robert E. Lee was not a passionate defender of slavery or secession

Although he blamed the political squabbles over states rights on northern agitators, he thought slavery was immoral, at least in the abstract. Yet Lee was a proud southerner, although politically, he was a Whig.

"When Virginia withdrew from the Union, Lee resigned his commission rather than assist in suppressing the insurrection.

" Then, Lee soon accepted the offer of "Commander-in-Chief of the military and naval forces of Virginia. When these forces joined Confederate services, he was appointed Brig. Gen. In the Regular Confederate States.

Ulysses S. Grant was not a principled man like Lee, or a blind patriot who would support his nation or his leaders whether they were right or wrong. Grant entered the service reluctantly, because of familial pressure, and graduated near the bottom of his class at West Point.

He intended to leave the army after doing his tour of duty, although like Lee, he served bravely in the Mexican War. But Grant called the Mexican War "one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation," even though he fought on the U.S. side as part of his terms of service.

Lee served as a captain in the Mexican War and never questioned the cause.

Lee, in contrast, to Grant, was second in his class at West Point and became a career soldier. The only break in his service in the armed forces took place after resigning from the U.S. army to avoid fighting against the forces of Virginia. Then Lee quickly took command of the Confederate forces. After a brief tenure as field commander Lee "returned to Richmond in March of 1862 to become military advisor to President Davis.

" Lee's command at the forefront of the Confederate forces was sustained; for Grant, his leadership only came to the forefront during the ending years of the Civil War. "Shortly after the Civil War started in 1861, Grant once again became a soldier. As a battlefield commander, he won the Union's first major victory, capturing Fort Donelson in Tennessee and demanding the rebels' unconditional surrender. He successfully turned back a surprise Confederate attack at the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee. His capture of the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi on July 4, 1863, after a drawn-out siege, broke the Confederate stranglehold on the Mississippi. Grant had finally found an arena where he could shine: the battlefield.

" as a result of his success at Shiloh, he was appointed commander of U.S. forces. Only a few years ago he was a failed businessman and farmer, and a West Point graduate with poor marks in almost everything but horsemanship and mathematics -- now he was one of the most powerful men in America.

Despite being outnumbered by the Union forces,… [read more]


Army Reserve Retention Impact Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  1 pages (314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Army Reserve Enlist Impact

The literature study reveals that there are various issues that influence the decision to reenlist in the reservist section of the Army. These include the influence of the job status of the reservist upon redeployment, his or her financial situation, and his or her family and other commitments.

The literature also exposed two major conflicting factors that relate to reservists; they are vitally important in the country's defence system, and reservist retention is plummeting. This presents a problem, particularly in terms of the valuable asset that may be found in the education and expertise of reservists who make the choice against reenlistment. This, along with their function as transition between the military and the civilian in potentially hostile environments, presents a crisis for the reservist sector. The nature and necessity of defence do not always allow sufficiently for recruiting and training replacement reservists.

Importantly, it has been found that reservists whose income and…… [read more]


Selection Process for Naval Aviators Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  7 pages (2,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Williams (1999) discusses the overall selection process for naval aviators. As they have been using the ATSB, since 1992 to determine who has the proper mental and emotional attributes for the career field. However, some standardized tests can only predict certain elements, of who will be successful in this field. Given the fact that there are over 10… [read more]


Root Factors Affecting the U.S. Military's Readiness Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … root factors affecting the U.S. Military's readiness to perform its primary functions during the initial stages of the conflict under investigation.

Main point 1. Upton's War against Political Corruption

Poor leadership

Paltry and indolent corporals

Political maneuvering and 'protekzia' infected Army conditions and leadership hence army morale

Main point 2: Sassaman and American Arrogance.

American ethnocentrism / disregard… [read more]


History of Warfare, Armies Will Adapt Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … history of warfare, armies will adapt to the overall nature of the threat that they are facing. Where, everyone is searching for ways of effectively incorporating the latest techniques, (with the most state of the art technology), in an effort to improve the operational effectiveness of their organization. Such is the case with the U.S. Army Signal Corps, as they have evolved with the different changes, to become a vital part of the mission. To fully understand this overall changing role requires: examining how the responsibilities of the Signal Corps have evolved over the last 35 years. This will provide the greatest insights, as to how this MOS is changing, with the new operational objectives and needs of the Army.

The Changing Nature of Warfare

In 1976, the Signal Corps would undergo a tremendous transformation. As the 1973 Arab Israeli War would highlight, how future conflicts would be decided based upon an organization's ability effectively communicate. This is because improved communication, gave the Israelis an advantage over their adversaries, as this allowed them to coordinate and adapt to changes on the battlefield (in real time). At which point, Israeli Defense Forces were able to outmaneuver their Arab rivals, resulting in a favorable outcome from the conflict. This is important, because it would highlight how the U.S. Army needed to embrace the principal of improved communication, to remain one step ahead of the Soviet Union.

As a result, a long process of improving communication would occur throughout the 1980's and into the 1990's. At first, some of these changes would take time to see implementation. Then, after a series of obvious oversights, the various shortcomings were addressed to improve communication. A good example of this occurred during Operation Urgent Furry in 1983. As American forces would run into numerous communication issues when securing the island of Grenada. This is important, because it would highlight how the Signal Corps need to improve communication among every segment of…… [read more]


Nevada, WW2 During World War II Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Nevada, WW2

During World War II, the stat5e of Nevada made three significant contributions to the war effort. The desert north of Las Vegas provided the perfect location for the Las Vegas Army Air Force Gunnery School. The town of Henderson was located near both crude magnesite and the power generated by the Hoover Dam. In addition to the geographical resources, the state of Nevada also lost 592 men in combat. This essay will explore the history of the Nellis Air Force Base and Basic Magnesium Inc.

In January of 1941, Mayor John L. Russell of Las Vegas sold a large parcel of land to the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps for the development of the flexible gunnery school. The school would provide as training to aerial gunners to make them combat ready. This land had several qualities that made it an attractive location for the school: flying weather was ideal year-round; more than 90% of the area to the north was unpopulated public domain and available at $1 per acre; the inland strategic location was excellent; rocky hills, approximately six miles from the base afforded a natural backdrop for cannon and machine-gun firing; and dry lake beds were available for emergency landings.

When the army purchased this land it consisted of a dirt runway, a well and a small shack. Five officers, living in the basement of the Las Vegas federal building, began the school, which by mid-1941 had 3,000 students with ten at-6 "Texan" trainers and seventeen B-10 "Martin" bombers. B-17s arrived in 1942 and B-29s arrived in 1945. Training at the school lasted five weeks and would have six hundred gunnery students and 215 co-pilots per term. By the end of 1945, the base's population rose to nearly 11,000 officers and enlist men. When the war ended in May of 1945, the base was turned into a center for separating (discharging) army personnel. The Las Vegas Air Force base was closed in 1947. A year later it reopen and served as a jet fighter-training base for the Korean War.

In 1950, the Las Vegas Air Force base was renamed the Nellis Air Force base after a southern-Nevada war hero. William Harrell Nellis who ran seventy aerial combat missions for General George S. Patton. He was shot down in the Battle of the Bulge in December 27, 1044. In May 2009, President Barack Obama chose Nellis as the location to give a speech on the U.S. energy policy.

