Study "Military / Army / Navy / Marines" Essays 221-275

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Jeremy Black's Rethinking Military History Essay

… Rethinking Military History

The goal of Jeremy Black's book Rethinking Military History is simultaneously modest and groundbreaking, in that he considers it "a short 'ideas book'" that nevertheless attempts "to re-position military history at the beginning of the twenty-first century"… [read more]


World War II Japan's Wars Essay

… Yet in the end, Japan's own racism and imperialism alienated potential Asian allies like Ba Maw in Burma, since its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere "proved to be as overweening as the Westerners had been before" (Dower 1987). According to the "Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus," produced by the Japanese bureaucracy in 1942-43, Japan intended to be the dominant power in Asia permanently once the Western powers were defeated. In the Pacific after the initial surrenders of 1941-42, very few Allied troops gave up or took prisoners, while the Japanese glorified the suicidal experience of the kamikazes and banzai charges as the highest ideal of heroism and self-sacrifice. In reality, millions of Asians died as a result of Japanese atrocities and slave labor, far more than the number of whites killed in the Pacific War (Dower 1944).

After Pearl Harbor, the United States was still very badly prepared for war against Germany and Japan, whose military organizations had far more combat experience. Almost all the troops who fought in the war were civilian volunteers or draftees given the miniscule size of the professional Army in 1920-40, and in the end the ability of the U.S. To train and equip them in a very rapid time was a remarkable accomplishment. Franklin Roosevelt and George Marshall have always received their share of the credit for organizing the resources to equip this vast new and untested force, finding the best combat leadership available and setting the overall strategic goals. On the other hand, Hitler's deficiencies as a military leader, let alone his moral and psychological defects, are also very well-known. His orders to the Germany Army to stand and fight to the last man in Stalingrad, North Africa and Normandy aroused genuine hatred and despair among his professional military officers, allowing entire armies to be surrounded and destroyed. Combined with his genocidal orders and massive atrocities against civilians (particularly on the Eastern Front), general military revulsion against his leadership culminated in the coup attempt of July 20, 1944. Needless to say, no such events ever occurred among the Western Allies.

Japan was going to surrender in 1945 even if the atomic bombs were not dropped and that no invasion would ever have been necessary. It navy, air force and merchant marine were already destroyed and over sixty cities had been firebombed into ashes. Their only condition was that the Emperor not be removed, and in the end the Truman administration agreed to this rather than prosecuting Hirohito as a war criminal. At the time in the summer of 1945, all the top military and civilian officials of the administration except Secretary of State James Byrnes had already advised Truman to accept the Japanese surrender on this condition. Yet when the Potsdam Declaration was issued in July 1945, Harry Truman and Secretary of State James Byrnes removed the condition that would have allowed the emperor to remain in power. These weapons were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, and… [read more]


Strategy for Peace Essay

… Peace Strategy

A Strategy for Peace

America's global strategy for security, defense and diplomatic interaction is highly complex and today, increasingly contingent upon the implications of globalization. With the deconstruction of commercial and trade barriers, the U.S. has sought to… [read more]


Garibaldi Christopher Hibbert's Award-Winning Biography Book Review

… It was during this time that he first became an international hero and celebrity, at least in the liberal and democratic nations.

He remained in exile in Morocco, New York and Peru until 1854, with the prime minister of Piedmont,… [read more]


Compare and Contrast the Military Decision-Making Process MDMP With the Joint Operation Planning Process JOPP Essay

… JOPP v. MDMP

JOPP v MDMP

One way of comparing JOPP and MDMP is within and without. The two planning operations share many similarities, particularly within their tactical objectives and the art and science delivering those outcomes, but JOPP's wider jurisdiction outside the AO, and to higher levels of command are the most important differentiating attributes, themselves composites of multiple interlocking procedures.

Both procedures share similar objectives and methods. JOPP and MDMP use iterative and collaborative planning to achieve commander-centric but adaptive field objectives through a series of similar steps. In general, the two models share the same number of wider steps (seven); the result is products directing specific but broad objectives and orders to assets on the battlefield, and this is achieved through adaptive COA formation and analysis that starts with command but includes feedback from staff and ongoing adaptation as orders are developed, tested through wargaming, verified, authorized and then refined back downward into detailed commands achieving particular deliverables. These steps go from wider overall mission and timeline analysis, where the output is a mission statement, the Joint Force Commander initial intent statement and a list of commander's critical information requirements, which are to be fulfilled by staff toward the next stages of plan development, Course Of Action (COA) development. The COAs under both JOPP and MDMP set out the purpose of the mission, the physical boundaries and exactly how, where, when and in what order war fighting functions will deploy. Both iterative models contain multiple steps within this stage as staff fulfills command's information requirements as wargaming and comparison reveals all the enemy's possible COAs, to which command responds by anticipating and refining all possible actions, reactions and counteractions in both directions across the theater, and methods of evaluating those effects.

In specific, where these procedures differ within the procedures in technical ways that affect how the different forces… [read more]


Spanish Irish Relations in the 16th Century Essay

… Spanish-Irish Relations in the 16th Century

Role of Ireland within the Priorities of Spanish Government between 1580-1604

The overthrow of the Munster settlement in 1598, followed by the intervention of Spain to assist Hugh O'Neill and his confederates, brought it… [read more]


Effects of the Defense Authorization Act of 1916 and 1920 on the National Guard Research Paper

… ¶ … Defense Authorization Act of 1916 & 1920 on the National Guard

In 1790, President George Washington and Henry Knox, who was a military leader at that time tried to persuade the Continental Congress to establish a federally controlled… [read more]


Military vs. Domestic Public Safety Research Paper

… Many agencies can make an effort to get close to that level, but this researcher does not see that actually taking place. However, that does not mean that domestic public safety agencies cannot be prepared for critical incidents. Police and firefighters, for example, are more prepared than the average citizen or the average individual who works at a public safety agency. By looking at what specific safety agencies do with their time, talents, and resources, it is easy to see how some can be more prepared than others. Of course, there are some agencies that keep some of what they do "under wraps" for various reasons, so it can be difficult to judge the level of preparedness that they actually have for critical incidents.

