Study "Military / Army / Navy / Marines" Essays 166-219

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Military Uniform Term Paper

… U.S. Army Combat Uniform (ACU)

The battlefield of the 21st century is increasingly being characterized by the need for body armor that can withstand the rigors of a wide range of environmental conditions and recent initiatives by the U.S. Department of Defense and Department of the Army have focused on providing soldiers with an improved combat uniform and the accessories needed in the dynamic combat environment today. One such initiative is the U.S. Army Combat Uniform (ACU) which is the focus of this paper. A review of the relevant literature concerning the ACU is provided below, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

According to a press release concerning the ACU from Army.com (2006), the new ACU is comprised of a jacket, trousers, patrol cap, moisture wicking t-shirt and newly introduced Army Combat Boot (Temperate and Hot Weather) (the New Army Combat Uniform, 2005). The new ACU is a wrinkle-free uniform that features a digitized camouflage pattern (Triggs, 2004). The report from Army.com also notes that the new ACU is the result of lengthy R&D efforts as well as collaboration with the soldiers who will be required to wear it. Moreover, the ACU contributes to the effectiveness of soldiers on the battlefield by providing a uniform that can be customized to the individual mission; providing enhanced functionality and ergonomics over the existing Battle Dress Uniform; and, eliminating the need to provide different types of uniforms for different environments (the New Army Combat Uniform). These attributes combine to make the new ACU appropriate for virtually any conditions around the world. In this regard, the new ACU represents a fundamental overhaul of previous uniform designs. As Col. John Norwood, the project manager for Clothing and Individual Equipment advises, "This isn't about a cosmetic redesign of the uniform. it's a functionality change of the uniform that will improve the ability of Soldiers to execute their combat mission" (quoted in Triggs at p. 3). Initial distribution of the ACU to began in February 2005 and was expected to be completed Army-wide by mid- 2008 (the New Army Combat Uniform).

Although at $88 each, the new ACU costs $34 more than its predecessor, the extra expense for the uniform will be offset by:

Proposed increase, as yet to be determined, in the monthly Clothing Replacement Allowance for enlisted soldiers;

permanent press treatment that eliminates the need for soldiers to pay for costly dry cleaning of their uniforms;

No added cost to soldiers for additional sewing due to the use of hook and pile or pin-on patches, nameplates, and badges;

Army-wide savings realized by streamlining procurement and stockpiling of one uniform for all environments instead of maintaining the BDU in the woodland and desert patterned sets; and,

Decreased manufacturing costs as processes are refined (the New… [read more]


Length of Tours Overseas and Its Effects on Military Families Term Paper

… ¶ … military service in America. Specifically it will discuss the length of tours of duty overseas and its effects on military families. Since the War with Iraq began, military personnel have been experiencing lengthened and extended tours of duty, and several tours of duty in the same country, as well. This is detrimental to the safety and welfare of the American soldiers forced to serve extended tours of duty, and it adversely affect their families, as well.

As the war in Iraq drags on, there are a finite number of service people available to fight in the war, largely because recruiting numbers are down, and there is no draft in the country to add to the ranks of fighters, as there was in the Vietnam War (Bender). Because of this, many service members find themselves called to duty in Iraq as many as four different times. In addition, many service members already in Iraq are being called to stay on for extended tours of duty because new troops cannot be trained fast enough to relieve them. Sadly, this puts the burden of defense on a relatively small number of Americans. It puts them at additional risk of being killed or injured in the war, and worst of all, it leaves their families alone and vulnerable at home.

This practice continues, even though many people worry about the effects it will have on service members' families. One reporter notes, "In the latest sign of pressure on troop strength from growing violence in Iraq, the Pentagon said Monday that it had extended the combat tour of 4,000 soldiers, the second time in as many months that an Army brigade has seen its yearlong deployment lengthened" (Barnes). These fighters were ensured they would come home in a year, but because training has lagged behind, and there are simply not enough troops to go around, they are forced to stay in Iraq, away from their families, loved ones, and friends, and in the case of reservists, away from their regular jobs and sources of income, as well. This can be an increasing hardship on the families, as a result.

There is growing concern that this practice of lengthening tours of duty is going to come back to haunt… [read more]


John Mccain: Military and Moral Influences Term Paper

… John McCain: Military and Moral Influences That Changed Him Both as a Man and a Politician

John McCain is one of the most influential political figures in America. Taking into account the coming presidential campaign, it can be said that… [read more]


United States Military Should Expand Its Official Contacts With the Indonesian Term Paper

… U.S. Military Involvement in Indonesia

The United States Military Should Expand its Contacts with the Indonesian Military

After the country of Indonesia had declared its independence from the Netherlands, it established a strong military style regime which influenced the social and economic politics of the country. The goal of the Indonesian government has since been to be entirely self sufficient, receiving no foreign aid to help protect its borders or internal security. Despite the wish to be fully independent however, the country is far from reaching its goal. The strong military is unable to furnish itself with enough arms and materials to successfully defend itself against neighboring threats, and much of the military budget comes from illicit activities that the United States sees as illegal. In order to save the republic from falling into Communist hands, such as its neighbors have done, as well as to curb the corrupt government activities which fund the nation's defense budget, the United States Military should try to expand its contacts and role in Indonesian military life.

Under the leadership of President Suharto, the Indonesian military has constantly interfered with the politics of the nation. As an army general, Suharto enforced a strong military regime which practiced a dual role. They embodied the traditional military role, along with a "social-political force in national development," (GlobalSecurity.org). President Suharto believed that through strong internal security, Indonesia would be able to further develop socially and economically. Despite the heavy military influence the national budget spends little on defense. Suharto believed that spending too much national budget or taking too much foreign aid for defense would hinder the economic development of the country. So, Indonesia has looked to illegal activities to fund its defense budget. Pirating, poaching, and smuggling drugs and other goods have been a major source of income for the Indonesian military. The United States cannot simply ignore these illicit tactics for raising… [read more]


Military Reform in 1874 Term Paper

… Military Reforms of 1861-74

It's generally agreed today that state of army truly reflects the standards of living in the country and the attitude of the citizens towards their country. It truly refers to the case with Russian army: today… [read more]


Defending and Fighting for Your Country Term Paper

… Defending and Fighting for Your Country

In the movie Boyz in the Hood (1991), the father tells his son, "Don't ever go in the Army, Tre. A black man ain't got no place there." The father is talking to his… [read more]


Role as a Military Officer Term Paper

… ¶ … Role as a Military Officer can be defined in correlation of a couple of fundamental pillars that define the chosen profession and that have contributed to my initial choice of serving in the army.

First of all, my role is to ensure the security of my homeland. Indeed, in a global context that is constantly under threat from the terrorist phenomenon and where extremist groups are working against peace measures and a secure climate, a military officer has to make sure that his fellow nationals are safe from any outside, external factor. I aim, to the best of my ability, to provide my entire efforts in this direction.

In the same framework, my role is to promote and sustain the development and spread of democracy and democratic values worldwide, on a global basis. Indeed, the Western democratic community has based its existence on a commonly accepted set of core values, values that have to be defended at a global level against factors threatening them.

Second of all, my role will be to become a leader in the field of activity I have chosen. The army and the military is, among other things, an enterprise of natural born leaders and this is exactly what I intend to be. A true leader will be able to motivate his men, to lead them into battle, but, at the same time, protect them as the most important assets the commander has. A leader will also need to be an expert in his field, so that the others will follow his orders knowing that these are the best decisions to be taken that respective moment, in the given conditions. General coordination, organization and management will be an among the leader's goals.

A leader has to be… [read more]


Military Recruiters Term Paper

… Military recruiters are often treated as glorified heroes within American society. To serve our nation in the military is the touted to be the highest form of patriotism. Despite the consistent barrage of jingoism in American the truth about military… [read more]


Dropping the Atom Bomb Term Paper

… The orders were approved by Secretary of War Henry Stimson and Army Chief of Staff George Marshall, as well as by President Truman. The instructions listed the targets to be attacked. Hiroshima was an industrial area with many military installations.… [read more]


Assessing Corporate Culture Marines Term Paper

… Marine Corporate Culture

Assessing Corporate Culture (Marines)

In Warrior Culture of the U.S. Marines, Marion F. Sturkey reminds the world that no one joins the Marines, they become Marines by surviving the basic training that sculpts the mind and body (Sturkey pp). An individual earns the title and enters the Brotherhood of Marines, and therein lies his strength, and in return, the strength of the Corps lies in the individual (Sturkey pp). The character is defined by three constant Corps Values, honor courage, and commitment (Sturkey pp).