Basic Magnesium, Inc., a mining company, established a magnesium processing plant in Henderson, Nevada in 1937. This site was select because of proximity to sources of electricity and magnesium mines. The processing facility was built with federal funds approved by Franklin D. Roosevelt on the urging of Senator Patrick McCarran and BMI owner Howard P.…… [read more]


History of the Chief Petty Officer Khaki Uniforms Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,097 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Military

History of the Chief Petty Officer Khaki Uniforms

The first uniform instruction for the U.S. Navy was issued by the Secretary of War on 24 August 1791. It supplied a distinguishing dress for the officers who would command the ships of the Federal Navy. The education did not contain a uniform for the enlisted man, although there was an amount of uniformity. The usual and customary dress of a seaman was made up of a short jacket, shirt, vest, long trousers, and a black low crowned hat (Navy Uniform History, 2010).

The foul anchor as a naval insignia got its establishment as the seal of the Lord Howard of Effingham. He was the Lord Admiral of England at the time of the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. During this time the personal seal of a grand officer of state was accepted as the seal of his office. At the time that this office became part of the current Board of Admiralty, the seal was retained on buttons, official seals, and cap badges. The Navy's implementation of this symbol and many other customs can be directly credited to the influence of British Naval tradition. The fouled anchor is amid them (Navy Uniform History, 2010).

The Khaki uniform was put into use in 1845 in India where British soldiers saturated white uniforms in mud, coffee, and curry powder in order to blend in with the landscape. Khakis originally came on the scene in the U.S. Navy in 1912 when they were worn by naval aviators, and were accepted for submarines in 1931. In 1941 the Navy approved khakis for on- post wear by senior officers, and soon after Pearl Harbor chiefs and officers were sanctioned to wear khakis ashore on liberty (Navy Uniform History, 2010).

In 1913 high laced shoes of tan leather first emerged in Uniform Regulations and were certified for wear by aviators with khaki's. The color was changed to russet brown in 1922. Uniforms limited to the aviation community were abolished in the 1920's and then put back in place in the 1930's. The official color of aviator's shoes has alternated between brown and black since that time (Navy Uniform History, 2010).

Officer stars were first approved online officers uniforms in January of 1864. All rules and regulations since 1873 have specified that one ray would point downward toward the gold stripe on the sleeve. The reason for this is unknown. CPO stars were launched with the creation of SCPO and MCPO. The logic for stars pointed one ray down is unknown. There are indications thought that point to following the line officers standard. Strips and Stars emerged on jumper uniforms in January 1876. Rear Admiral Stephen B. Luce suggested a collar with stars and stripes as an alternative for the plain collar used on the frocks of seamen. Three stripes on the collar were proposed for all grades, with the stripes on the cuffs to designate grade (Navy Uniform History, 2010).

In 1841, insignia known… [read more]


Sexual Assault Policies Involving Military Members Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,099 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sexual Assault Policies

Sexually Assault Policies involving military members

Sexual Assault Policies Involving Military Members

A Study of the Anatomy of Rape in Military and Legal Recourses Available To Victims

Rape within U.S. Military -- A Perspective

Any study of rape in U.S. Military should perhaps be put in proper perspective by analyzing the underlying reasons that prompt a soldier… [read more]


American Revolution American Victory and the Waning Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (937 words)
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American Revolution

American Victory and the Waning British Empire

The United States began quite humbly as subjugate to the world's great power. As a prolific player in the colonization of the lands which lay outside the pale of European civilization, the British Empire emerged victorious as the sole claimant to the country which would eventually succeed it as the globe's furthest reaching and most culturally influential national entity. As we know it today, the United States is geographically, economically and politically unparalleled in its wealth and in its capacity to shape international patterns of trade, diplomacy and war. With a presence in each of these capacities that impinges upon the dominant affairs of every inhabited continent, its vision and priorities are typically supported with the vigor of manifest destiny. The United States and the United Kingdom are today great partners on a divided world stage. Ironically, we may argue that this is a relationship which in its worst straits would help to plant the seeds for a reciprocating progressiveness that would leap back and forth across the Atlantic through the coming century. Bred in the thick of British colonialism, the United States would surface into existence with an ingrained nod to monarchical elitism and a full-fledged thrust toward constitutional democracy. The transition would suggest a new caveat to the people, with the expectations of political involvement and activism promoting suitable elected representation. In the United Kingdom, the rule of the British Crown and a feudalist system with highly unequal socioeconomic propensities, helped to maintain a culture of political ignorance amongst the publics while assuring leadership, authority and wealth to those who had inherited it. In the United States, historians like Martin & Lender (2006) argue, a convergence of the will of the people and the oversight of an elite social core would promote victory for the fledgling democracy. It would also signal the crumbling of the British Empire, which would deteriorate dramatically in the century to follow.

This is to posit the central argument that America won their War for Independence by establishing itself as a cause worth fighting for. So is the argument produced by Martin & Lender, who offer an exhaustive case that the Continental Army more than any other force would serve up defeat to the far more powerful, experienced and trained British soldiers. For Martin & Lender, the socioeconomic integration of the Continent Army would be one of its key features. Though American fighters were often reluctant to leave the comfortable confines of their respective state and regional militias -- which also constituted an important force in repelling British tyranny -- Martin & Lender cite the central importance of the Continental Army in reflecting what were to be the formative impulses of the burgeoning nation.

Particularly, the fighting force seemed to imply a convergence…… [read more]


Technology Issue in Information Assurance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,012 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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Technology Issue in Information Assurance

Cyberwars: The Virtual Battlefield of the 21st Century

In the very near future, many conflicts will not take place on the open field of battle, but rather in spaces on the Internet, fought with the aid of information soldiers.... This means that a small force of hackers is stronger than the multi-thousand force of the… [read more]


Gay and Lesbian Abuse and Military Don't Ask, Don't Tell Policy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (996 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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DADT

'Don't ask, don't tell': The debate rages on 'Don't ask, don't tell' (DADT) is the policy that permits gay and lesbian men and women to serve in the military only if they conceal their sexuality. Despite objections to the law articulated by citizens, politicians, and servicemen alike, it continues to remains in force. "Senate Republicans blocked the attempt to move ahead with the bill that would have repealed the ban on gay troops serving openly in the military. The vote was 57-40, almost entirely along party lines, and three short of the 60 needed….The vote was a setback to President Obama and the Democratic leadership, who have made repealing the Clinton-era policy a key priority. And it short-circuited the efforts of a handful of Republicans who said they supported a repeal but wanted more time to negotiate the process of debating and voting on the measure" (Shear 2010).

There is mounting evidence that many distinguished gay and lesbian individuals have and are continuing to serve in the U.S. military, soldiers such as Jonathan Hopkins. Hopkins was promoted to the rank of major one year early "a considerable achievement" even for a three time, bronze star-winning soldier (Mulrine 2010). "As a high school student, his score on the Pentagon's aptitude test for military service was so high that recruiters encouraged him to apply to West Point. He did, and he graduated fourth among his peers in the Class of 2001. Hopkins then deployed once to Afghanistan and twice to Iraq, where the platoon he led helped secure Kirkuk in the war's first push" (Mulrine 2010). However, despite these impressive accomplishments, Hopkins lived in fear because of one simple reason: his sexuality. "Since 1993, some 12,500 gay men and lesbians have been discharged from the service when their sexual orientation became known, because either they or others made it public" (Don't ask, don't tell, 2010, the New York Times).

