Study "Music / Musicians / Instruments" Essays 1-54

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Identify the Context of Electronic Computer Generated and Electro Acoustic Music Performance Term Paper

… Electronic Music:

instruments, techniques & PERFORMERS

For the most part, electronic music began in the 1950's in Europe, where the various governments provided funds for special recording studios to meet the new demand for different types of music. During this… [read more]

Humanities Role of Music Essay

… Most of the drums are made from wood while some can also be clay pots or shells of turtles.

Drums are not only used for composing music but they have several uses. For instance, Africans use talking drums to announce… [read more]

Music Enjoyment Essay

… Music Enjoyment

Some of the things I learned during this course go well beyond music per se. I have come to be more comfortable with how and why the past truly participated in creating the present. The past cultural foundations are not just isolated window of time that we as students should know about to complete out educations. The cliche about the past being "prologue" to the present is more than a cliche to me now. Prior to this class I have taken history classes and have become fascinated with the origins of and early stages of art, politics, language, culture. Added to my knowledge now, the history and evolution of music forms and styles. I have come to be familiar with many composers through this class and have, on my own, conducted some research into these musical icons.

We are so bombarded with media in this era of history, it takes opening one's mind to the past to fully appreciate how the world looked and sounded in the ancient world -- and why things evolved into what we have today. I have learned to be open to understanding how history, even ancient history, links us with the present. When I took philosophy courses I became very interested in the ancient Greeks, especially Plato and his writings for and about Socrates. That was the beginning of the field of philosophy. And now I understand that the Romans adopted much of the basics of Greek music; as time went on the Greek lyre and aulos gave way to horn instruments in Rome. And today we have so many amazing musical instruments -- we live in a richly musical time.

Question #2:

My favorite composer that I came to learn about and be fascinated by was George Gershwin. The iconic composer of course is among the most prolific of songwriters, but though I was familiar with some of his music prior to the class, I am now far more aware of the litany of great music this American composer has created. All the times I have sung "Summertime…and the livin' is easy…" as a soloist and in choirs, and I loved singing and hearing it because the music and the lyrics are so stunningly beautiful and evocative.

My all time favorite Gershwin composition by far is Rhapsody in Blue. I remember my sister had the tune on an LP and I used to set the needle down at the beginning of the music, play a few minutes and move the needle back to the start. The clarinet at… [read more]

Pioneering Jazz Musician, Sidney Bechet Term Paper

… In 1945, he moved to Brooklyn and started teaching music to supplement his unstable musician wages. He taught a young man named Bob Wilber the rudiments of both the clarinet and soprano saxophone. After high school, Wilber moved into Bechet's… [read more]

Jazz Performance: "Blues After Dark Term Paper

… Suddenly, the trumpet and the saxophone begin to diverge. Whereas they were once playing the same melody in unison, they start to "talk" to one another. Dizzie Gillespie actually walks a few steps away to symbolize the changing relationship between the two lead instruments at this moment in the song. This relationship is solidified at the end of the song with the interesting vocals.

Style = BeBop

Role of Piano = Stride and Comping

Role of the Bass = Walking

Role of the Drums = Brushing and Riding

Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody

Performance: "Loverman," Dizzie Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums). In Belgium 1958

"Loverman" begins with Sonny Stitt, and his saxophone doles out ribbons of sound in a flourish before launching gently into the main part of the melody. This is a down tempo number, and a little slow. However, Stitt lifts up the dynamics with his playing. The mood is sad, it is a ballad ideal for a slow dance. The sax, although unaccompanied by the trumpet or any other lead instrument yet, is not quite a solo, it is more of an introduction. The bass backs him up.

Style = Bebop ballad

Role of Piano = comping

Role of the Bass = rhythm and comping

Role of the Drums = Brushing

Role of the Saxophone = Lead and Melody

Performance: "Blues Walk." Dizzie Gillespie Quintet Live in Belgium 1958 with Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet) Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums)

The drums feature firmly here, especially at the beginning. The drummer taps in the song, at first indicating a low tempo but then quickening it for the introduction of the head instruments, saxophone and trumpet. This is a lively, upbeat introduction. The trumpet and the saxophone start together, singing loud and clear with one another for a few bars. The same phrase is repeated for another bar, connected by the drums in between.