Honor requires the ultimate standard in ethical and moral conduct, and a Marine must never lie, cheat, or steal, must adhere to a code of personal integrity and be accountable for his actions, and above all, must never sully the reputation of his Corps (Sturkey pp). Courage is honor in action, moral strength, heeding the inner voice of conscience and doing what is right in spite of adverse consequences (Sturkey pp). Commitment is total dedication to Corps and Country, and is a combination of selfless determination and relentless dedication to excellence (Sturkey pp). And once a Marine, always a Marine, for there is no such thing as an ex-Marine or former-Marine, only reserve, retired or veteran Marines (Sturkey pp). These three Corps Values make up the bedrock of each individual Marine's character, and are the foundation of the Corps itself (Sturkey pp). These values have been handed down from generation to generation and are the reason why the U.S. Marines are the most respected and revered fighting force on earth (Sturkey pp).

After the Korean War, the armed forces developed a Code of Conduct that was approved by the President of the United Sates in 1955, and contains six articles that create a comprehensive guide for all American military forces and embraces statements of dedication to the U.S. And the cause of freedom, conduct on the battlefield, and conduct as a prisoner of war (Sturkey pp). Sturkey points out that this new Code is not a part of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, but is a personal conduct mandate for all member of the American armed forces throughout the world (Sturkey pp). The articles basically read:

Article I: I am prepared to give my life in their defense.

Article II: I will never surrender of my own free will.

Article III: If I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available.

Article IV: If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners.

Article V: If captured, I am required to give name, rank, service, number, and date of birth.

Article VI: I… [read more]


Commanders by Bob Woodward Term Paper

… ¶ … Commanders by Bob Woodward. Specifically, it will argue the question "Was the Bush Administration effective in identifying political objectives and applying military resources to accomplish those objectives?" Chapters 7-15 of Bob Woodward's "The Commanders" include discussions of the… [read more]


Adverse Affects of Poor Integrity Term Paper

… Military Integrity

Adverse Affects of Poor Integrity

The Seven Core Army Values, Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage, are the essence of being a solider (Living pp). The Soldier's Code that states, to "treat others with… [read more]


Coed Military Training Imagine a Father Essay

… Coed Military Training

Imagine a father actually encouraging the arrangement in which his eighteen-year-old daughter "for her benefit" shares a bedroom with the next-door neighbor's eighteen-year-old son, for months on end, and as he leaves and turns out the light,… [read more]


Army Structure From 3-Brigade Division Term Paper

… With the Division-86 system change, the Army also published a Training and Doctrine Command guide in order to execute successful implementation. On October 1, 1982, the Command published tables of organization and equipment in order to implement this second attempt… [read more]


Labor Relations the Military Policy of Don Term Paper

… Labor Relations

The military policy of "Don't ask, don't tell" was developed to be a compromise between those who felt homosexuals should be allowed to serve in the military, and those who wished them banned. However, due to multiple international… [read more]


Air Power Command and Control Lessons Learned at Operational Level of War Term Paper

… Vietnam: A Bird's Eye View of the historical and strategic past of U.S. Operations

Strategic Setting

The territory of the former French colony of Vietnam was occupied by two opposing armies, that of the North Vietnamese, armed by the Soviets,… [read more]


Women in Combat the Participation Term Paper

… During the Persian Gulf War, for example, Air Force Captain Anne Weaver Worster flew a refueling tanker deep into Iraqi airspace four times so fighters and bombers could increase their range. In doing so, Worster brought her plane and its flammable cargo within range of air to surface missiles and anti-aircraft fire. Army Major Rhonda Cornum volunteered for a helicopter mission to rescue the pilot of a downed F-16 plane. Cornum's Black Hawk was shot down, and she was held prisoner for a week before being released (Eskind 1991). Additionally, many people in the field assert that the distinctions between combat and non-combat duties were arbitrary. For example, women in the Army were still banned from direct combat divisions such as infantry. However, they were allowed to work on Patriot Missile Units, a division charged with shooting down incoming Scud missiles. Navy women could not serve aboard combat ships like destroyers, but they were on support ships that provided combat logistical support during the gulf operations. Female members of the Marine Corps were also banned from combat. However, 170 female leathernecks of the 2nd Marine Support Group were stationed in the desert, near the Kuwaiti border when the ground attacks began.

For all intents and purposes, women have been serving in positions that have placed them in danger, regardless of whether or not a position was identified as a combat zone.

Both sides do agree on one important point.

Women who want to serve in the military should possess the necessary physical, mental and emotional attributes. Female soldiers are finding greater acceptance today because, like their male counterparts, the women who serve pass the required battery of physical, emotional and intellectual tests. American women have served in various military capacities since the Revolutionary War. They have been nurses, reservists, navigators, pilots and, since the 1993 Gulf War, combatants. As a result of the growing role of technology in warfare, women also increasingly serve as operators of weapons and heavy machinery, tasks that routinely take them into combat zones. Despite the naysayers, soldiers -- both male and female -- are showing that military personnel should be judged based on their abilities and not on their gender. For these reasons, women should not be excluded from combat positions solely on the basis of their gender.

Works Cited

Charon, Mona. "Eight Good Reasons to Oppose Women in the Military." In Current Issues and Enduring Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. 6th ed. Sylvan Barnet and Hugo Bedau, eds. New York: Bedford St. Martins Press, 2004.

Eskind, Amy. "A Post-Gulf Memorial Day" Arms and the Woman." The Washington Post, May 26, 1991. ProQuest Database.

Norwood, Vivian. "Eight Reasons Why Women Should Be in the Military." In Current Issues and Enduring Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. 6th ed. Sylvan Barnet and… [read more]


Military and Athletic Heroes Term Paper

… Realistically, they aren't, but in our society, a person deserves what he can command.... And if Tom Cruise can negotiate thirty million for a movie, and if Jack Nicholson can demand forty million for making Batman, who's to say that it's absurd for an athlete to make three million or five million a year? In reality, we know they're not worth it, but if the marketplace allows it, so be it." (Cosell 214). As long as people are willing to part with their hard-earned money to witness the best athletes in the world go head-to-head, the athletes will continue to make outrageous sums of money.

Soldiers, on the other hand, may be a superior form of hero but their marketplace value is far lower than their social value. A society could function without athletes, but it would be extremely difficult to run society without some form of military order (Shea, 4). Military heroes, although they do exist, are not good vehicles through which to sell products. No one would ever buy, for instance, George Washington brand running shoes; but when the new "Jordan's" come out, every ten-year-old boy in the country desperately wants them. Athletes can be strongly tied to products, but soldiers would have difficulty selling anything other than combat boots or "Hummers."

By the nature of our definition of a hero, as someone who devotes his or her life to something greater than oneself, it becomes apparent that not all athletes can be considered heroes but simply all solders must be. In the United States "democratic conscription has in every instance occurred as the voluntary dedication of a nation's resources to the cause of defense." (Clarkson 128). This means that everyone who signs a contract with the military is volunteering their life, should it be called upon, in addition to giving up several years of that life. Regardless of the heroic actions of the soldier after joining the military, by signing the contract they have already demonstrated their devotion to something greater than themselves.

Unfortunately, military life is not particularly lucrative. For the very fact that every citizen has the option to join at some time in their life it is unlike professional sports -- soldiers are not a novelty. The pay is simply low. The average annual compensation to a basic recruit in the United States armed forces is thirteen thousand six hundred thirty-nine dollars (salary.com). This is approximately they same amount full-time work at a fast-food restaurant will bring in. The only advantage the military offers is the assistance they give for higher education after service is completed. Sadly, it is for this reason that the typical military recruit of today is a kid in an economic bind, looking for a way to finance his or her education. Pay is able to stay so low because these recruits are looking to the long-term benefits of a military career.