The military has undergone sweeping changes before. Even when the United States was polarized between the segregated south and non-segregated north, in 1948, the military had the courage to integrate African-American troops with white soldiers, noting the bravery they had shown on both fronts in World War II. At the time, an estimated 70-80% of the soldiers opposed the measure, but the military proceeded anyway. "By 1953, 90% of Army units were integrated, while buses in Montgomery, Ala., were not" (Mulrine 2010). As a point of comparison, "48% of Army combat units…expressed concern about gays serving openly," less than a majority (Mulrine 2010).

The objections raised to ending to DADT are similar to those raised against the army's decision to integrate its forces. Those who advocate the maintenance of DADT say that Americans are not ready to accept gays equally and openly. Yet legislation prohibiting the integration of the services was repealed many years before African-Americans were treated as equals in the racially polarized South. Others say that there are questions about separate facilities -- yet gay and straight servicemen…… [read more]


Military the Multifaceted American Defense Strategies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (607 words)
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Military

The multifaceted American defense strategies do not preclude them from sharing key components, themes, and ideals in common. The National Security Strategy (NSS), the National Defense Strategy (NDS), the National Military Strategy (NMS), and the National Strategy for Maritime Security are critically aligned in terms of several key areas. Each places national defense strategies within a historic and policy framework, with special emphasis on post-September 11 realities. Terrorism is a major thematic thread in each of these strategic defense documents, which explicates the need for policy that transcends interactions between nation-states. Weapons of mass destruction are articulated as one of the primary defense concerns in all four documents, especially as the infiltration of terrorist networks presents tricky political as well as policy and military strategies.

The National Strategy for Maritime Security may be the only document that does not expressly stress the role of the United States as a shaper of the international environment. Yet the National Strategy for Maritime Security does present the United States as being in a unique position of power to influence the choices made by other nations in regards to their impact on American ports and its domestic security. Therefore, the purported role of the United States as a promoter of global peace, prosperity, and social justice is clearly defined in each of these strategy documents. Establishing the United States as a self-defined hegemon is a risky stance and yet also a realistic one, especially in light of the fact that "the United States remains the only nation able to project and sustain large-scale operations over extended distances," (Quarterly Defense Report, p. iv).

Allocation of funds and human resources is not touched upon in any great detail in any of the four strategy documents. Instead, they each emphasize the importance of recognizing and combatting threats to domestic…… [read more]


Basic Training and Gender or Women in the Military Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,228 words)
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¶ … Training Women for the MilitarynEven as the lines between combat and non-combat assignments become increasingly blurred and women who are assigned combat roles find themselves in active war zones, there remain a number of questions about how women are to be integrated into the military. Some of these questions arise from simple sexism: People who think that women… [read more]


Retired Military Media Analysts Essay

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Retired Military Media Analysts

Gates urges greater clarity by military media analysts: An overview of the U.S. Defense Secretary's position

Gates urges greater clarity by military media analysts: An overview of the U.S. Defense Secretary's position

Many viewers like to congratulate themselves that they are savvy media consumers. They say they are able to discern the conservative bias of Fox News and are all too well aware that the reason their favorite character on a sitcom loves to eat cereal is because Kellogg is a leading sponsor of the program. However, when it comes to military figures, there is an often near-instinctive trust on the part of the public that the individuals they see are speaking truthfully and with candor about their knowledge of the U.S. military situation abroad. Who else could know better than an officer about the risks of withdrawal or the potential benefits of a new military system? The public is likely to think that an officer is likely to know better, even than a politician, about national security and military tactics, given his or her training and experience.

The problem, U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates states in a 2008 article published in Science Daily entitled "Gates urges greater clarity by military media analysts" is that many individuals who are retired officers go on to work as private contractors. These officers are no longer people who are duty-bound to put the greater interests of the nation and the soldiers under their command first and foremost. Now they are private citizens with a financial interest that certain actions are undertaken by the federal government, and they may have a clear bias in favor of certain weapons systems, because of the position of their company.

These military analysts are often presented as "objective" observers to the American public, and no mention is made of their change in status. There is often a clear political or financial (or at times both) interest that the individual has when disseminating an opinion, just as much as a spokesperson for Kraft or Mattel might have, defending his or her company against allegations that a product is harmful, or an advertising campaign is misleading. For example, an individual working for a company that manufactures Air Force equipment might have a perceptual or deliberate bias regarding the need to bolster the Air Force to combat terrorist attacks; an individual who has started a contracting company that manufactures strategic defense…… [read more]


DIMHRS vs. HRIS Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,018 words)
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¶ … Department of Defense (DOD) has been using the HRIS Human Resources Information System which is a "..."software or online solution for the data entry, data tracking and information needs of the Human Resources, payroll, management and accounting functions within a business." (Heathfield, 2009) The Department of Defense (DOD) is "transforming the services to face current and future challenges." This is because recent studies have indicated a need for DOD to integrate its forces to better serve the requirements of the nation. However, there is a challenge as noted in the work of Koch (2009) who states that DIMHRS with all its potential has not been implemented in a timely manner and this has created other complications and specifically in the work of Koch (2009) noted are Navy applications that are presently on hold until DIMHRS has been fully implemented. Funding cuts are stated to have resulted in impairing "readiness and retention" as well as impact the ability to "support migration to the DIMHRS" and specifically from the view of the Navy to "develop Navy-unique functionality that will not exist in the DIMHRS." (Koch, 2009)

DIMHRS VS HRIS

Introduction

The Department of Defense (DOD) has been using the HRIS Human Resources Information System which is a "..."software or online solution for the data entry, data tracking and information needs of the Human Resources, payroll, management and accounting functions within a business." (Heathfield, 2009) Typical provisions of HRIS include:

(1) Management of all employee information;

(2) Reporting and analysis of employee information;

(3) Company-related documents such as employee handbooks, emergency evacuation procedures, and safety guidelines;

(4) Benefits administration including enrollment, status changes, and personal information updating;

(5) Complete integration with payroll and other company financial software and accounting systems; and (6) Applicant and resume management. (Heathfield, 2009) This system however, has been revamped as this work will demonstrate.

I. Consolidation of the Department of Defense Human Resources System

The work of Ladra (2005) entitled: "Personnel Transformation -- Consolidation of the Department of Defense Human Resources System Into a Joint system" states that the Department of Defense (DOD) is "...transforming the services to face current and future challenges." This is because recent studies have indicated a need for DOD to integrate its forces to better serve the requirements of the nation." (Ladra, 2005)

II. Services to be Combined

The current DOD system was stated in the work of Ladra (2005) to be "disjointed in its efforts to accomplish similar missions" therefore services will be combined in areas that are similar for the purposes as follows:

(1) Leveraging technology;

(2) Reduction of unnecessary redundancy;

(3) Enhancement of cohesion; and (4) Conservation of resources. (Ladra, 2005)

It is stated as well that integration can be increased and transformation supported through combining the Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps Human Resource Systems into a joint system "comprising military, DOD civilians and contractors to operate more efficiency" in meeting strategic requirements. (Ladra, 2005)

III. Defense Integrated Military Human Resources System (DIMHRS)

Ladra (2005) states… [read more]


Why Is it Important to Have a Strong Military? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (331 words)
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¶ … Strong Military

DEMOCRACY & the IMPORTANCE of a STRONG MILITARY

The importance of a strong military cannot be denied and this is particularly true in a state of Democracy and in a country that cherishes its freedom from oppression from other powers in the world who would if possible, tread upon that freedom if not for the presence of a strong military defense.