Style = BeBop

Role of Piano = Stride and Comping

Role of the Bass = Walking (lots of walking)

Role of the Drums = Mallets, sticks, riding

Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody


Dizzy Gillespie's 1958 Belgium performance is quintessential bebop. It is impossible not to appreciate and enjoy this music. Every instrument comes together in unison and has its place. However, the real stars that shine here are Dizzy Gillespie and Sonny Stitt. The tenor saxophone and the trumpet player dominate this concert, showing the full potential of their respective instruments. Their solos are impressive, especially Gillespie's trumpet solo in the "Blues After Dark" recording and Sonny Stitt's in the "Blues Walk."

The only thing I could have done without was "Lover Man." This song has a role as a slow dance number within a greater bebop set, but the impact of that song was much less than for the other songs in the recording. "Lover Man"… [read more]

Electronic Music the Creation Essay

… Electric technology and music have been closely associated since the discovery of usable electronic power. As early as the 1850s, French inventors were looking into ways in which music could be recorded for posterity. However, it would not be until… [read more]

Jazz Pedagogy Term Paper

… Jazz Pedagogy

When it comes to pedagogy, "the art of teaching" (Mish 912), there are many different interrelationships among different theories of knowledge, theories of learning, conceptions of curriculum and approaches of broad inquiry for the purposes of schooling. Every… [read more]

Philosophy of Humanism and Music of the Renaissance Era Thesis

… Humanism and the Renaissance: An Overview of the Revival

The word 'Renaissance' means 'rebirth.' The formal 'Renaissance' is defined as the European period spanning from the end of the 13th century to approximately 1600. The title given to this epoch… [read more]

Role of Viola Da Gamba as a Solo Instrument in the Sixteenth Century Term Paper

… Viola Da Gamba

Terms, Structure, and Origins

Viola Da Gamba as a Solo Instrument

Decline of the Viola Da Gamba



The viola da gamba, a member… [read more]

Renaissance -- Baroque Music Term Paper

… In the age of the Baroque, the passion for drama even infiltrated the music of the church and made use of the new style of monody and recitative. Italian composers began to produce new a new type of vocal composition with instruments, based on either secular or sacred texts, known as the cantata. However, in Germany, religious music produced a major and truly spiritual form in the Passion. In addition, with instruments partnered with voices, fully independent forms of musical expression emerged.

Another important area of instrumental music was in the interludes and sinfonie of the operas and the sonatas for the instruments, and by the end of the 17th century, the trio sonata, for two melody instruments, a bass and a harmonic accompaniment, and the solo sonata, for one solo instrument, were well-established. By this time, composers had a number of instruments available to them as compared to the Renaissance Period, dominated by stringed instruments like the harpsichord, lute, mandolin and early forms of the guitar. By the end of the 18th century, three main forms of concerted music for instruments were beginning to dominate all music outside of the theatre, being the concerto, the symphony and the chamber music ensemble for strings.

All of these forms expressed in different ways the capabilities of a combination of instruments unheard of at the beginning of the 17th century but commonplace by its end. The violin was quickly recognized for its power, brilliance and coloristic effects which made it gain an equality with the viol which was soon eclipsed by the violin. However, the Baroque desire for contrast continued to be perpetuated in the concerto grosso, mostly by Torelli and Corelli. These were extended works in three or four movements and were written for a string orchestra in which a group of solo instruments was contrasted with a full orchestra. The form reached its fullest expression in the concerti grossi of Vivaldi and Handel and the Brandenburg concertos of J.S. Bach who introduced other instruments besides strings. From the middle of the 18th century, the concerto grosso became unpopular to the three movement solo concerto in which a single instrument was set against the whole orchestra.

Thus, the music of the Renaissance Period was based almost solely on the use of the human voice and perhaps the accompaniment of one or two instruments, but by the Baroque Period, composer had greatly expanded through the use of counterpoint and the application of many instruments, either as solo or orchestral, to create truly magnificent… [read more]

Jazz and World War Ll Term Paper

… Jazz and World War II

"Would you tell me please which way I ought to go from here!" asked Alice. "That depends a good deal on where you want to get to," said the Cheshire Cat.