Military heroes are all over, whether famous or not. Solders volunteer in this country to be placed in… [read more]


Military Accountability the Importance Term Paper

… S. military in Iraq, a great deal of the focus on accountability has been in trying to determine who was responsible for the torture and mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners. Recently, Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski has been temporarily suspended from her command of the 800th Military Police Brigade. Brig. Gen. Karpinski has been accused by Army investigators for "paying too little attention to day-to-day operations of the Abu Ghraib prison and for not moving firmly enough to discipline soldiers for violating standard procedures" at Abu Ghraib prison. In addition, Spc. Jeremy Sivits (on of seven members of the 372nd Military Police Company that have been charged) has been given the maximum penalty in a first-class court martial stemming from the abuses at Abu Ghraib (CNN.com).

Important in this discussion of accountability is the adherence of the U.S. military to requirements of the Geneva conventions, which provide protections for the basic rights of war and civilian prisoners in times of armed conflict. In accepting the Geneva Conventions as models of conduct, the U.S. military then implicitly agrees to be bound by these rules. As such, any violations of the Geneva Conventions must be dealt with by the U.S. military. In this sense, the U.S. military is then held accountable to the protections outlined within the Geneva Conventions.

In conclusion, the importance of accountability in the U.S. military can hardly be overstated. If the U.S. military is not held accountable for its actions, it stands to lose a great deal of credibility both within the international community and at home. If the U.S. military is not accountable for its actions, the U.S. can never legitimately take a moral stance against regimes that mistreat or abuse individuals. Further, a U.S. military that is not accountable to the people of the United States violates some of the most dearly held tenets of democracy.

Works Cited

Aceves, William J. Investigating war crimes: The struggle for accountability hits home. The San Diego Union-Tribune, November 4, 1999, Thursday. 31 May 2004. http://www.kimsoft.com/1997/nogun12.htm

CNN.com. Former Iraq prison head suspended. Tuesday, May 25, 2004 Posted: 10:39 PM EDT (0239 GMT). 31 May 2004. http://www.cnn.com/2004/U.S./05/25/karpinski.iraq.ap/index.html [read more]


Navy Operating Systems: The U Term Paper

… Automated condition-based maintenance recording and management for the ship's main propulsion and auxiliary equipment, is also key.

Conclusion/Summary

By instituting a 'smart ship' that makes use of COTS systems, the Navy is able to make use of operating systems common to the commercial world such as UNIX, Linux, Solaris, and Intel. Yet the COTS systems also has the advantage of meeting the National Electronic Manufacturer Association (NEMA) standards or MIL-S-901D Class A near explosives survivability requirements, and feature space-saving designs for maximum viewing in cramped spaces. "Rugged chassis and bodies, reinforced mounts, and polymer shocks absorb the jars, knocks, and rigors of a field environment, while an outer enclosure protects from the elements." (Interface, 2004)

However, the smart ship concept has come under a great deal of criticism, over the course of its institution. During its inception, the Navy began running shipboard applications under Microsoft Windows NT so that fewer sailors would be needed to control key ship functions. But the very information technology on which the ships depend also makes them vulnerable if the COTS technology should fail, or if bad data is fed into the computers during maneuvers without proper technical and human controls. Still, the reduction in volunteerism for the armed services necessitates continued development of the Smart Ship concept, preferably with secure yet compatible elements with commercial software. (Slabodkin, 1998)

Works Cited

Intergraph Solutions Group. (2004). "Rugged Hardware for Harsh Environment." Retrieved on March 18, 2004 at http://solutions.intergraph.com/profiles/rugged.asp

Slabodkin, Gregory. (1998). "Software Glitches." Government News. Retrieved on March 18, 2004 at http://www.gcn.com/archives/gcn/1998/july13/cov2.htm [read more]


Marines Build Leaders That Last Term Paper

… By entrusting low-ranking officers with critical battle decisions, marines are forced to pay close attention to the skills of the people they choose to trust with responsibility. (Freedman, Inc.) Empowerment, Freedman says, is "carried to an extreme by allowing someone at the lowest level of the organization to make decisions that can impact the success of the organization's most important missions" (Freedman, Forbes). This also allows lower-level officers who might be out of touch with the chain of command to "jettison pre-established plans, make up new ones as the situation demands, and commandeer the resources they need to carry them out" (Freedman, Forbes).

Nothing can quite compare with Marine Corps training and combat service to stretch your leadership skills in bringing people together to accomplish a mission," according to Phillip Rooney, vice-chairman of the ServiceMaster Company. Rooney endured Officer Candidate School and returned to teach there. For Rooney, nothing prepares an individual for the challenges of operating a business than training in the U.S. Marine Corps. (Freedman, Inc.) Freedman asserts that another successful technique of the Marines is rewarding failure. Marines view failure not as "the best possible learning experience" (Freedman, Forbes). In addition, the Marines also allow every soldier to be a team member.

Another aspect of training that helps the Marines build great leaders is their mentoring program that links junior Marines with more experienced Marines. Experience is a great tool and mentoring is an important aspect of instilling leadership qualities in junior Marines. The Marines believe:

The relation between officers and men should in no sense be that of superior and inferior nor that of master and servant, but rather that of teacher and scholar. In fact, it should partake of the nature of the relationship between father and son to the extent that officers are responsible for the physical, mental and moral welfare as well as the discipline and military training of the young men under their command. (General Lejeune qtd. On Marines)

Clearly, successful leaders come from pushing individuals to exceed beyond what they think they can do. The Marines establish this type of training by instilling a sense of responsibility through accepting challenges and accepting failure as a part of the learning experience. Coupled with mentoring, these techniques go far when developing soldiers that are courageous and committed.

Works Cited

Core Values. Marines Online. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://marines.com/about_marines/corpsvalues.asp

Real Leadership. Marines Online. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://marines.com/officer_programs/realleadership.asp?format=flash

Nelson, Wallace. "Leadership." Marines. November 1995. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9603154667&db=mth

Freedman, David. "Corps Values." Inc. Online. April 1998. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://www.inc.com/magazine/19980401/906.html

Few Good Principles." Forbes Online. May 2000. Site Accessed August 28, 2003. http://www.forbes.com/asap/2000/0529/201_print.html [read more]


Military Deployment Affects Military Families Term Paper

… Unfair? Obviously. But while 18 states require that students pass an exit exam to graduate from high school, not one has a reciprocal agreement that would help students such as Jones (Peterson, 2001)."

Even when students make it through all… [read more]


Neuropharmacology and the Military Annotated Bibliography

… Military and Neuropharmacology: The Use of Stimulants for Increased Perforjmance and Cognitive Perception

Annotated Bibiliography

Farah, MJ, Smith, ME, Ilieva, I and Hamilton, RG (2012) Cognitive Enhancement. Penn State University. Retrieved from: http://www.psych.upenn.edu/~mfarah/pdfs/Cog%20Enh%20review.pdf

This article reports that cognitive enhancement can… [read more]


Historical Analysis of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Case Study

… ¶ … U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Statement of the Purpose:

The purpose of this case study is to provide a description of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers a chronological summary of key events in its history, an evaluation… [read more]


Military Research on Human Subjects Essay

… If this issue arises, it is not unfeasible that locals could blame the anthropologist as a collaborator with the U.S. military. The AAA pointed out that when working for the military there is almost an inevitable conflict of interest between the needs of the discipline of anthropology, the local population, and the military itself. The relationship in the military program is also a critical violation of the principle of informed consent, which the AAA demands be freely given. "Anthropologists work in a war zone under conditions that make it difficult for those they communicate with to give "informed consent" without coercion, or for this consent to be taken at face value or freely refused" (Weinberger 2007). Someone living in Iraq when the U.S. was occupying the nation might find it difficult to differentiate between the civilian statuses of a white anthropologist accompanying a member of the U.S. Army and assume that the anthropologist was acting in a military capacity along with the soldier. Not only would this make the Iraqi feel forced to respond to the anthropologist's questions, it also would potentially corrupt the data derived from the investigative process, given the sensation of coercion in the relationship.