PRESERVATION of DEMOCRACY

The work of General Hugh Shelton and John H. Dalton (2009) states that Americans "have always answered the call to service: to defend against powers who would threaten our security and to fight for the cause of peace in times of conflict." p.1 as stated by General Shelton and Dalton the world today is dangerous and this certainly while fading from focus as the Cold War ended once again has emerged as critical since the events of September 11, 2001.

CONTEMPORARY ASPECTS of MILITARY DEFENSE

The military defense of a country has many factions that must be…… [read more]


Most Serious Issue Facing the United States Military Today Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (306 words)
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¶ … U.S. MILITARY TODAY

The most serious issue facing the United States military today is the prospect of asymmetric warfare in connection with ongoing so-called guerilla wars such as those in Iraq and Afghanistan. That is because the U.S. Armed Forces was originally designed and has evolved ever since primarily to address the threat of traditional wars with nation states. Meanwhile, the greatest contemporary threats to U.S. interests are much more likely to arise in connection with non-state actors and terrorists.

Guerilla warfare in urban environments poses a tremendous difficulty for the U.S. military because it does not lend itself to the application of military force of the kind relied upon by modern military superpowers. Moreover, while U.S. military strategists must always consider civilian casualties and keep any collateral damage to an absolute minimum, the insurgents and terrorists have no such compunction and purposely target civilians and infrastructure.

Like the militaries of…… [read more]


Desert Shield Desert Storm Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,213 words)
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¶ … Desert Shield/Desert Storm (the invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein in 1990). The Gulf War began in the oil fields of Iraq, and ended with the liberation of Kuwait by American and allied forces through the United Nations. Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, which were forged by the Americans, became collectively known as the Gulf War, and… [read more]


U.S. Participation in a Multi-National Conflict Management Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,357 words)
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U.S. PARTICIPATION in a MULTI-NATIONAL CONFLICT Management FORCE: MILITARY INTERVENTION and PEACEKEEPING

The objective of this work is to examine U.S. participation in a multi-national conflict management force in terms of the valid reasons that exist to support such participation. Conflict takes many forms in terms of situations that may require military intervention and peacekeeping and specifically in situations where… [read more]


Lessons Learned From the Attack on Pearl Harbor Essay

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Attack on Pearl Harbor

Lessons from the attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was described by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt as a "day of infamy." The statement basically sums up the sentiments of Americans during that time, from a historical perspective the attack on Pearl Harbor is a manifestation of power relationships in the international arena between the United States and Japan and their failure to achieve a consensus that could have prevented their clash in World War II. It is noteworthy to analyze the lessons that can be learned from the events of Pearl Harbor, that these lessons transcend more than the military failure of the U.S. To anticipate the attack but to address the root cause of why the attack happened in the first place.

In 1940, Japan expanded its influence in the territories of French Indo China and the Dutch East Indies. The U.S. In its effort to halt the Japanese expansionist policy implemented a ban for the sale of war materials to Japan that include oil, iron and steel for airplanes. However, the move further fueled dissention between the two countries. Japan and the U.S. held talks to iron out a compromise but the extreme militarists such as General Tojo Hideki were gaining power in Japan. They hoped to seize lands in Asia and the Pacific and the U.S. was interfering with their plans. To prevent interference with its expansions into new areas, the Japanese needed to cripple the American naval forces stationed in Hawaii. (Stearns, Schwartz and Beyer, 1991, pp. 699-700) With talks at a standstill, General Tojo ordered a surprise attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Early on December 7, 1941, Japanese airplanes damaged and destroyed 19 ships and killed more than 2,400 people. However, the carriers, the main targets of the attack, survived because they were at sea. The Americans were completely unprepared for the air attack at Pearl Harbor; most of them were asleep or eating breakfast. Japan did not issue any formal declaration of war and thus the surprise attack was a military success. The next day U.S. President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan. (Gaynor and Esler, 2003, pp.770-80).

Despite the attack on Pearl Harbor that ushered in the United States' entry into World War II, Japanese sentiment of engaging the U.S. into an all out war was less optimistic. Akira (1990) argued that Japanese leaders took the plunge into war with little hope of victory against the U.S. while simultaneously making preparations for a war against the U.S.S.R. And continuing hostilities against China. Akira stressed that it is well-known that the top level navy leaders had serious misgivings about the prospect of protracted war based on their knowledge of the disparity in national strength between Japan and the U.S. In fact, Commander in Chief of the combined fleet Yamamoto Isoroku felt that Japan would be able to…… [read more]


Women in the Military Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (772 words)
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Women in the Military

Benefits of Women in the Combat Zone

Historically women have not been allowed to serve in military combat situations. This has been due in part to the Aspin Rules. These rules where established by the Defense Secretary, Les Aspin, in 1994. Basically the rules say that women are not allowed to be placed in small direct combat units that take direct offensive action against an enemy. Although there has not been any official change to these rules, there has been some relaxation in the placement of women in combat zones (Eberhart, 2004).

This change has most recently been seen with the wars in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Although women were not official assigned to combat units, they were definitely in the middle of the combat zone. Wars today are not like they used to be and the lines between direct and indirect combat zones are often blurry. Women are being placed into dangerous situations that may unintentionally put them into a direct line of fire. Even though public opinion seems to be split on the issue of women in combat, the Army says that it is now a necessity.

In order to have enough qualified candidates from which to recruit the Army says that changing the rules regarding women in combat is necessary. There are not enough qualified men to fill all the positions that are required (Putko & Johnson, 2008). "According to a Washington Times report, last May the Army told Pentagon officials in a special report that if it was forced to keep the vital FSCs all-male, it would simply not have enough soldiers" (Eberhart, 2004)

Another benefit of allowing women to be part of combat zones is the ability to retain quality soldiers for longer periods of time. Promotion within the military is highly tied to combat service. Since women are not allowed to serve in combat roles, their promotion opportunities are greatly diminished. The military finds it difficult to recruit females into military careers, knowing that their opportunities for advancement are limited. The current belief is that most women do not want to necessarily serve in the infantry; they really just want to have that opportunity if they should so desire it (Putko & Johnson, 2008) third benefit of having female soldiers in a combat zone is one…… [read more]


World War II - Life and Times Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,698 words)
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World War II - Life and Times of Bill Haak

Bill Haak was raised in a family that was very much involved in many ways (economically, socially, and morally) with the Great Depression and involved militarily with WWI. As time went on WWII would have a major effect on the family as well. Haak was born in 1923, the son… [read more]


Role of Women in World War II Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Role of Women in World War II

The Women's Auxiliary Corps

The role of women changed in the 20th century without precedence in history. The change began with events during World War II, which altered and even reversed women's social servility and traditional role. Women's rights reached a peak during this time, especially with the formation of the first female… [read more]


General Dynamics Corporation Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,142 words)
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¶ … extended overview of General Dynamics Corporation. A throughout view of its history, activities, technologic development, its mergers and divestitures, as well as short summary of its financials will be summarized within this paper.