When a domestic public safety agency does have to handle a critical incident, that agency often brings in the military so that it is able to get some help with whatever has gone wrong. The National Guard, for example, is often called in when there are disasters such as hurricanes or excessive flooding. That is done because of the level of preparedness the military has, but also because the military has equipment that domestic public safety agencies simply do not possess. It is sometimes that equipment that is the most significant need in a critical incident. When domestic safety agencies partner with the military to handle a critical incident, everyone gets the benefit of the experiences of other people who have trained very differently from them. That is good news for the people who need help in that incident, because they receive more help - and of different kinds - than they would if only one group was assisting. Even though the military has the preparedness advantage when it comes to critical incident management, that does not mean that domestic public safety agencies have nothing to offer.

References

Dupuy, T.N. (1992). Understanding War: History and Theory of Combat. London: Leo Cooper.

Thompson, J. (1991). Lifeblood of war: Logistics in armed conflict.… [read more]


Mexico Army's Punitive Expedition Research Paper

… Mexico

Army's punitive expedition

The Punitive Expedition is the name of a military campaign that the government of the United States took place in Mexico to capture revolutionary leader Pancho Villa, who had attacked a U.S. outpost on March 9th… [read more]


Powers and Rights Assessment

… S. federal court system and wage litigation warfare? What is the background and current status of this issue?

The chances of this depend on whether or not a successful act of terror actually occurred. If one did occur, the U.S.… [read more]


Cyber Terrorism and Warfare Research Paper

… Cyber-crime, Cyber-Terrorism, And Cyber-Warfare

Since the earliest days of the first primitive computer information networks and information systems, a perpetual evolutionary war has existed between entities relying on those computer systems and entities seeking to exploit those systems by acquiring… [read more]


Military Logistics Research Paper

… Military Logistics

PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

An analysis of how the battlefield logistics contractor policy in the Department of Defense can be reformed has been performed. This analysis came from the surveying of 26 program managers, but did… [read more]


Revolutionary People at War the Continental Army and American Character 1775-1783 Book Review

… ¶ … Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character

The book by Charles Royster is certainly well thought out and well presented in terms of the sequence of the chapters, the illustrations, the informative Prologue and the tightly written narrative. Too often historical records of wars and contentious periods in American history contain far too much emotionally patriotic -- even jingoistic -- narrative. Royster knows how to tell a story well, even one that has been part of the history of America for 230 years or so; after all, whether the book is about history, or science, or philosophy, if the author does not excel at story-telling, the reader is left out in the cold. Royster keeps the reader interested and involved.

How did the Continental Army -- a rag-tag group of patriots that were out-manned, out-gunned, with less training than the enemy -- manage to defeat the mighty British army? This book offers a vast storehouse of information to answer that specific question. Royster does it without breathlessly pushing any particular point-of-view on the reader, although he does use religion as a theme.

Royster does have a point-of-view. And he expresses it throughout the book, but rather than the reader suffering from strong editorial whiplash, the viewpoint and theme Royster presents is quite digestible. For example, in his Prologue (Royster 1979, 10) the author is setting the stage for his storytelling of the actual combat. He writes that the British army called the colonial fighters "a chickenhearted race of farmers, dry goods dealers, and slave drivers" (Royster 1979, 10). And the British weren't the only ones to verbally malign the colonial fighters; they were called the "loyalists" and they called the revolutionary army "A vagabond Army of Ragamuffins, with Paper Pay, bad clothes and worse spirits" (Royster, 1979 10).

Undaunted by the taunting, the revolutionaries were confident because they were counting on God's plan for this young country, Royster explains on pages 13 and 14. Meanwhile as the war began the American troops believed they had "two strengths" to ensure their "superiority"; one was they trained utilizing basic fighting techniques without a lot of razzle-dazzle showmanship for the public; and the second strength was simply, as Royster writes on page 25, that Americans possessed "natural," or "native," or "innate" courage against the enemy.

A key and interesting portion of the book is when General George Washington arrived in Massachusetts to take control of the continental army. The discipline was outrageously loose and the men were in jeopardy because of poor sanitation (men would "ease themselves" -- have bowel movements -- where they happened to be in camp), because of the reckless firing of their muskets, because of homesickness and overall dearth of solid training (Royster, 1979 58-63). However, as Royster explains on pages 96-98, the Continental Army "…began to develop the character that it retained throughout the war" and moreover, in June 1776 the "Americans' skill and dedication in serving their guns surprised… [read more]


Japanese Preparation and Attack Research Paper

… In this regard, Hill emphasizes that, "[Pearl Harbor] convinced a majority of Americans to escalate to total war against Germany; most Americans believed that Germany was either an accomplice or the political master of Japan, thus making Hitler at least as guilty as Japan for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The attack on Pearl Harbor was the defining event for U.S. entrance into World War II, not only as it regarded the Pacific theater, but also the European theater."

Long-term significance. The long-term significance of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was the utter destruction of the Japanese empire, with Hiroshima and Nagasaki representing only a tithe of the destruction that was visited on the island nation through incendiary bombings of most major cities.