While the desire of the U.S. military to better understand Islamic and other cultures is commendable and a necessary part of international security policy, using civilian anthropologists with a potential conflict of interest between academia and the military is ultimately not a wise decision nor does it support the interests of the anthropological profession as a whole. If fact-finding from an anthropological perspective is to be accomplished, it should be handled by members of the U.S. military explicitly in a military capacity that have no such conflict of interest.

References

Weinberger, S. (2007). Anthropology ass'n blasts Army's "Human Terrain" Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/2007/11/anthropology-as/ [read more]


Why We'll Keep Going to War: Theory Analysis Research Paper

… ] [8: Micah Zenko, Between Threats and War: U.S. Discrete Military Operations in the Post-Cold War World (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010), 7.]

Technology is more advanced today; the internet has become the new ground for organized crime and global terrorism. As mentioned earlier on, threats no longer operate from specific physical locations, and are hence, less clearly identifiable. Governments may have no mechanisms to track down such illegal activities, given that it is now possible to plan for a criminal activity in one location, and execute it in another at the touch of a button. In most cases, the parties involved belong to, and operate from entirely different countries. In other words, threats are multidimensional, multifaceted, and multifunctional, and the only way to counter them is to transform the military from the traditional state-centric system to a multidimensional, multifaceted, and multifunctional option.

Bibliography

ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army, http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014).

Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).

Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014),

Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014

Zenko, Micah. Between Threats and War: U.S. Discrete Military Operations in the Post-Cold War World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010. [read more]


Comparison of Today's Warfare to Napoleonic Era Essay

… He used the maneuver to dictate where and how the battles would progress. With such a strategy, he placed his soldiers into the rear whilst cutting the communications and supplies of his opponents. The strategy had an adverse effect on the enemies and ended up killing his opponents' morale. In today's warfare most, militants use maneuver that is placing the enemy in a disadvantageous position by applying flexible combat power. They also insist on surprise attacks like striking the opponents at a time, manner, or place when they are mostly unprepared

In the Napoleonic era, they used infantry tactics, which insists on the use of the flintlock musket, the smoothbore, and the standard weapon. The flintlock musket is famous for its short effective range that hits a man-size target of 50 yards. Most soldiers during the Napoleonic era were coerced to stay in the battlefields. The non-commissioned officers and the officers carried halberds and swords to keep the men in the infantry in the firing line. Each soldier was forced to put on a military uniform that is colorful and visible from a distance. In today's warfare, they also have infantry in the military. The army branch fights on foot and is prepared to fight, engage, as well as defeat the opponents in a face-to-face combat. These individuals bear the brunt of the battle and in most cases suffer the greatest in terms of casualties. In today's army, they are the backbone and continually undergo physical training that is psychologically demanding and stressful. It emphasizes teamwork mainly in the deployment of sustained aggression. The role of the infantry in both periods is to engage and kill the enemies at close range

In the Napoleonic era, the troop movements had extreme speed. Napoleon maintained speed on the marches, strikes, and movements of his army. A number of factors contributed to the Napoleon's flexible movements as the division of the army into independent bodies and avoidance of lengthy supply lines

. Napoleon's army instead acquired food from the surrounding environment by either paying friendly countries for food or foraging. Most cases his enemies were unsettled and confused as he intricately coordinated attacks on profound scales. In today's warfare period, time management and speed are used as tactics for overcoming the enemies. They insist on speed and minimize time wastage. The rate is extremely high mainly due to technological advancement and advanced information technology

In conclusion, it is evident that the tactics and strategies used during the Napoleonic era have developed over the years as individuals adopt the use of technology. There has been increased innovation in weapons. In the Napoleonic era they used Musket Model guns, the soldiers in the Napoleonic era used other weapons such as pikes, swords, melee combat and bayonets while in today's warfare, they use nuclear weapons and satellites. The current warfare tactics adopted by many countries wielding strong military power have relations to those of the Napoleonic Era. Its influence cannot be underestimated because it established a… [read more]


Advertising Old Navy Case Study

… " The videos will be distributed on YouTube and Facebook, while print ads will run in publications including Maxim. Mobile elements will include a game, style-finder, video gallery, store locator and coupons. A third video shilling "Jack Ash" leisurewear hasn't been completed but could launch this fall.

By poking fun at these characters Old Navy can promote their more mainstream appeal to reach their target demographic.

Despite the particulars of the current campaign, one of the interesting aspects in reaching this demographic is the delivery platform. The 79 million Millennials in the U.S. have an estimated purchasing power of $170 billion dollars per year, making them a highly attractive segment for brands to target, according to comScore vice president Bert Miklosi (TechJournal, 2014). However, to reach this demographic it takes a new generation of skills. This demographic is known for their ability to use any form of technology to find media, the seek constant stimulation, and they are prone to multitasking. Therefore, grabbing their attention is not something that can be easily designed. It is recommended that the Old Navy campaign markets their new campaign via smartphone devices. There are a range of different options for smartphone applications. One popular option is through apps such as Pandora in which many users listen to free radio type features in exchange for random ads. Old Navy would be well suited to pursue an option like this to meet their target market.

Works Cited

Advertising Age. (2011, June 8). Behind the Campaign: Old Navy Goes After Men in New Ad Push. Retrieved from Adage: http://adage.com/article/news/navy-targets-campaign-men/228051/

Elliot, S. (2011, February 17). Old Navy Replaces Mannequins With Music. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/old-navy-replaces-mannequins-with-music/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0

TechJournal. (2014, January 24). Digital marketing works better for Millennials than TV. Retrieved from TechJournal: http://www.techjournal.org/2012/01/digital-marketing-works-better-for-millennials-than-tv/ [read more]


Rules of Engagement Term Paper

… ABSTRACT

This document analyzes the present controversy regarding the implementation of Rules of Engagement (ROE) for American military personnel overseas. The employment of ROE in Afghanistan serves as a case study for a policy that is becoming increasingly problematic and hazardous to U.S. troops in this part of the world. Salient factors related to this issue include the propensity for manipulating ROE to serve the political objectives of bureaucratic forces in Washington, D.C., and the fallacious facilitation of ROE as a strategy for war. Ultimately, it appears as though ROE in this case study is presenting a conflict of interest to soldiers which results in a reduction in their efficacy in the field for the sake of America's political image. The author believes this fact should be changed. [read more]


Rules of Engagement in Warfare Research Paper

… 6). Our politicians may be promising outcomes to the American people they cannot deliver, largely because legislators typically have no military experenience. When bureaucrats establish ROE, they often create rules that unintentionally hamper the American soldier who is fully engaged with dangerous enemies. Some of these rules are detrimental to the American soldier and American lives are often lost because of ROE. Politicians sometimes focus so much on winning the heart and minds of occupied populations that war-fighters' lives are jeopardized, sometimes by the very people politicians hope to placate.

Michael Jenkins is a decorated combat veteran who has received the Department of the Army's highest award for his service. According to Jenkins (2013) "the Rules of Engagement in Afghanistan created an unwanted psychology in our soldiers (and) the fear of retribution and the fear of being court-martialed pre-destined the forces to lose against the nation's enemies." Jenkins understands what the ROE dilemma and how ROE-manipulation generates more of a hindrance than a help to the soldier in the field: "the ROE have become an enemy, soldiers are afraid to take risks" (Jenkins, 2013).

It can be argued that soldiers, under the duress of combat, need the ability to react in sometimes unstructured manners; they need authority and autonomy to take certain risks without fear of reprisal or retribution from superiors. At a minimum, they should have the right to protect themselves from direct threats to their lives instead of being burdened with guidelines that "can be entangled with political agendas and philosophies" (Vallely, 2013, para 3).

According to Zinke (2014), the ROE in Afghanistan seem to be making "Afghan dwellings virtual safe [read more]


Intelligence Failures Research Paper

… The Central Intelligence Agency was created in the wake of WWII and saw a further diffusion of power within the intelligence community itself. This agency made its bones as a force behind the cold war and was central in the… [read more]


Jomini and Clausewitz Essay

… This reinforced the notion that war truly can be considered an art form, which is open to a number of interpretations and actions.