Company overview

General Dynamics represents today a market leader within the aerospace and defense industry, designer of products and services aiming at meeting the needs… [read more]


Blackwater USA Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (3,059 words)
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Blackwater

The Private Contractor Dilemma

During the course of the war in Iraq, the United States has seen many of its allies remove their troops from Iraq. By itself, the United States military would be unable to fight the war and bring stability to the region as it is does not have the requisite number of troops on the ground… [read more]


Daniel Chappie James Jr. Contribution to the Air Force Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,636 words)
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¶ … life of Daniel "Chappie" James Jr. Specifically it will discuss how Daniel "Chappie" James Jr. contributed to the history in the Korean War and how he rose so quickly through the ranks, along with his important part in the 78 combat missions into North Vietnam and his lead in the Bolo MIG sweep. James was crucial in the… [read more]


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,450 words)
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PTSD

WHEN the PAST DOESN'T DIE

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Introduction number of studies and other researches have yielded findings that many or most combat or war veterans who return home from the battlefield develop Post-traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD. The disorder consists in reliving the memories of war, which a veteran re-enacts. Because of the nature of warfare and the… [read more]


Operation Just Cause and Operation Desert Storm Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,533 words)
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Operation Just Cause and Operation Desert Storm

Just Cause & Desert Storm

There are underlying similarities and differences between both the operations. A study in detail of operation Just Cause which was launched in December 1989 involved deployment of personnel form very distant military bases and striking objectives within a twenty four hour time frame. The operation brought into play… [read more]


Military While There Has Been Some Consideration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (328 words)
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Military

While there has been some consideration of the possibility of integrating Professional with Off-Duty Military Training, the two areas are still largely segregated, with the former being more focused upon the specific duties needed in the military environment. Off-Duty training tends to be more broadly focused, with the inclusion of related subjects such as political science and liberal arts.

Current Professional Military Education focuses on the skills and knowledge needed during a specific combat situation. The Cold War has largely influenced this type of education, with physical training forming a prominent part of such programs. Critics have noted that there is also a need for more targeted education relating to the situation in Iraq, in both a combat and non-combat capacity. Post-war education is said to need more preparation for soldiers who are sent abroad.

Specifically, Professional Military Education requires that soldiers be trained for situations such as responding to conventional military threats and meeting unexpected challenges such as terrorist attacks. The focus…… [read more]


Civil War Robert Gould Shaw's Biographer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Civil War

Robert Gould Shaw's biographer describes him as "an ordinary soldier" but "an extraordinary leader," the best that America could be. He led the colored 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, which launched a deathly attack on Fort Wagner, a Confederate base. This Regiment was an experimental unit intended to test the capabilities of Black officers and enlisted soldiers. Shaw proved… [read more]


Uniform Code of Military Justice (Ucmj) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (377 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) is a federal law, enacted by Congress. The provisions of the UCMJ are contained in United States Code, Title 10, Chapter 47. Furthermore, Article 36 of the UCMJ gives the President the right to recommend rules and procedures to put into practice that the provisions of the UCMJ which he does by the Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM). This is an order that contains detailed instructions for implementing military law for the United States Armed Forces (UCMJ).

In the Article 91, it clearly states that any warrant officer or enlisted member who does the following acts will be punished by court martial as it seen fit (UCMJ).

strikes or assaults a warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer, while that officer is in the execution of his office (UCMJ).;

willfully disobeys the lawful order of a warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer; or (UCMJ).

treats with contempt or is disrespectful in language or deportment toward a warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer while that officer is in the execution of his office (UCMJ).

Article 92

This Article 91 also goes along…… [read more]


Northern Expedition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,325 words)
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Northern Expedition a military campaign launched by the Kuamintang (KMT) in July 1926 to defeat the warlords controlling northern China, is considered to be an important event in modern Chinese history as it served to unify the country after decades of instability and fragmentation. It also helped Chiang Kai-shek, the commander of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) who led the campaign, to emerge as a strong national leader. In this paper, besides describing the background and events of the Northern Expedition, I shall discuss the role played by Chiang Kai-shek in the campaign and the reasons for his success.

After the failure of the Republican Revolution of 1911 to consolidate and the death of Yuan Shikai, the first President of the Republic in 1916, China had gradually fallen prey to 'warlordism' with several centers of power in the country. Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the Kuamintang (KMT) also set up a 'revolutionary government' in 1917 in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou (Canton) to compete with the warlords who controlled most of northern China. Chiang Kai-shek, who had participated in the Republican Revolution alongside Sun Yat-sen and other Chinese nationalists, was appointed military chief by Sun in his revolutionary government in 1923 ("Chiang Kai-shek" 2007). Chiang's most notable achievement at the time was the establishment of a military academy at Whampoa with Soviet aid in which he personally trained nearly 2,000 cadets.

In order to achieve unity in China, Chiang Kai-shek and Sun Yat-sen were conviced that the warlords had to be defeated. They, therefore, made plans for a decisive military campaign -- the Northern Expedition-- against the warlords in the north but before the plan could be put into practice, Sun died suddenly in June 1925. In a scramble for succession, Wang Jingwei took over the leadership of KMT, allowed greater Soviet influence in the government and sidelined Chiang from positions of power (Van, 2003, p. 98).

Chiang Kai-shek, however, was by no means finished. He was still commander of the Canton garrison and on the lookout to get back into prominence. He soon got his chance when, for reasons still unclear, a gunboat, commanded by a Communist officer, suddenly appeared before dawn off Whampoa Island on March 20, 1926. Using the incident as an excuse, Chiang placed Canton under martial law, arrested several Soviet advisors in the city and closed down Communist newspapers. In the crisis that followed, Wang Jingwei resigned and went into exile; Chiang took over as the head of the Military Affairs Council (MAC) and the commander of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA). He asked Comintern and the Soviets to support a northern military campaign, besides putting up a number of demands that would tone down the Communists' influence in KMT affairs. The Soviets agreed to Chiang's demands as Stalin was engaged in a critical domestic power struggle and could not afford a blow to his prestige that a complete eviction of Soviet advisors from China would signal (Spence, 1999, p. 326).

The Northern Expedition… [read more]


Achievements of the Military V Diplomats Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,540 words)
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SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Achievements of the Military v Diplomats

The Achievements of the Military are More Decisive than the Achievements of the Diplomats (With Reference to the U.S. Foreign Policy between 1930 and 1956)

The question whether "the achievements of the military are more decisive than those of the diplomats" often boils down to a comparison between the pros and cons… [read more]


Old Navy Gap Inc., Parent Company Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (571 words)
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Old Navy

Gap Inc., parent company of Old navy, has been losing customers and revenues steadily for last few years. The flagship brands Old Navy and Banana Republic have consequently suffered a great deal. The competitors have come up with better ideas and strategies, which have had a significant impact on market share. Old Navy needs to understand where its main flaws and fault lie in order to target them more successfully and effectively. The main problem that we notice is needless expansion of Old Navy stores. Whether Gap Inc. understands this or not, but its consistent expansion only means it is spreading itself very thinly. This can cause a decrease in revenues because of increased overheads. The Old Navy stores have now been opened in Canada too where the company is planning to open many new stores in coming years. However this strategy of expansion works best when profits are very high and revenues are solid. This is not the case with Old Navy and thus expansion only translates into further loses.

Some of the important steps that Old Navy needs to take are as follows:

Stop expanding

Since Old Navy needs to increase revenues, it must start cutting costs. Attracting more customers to the shop by offering them very low prices shows a desperate attempt at winning elusive customers. But it doesn't lead to higher revenues unless low prices were your basic strategy as has been in the case of Wal-Mart. In all other cases, it only spells disaster and reeks of desperation. Instead cutting costs is a better option which obviously cannot be achieved if Old Navy continues to expand.