References

Burns, G.E. (2011). "The War Years." Pan American Historical Foundation. [online] available:

http://www.panam.com/cgi-bin/_textdisplay_0.asp?display=WARYEARS&refer=

264168681&call=D.

Czarnecki, J., Worth, R., Noch, M.C., Horan, M.E. & DiGiulian, T. (2011). Order of battle:

Pearl Harbor -- December 7, 1941. [online] available: http://www.navweaps.com / index_oob/OOB_WWII_Pacific/OOB_WWII_Pearl_Harbor.htm.

Divine, R.A. (1969). Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

Edgar, B. (1999). Warrior of Kokoda: A Biography of Brigadier Arnold Potts. St. Leonards,

NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Flamiano, D. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,

Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):

23-24.

Hill, R.F. (2003). Hitler Attacks Pearl Harbor: Why the United States Declared War on Germany. Boulder, [read more]


Thailand Scenario Force Capabilities Vignettes Essay

… Other troop estimates MIGHT based upon the 2011 Cobra Gold, which was scheduled to conclude Feb. 18 involved 11,220 people, including 7,200 U.S. service members, including he U.S. Marine Aircraft Group 36, the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing and the 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force. The multinational forces were deployed in Korat using Thailand's Utapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield in Chanthaburi province and other close support facilities. These facilities lie about 180 miles west of a four day artillery clash along the Thai-Cambodian border between the Thai and Cambodian armies (Ehrlich) .

Coalition forces are of primary importance in a support role both in terms of equip and advisors. Due its primarily counterinsurgency role in the south of country against Moslem guerillas, the royal Thai Army's ground force battalions operate separately and therefore lack the strength of unity. In terms of joint and combined C2 structures that might be considered, Thailand has a highly capable communications system in place. Such unity can be established by means of an adequate communications network. This author suggests that the United States supports the Thais by means of capability deployments that would include including C3I and language capabilities. Equipment systems such as the Command Post Of the Future (COPF) designed by DARPA make the coordination of everything from satellite to individual radio communications possible ("Defense Update") . Additionally, logistical support such as ground force fires and specialized reinforcement units would probably be required. In terms of communications, the U.S. should only need to establish a support network to coordinate integrate military communications and operations in the host country.

Myanmar Scenario

Myanmar's armed forces have been increasingly reorienting themselves to defend against what they feel could be a possible U.S.-led foreign invasion. Frequently, [read more]


Skills, and Professional Attributes Essay

… Furthermore, personality theory is going to be important to consider, since the way an individuals' personality is able to adapt to trauma plays a huge role in the way one coming home from war and suffering from PTSD could integrate back into the regular world.

The main characteristics of the culturally skilled practitioner

The most authoritative review in recent years, by researchers from Columbia University and other institutions, suggested that nearly 19% of Vietnam War veterans succumbed to PTSD as a direct result of military combat. In addition, "The more severe the exposure to war zone stresses, the greater the likelihood of developing post-traumatic stress disorder and having it persist for many years," said Bruce P. Dohrenwend, an epidemiologist at Columbia University. (McKenna, 2006).

Fast forward to the current occupation of Iraq. The Defense Department reports, based on a sample survey of over 1,600 Army soldiers and Marines, that around one-third (30%) of those who had been in "intense combat" were diagnosed with such mental health problems as PTSD and depression. Incidence appeared higher among soldiers deployed to Iraq at least twice and for more than six months at a time (Bookman, 2007). So distressing is the occupation, according to an Army study, that one in six of close 1 million soldiers "surged" to Afghanistan and Iraq will very likely be afflicted with PTSD (Allis, op. cit.).

As far as my focus is concerned, I will have to be aware of the way culture affects incidents of PTSD. The problem here is that there is a lack of studies reflecting on this, since PTSD seems to be prevalent across all cultures active in military duty. Regardless, cultural sensitivity will be crucial, because the way one responds to one's own culture, or responds to others, can be influenced by culture. Thus, even conversational practice, so often used by the counselor, is something that can be culturally sensitive. The psychologist should therefore prepare by being away of the culture of the individual suffering from PTSD, and use this to understand how the culture may affect the counseling interaction, and not necessarily the PTSD, since PTSD seems to affect all cultures.

References

Allis, S. & Globe Staff (2005). "Frontline" examines war's psychological toll: [THIRD Edition]. Boston Globe, p .E.5.

Bookman, J. (2007, May 9). OUR OPINIONS: War strains troops, U.S. credibility: [Main Edition]. The Atlanta Journal - Constitution, p. a.14.

Mckenna, Phil (2006). Stress syndrome affected one in five Vietnam veterans. (August 21) Boston Globe, p. C.3.… [read more]


Representations of War Research Paper

… Under normal circumstances, the life of one soldier would not be as important as to risk the lives of seven men, however, Ryan is the last remaining male descendent in his family as it is revealed during the course of… [read more]


Civil Liberties and Temporary Security Essay

… (Billy Budd VIII)

The irony here is that the lawless method of conscription means that naval service is taken advantage of by those who wish to escape the reach of the law. In other words, military service in Billy Budd… [read more]


Army Nco Creed - Interpretation Essay

… S. Army Sergeants Major Academy, where in terms of summary it is known as a creed. "An official ethical code is the Moral and Ethical Responsibilities of Leaders; Noncommissioned Officer's creed. Though, there is no copy of the Creed which… [read more]


Child Soldiers Research Paper

… This way children are the first target to any enemy and are used as frontline targets becoming the first to give and receive the attack. In most of the cases as it is expected kids die in crossfire, if in… [read more]


Military the Multifaceted American Defense Strategies Term Paper

… Military

The multifaceted American defense strategies do not preclude them from sharing key components, themes, and ideals in common. The National Security Strategy (NSS), the National Defense Strategy (NDS), the National Military Strategy (NMS), and the National Strategy for Maritime Security are critically aligned in terms of several key areas. Each places national defense strategies within a historic and policy framework, with special emphasis on post-September 11 realities. Terrorism is a major thematic thread in each of these strategic defense documents, which explicates the need for policy that transcends interactions between nation-states. Weapons of mass destruction are articulated as one of the primary defense concerns in all four documents, especially as the infiltration of terrorist networks presents tricky political as well as policy and military strategies.