Specifically Jomini and Clausewitz complement each other when it comes to diplomatic relations. For Clausewitz, diplomacy is at the heart of all military operations, including not only leadership support, but also support from the public. It is only with public support that military morale can be maintained. With leadership support, the practical aspects of warfare can be sufficiently funded. These types of support then work in tandem to assure a high morale and higher possibility of victory for the military force. Although Jomini considers diplomacy as one of the final steps towards victory, which implies a linear process, it is nonetheless an important component. Indeed, the author himself acknowledges that allied forces are an important component in the war effort, showing that the linear process, even for Jomini, can at times be modified to become more integrated.

The conclusion is therefore that, although the two authors generally follow divergent ideas and strategies for integrating war and its efforts, they do complement each other in terms of theory and specific practical applications. As such, the theorists' work can usefully be applied together in order to help military strategists achieve an optimal sense of prowess and secure victory.

References

Baron De Jomini, Antoine Henri. 1862. The Art of War. J.B. Lippincott… [read more]


War Has Undoubtedly Shaped Research Paper

… Vietnam emerged from the war as a potent military power within Southeast Asia, but its agriculture, business, and industry were disrupted, large parts of its countryside were scarred by bombs and defoliation and laced with land mines, and its cities… [read more]


African-Americans in the U.S. Armed Term Paper

… S. War efforts in virtually every major military campaign in which this country embarked upon, and despite the fundamental contributions to labor that African-Americans had made to the establishment of the U.S., and despite the fact that slavery was now… [read more]


Intelligence Community the History Essay

… Intelligence Community

The history of deception and intelligence is deeply seated within the American way of life and the roots of democracy. The creation of the republic which began with a declaration of independence from a tyrant monarch gave birth… [read more]


Training Most Important Area Research Paper

… Their perspective is practical and strategic and goal-focused and they are able to deal with the moral uncertainties of the moment-by-moment choices posed by combat. [4: Tony Pfaff, "Resolving ethical challenges in an era of persistent conflict," SSI Studies, 2003:3:5]

Training soldiers to be resilient means fostering this already-existing capacity in some troops and providing opportunities for personal growth in this area for other soldiers. By doing so, the military can substantially decrease the likelihood of troops developing PTSD. Perhaps the most obvious way to foster hardiness is through preparedness exercises that simulate the actual environments in which troops will find themselves. By experimenting with 'as if' situations, soldiers are able to better prepare for 'as is' situations. While the pretend scenario is never the same as the reality, repetition can be a valuable teaching tool. However, this is not the same as the old-fashioned idea that a solider must be broken down mentally to serve with distinction. Rather, talking about potential scenarios can also reduce the mental anxiety of uncertainty and encourages the development of confidence in his or her capacity to make choices. "It can be hard for soldiers to quickly shift to different rules of engagement (Do I knock on the door, or kick it down?)."[footnoteRef:5] [5: Bartone, Barry, & Armstrong, 2009: 2]

Leaders must also use their modeling and mentorship skills to illustrate cognitive strategies that reinforce this need for resilience and hardiness: "Especially as regards stressful and ambiguous events, military leaders can apply hardiness qualities to facilitate generalized positive interpretations or 'sense-making' among unit members. Leaders do this through actions, policies, and personal example, and in this way they increase stress resilience throughout the organization."[footnoteRef:6] Even when facing a setback, a resilient leader is able to dig deep and find a way to give the situation a positive 'spin,' such as honoring the efforts of soldiers in the face of great odds. [6: Paul T. Bartone, "Chapter 6: New Wine in Old Bottles: Leadership and Personality in the Military Organization," 1]

It is also important to remember that the stressors of military life alone are not limited to actual combat-related activity and violence. Sometimes isolation, inaction, and the anticipation of future threats can be equally stressful on a day-to-day basis vs. actual critical incidents. Rote marching, patrolling, and engaging in monitoring of the ground of civilian activities can lead troops to engage in daydreaming of home or to engage in unproductive 'what if' thinking. Offering troops productive mental coping mechanisms to cope with boredom is essential, whether through 'fun' activities whenever possible such as exercise or friendly sports competition, or when movement is restricted through at very minimum as reasonable a 'balanced' workload as possible for soldiers. [footnoteRef:7] Pushing troops constantly to the breaking point on every level can wear down and compromise the resiliency of even the best soldiers. [7: Bartone, Barry, Armstrong, 2009: 3]

It should be noted that such mental strength does not mean intransigence, and leaders must still be flexible when… [read more]


General George S. Patton Term Paper

… During the First World War in 1917, General George Smith Patton became the first officer to be allotted to the U.S. Tank Corps until 1920 when the Corps was abolished. He not only total command of the Corps but also developed concepts, guided processes, and even influence the design of their uniforms. After achieving victory with his troops in the Battle of Cambrai in France, Patton established himself as one of the major tank warfare experts. He brilliantly maneuvered approximately 350 tanks and took a bullet in the leg during this battle through which he received the Distinguished Service Cross for heroism. This was one of the medals he collected during his lifetime in military service.

The peak of General George S. Patton military career occurred during World War II when he used defense techniques and audacious assault to lead the 7th American army to victory at the Sicilian invasion in 1943. He was then granted command of the 3rd United States Army by President Eisenhower in 1944, which swept across France by capturing every town. One year later, Patton led his army to cross the Rhine and entered into the heart of Germany where they captured 10,000 miles within 10 days. This was a major breakthrough in capturing an enemy's territory and releasing Germany from the Nazi's. Patton's success in liberating Germany by the end of the Second World War was followed by assuming command of the 15th Army in the American-occupied Germany.

Patton's Death and Legacy:

General George S. Patton died 12 days while receiving treatment in a hospital after sustaining injuries from an automobile accident where he broke his neck. He was later buried among the soldiers who lost their lives in Luxembourg's Battle of the Bulge.

Patton's memoir was published in 1970 and is considered as one of the most brilliant and sophisticated army commanders in the United States. He is remembered for his great soldierly qualities that were accompanied by the most colorful personalities ("Patton's Career A Brilliant One," 2010). In addition to being an expert of unprintable brand of eloquence, Patton sometimes created phrases that will forever remain in the traditions of the United States Army.

In conclusion, General George Smith Patton is arguably one of the most brilliant and successful soldiers in the United States army. Patton's success and brilliance is not only attributed to his military tactics but also attributed to the great victories he achieved in battles in North Africa, the Western Front, and Sicily. According to reports by Nazi generals, General Patton was the most feared of all United States field commanders.

Bibliography:

Bio: True Story. "George Patton Biography." A+E Television Networks, LLC, September 21,

2013, http://www.biography.com/people/george-patton-9434904

On This Day. "Patton's Career A Brilliant One." The New York Times Company, September 21,

2013, http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1111.html

The Official Website of General George S. Patton, JR. "Biography." The Official Website of General George S. Patton, JR.,… [read more]


Civilian and Military Leaders Essay

… [2: Foster, 93]

To gain such support requires a clear goal in mind, one which is strategically or morally meaningful enough to justify risking American lives. It also requires a proportional use of force: the likely gains should be in proportion to the level of risk assumed. This requires members of the civilian government to clearly establish policies for the undertaking and to communicate objectives to the American public; it requires civilian leaders to understand the full, present capabilities of the military in a realistic fashion. Ideally, there should be seamless continuity between policy and action. If secrecy is required in some facets of a military action, it should be supported by generally-accepted ethical principles, not as a cover-up of incompetence or because the original intention of the mission had gotten wildly out-of-hand.