Find a Niche

Wal-Mart is always low prices and Target is reasonably…… [read more]


Old Navy Began Operations as an Affordable Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Old Navy began operations as an affordable option for trendy apparel in 1994. After years on intense, low-cost competition from Target, Kohl's H&M and Walmart, the company wisely introduced new products and prices aimed at the more upscale shopper beginning in July 2006. To do so, it revised its store design and began advertising campaigns in upscale women's fashion magazines such as Style, Lucky, Vogue and Marie Claire. Old Navy's new advertising slogan was, "get your fash'on" at Old Navy." They elevated the product line with better fabrics such as silk and leather and improved quality. Even so, Old Navy is still having a hard time getting customers to its store and is now trying to figure out its next turnaround strategy.

Six months isn't enough time to justify switching strategy. "If you can't make up your mind about what this brand is supposed to be and stand for in the marketplace, how can consumers be expected to figure it out?" (Marketing myths of January). Moving in yet another direction would likely do Old Navy more harm than good. Instead, Old Navy should try to figure out what about its strategy isn't working. It needs to look at its target audience, it positioning and product mix and its advertising campaign, just to name a few of the variables that can influence market success for the retailer.

Upscale retail competitors such as Abercrombie & Fitch, American Eagle Outfitter, J.Crew and Urban Outfitters are all performing well, but all Old Navy flounders. The reason is that they have found their niche in the market by targeting specific demographics while Old Navy seems to be aimed at everyone. Abercrombie & Fitch targets high school and college students; American Eagle Outfitters targets consumers 15 to 25; J. Crew targets slightly older, more affluent professionals;…… [read more]


Flags of Our Fathers Summary of Book Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,466 words)
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Flags of Our Fathers

Summary of book

It is the quintessential image of World War II, showing six members of the Easy Company raising the American flag on Iwo Jima. This image was captured by photographer Joe Rosenthal, who eventually won the Pulitzer Prize. However, until the publication of James Bradley and Ron Powers' Flags of Our Fathers, few people… [read more]


Thailand Scenario Force Capabilities Vignettes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Other troop estimates MIGHT based upon the 2011 Cobra Gold, which was scheduled to conclude Feb. 18 involved 11,220 people, including 7,200 U.S. service members, including he U.S. Marine Aircraft Group 36, the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing and the 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force. The multinational forces were deployed in Korat using Thailand's Utapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield in Chanthaburi province and other close support facilities. These facilities lie about 180 miles west of a four day artillery clash along the Thai-Cambodian border between the Thai and Cambodian armies (Ehrlich) .

Coalition forces are of primary importance in a support role both in terms of equip and advisors. Due its primarily counterinsurgency role in the south of country against Moslem guerillas, the royal Thai Army's ground force battalions operate separately and therefore lack the strength of unity. In terms of joint and combined C2 structures that might be considered, Thailand has a highly capable communications system in place. Such unity can be established by means of an adequate communications network. This author suggests that the United States supports the Thais by means of capability deployments that would include including C3I and language capabilities. Equipment systems such as the Command Post Of the Future (COPF) designed by DARPA make the coordination of everything from satellite to individual radio communications possible ("Defense Update") . Additionally, logistical support such as ground force fires and specialized reinforcement units would probably be required. In terms of communications, the U.S. should only need to establish a support network to coordinate integrate military communications and operations in the host country.

Myanmar Scenario

Myanmar's armed forces have been increasingly reorienting themselves to defend against what they feel could be a possible U.S.-led foreign invasion. Frequently,… [read more]


Japanese Preparation and Attack Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
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In this regard, Hill emphasizes that, "[Pearl Harbor] convinced a majority of Americans to escalate to total war against Germany; most Americans believed that Germany was either an accomplice or the political master of Japan, thus making Hitler at least as guilty as Japan for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The attack on Pearl Harbor was the defining event for U.S. entrance into World War II, not only as it regarded the Pacific theater, but also the European theater."

Long-term significance. The long-term significance of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was the utter destruction of the Japanese empire, with Hiroshima and Nagasaki representing only a tithe of the destruction that was visited on the island nation through incendiary bombings of most major cities.

References

Burns, G.E. (2011). "The War Years." Pan American Historical Foundation. [online] available:

http://www.panam.com/cgi-bin/_textdisplay_0.asp?display=WARYEARS&refer=

264168681&call=D.

Czarnecki, J., Worth, R., Noch, M.C., Horan, M.E. & DiGiulian, T. (2011). Order of battle:

Pearl Harbor -- December 7, 1941. [online] available: http://www.navweaps.com / index_oob/OOB_WWII_Pacific/OOB_WWII_Pearl_Harbor.htm.

Divine, R.A. (1969). Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

Edgar, B. (1999). Warrior of Kokoda: A Biography of Brigadier Arnold Potts. St. Leonards,

NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Flamiano, D. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,

Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):

23-24.

Hill, R.F. (2003). Hitler Attacks Pearl Harbor: Why the United States Declared War on Germany. Boulder,… [read more]


Revolutionary People at War the Continental Army and American Character 1775-1783 Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character

The book by Charles Royster is certainly well thought out and well presented in terms of the sequence of the chapters, the illustrations, the informative Prologue and the tightly written narrative. Too often historical records of wars and contentious periods in American history contain far too much emotionally patriotic -- even jingoistic -- narrative. Royster knows how to tell a story well, even one that has been part of the history of America for 230 years or so; after all, whether the book is about history, or science, or philosophy, if the author does not excel at story-telling, the reader is left out in the cold. Royster keeps the reader interested and involved.

How did the Continental Army -- a rag-tag group of patriots that were out-manned, out-gunned, with less training than the enemy -- manage to defeat the mighty British army? This book offers a vast storehouse of information to answer that specific question. Royster does it without breathlessly pushing any particular point-of-view on the reader, although he does use religion as a theme.

Royster does have a point-of-view. And he expresses it throughout the book, but rather than the reader suffering from strong editorial whiplash, the viewpoint and theme Royster presents is quite digestible. For example, in his Prologue (Royster 1979, 10) the author is setting the stage for his storytelling of the actual combat. He writes that the British army called the colonial fighters "a chickenhearted race of farmers, dry goods dealers, and slave drivers" (Royster 1979, 10). And the British weren't the only ones to verbally malign the colonial fighters; they were called the "loyalists" and they called the revolutionary army "A vagabond Army of Ragamuffins, with Paper Pay, bad clothes and worse spirits" (Royster, 1979 10).

Undaunted by the taunting, the revolutionaries were confident because they were counting on God's plan for this young country, Royster explains on pages 13 and 14. Meanwhile as the war began the American troops believed they had "two strengths" to ensure their "superiority"; one was they trained utilizing basic fighting techniques without a lot of razzle-dazzle showmanship for the public; and the second strength was simply, as Royster writes on page 25, that Americans possessed "natural," or "native," or "innate" courage against the enemy.