The National Strategy for Maritime Security may be the only document that does not expressly stress the role of the United States as a shaper of the international environment. Yet the National Strategy for Maritime Security does present the United States as being in a unique position of power to influence the choices made by other nations in regards to their impact on American ports and its domestic security. Therefore, the purported role of the United States as a promoter of global peace, prosperity, and social justice is clearly defined in each of these strategy documents. Establishing the United States as a self-defined hegemon is a risky stance and yet also a realistic one, especially in light of the fact that "the United States remains the only nation able to project and sustain large-scale operations over extended distances," (Quarterly Defense Report, p. iv).

Allocation of funds and human resources is not touched upon in any great detail in any of the four strategy documents. Instead, they each emphasize the importance of recognizing and combatting threats to domestic… [read more]


Army Reserve Retention Impact Literature Review

… Army Reserve Enlist Impact

The literature study reveals that there are various issues that influence the decision to reenlist in the reservist section of the Army. These include the influence of the job status of the reservist upon redeployment, his or her financial situation, and his or her family and other commitments.

The literature also exposed two major conflicting factors that relate to reservists; they are vitally important in the country's defence system, and reservist retention is plummeting. This presents a problem, particularly in terms of the valuable asset that may be found in the education and expertise of reservists who make the choice against reenlistment. This, along with their function as transition between the military and the civilian in potentially hostile environments, presents a crisis for the reservist sector. The nature and necessity of defence do not always allow sufficiently for recruiting and training replacement reservists.

Importantly, it has been found that reservists whose income and… [read more]


Technology Issue in Information Assurance Term Paper

… Technology Issue in Information Assurance

Cyberwars: The Virtual Battlefield of the 21st Century

In the very near future, many conflicts will not take place on the open field of battle, but rather in spaces on the Internet, fought with the… [read more]


Selection Process for Naval Aviators Literature Review

… ¶ … Williams (1999) discusses the overall selection process for naval aviators. As they have been using the ATSB, since 1992 to determine who has the proper mental and emotional attributes for the career field. However, some standardized tests can… [read more]


Root Factors Affecting the U.S. Military's Readiness Essay

… ¶ … root factors affecting the U.S. Military's readiness to perform its primary functions during the initial stages of the conflict under investigation.

Main point 1. Upton's War against Political Corruption

Poor leadership

Paltry and indolent corporals

Political maneuvering and… [read more]


History of Warfare, Armies Will Adapt Book Report

… ¶ … history of warfare, armies will adapt to the overall nature of the threat that they are facing. Where, everyone is searching for ways of effectively incorporating the latest techniques, (with the most state of the art technology), in an effort to improve the operational effectiveness of their organization. Such is the case with the U.S. Army Signal Corps, as they have evolved with the different changes, to become a vital part of the mission. To fully understand this overall changing role requires: examining how the responsibilities of the Signal Corps have evolved over the last 35 years. This will provide the greatest insights, as to how this MOS is changing, with the new operational objectives and needs of the Army.

The Changing Nature of Warfare

In 1976, the Signal Corps would undergo a tremendous transformation. As the 1973 Arab Israeli War would highlight, how future conflicts would be decided based upon an organization's ability effectively communicate. This is because improved communication, gave the Israelis an advantage over their adversaries, as this allowed them to coordinate and adapt to changes on the battlefield (in real time). At which point, Israeli Defense Forces were able to outmaneuver their Arab rivals, resulting in a favorable outcome from the conflict. This is important, because it would highlight how the U.S. Army needed to embrace the principal of improved communication, to remain one step ahead of the Soviet Union.

As a result, a long process of improving communication would occur throughout the 1980's and into the 1990's. At first, some of these changes would take time to see implementation. Then, after a series of obvious oversights, the various shortcomings were addressed to improve communication. A good example of this occurred during Operation Urgent Furry in 1983. As American forces would run into numerous communication issues when securing the island of Grenada. This is important, because it would highlight how the Signal Corps need to improve communication among every segment of… [read more]


Gay and Lesbian Abuse and Military Don't Ask, Don't Tell Policy Research Paper

… DADT

'Don't ask, don't tell': The debate rages on 'Don't ask, don't tell' (DADT) is the policy that permits gay and lesbian men and women to serve in the military only if they conceal their sexuality. Despite objections to the law articulated by citizens, politicians, and servicemen alike, it continues to remains in force. "Senate Republicans blocked the attempt to move ahead with the bill that would have repealed the ban on gay troops serving openly in the military. The vote was 57-40, almost entirely along party lines, and three short of the 60 needed….The vote was a setback to President Obama and the Democratic leadership, who have made repealing the Clinton-era policy a key priority. And it short-circuited the efforts of a handful of Republicans who said they supported a repeal but wanted more time to negotiate the process of debating and voting on the measure" (Shear 2010).