America remains faced with a threat which will not go away. "We are confronted by an enemy who would replace secular governments with theocratic regimes hostile to our national interests and values."[footnoteRef:3] To fight such an enemy requires intensive intelligence-gathering as well as a military which is securely funded and supported by the public. But to win that support means that the values of America must still be upheld, and that includes an open dialogue between citizens and their leaders whom they elect and who govern the policies that will eventually be pursued by the military. The military has the primary role of ensuring that the U.S. is victorious, but civilian leaders often have a greater role in determining what that victory should resemble and hold the purse strings when it comes to allocating the resources needed to attain that goal. Rather than despairing of their inability of civilian leaders and the public to understand, the military must learn to work with representatives of civil authority in an effective fashion. [3: Jeffrey D. McCausland, "Developing strategic leaders for the 21st century, SSI, 2008, xii]

Bibliography

Foster, Gregory. "Civil-Military Relations: The Postmodern Democratic Challenge, World

Affairs; winter 2005; 167(3): 91

McCausland, Jeffrey D. "Developing… [read more]


Leadership Different for Joint Operations? Essay

… However, regardless of such concerns, international joint missions are likely to increase rather than decrease in the future. Possessing diverse capabilities and the ability to integrate those capabilities are vital. "Urban environments and other complex terrain will increasingly characterize areas of operation that may include both humanitarian crisis conditions and combat operations."[footnoteRef:4] Often, partner nations may have greater knowledge of the geography and politics of the region. [3: Richard Myers, "Capstone concept for joint operations," U.S. Department of Defense, 2005, available http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/dod/ccjov2.pdf (3 Sept 2013)] [4: Myers, 5]

Even within the U.S. military, there have been philosophical conflicts when different branches have had to engage in an integrated mission. For example, in the effort in Somalia, the effort to bring peace and stability in the form of the United Task Force (UNITAF) Somalia brought together both the capabilities of the Marines and the Army (ARFOR). It was discovered that while "division staffs tend to focus on tactics…an ARFOR must have an operational perspective; divisions do not usually become involved in relationships with commands and organizations at echelons above corps and are not adept at them. For an ARFOR, interaction at these echelons is routine and vital." [footnoteRef:5] Even different components of a single, national military have clashing organizational cultures and assumptions which can only intensify when militaries combining soldiers of different nationalities and places of origins combine. This is not to make excuses for failure: rather it means that soldiers must prepare for an inevitable transition period and leaders must be able to adapt their strategy to the needs of the holistic effort, rather than applying a template of command in a cookie-cutter fashion. [5: David Johnson, "Preparing potential senior Army leaders for the future," RAND, September 2002, 8 ]

Bibliography

Fielder, Dave "Defining command, leadership, and management success factors within operations." PKSOI Factors. June 2011

Johnson, David. "Preparing potential senior Army leaders for the future." RAND, September

2002

Myers, Richard. "Capstone concept for joint operations." U.S. Department of Defense, 2005.

Available http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/dod/ccjov2.pdf (3 Sept 2013) [read more]


Vietnam -- Rules of Engagement Research Paper

… Of the Army generals who served in Vietnam, "Nearly a third stated that [search and destroy] was 'not sound'… and 51% thought it 'left something to be desired'" (Wiest, 2007). Westmoreland predicted that the enemy would "…run out of men" -- as a way of justifying search and destroy and the rules of engagement he followed were failures because the terrain "…favored" the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong (Wiest).

Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara

The rules of engagement for pilots flying attack missions over North Vietnam "…were created by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara"; in 1965 surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites were "off-limits" according to McNamara's ROEs (Santoli, 2011). "We watched them being built and become operational, but were not permitted by [McNamara] to take them out…it was ludicrous" (Santoli). But after a SAM shot down an RF-4 Air Force plane, McNamara authorized air strikes on those missile sites (Santoli). The mission "…was just stupid…it causes troops in the field to lose confidence in their military leadership" (Santoli).

President Lyndon Johnson

President Johnson's biggest worry didn't seem to be about winning the war, it was fear that if he changed the ROEs and allowed the bombing of Hanoi and, the bombing of the harbor at Haiphong, the Chinese might get involved because those targets were just south of the Chinese border. The "political meddling" by Johnson "handicapped U.S. military effectiveness," James Forest explains. American military veterans recall "with disgust" that Johnson's rules of engagement imposed "limits on the numbers of sorties" over the north, which "ultimately lost the war despite overwhelming U.S. military superiority" (Forest, 2011).

Johnson met weekly for lunch with McNamara, advisor McGeorge Bundy, and others and basically decided which targets were acceptable under Johnson's evolving and changing rules of engagement. Johnson's target decisions were "…relayed from Johnson through Secretary McNamara" to Westmorland and on to his commanders. But Air Force and Navy brass "…chafed at [Johnson's] rules of engagement" because it made their attacks "…predictable and easy to counter" as the North Vietnamese moved assets; Johnson was going on old intelligence, which "…endangered U.S. airmen" (Head, 2011).

In conclusion, it is clear from the history that the U.S. lost the War in Vietnam largely due to the limited and often wrong-headed rules of engagement that the politicians in Washington handed down to the men fighting in the jungles of Vietnam. Those ROEs were not always followed, of course, but when a ROE was ignored by an officer, that individual could well lose his standing and be dismissed.

Works Cited

Birtle, A.J., U.S. Congress, Armed Services Committee, and Center of Military History.

U.S. Army counterinsurgency and contingency operations doctrine, 1942-1976.

Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Dranke, R.J. (1992). The Rules of Defeat: The Impact of Aerial Rules of Engagement on USAF Operations in North Vietnam, 1965-1968. School of Advanced Airpower Studies.

Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: U.S. Air Force.

Forest, J.J. (2007). Countering Terrorism and Insurgency in the 21st Century: Strategic and Tactical Considerations. ISBN: 0275990346, 9780275990343.

Head, W.P.… [read more]


Managing Recruitment Performance and Development Essay

… Managing Recruitment, Performance, And Development

American Army: Recruitment, compensation, management, performance and development

Army functions as the land-based branch of the U.S. armed force. It is the biggest and earliest developed branch of 7 U.S. uniformed services. The Army reports… [read more]


Interview Study Research Paper

… Transcript Analysis

Phenomenology Approach

Phenomenological approach focuses on the description of what people experience. This analysis should also focus on explaining the concept of the interaction of individuals or participants with the experience they have for the execution of the… [read more]


Defense Strategy Essay

… Defence Strategy

Defense Strategy

Reading the tea leaves on Obama's new military strategy

The new military strategy unveiled by the U.S. president Obama attracts a number of criticisms. The strategy is a lucrative undertaking that brings to the people a… [read more]


Civil War Essay

… The North had better railroad systems (twice as many tracks as the South). The authors suggest the South's railroad situation was bleak, and by 1864 "…had almost collapsed" (377). The North had the advantage of 186,000 African-Americans who fought against the South. The industrialization of the North was beefed up in great amounts during the war. The North financed the war largely on citizens buying government bonds.

Southern currency was just paper money causing "disastrous inflation" (388) and the South faced "massive shortages of almost everything" (food riots broke out in the South because males went off to war leaving ineffective plantations -- run by slaves and women). Unlike the south, the North had an effective navy that transported supplies effectively; and while the South thought England and France would intervene on its behalf (because of Europe's need for cotton) that never transpired, which played into the hands of the North.

Southern Advantages: The North had to pretty much take the fight to the South, and hence Southern armies were for the most part fighting on their own land; hence, they had a lot of support from home folks and had familiarity with the lay of the land as well. The populations in the South were of course hostile to Northern soldiers, which was an advantage to the South. Further, the authors suggest Southerners were far more firmly committed to their beliefs (in slavery and state's right) than the North (there were divisions within the Northern population about the need to go to war). Also, the North had trouble getting enough soldiers to volunteer to fight, so a draft law was enacted (and was resisted widely; riots broke out) and in fact there was great dissention in the North towards the idea of a Civil War but the South was more unified. The South had more experienced military leaders than the North.

Why did the North win the Civil War? Strategy made all the difference for the North; along with more troops and far deeper resources the North outlasted and out-fought the South. The North managed to control the Mississippi River, blocking any Confederate trade or troop movement. Ulysses Grant's forces controlled Kentucky and half of Tennessee, and gradually the North pushed deeper into the South and the Confederates were unable to contain that movement. Also, speaking of better strategies, Grant (at Gettysburg and elsewhere) was "…not afraid to absorb massive casualties as long as he was inflicting similar casualties on his opponents" (404). When Sherman marched from Atlanta to the sea, cutting a "sixty-mile wide swath of desolation across Georgia," and when Grant cut off all rail access for Lee… [read more]


Media With the Military Term Paper

… This may motivate or influence some viewers to join the military or support the decision of a family member, friend, colleague, etc., to join the military and provide service for his/her country. Certainly there will be some viewers who will object to the imagery and the operations. They may be motivated to speak out against the military and military actions. They may furthermore take action such as grassroots organizing and social activism. This is the same risk that the military has faced since the days of the Vietnam broadcasts. Though there is no absolute control over every broadcast, the military reserves the right to exert editorial power to preserve operational secrecy and to maintain the public image of the military.