A key and interesting portion of the book is when General George Washington arrived in Massachusetts to take control of the continental army. The discipline was outrageously loose and the men were in jeopardy because of poor sanitation (men would "ease themselves" -- have bowel movements -- where they happened to be in camp), because of the reckless firing of their muskets, because of homesickness and overall dearth of solid training (Royster, 1979 58-63). However, as Royster explains on pages 96-98, the Continental Army "…began to develop the character that it retained throughout the war" and moreover, in June 1776 the "Americans' skill and dedication in serving their guns surprised…… [read more]


Military Logistics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (4,026 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Military Logistics

PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

An analysis of how the battlefield logistics contractor policy in the Department of Defense can be reformed has been performed. This analysis came from the surveying of 26 program managers, but did not include the Air Force. The research was based on existing data that was compiled by the researcher, and it… [read more]


Cyber Terrorism and Warfare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,784 words)
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Cyber-crime, Cyber-Terrorism, And Cyber-Warfare

Since the earliest days of the first primitive computer information networks and information systems, a perpetual evolutionary war has existed between entities relying on those computer systems and entities seeking to exploit those systems by acquiring unauthorized access to them or to disrupt them maliciously. This dynamic precedes the contemporary Internet Age by more than a… [read more]


Mexico Army's Punitive Expedition Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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Mexico

Army's punitive expedition

The Punitive Expedition is the name of a military campaign that the government of the United States took place in Mexico to capture revolutionary leader Pancho Villa, who had attacked a U.S. outpost on March 9th of 1916 sending a military expedition to trap Francisco Villa on March 14 of 1916.

In the history of relations… [read more]


Military vs. Domestic Public Safety Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (737 words)
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Many agencies can make an effort to get close to that level, but this researcher does not see that actually taking place. However, that does not mean that domestic public safety agencies cannot be prepared for critical incidents. Police and firefighters, for example, are more prepared than the average citizen or the average individual who works at a public safety agency. By looking at what specific safety agencies do with their time, talents, and resources, it is easy to see how some can be more prepared than others. Of course, there are some agencies that keep some of what they do "under wraps" for various reasons, so it can be difficult to judge the level of preparedness that they actually have for critical incidents.

When a domestic public safety agency does have to handle a critical incident, that agency often brings in the military so that it is able to get some help with whatever has gone wrong. The National Guard, for example, is often called in when there are disasters such as hurricanes or excessive flooding. That is done because of the level of preparedness the military has, but also because the military has equipment that domestic public safety agencies simply do not possess. It is sometimes that equipment that is the most significant need in a critical incident. When domestic safety agencies partner with the military to handle a critical incident, everyone gets the benefit of the experiences of other people who have trained very differently from them. That is good news for the people who need help in that incident, because they receive more help - and of different kinds - than they would if only one group was assisting. Even though the military has the preparedness advantage when it comes to critical incident management, that does not mean that domestic public safety agencies have nothing to offer.

References

Dupuy, T.N. (1992). Understanding War: History and Theory of Combat. London: Leo Cooper.

Thompson, J. (1991). Lifeblood of war: Logistics in armed conflict.…… [read more]


Effects of the Defense Authorization Act of 1916 and 1920 on the National Guard Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 28

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¶ … Defense Authorization Act of 1916 & 1920 on the National Guard

In 1790, President George Washington and Henry Knox, who was a military leader at that time tried to persuade the Continental Congress to establish a federally controlled militia, and despite their convincing argument about the benefits that the United States would derive from such military policy, the… [read more]


Spanish Irish Relations in the 16th Century Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,794 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Spanish-Irish Relations in the 16th Century

Role of Ireland within the Priorities of Spanish Government between 1580-1604

The overthrow of the Munster settlement in 1598, followed by the intervention of Spain to assist Hugh O'Neill and his confederates, brought it home to Queen Elizabeth and her advisers that a real possibility existed that England's interest in Ireland would be obliterated,… [read more]


Compare and Contrast the Military Decision-Making Process MDMP With the Joint Operation Planning Process JOPP Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (625 words)
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JOPP v. MDMP

JOPP v MDMP

One way of comparing JOPP and MDMP is within and without. The two planning operations share many similarities, particularly within their tactical objectives and the art and science delivering those outcomes, but JOPP's wider jurisdiction outside the AO, and to higher levels of command are the most important differentiating attributes, themselves composites of multiple interlocking procedures.

Both procedures share similar objectives and methods. JOPP and MDMP use iterative and collaborative planning to achieve commander-centric but adaptive field objectives through a series of similar steps. In general, the two models share the same number of wider steps (seven); the result is products directing specific but broad objectives and orders to assets on the battlefield, and this is achieved through adaptive COA formation and analysis that starts with command but includes feedback from staff and ongoing adaptation as orders are developed, tested through wargaming, verified, authorized and then refined back downward into detailed commands achieving particular deliverables. These steps go from wider overall mission and timeline analysis, where the output is a mission statement, the Joint Force Commander initial intent statement and a list of commander's critical information requirements, which are to be fulfilled by staff toward the next stages of plan development, Course Of Action (COA) development. The COAs under both JOPP and MDMP set out the purpose of the mission, the physical boundaries and exactly how, where, when and in what order war fighting functions will deploy. Both iterative models contain multiple steps within this stage as staff fulfills command's information requirements as wargaming and comparison reveals all the enemy's possible COAs, to which command responds by anticipating and refining all possible actions, reactions and counteractions in both directions across the theater, and methods of evaluating those effects.

In specific, where these procedures differ within the procedures in technical ways that affect how the different forces…… [read more]


Strategy for Peace Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Peace Strategy

A Strategy for Peace

America's global strategy for security, defense and diplomatic interaction is highly complex and today, increasingly contingent upon the implications of globalization. With the deconstruction of commercial and trade barriers, the U.S. has sought to increasingly counterbalance its use of full-fledged military tactics with a combination of more targeted strategic operations and the use of economic pressures such as sanctions to achieve diplomatic goals. While recent patterns relating to the dispatching of major fighting forces to Iraq and Afghanistan have marked something of a departure from this trend, the greater long-term thrust of post Cold War decision-makers has been toward a 'strategy of peace.' And in fact, many of the philosophical concepts unveiled in Melvin Laird's strategy seem prescient in their applicability to the current global landscape. That said, some aspects of Laird's strategy will differ considerably from those recommendable today, largely as a product of their being constructed at the height of the Vietnam War and our prolonged ideological and military conflict with the Soviet Union. While the ambitions provided in Laird's memorandum to then President Nixon are admirable, their orientation is steeped in Cold War thinking. As the discussion hereafter will show, while many of the ideas put forth in Laird's memorandum are pertinent to decisions that the Obama administration must currently face, the peace strategy of the present administration must divorce its reading of this policy recommendation from its Cold War context.

Laird's Strategy:

First, we consider that a number of recommendations in Laird's text are not simply advisable today, but in fact are directly indicative of what would eventually be adopted as post Cold War military policy. Thus, the first aspect of Laird's text that we consider is one which calls for a reduced emphasis on the tactics of military invasion and a heightened reliance on specialized partnership is conflicted regions. According to Laird, one of the major planning goals of his strategic recommendation called for "a larger share of free world security burden to be taken by those free world nations which have enjoyed major U.S. support since World War II, rapid economic growth and a relatively low defense contribution." (Laird, p. 5)

Here, Laird begins to lay out a plan for strategic coordination with a greater proportion of friends, partners and allies, as well as with defense forces comprised of local inhabitants of conflicted regions. This proposes a way of reducing the number of standing military personnel for the United States while simultaneously reducing the number of American soldiers which must be in harm's way. At a time when the United States relied on the draft in order to man its military operations in Vietnam and those prior in the 20th century, this would represent a progressive step for U.S. Defense policy. To this end, it has proven of particular relevance in the face of 21st century military challenges which are more commonly defined by the need to contain local insurgencies or loosely affiliated armed fundamentalist groups. Accordingly, Nagl… [read more]


Jeremy Black's Rethinking Military History Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Rethinking Military History

The goal of Jeremy Black's book Rethinking Military History is simultaneously modest and groundbreaking, in that he considers it "a short 'ideas book'" that nevertheless attempts "to re-position military history at the beginning of the twenty-first century" by identifying and challenging what he views as the central problems facing military history.