There is mounting evidence that many distinguished gay and lesbian individuals have and are continuing to serve in the U.S. military, soldiers such as Jonathan Hopkins. Hopkins was promoted to the rank of major one year early "a considerable achievement" even for a three time, bronze star-winning soldier (Mulrine 2010). "As a high school student, his score on the Pentagon's aptitude test for military service was so high that recruiters encouraged him to apply to West Point. He did, and he graduated fourth among his peers in the Class of 2001. Hopkins then deployed once to Afghanistan and twice to Iraq, where the platoon he led helped secure Kirkuk in the war's first push" (Mulrine 2010). However, despite these impressive accomplishments, Hopkins lived in fear because of one simple reason: his sexuality. "Since 1993, some 12,500 gay men and lesbians have been discharged from the service when their sexual orientation became known, because either they or others made it public" (Don't ask, don't tell, 2010, the New York Times).

The military has undergone sweeping changes before. Even when the United States was polarized between the segregated south and non-segregated north, in 1948, the military had the courage to integrate African-American troops with white soldiers, noting the bravery they had shown on both fronts in World War II. At the time, an estimated 70-80% of the soldiers opposed the measure, but the military proceeded anyway. "By 1953, 90% of Army units were integrated, while buses in Montgomery, Ala., were not" (Mulrine 2010). As a point of comparison, "48% of Army combat units…expressed concern about gays serving openly," less than a majority (Mulrine 2010).

The objections raised to ending to DADT are similar to those raised against the army's decision to integrate its forces. Those who advocate the maintenance of DADT say that Americans are not ready to accept gays equally and openly. Yet legislation prohibiting the integration of the services was repealed many years before African-Americans were treated as equals in the racially polarized South. Others say that there are questions about separate facilities -- yet gay and straight servicemen… [read more]


Nevada, WW2 During World War II Essay

… Nevada, WW2

During World War II, the stat5e of Nevada made three significant contributions to the war effort. The desert north of Las Vegas provided the perfect location for the Las Vegas Army Air Force Gunnery School. The town of Henderson was located near both crude magnesite and the power generated by the Hoover Dam. In addition to the geographical resources, the state of Nevada also lost 592 men in combat. This essay will explore the history of the Nellis Air Force Base and Basic Magnesium Inc.

In January of 1941, Mayor John L. Russell of Las Vegas sold a large parcel of land to the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps for the development of the flexible gunnery school. The school would provide as training to aerial gunners to make them combat ready. This land had several qualities that made it an attractive location for the school: flying weather was ideal year-round; more than 90% of the area to the north was unpopulated public domain and available at $1 per acre; the inland strategic location was excellent; rocky hills, approximately six miles from the base afforded a natural backdrop for cannon and machine-gun firing; and dry lake beds were available for emergency landings.

When the army purchased this land it consisted of a dirt runway, a well and a small shack. Five officers, living in the basement of the Las Vegas federal building, began the school, which by mid-1941 had 3,000 students with ten at-6 "Texan" trainers and seventeen B-10 "Martin" bombers. B-17s arrived in 1942 and B-29s arrived in 1945. Training at the school lasted five weeks and would have six hundred gunnery students and 215 co-pilots per term. By the end of 1945, the base's population rose to nearly 11,000 officers and enlist men. When the war ended in May of 1945, the base was turned into a center for separating (discharging) army personnel. The Las Vegas Air Force base was closed in 1947. A year later it reopen and served as a jet fighter-training base for the Korean War.

In 1950, the Las Vegas Air Force base was renamed the Nellis Air Force base after a southern-Nevada war hero. William Harrell Nellis who ran seventy aerial combat missions for General George S. Patton. He was shot down in the Battle of the Bulge in December 27, 1044. In May 2009, President Barack Obama chose Nellis as the location to give a speech on the U.S. energy policy.

Basic Magnesium, Inc., a mining company, established a magnesium processing plant in Henderson, Nevada in 1937. This site was select because of proximity to sources of electricity and magnesium mines. The processing facility was built with federal funds approved by Franklin D. Roosevelt on the urging of Senator Patrick McCarran and BMI owner Howard P.… [read more]


American Army Generals-Robert E. Lee and Ulysses Research Paper

… ¶ … American Army Generals-Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant

Comparison and Contrast: Robert E. Lee vs. Ulysses S. Grant

Ironically, for a man whose name is synonymous with the Confederate cause, Robert E. Lee was not a passionate… [read more]


United States Military Has Helped Research Paper

… In drawing lessons from history Lomperis suggests that this is most usfully done by comparing a single aspect of both events. In this way, similarities and differences are more effectively compared in order to draw useful lessons for the present. Whether this can be done by comparing Vietnam and Afghanistan will remain to be seen.

Bibliography

Hammond, William M. "The Tet Offensive and the News Media." Army History 70 (Winter 2009): 6 -- 16.

Heinl, Robert D. Jr. "The Collapse of the Armed Forces." Armed Forces Journal (June 1971): 30 -- 38.

Lomperis, Timothy J. "Giap's Dream, Westmoreland's Nightmare." Parameters (June 1988): 18-32.

Pike, Douglas, "Conduct of the Vietnam War: Strategic Factors, 1965 -- 1968." The Second Indochina War: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Airlie, Virginia, 7 -- 9 November 1984. Edited by John Schlight, 99 -- 119. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1986.