The cons for the media include direct contact with potentially fatal danger. A war zone is not a safe place. Film and television equipment can be bulky and fragile. There is moderate to exceptional risk to their bodies and to their equipment. Therefore, there is substantial chance that the footage could not make it back to the country of broadcast due to damage suffered personally or technically. Journalists abroad in war zones do not also receive the best treatment. They often suffer forms of harassment from the military they accompany as well as from the military and citizens from the opposing side. On the other hand, there is a good chance that there are people from the opposing side that welcome the press and the coverage so that the greater world can see their experience and situation. There may be some messages that people from the opposing side want desperately to communicate to viewers at home of the opposing side. Going into a war zone for a journalist or media professional, in many cases, is a type of premium merit badge of the industry. For example, a large group of the most famous journalists and news media professionals in the United States of America have provided coverage in war zones, such as Tom Brokaw and Peter Jennings. Thus a pro-for journalists who provide battle coverage will likely prosper in the industry upon their return.

References:

Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2012). Press Freedom vs. Military Censorship. Web, Available from: http://www.crf-usa.org/america-responds-to-terrorism/press-freedom-versus-military-censorship.html. 2012 November 09.

Ricchiardi, S. (2006). Dangerous Assignment. American Journalism Review, Web, Available from: http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4003. 2012 November 10. [read more]


Ethics in Anthropology Essay

… The attempts to westernize these states provide an opportunity for anthropologist to step in and suggest how the aims of the conflict can be met without creating western type democracies in these states. There is a clear distinction between winning a war and change the people of the country.

The argument of do no harm fails to accept that the very presence of troops in the country is harm. It is no longer possible to not do any harm as a nation. However, it may be a gross dereliction of duty if as scientists; anthropologists fail to assist in reducing the possible harm. This element appears to be lost in the debate. Whether anthropologists provide the military with intelligence or not, the military will act. The main question is how to reduce harm; since harm will come. Anthropologist can play a pivotal role in reducing cultural harm and shaping the image other nations have of American action and military behavior.

Additionally, the work of anthropologists allows for the formation of lasting community ties as well as the discovery of knowledge previously unknown. This new knowledge can be a vital step in reducing the prejudice that exists between the warring groups and begin the process toward peace. While the anthropologist may not be able to prevent the war their work can promote cultural understanding and ultimately move the discussion toward peace. This is important because the military has a focus on the quantitative elements of the war but the anthropologist provides the qualitative assessment that is needed to save lives. Anthropologists are able to add meaning and understanding to the militaries action this will reduce casualties on both sides of the divide. The more ethical action may in fact be to do the least harm. [read more]


Aviation Brigadier General William Billy Term Paper

… It was probably a point of pride to Mitchell that he was even vilified by three separate presidents.

Fall from Grace

The main issue that General Mitchell had throughout his military career was that he did not know how to use tact when talking to his superior officers. He foresaw the efficacy of powered aircraft as an indispensable military weapon, but he was not able to give evidence of this to his superiors without alienating many of them. The proverbial "last straw" was placed when a naval airship was destroyed n a storm and one of his best friends, acting as commander, was killed. Hickman (2012) related that

"following the loss of the U.S. Navy airship USS Shenandoah, Mitchell issued a statement accusing the military's senior leadership of "almost treasonable administration of the national defense" and incompetence. As a result of these statements, he was brought up on court-martial charges for insubordination at the direction of President Calvin Coolidge."

This court martial was national news and lasted for several weeks at the end of which Mitchell was found guilty and resigned his commission. One of the court martial judges, Mitchell's boyhood friend General Douglas McArthur, wrote afterward "that he was wrong in the violence of his language is self-evident; that he was right in his thesis is equally true and incontrovertible (Sterner, 2008).

Lasting Effects

The greatest achievement that Billy Mitchell had was the formation of a separate U.S. Air Force more than a decade after his death. He had predicted that Japan would bomb Pearl Harbor more than a decade before it happened, he had tirelessly tried to bring the military into the twentieth century, and he was roundly vilified for all of his efforts. The top brass and civilian military secretaries hated him because of his brash language, but he was proved right in so many ways after his death. That the Air Force is vital on the battlefield cannot be denied. Brigadier General Billy Mitchell has become one of the most revered figures in U.S. aviation history because he was such a staunch advocate for military air power. He may have been wrong in his approach to his superiors, but he was correct in his stance.

Reason for Choosing

That Billy Mitchell is a hero of aviation cannot be denied. It is impossible to look at current conflicts around the globe and imagine U.S. involvement without air power. In the first Gulf War, Navy and Air Force fighter pilots flew thousands of missions from aircraft carriers and numerous airbases that protected ground forces and assured their success. After that war, a no fly zone was established so that the defeated Iraqi Army would stay that way. During World War II, the Army Air Corps dropped thousands of paratroops behind German enemy lines prior to D-Day who were instrumental in securing the battlefield for Allied troops and ensuring the success of the venture. Again, it is impossible to imagine modern warfare without air power.

However, this is not… [read more]


DOS Essay

… Strategy and Tactics

Warfare and military planning in the late 20th and early 21st centuries is quite different than ever before. There has been a clear shift in thought about warfare, and what it takes to triumph not only on,… [read more]


U.S. Intelligence Strategy History Essay

… One of the most important aspects of this was that intelligence collaboration was finding its start during this time. At this time, during 1942, Army staff were cut back by the hief of Staff General Georg C. Marshall, and the… [read more]


Japanese-Americans in the West Coast Research Paper

… The Communist China's influence in North Vietnam and North Vietnam desire to exert its totalitarian form of government on the South, that had a legitimate government, had to be checked. Kings subscribes to Christian ideals which advocates for freedom of all men.

North Vietnam definitely had no regards for the southerner's individual rights. It was therefore America's moral responsibility to protect the freedoms of the citizens of South Vietnam. As a matter of fact, America being a signatory of SEATO was obliged to defend any form of external attack on the organization members. Responding to treaty obligation did not in anyway make America a cruel manipulator of the poor. These two subjects are parallel and have no point of convergence. Were it not for Lyndon Johnson, some of the civil rights liberties currently enjoyed by the American citizenry would still be a mirage away.

Case III

Dr Cornel West analysis of King's legacy and Obama administration is spot on. However, he was wrong by asserting that one can only love others if he loves his own family, neighborhood, and synagogue. This is not absolutely true as one can even love total strangers. His assertion that Obama administration bailed out companies that were "too big to fall" is misleading. I wonder the kind of company that can be too big to fall. Who thought AIG and General Motors could be caught in the cross-fires of economic meltdown. You can imagine how failure of such companies would impact American people. I disagree with West sentiments that president Obama has done little for African-Americans. Obama is the President of the United States of America not the president of African-American. Problems that are unique to African-Americans can be resolved in myriad platforms. However, issues dealing with equal opportunity that the blacks are denied, can be addressed… [read more]


War Why a Military Presence in Afghanistan Essay

… War

Why a military presence in Afghanistan will fuel conflict and turmoil within the country

Why the people of Afghanistan will be better served with a military presence within the country

Concluding Remarks

The war in Afghanistan has been a contentious issue for both developed nations and those around the world. The middle east, and in particular, Afghanistan, has had a profound impact on global prosperity and the resultant quality of life for all stakeholders involved. As such, this conflict has major implications for developed countries. Currently many individuals within Europe and American want their respective troops out of Afghanistan. A survey of over 1000 individuals showed that nearly 68% thought that troops should be removed from the territory (BBC news, 2008). I believe these 68% of individuals to be correct. However, the war on terror does have its merits. Although, some form of presence is needed, I believe having military present on foreign soil can do both harm and good to all countries involves.