He recognizes the potentially hubristic quality… [read more]


Qualities of Washington Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Qualities of Washington

In his book Maverick Military Leaders, Robert Harvey outlines sixteen traits evidenced in the life of most, if not all, maverick military leaders. In the case of George Washington, the most relevant of these are "resolution in the face of terrible setbacks," "an ability to improvise and seize unexpected tactical advantage on the battlefield," and "a fatherly devotion to [his] own men, seeing to their needs during the long periods of inaction and refusing to risk their lives unnecessarily" (Harvey, 2008, p. xlvi). After examining Washington's military exploits during the American Revolution, it will become clear that a large part of his success against the British stemmed from embodying these three traits, because they helped Washington, and the colonial military, overcome immense odds.

Washington's resolution in the face of terrible setbacks is evident throughout the American Revolution, because the Continental Army continuously faced demoralizing defeats and difficulties. For example, in 1776, Washington's "whole campaign from New York to Delaware had been a string of disasters, defeats, miscalculations and retreats" (Harvey, 2008, p. 52). His force had been reduced to just 3,000 from an initial 20,000, and even those that remained were demoralized (Harvey, 2008, p. 52). Nevertheless, Washington was able to recover from this string of defeats and encourage his men, so that on Christmas night of that year, he completed his famous crossing of the Delaware river in "a beautifully executed and heroic (under the arctic conditions) night ambush" (Harvey, 2008, p. 54-55). Where lesser military leaders might have given up after the disastrous campaign of the summer and fall, Washington was able to stay resolute in the face of overwhelming odds, and he carried this trait with him for the rest of the Revolution. His success with crossing the Delaware following months of defeat is only one example of the way in which Washington was able to remain steadfast in his dedication to the cause in the face of difficulties, because the Continental Army would face even more defeat and despair in the months ahead.

The example of the crossing of the Delaware similarly demonstrates Washington's ability to improvise and seize unexpected tactical advantages, because from the British perspective, he simply should not have been able to do what he did on Christmas night, 1776. The British did not pursue the rebel army across the Delaware river in November, based on the "belief that victory was now inevitable and that a mopping up of the remnants of American forces was all that would be required the following spring" (Harvey 53). Instead, the allowed the Continental Army to escape, under the belief that their depleted numbers, supplies, and morale would keep them from achieving any kind of substantial success or advance. Recognizing "the British state of complacency and lack of preparation," Washington realized that "this was too good an opportunity to miss, even…… [read more]


How Leaders Inspire Soldiers Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (987 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … Leaders Inspire Soldiers

Over the last several years, the issue of effective military leadership has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a transformation in the way technology and battlefield tactics are being utilized. For most soldiers, these changes have meant that they will use different tools in conducting modern warfare. As a result, some commanders believe that there has been a shift in the kinds of tools and tactics that are utilized to inspire others. To fully understand the best leadership attributes requires examining those techniques that are most effective. This will help everyone to comprehend what tools must be used to inspire their soldiers. (Laver, 2008, pp. 1 -- 9)

The Best Leadership Attributes

According to Harvey (2008), there are several attributes that are most commonly embraced among all great military leaders to include:

Courage under fire.

The ability to think calmly and rationally on the battlefield.

Determination.

Stamina.

Resolution during times of challenge.

Seizes opportunities.

Improvement.

The use of diplomacy.

Focused on raising morale.

A strong devotion to their own men.

These areas are illustrating how all leaders will embrace many common attributes in conjunction with one another. This is regardless of the changes in technology or battlefield strategies. These ideas will help all military commanders to effectively inspire their soldiers. (Harvey, 2008)

A good example of this can be seen with Irwin Rommel. Here is an individual, who was able to inspire true passion within his soldiers. The way that this occurred, was through willingness to: lead by example, strong determination, having a sense of charisma and he seized upon his opportunities. The combination of these factors helped Rommel to create military victories, in situations where he was outnumbered and outgunned. During the early part of World War II, this was the basic approach that he used as a part of the blitzkrieg (in France and North Africa). These events helped to instill confidence in his men. As a result, this is illustrating how these basic characteristics are what helped to make Rommel such a successful leader. (Harvey, 2008)

Moreover, there are other military commanders who used similar tactics to inspire their soldiers. One the better examples can be seen with General Norman Schwarzkopf. He was the U.S. commander during the 1991 Gulf War with Iraq. At the time, there were considerable amounts of concern surrounding the operation. This is because, most American forces were inexperienced in fighting heavy amounts of combat. While the Republican Guard of Iraq, fought numerous bloody battles against the Iranians during the 1980s. This sparked concerns that America was an aging power, which was very weak militarily. (Hughes, 2002) (Tucker, 2010, pp. 1081 -- 1082)

During the buildup, Schwarzkopf promised that the total number of casualties would be minimized through a new kind of strategy. This is because he had seen the problems associated with: inept commanders and unresponsive officials (from his time as a platoon leader…… [read more]


Teamwork in the Military Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

If nothing else, teamwork provides military personnel with support and encouragement in times when they need it most. Even thought the Vietnam war was unpopular at home, the military personnel fighting for this country were able to rely on one another for support and encouragement, and to ensure that to as great an extent as possible they survived and thrived in the post war era. This is merely another example of the benefits of teamwork in the military.

In the current Iraq crisis Col. Brian Morr, a member of the 447th Expeditionary Medical Support command notes that his team includes medical professionals and basis, and admits that an effective team is one that sticks together, capable of overcoming any obstacle in any situation (Manley, 2003). Many members of the military follow the same training program worldwide, which enhances their ability to work on a team even when they haven't work together previously (Manley, 2003). Training that is uniform ensures that every person no matter what their skills, abilities and background is taught the foundational principles to make up a strong and supportive team network. This is an essential foundation for the military's concept of teamwork.

Civilians in the workplace could benefit from training as members of the military do. Uniformity of training ensures that no matter what ones background, personality or beliefs individuals have the ability to work synergistically in times of peace and war. Military teams are well noted for their efficiency and achievements, something most ordinary civilians aspire to on a daily basis, yet often have difficulty achieving at a satisfactory level.

References:

Curtis, Steven. (2004). "Teamwork -- The Vietnam reminder." Retrieved 2, December,

2004: http://www.stevencurtis.com/vietnam/Stories.teamwork.htm

DRMS. (2002). "New commander says teamwork key to continued success." DRMS

Military. Retrieved 1, December, 2004: http://www.drms.dla.mil/pubaff/newcommander.pdf

Manley, W.M.G. (2003). "Air force teamwork saves U.N. lives." Air Force Link, 447th

Air Expeditionary Group Public Affairs. Retrieved 2, December, 2004: http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?storyID=123005477… [read more]

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