Record, J. & Terrill, W.A. (2004, May). Iraq and Vietnam: Differences, Similarities, and Insights. Small Wars Journal. Retrieved from http://smallwarsjournal.com/documents/record1.pdf

End Notes

Record, J. & Terrill, W.A. (2004, May). Iraq and Vietnam: Differences, Similarities, and Insights. Small Wars Journal. Retrieved from http://smallwarsjournal.com/documents/record1.pdf

Petraeus, David H. "Lessons of History and Lessons of Vietnam." Parameters XVI, no. 3 (Autumn 1986): 43 -- 53.

Pike, Douglas, "Conduct of the Vietnam War: Strategic Factors, 1965 -- 1968." The Second Indochina War: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Airlie, Virginia, 7 -- 9 November 1984. Edited by John Schlight, 99 -- 119. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1986.

Hammond, William M.… [read more]


History of the Chief Petty Officer Khaki Uniforms Essay

… Military

History of the Chief Petty Officer Khaki Uniforms

The first uniform instruction for the U.S. Navy was issued by the Secretary of War on 24 August 1791. It supplied a distinguishing dress for the officers who would command the… [read more]


Sexual Assault Policies Involving Military Members Term Paper

… Sexual Assault Policies

Sexually Assault Policies involving military members

Sexual Assault Policies Involving Military Members

A Study of the Anatomy of Rape in Military and Legal Recourses Available To Victims

Rape within U.S. Military -- A Perspective

Any study of… [read more]


American Revolution American Victory and the Waning Essay

… American Revolution

American Victory and the Waning British Empire

The United States began quite humbly as subjugate to the world's great power. As a prolific player in the colonization of the lands which lay outside the pale of European civilization, the British Empire emerged victorious as the sole claimant to the country which would eventually succeed it as the globe's furthest reaching and most culturally influential national entity. As we know it today, the United States is geographically, economically and politically unparalleled in its wealth and in its capacity to shape international patterns of trade, diplomacy and war. With a presence in each of these capacities that impinges upon the dominant affairs of every inhabited continent, its vision and priorities are typically supported with the vigor of manifest destiny. The United States and the United Kingdom are today great partners on a divided world stage. Ironically, we may argue that this is a relationship which in its worst straits would help to plant the seeds for a reciprocating progressiveness that would leap back and forth across the Atlantic through the coming century. Bred in the thick of British colonialism, the United States would surface into existence with an ingrained nod to monarchical elitism and a full-fledged thrust toward constitutional democracy. The transition would suggest a new caveat to the people, with the expectations of political involvement and activism promoting suitable elected representation. In the United Kingdom, the rule of the British Crown and a feudalist system with highly unequal socioeconomic propensities, helped to maintain a culture of political ignorance amongst the publics while assuring leadership, authority and wealth to those who had inherited it. In the United States, historians like Martin & Lender (2006) argue, a convergence of the will of the people and the oversight of an elite social core would promote victory for the fledgling democracy. It would also signal the crumbling of the British Empire, which would deteriorate dramatically in the century to follow.

This is to posit the central argument that America won their War for Independence by establishing itself as a cause worth fighting for. So is the argument produced by Martin & Lender, who offer an exhaustive case that the Continental Army more than any other force would serve up defeat to the far more powerful, experienced and trained British soldiers. For Martin & Lender, the socioeconomic integration of the Continent Army would be one of its key features. Though American fighters were often reluctant to leave the comfortable confines of their respective state and regional militias -- which also constituted an important force in repelling British tyranny -- Martin & Lender cite the central importance of the Continental Army in reflecting what were to be the formative impulses of the burgeoning nation.

Particularly, the fighting force seemed to imply a convergence… [read more]


Immigrants Serving in the U.S. Military Research Paper

… Except for the indigenous Native American population, the United States is truly a country of immigrants. Indeed, most modern Americans can trace their ancestry to the nations of Europe, Asia and Africa and it is reasonable to suggest that the… [read more]


Client Letter and Office Memo Essay

… Divestiture Defense for Criminal Disrespect Charge

Dear Sgt. Payne

Your father contacted me in regards to your pending criminal case for disrespecting a superior officer under UCMJ Article 91. Having conducted some preliminary research into the legal issues at hand,… [read more]


Basic Training and Gender or Women in the Military Research Proposal

… ¶ … Training Women for the MilitarynEven as the lines between combat and non-combat assignments become increasingly blurred and women who are assigned combat roles find themselves in active war zones, there remain a number of questions about how women… [read more]


Retired Military Media Analysts Essay

… Retired Military Media Analysts

Gates urges greater clarity by military media analysts: An overview of the U.S. Defense Secretary's position

Gates urges greater clarity by military media analysts: An overview of the U.S. Defense Secretary's position

Many viewers like to congratulate themselves that they are savvy media consumers. They say they are able to discern the conservative bias of Fox News and are all too well aware that the reason their favorite character on a sitcom loves to eat cereal is because Kellogg is a leading sponsor of the program. However, when it comes to military figures, there is an often near-instinctive trust on the part of the public that the individuals they see are speaking truthfully and with candor about their knowledge of the U.S. military situation abroad. Who else could know better than an officer about the risks of withdrawal or the potential benefits of a new military system? The public is likely to think that an officer is likely to know better, even than a politician, about national security and military tactics, given his or her training and experience.

The problem, U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates states in a 2008 article published in Science Daily entitled "Gates urges greater clarity by military media analysts" is that many individuals who are retired officers go on to work as private contractors. These officers are no longer people who are duty-bound to put the greater interests of the nation and the soldiers under their command first and foremost. Now they are private citizens with a financial interest that certain actions are undertaken by the federal government, and they may have a clear bias in favor of certain weapons systems, because of the position of their company.