First, it is in my contention that a foreign military presence in Afghanistan only exacerbates the overall conflict within the country. I think it would be possible to have a presence within the country without having to have the military directly involved in the overall situation. Some military would be needed for security purposes of individual personnel who are very important to their respective countries, but nowhere the extent that we currently see. I believe this middle ground approach is warranted as it is a compromise to both arguments for and against foreign presence in Afghan. A military presence is perceived to be forceful method of negotiation. Force, in many respects is not a respectable and long-term solution to problems for many reasons. One, it does not attempt to have sympathy or apathy for the opponent viewpoint. It instead shuns their views in favor of ones own. This creates an aura of supremacy, which is not accepted well by Afghanistan or any negotiation partner. America, Europe and other developed nations are essentially saying, "Solve your problems the way we solve ours, or else you will be punished with force." Short-term, this method will indeed work as nations will be forced to bow to the ultimate military prowess of the developed nations. However, only resentment will arise in the long-term, which ultimately will breed animosity on the part of the Afghan people. Furthermore, military unrest breeds casualties. Many of these casualties will be of the innocent variety. Many innocent Afghan people will ultimately lose their lives over this military presence in the Middle East. If an innocent American or European is… [read more]


How Leaders Inspire Soldiers Essay

… ¶ … Leaders Inspire Soldiers

Over the last several years, the issue of effective military leadership has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a transformation in the way technology and battlefield tactics are being utilized. For most soldiers, these changes have meant that they will use different tools in conducting modern warfare. As a result, some commanders believe that there has been a shift in the kinds of tools and tactics that are utilized to inspire others. To fully understand the best leadership attributes requires examining those techniques that are most effective. This will help everyone to comprehend what tools must be used to inspire their soldiers. (Laver, 2008, pp. 1 -- 9)

The Best Leadership Attributes

According to Harvey (2008), there are several attributes that are most commonly embraced among all great military leaders to include:

Courage under fire.

The ability to think calmly and rationally on the battlefield.

Determination.

Stamina.

Resolution during times of challenge.

Seizes opportunities.

Improvement.

The use of diplomacy.

Focused on raising morale.

A strong devotion to their own men.

These areas are illustrating how all leaders will embrace many common attributes in conjunction with one another. This is regardless of the changes in technology or battlefield strategies. These ideas will help all military commanders to effectively inspire their soldiers. (Harvey, 2008)

A good example of this can be seen with Irwin Rommel. Here is an individual, who was able to inspire true passion within his soldiers. The way that this occurred, was through willingness to: lead by example, strong determination, having a sense of charisma and he seized upon his opportunities. The combination of these factors helped Rommel to create military victories, in situations where he was outnumbered and outgunned. During the early part of World War II, this was the basic approach that he used as a part of the blitzkrieg (in France and North Africa). These events helped to instill confidence in his men. As a result, this is illustrating how these basic characteristics are what helped to make Rommel such a successful leader. (Harvey, 2008)

Moreover, there are other military commanders who used similar tactics to inspire their soldiers. One the better examples can be seen with General Norman Schwarzkopf. He was the U.S. commander during the 1991 Gulf War with Iraq. At the time, there were considerable amounts of concern surrounding the operation. This is because, most American forces were inexperienced in fighting heavy amounts of combat. While the Republican Guard of Iraq, fought numerous bloody battles against the Iranians during the 1980s. This sparked concerns that America was an aging power, which was very weak militarily. (Hughes, 2002) (Tucker, 2010, pp. 1081 -- 1082)

During the buildup, Schwarzkopf promised that the total number of casualties would be minimized through a new kind of strategy. This is because he had seen the problems associated with: inept commanders and unresponsive officials (from his time as a platoon leader… [read more]


Leadership of Wellington the British Essay

… Wellesley surveyed the surrounding ground and used it to his army's advantage. He understood that he had finer, higher ground from which to ford the river and begin his attack, and he was able to use his better ground to direct his troops and cavalry against the enemy flanks. As the Maratha forces were able to counter Wellesley's moves with "European efficiency," the future duke was able to recognize his opponent's skill and intention and react accordingly, and thus he was able to protect his own flanks while destroying those of his opponent's. (Cavendish). At Assay, we also see the eventual Duke of Wellington adhere to Harvey's ninth trait -- that of a "penchant for fighting against superior odds that could catch a complacent enemy unawares" (Harvey, p xlvi). In this battle according to Harvey's numbers, Wellesley's force numbered roughly twenty-four thousand infantry and cavalry to the Maratha's forces approximately two-hundred thousand infantry and cavalry (Harvey, p. 194). Even though the British and their allies were greatly outnumbered, the superior skill of Wellesley's leadership allowed the British army not only to array well against greatly increased numerical odds, but to prevail in an absolute victory against those odds as well.

The last part of Harvey's list contain those traits that really could not be evident in a maverick commander at the beginning of his career (though Wellesley did satisfy the "high intelligence" trait). These traits, though there, could not be developed without age or experience; but nevertheless, they can be seen in a young commander. For example, Harvey tells us that excellent field commanders have a "fatherly devotion" to their own men and that they have great interest in "improving morale" of their troops, and we can glean Wellesley's feelings by his reaction to not only Assay, but also to other battles in the Indian Campaigns (Harvey, p xlvi). We learn in Maverick that Wellesley was "horrified" after surveying the carnage after the fall of Srirangapatna, and by his comments toward the end of his life where he not only allowed that Assay was his greatest battlefield victory, but that he was torn by the great cost in lives to his troops (Cavendish).

The above discusses only in part Wellesley's adherence to Harvey's schema, and it would take discussing the rest of the Duke's military career to see how he fits the remaining traits found in most maverick commanders. But with what we do see at Assay, we find that Wellesley did not attain his command because he was the "mere brother" of India's Governor-General, but because for whatever reason, be it his nature, experience and education or a combination of some or the three, he had those characteristics and qualities that define truly effective and victorious battlefield commanders.

References

Cavendish, Richard. (2003) History Today. www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/battle-assaye

Harvey, R. (2008). Maverick Military Leaders, the Extraordinary Battles of Washington, Nelson, Patton, Rommel, and Others. Skyhorse Pub Co Inc. [read more]


Qualities of Washington Essay

… Qualities of Washington

In his book Maverick Military Leaders, Robert Harvey outlines sixteen traits evidenced in the life of most, if not all, maverick military leaders. In the case of George Washington, the most relevant of these are "resolution in the face of terrible setbacks," "an ability to improvise and seize unexpected tactical advantage on the battlefield," and "a fatherly devotion to [his] own men, seeing to their needs during the long periods of inaction and refusing to risk their lives unnecessarily" (Harvey, 2008, p. xlvi). After examining Washington's military exploits during the American Revolution, it will become clear that a large part of his success against the British stemmed from embodying these three traits, because they helped Washington, and the colonial military, overcome immense odds.

Washington's resolution in the face of terrible setbacks is evident throughout the American Revolution, because the Continental Army continuously faced demoralizing defeats and difficulties. For example, in 1776, Washington's "whole campaign from New York to Delaware had been a string of disasters, defeats, miscalculations and retreats" (Harvey, 2008, p. 52). His force had been reduced to just 3,000 from an initial 20,000, and even those that remained were demoralized (Harvey, 2008, p. 52). Nevertheless, Washington was able to recover from this string of defeats and encourage his men, so that on Christmas night of that year, he completed his famous crossing of the Delaware river in "a beautifully executed and heroic (under the arctic conditions) night ambush" (Harvey, 2008, p. 54-55). Where lesser military leaders might have given up after the disastrous campaign of the summer and fall, Washington was able to stay resolute in the face of overwhelming odds, and he carried this trait with him for the rest of the Revolution. His success with crossing the Delaware following months of defeat is only one example of the way in which Washington was able to remain steadfast in his dedication to the cause in the face of difficulties, because the Continental Army would face even more defeat and despair in the months ahead.

The example of the crossing of the Delaware similarly demonstrates Washington's ability to improvise and seize unexpected tactical advantages, because from the British perspective, he simply should not have been able to do what he did on Christmas night, 1776. The British did not pursue the rebel army across the Delaware river in November, based on the "belief that victory was now inevitable and that a mopping up of the remnants of American forces was all that would be required the following spring" (Harvey 53). Instead, the allowed the Continental Army to escape, under the belief that their depleted numbers, supplies, and morale would keep them from achieving any kind of substantial success or advance. Recognizing "the British state of complacency and lack of preparation," Washington realized that "this was too good an opportunity to miss, even… [read more]


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