These military analysts are often presented as "objective" observers to the American public, and no mention is made of their change in status. There is often a clear political or financial (or at times both) interest that the individual has when disseminating an opinion, just as much as a spokesperson for Kraft or Mattel might have, defending his or her company against allegations that a product is harmful, or an advertising campaign is misleading. For example, an individual working for a company that manufactures Air Force equipment might have a perceptual or deliberate bias regarding the need to bolster the Air Force to combat terrorist attacks; an individual who has started a contracting company that manufactures strategic defense… [read more]


DIMHRS vs. HRIS Thesis

… ¶ … Department of Defense (DOD) has been using the HRIS Human Resources Information System which is a "..."software or online solution for the data entry, data tracking and information needs of the Human Resources, payroll, management and accounting functions… [read more]


Why Is it Important to Have a Strong Military? Research Proposal

… ¶ … Strong Military

DEMOCRACY & the IMPORTANCE of a STRONG MILITARY

The importance of a strong military cannot be denied and this is particularly true in a state of Democracy and in a country that cherishes its freedom from oppression from other powers in the world who would if possible, tread upon that freedom if not for the presence of a strong military defense.

PRESERVATION of DEMOCRACY

The work of General Hugh Shelton and John H. Dalton (2009) states that Americans "have always answered the call to service: to defend against powers who would threaten our security and to fight for the cause of peace in times of conflict." p.1 as stated by General Shelton and Dalton the world today is dangerous and this certainly while fading from focus as the Cold War ended once again has emerged as critical since the events of September 11, 2001.

CONTEMPORARY ASPECTS of MILITARY DEFENSE

The military defense of a country has many factions that must be… [read more]


Most Serious Issue Facing the United States Military Today Research Proposal

… ¶ … U.S. MILITARY TODAY

The most serious issue facing the United States military today is the prospect of asymmetric warfare in connection with ongoing so-called guerilla wars such as those in Iraq and Afghanistan. That is because the U.S. Armed Forces was originally designed and has evolved ever since primarily to address the threat of traditional wars with nation states. Meanwhile, the greatest contemporary threats to U.S. interests are much more likely to arise in connection with non-state actors and terrorists.

Guerilla warfare in urban environments poses a tremendous difficulty for the U.S. military because it does not lend itself to the application of military force of the kind relied upon by modern military superpowers. Moreover, while U.S. military strategists must always consider civilian casualties and keep any collateral damage to an absolute minimum, the insurgents and terrorists have no such compunction and purposely target civilians and infrastructure.

Like the militaries of… [read more]


Desert Shield Desert Storm Thesis

… ¶ … Desert Shield/Desert Storm (the invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein in 1990). The Gulf War began in the oil fields of Iraq, and ended with the liberation of Kuwait by American and allied forces through the United Nations.… [read more]


U.S. Participation in a Multi-National Conflict Management Thesis

… U.S. PARTICIPATION in a MULTI-NATIONAL CONFLICT Management FORCE: MILITARY INTERVENTION and PEACEKEEPING

The objective of this work is to examine U.S. participation in a multi-national conflict management force in terms of the valid reasons that exist to support such participation.… [read more]


Lessons Learned From the Attack on Pearl Harbor Essay

… Attack on Pearl Harbor

Lessons from the attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was described by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt as a "day of infamy." The statement basically sums up the sentiments of Americans during that time, from a historical perspective the attack on Pearl Harbor is a manifestation of power relationships in the international arena between the United States and Japan and their failure to achieve a consensus that could have prevented their clash in World War II. It is noteworthy to analyze the lessons that can be learned from the events of Pearl Harbor, that these lessons transcend more than the military failure of the U.S. To anticipate the attack but to address the root cause of why the attack happened in the first place.

In 1940, Japan expanded its influence in the territories of French Indo China and the Dutch East Indies. The U.S. In its effort to halt the Japanese expansionist policy implemented a ban for the sale of war materials to Japan that include oil, iron and steel for airplanes. However, the move further fueled dissention between the two countries. Japan and the U.S. held talks to iron out a compromise but the extreme militarists such as General Tojo Hideki were gaining power in Japan. They hoped to seize lands in Asia and the Pacific and the U.S. was interfering with their plans. To prevent interference with its expansions into new areas, the Japanese needed to cripple the American naval forces stationed in Hawaii. (Stearns, Schwartz and Beyer, 1991, pp. 699-700) With talks at a standstill, General Tojo ordered a surprise attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Early on December 7, 1941, Japanese airplanes damaged and destroyed 19 ships and killed more than 2,400 people. However, the carriers, the main targets of the attack, survived because they were at sea. The Americans were completely unprepared for the air attack at Pearl Harbor; most of them were asleep or eating breakfast. Japan did not issue any formal declaration of war and thus the surprise attack was a military success. The next day U.S. President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan. (Gaynor and Esler, 2003, pp.770-80).

Despite the attack on Pearl Harbor that ushered in the United States' entry into World War II, Japanese sentiment of engaging the U.S. into an all out war was less optimistic. Akira (1990) argued that Japanese leaders took the plunge into war with little hope of victory against the U.S. while simultaneously making preparations for a war against the U.S.S.R. And continuing hostilities against China. Akira stressed that it is well-known that the top level navy leaders had serious misgivings about the prospect of protracted war based on their knowledge of the disparity in national strength between Japan and the U.S. In fact, Commander in Chief of the combined fleet Yamamoto Isoroku felt that Japan would be able to… [read more]


Women in the Military Thesis

… Women in the Military

Benefits of Women in the Combat Zone

Historically women have not been allowed to serve in military combat situations. This has been due in part to the Aspin Rules. These rules where established by the Defense Secretary, Les Aspin, in 1994. Basically the rules say that women are not allowed to be placed in small direct combat units that take direct offensive action against an enemy. Although there has not been any official change to these rules, there has been some relaxation in the placement of women in combat zones (Eberhart, 2004).

This change has most recently been seen with the wars in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Although women were not official assigned to combat units, they were definitely in the middle of the combat zone. Wars today are not like they used to be and the lines between direct and indirect combat zones are often blurry. Women are being placed into dangerous situations that may unintentionally put them into a direct line of fire. Even though public opinion seems to be split on the issue of women in combat, the Army says that it is now a necessity.

In order to have enough qualified candidates from which to recruit the Army says that changing the rules regarding women in combat is necessary. There are not enough qualified men to fill all the positions that are required (Putko & Johnson, 2008). "According to a Washington Times report, last May the Army told Pentagon officials in a special report that if it was forced to keep the vital FSCs all-male, it would simply not have enough soldiers" (Eberhart, 2004)

Another benefit of allowing women to be part of combat zones is the ability to retain quality soldiers for longer periods of time. Promotion within the military is highly tied to combat service. Since women are not allowed to serve in combat roles, their promotion opportunities are greatly diminished. The military finds it difficult to recruit females into military careers, knowing that their opportunities for advancement are limited. The current belief is that most women do not want to necessarily serve in the infantry; they really just want to have that opportunity if they should so desire it (Putko & Johnson, 2008) third benefit of having female soldiers in a combat zone is one… [read more]


World War II - Life and Times Research Proposal

… World War II - Life and Times of Bill Haak

Bill Haak was raised in a family that was very much involved in many ways (economically, socially, and morally) with the Great Depression and involved militarily with WWI. As time… [read more]


Role of Women in World War II Thesis

… Role of Women in World War II

The Women's Auxiliary Corps

The role of women changed in the 20th century without precedence in history. The change began with events during World War II, which altered and even reversed women's social… [read more]


General Dynamics Corporation Thesis

… ¶ … extended overview of General Dynamics Corporation. A throughout view of its history, activities, technologic development, its mergers and divestitures, as well as short summary of its financials will be summarized within this paper.

Company overview

General Dynamics represents… [read more]


Blackwater USA Thesis

… Blackwater

The Private Contractor Dilemma

During the course of the war in Iraq, the United States has seen many of its allies remove their troops from Iraq. By itself, the United States military would be unable to fight the war… [read more]


Daniel Chappie James Jr. Contribution to the Air Force Term Paper

… ¶ … life of Daniel "Chappie" James Jr. Specifically it will discuss how Daniel "Chappie" James Jr. contributed to the history in the Korean War and how he rose so quickly through the ranks, along with his important part in… [read more]


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Term Paper

… PTSD

WHEN the PAST DOESN'T DIE

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Introduction number of studies and other researches have yielded findings that many or most combat or war veterans who return home from the battlefield develop Post-traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD. The… [read more]


Operation Just Cause and Operation Desert Storm Term Paper

… Operation Just Cause and Operation Desert Storm

Just Cause & Desert Storm

There are underlying similarities and differences between both the operations. A study in detail of operation Just Cause which was launched in December 1989 involved deployment of personnel… [read more]


Military While There Has Been Some Consideration Term Paper

… Military

While there has been some consideration of the possibility of integrating Professional with Off-Duty Military Training, the two areas are still largely segregated, with the former being more focused upon the specific duties needed in the military environment. Off-Duty training tends to be more broadly focused, with the inclusion of related subjects such as political science and liberal arts.

Current Professional Military Education focuses on the skills and knowledge needed during a specific combat situation. The Cold War has largely influenced this type of education, with physical training forming a prominent part of such programs. Critics have noted that there is also a need for more targeted education relating to the situation in Iraq, in both a combat and non-combat capacity. Post-war education is said to need more preparation for soldiers who are sent abroad.

Specifically, Professional Military Education requires that soldiers be trained for situations such as responding to conventional military threats and meeting unexpected challenges such as terrorist attacks. The focus… [read more]


Joint Interoperability Literature Seeking Research Proposal

… Joint Interoperability

Review of the Literature

Seeking to Define and Understand Joint Interoperability

Fundamental Challenges

Lack of Fully Integrated Interoperable Communication Systems

Problem for Military Joint Interoperability Spans Decades

Network Centric Warfare Plays a Prominent/Dominant Role in Emerging Joint Operations… [read more]


Civil War Robert Gould Shaw's Biographer Term Paper

… Civil War

Robert Gould Shaw's biographer describes him as "an ordinary soldier" but "an extraordinary leader," the best that America could be. He led the colored 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, which launched a deathly attack on Fort Wagner, a Confederate… [read more]


Uniform Code of Military Justice (Ucmj) Term Paper

… Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) is a federal law, enacted by Congress. The provisions of the UCMJ are contained in United States Code, Title 10, Chapter 47. Furthermore, Article 36 of the UCMJ gives the President the right to recommend rules and procedures to put into practice that the provisions of the UCMJ which he does by the Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM). This is an order that contains detailed instructions for implementing military law for the United States Armed Forces (UCMJ).

In the Article 91, it clearly states that any warrant officer or enlisted member who does the following acts will be punished by court martial as it seen fit (UCMJ).

strikes or assaults a warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer, while that officer is in the execution of his office (UCMJ).;

willfully disobeys the lawful order of a warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer; or (UCMJ).

treats with contempt or is disrespectful in language or deportment toward a warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer while that officer is in the execution of his office (UCMJ).

Article 92

This Article 91 also goes along… [read more]


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