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.… [read more]

Blues and Ragtime: Paving Essay

… The rise and success of his band coincided with the emergence of Storyville, the black pleasure district (Buddy Bolden). At the height of their popularity, the group performed regularly in New Orleans' dance halls and parks, as well as in… [read more]

Le Grand Hautbois Research Paper

… As Mazarin's mentee and pupil, Louis acquired the prime minister's love of the arts, style and opulence. It was not until later that Louis stopped deferring to Mazarin's authority and assumed his own power as King (Bernard 1970). As the… [read more]

Freedom Is Not Following Tradition Thesis

… Freedom

Today, the concept of freedom is a very important one. On both a personal and collective level, freedom is considered one of the fundamental human rights. It is therefore useful to study how freedom manifested itself in the minds… [read more]

Timbre and Texture in Chidori No Kyoku Essay

… Timbre and Texture in Chidori no Kyoku and Debussy's Nocturne III

The creation of sound, and the human experience of it, are immensely complicated things. Music, with its multiple voices, rhythms, and consciously layered complexities, takes sound to an entirely… [read more]

Classical Era Term Paper

… His aim was to make music an instrument through which poetry could be expressed based upon the situation of the story, instead of interrupting it for conventional orchestral ritornellos or florid and ornamental singing; to break down the sharp distinction between recitative and aria: in short, to get rid of all the unnecessary things which were against good sense and reason.

Carl Bach (1714-1788) and Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782) were half-brothers who carved a name for themselves in classical music. Carl Emanuel Bach was very well-known in his time and it was due to his musical skills that in 1740, he was appointed 'chamber musician' and 'clavecinist' by emperor Frederick of Berlin. His music was greatly inspired by his own father and was quite ahead of it's time. In his music there are very bold harmonic progressions followed by an abrupt change of mood. His music however experimental is immensely mesmerizing not to mention very elegant and original. Johann Bach on the other hand started his career once his half brother had already established his name. He was directly influenced by his brother's skills, talent and understanding of music. This led to his appointment as music director to Count Antonio in Italy in the year 1754. But Johann decided to move to England in 1762 where his fame won him a place as music master to Queen Charlotte.

Joseph Haydn:

Joseph Haydn was born in 1732 and died in 1809. He was appointed to Esterhazy court at Eisenstadt in 1761, where he had the freedom to experiment with new forms, styles and genres not to mention an exceptionally talented group of musicians to help him bring his experiments to life.

He was known for his musical jokes and surprise effects; he had a fondness for monothematicism and he focused on harmonic invention and motivic development. His works include among others 68 string quartets, 104 still well-known symphonies, 40 classical keyboard sonatas, and two oratorios.

Musical eras don't just disappear at once. New features replace the old and transform one style into the other. The work… [read more]

Gamelan Music Research Paper

… It does take more than one exposure to be able to pick out the layers, or even the harmony because of the intricate nature and complexity of the style. Within these orchestra "themes," though, no performance is the same, because the individual musicians are trained to improvise, dialog, and create a unique performance based on their own emotional experience at the time. In addition, the gamelan experience is also enhanced both visually and emotionally by the use of puppets. These puppet shows accentuate Javanese myth, and also introduce younger listeners to their past.

Examples of Gamelan Styles

1. The Soundscape Gamelan At Soundscape:

2. Compositions, technique, world Balinese music:

3. Traditional Examples of gamelan:

4. Education presentation with audio examples: http:/ /


"Akira Fan Site." January 2012. Akira. Web. June 2012. .

"Balinese and Javanese Gamelan." 7 October 2005. Sinisterfrog. Web. June 2012. .

Brown, A. "Creating Her Own Destiny: Anggun Cipta Samsi." June 2009. Gadfly Online. Web. May 2012. .

Gold, L. Music in Bali: Experiencing Music, Expressing CUlture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Kirman, P. "Robert Macht on the Javanese Gamelon." 28 May 1999. Inside World Music. Web. June 2012. .

Lentz, D. The Famelan Music of Java and Bali. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1965. Print.

Martin, B. Listening to the Future. Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing, 1997. Print.

Peterman, L. "Indonesian Music." July 2008. Web. May 2012. .

Prikosusilo, B. "Indonesia Needs the Harmony of the Gamelan." 22 February 2011. Jakarta Globe. Web. May 2012. .

Spiller, H. Gamelan Music of Indonesia. New York: Routledge, 2008. Print.

Sumarsam. Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Print.

Susilo, H. "Enculturation and Cross-Cultural Experiences in Teaching Indonesian Gamelan." July 2010. Web. June 2012. .

Tenzer, M. Balinese Music. North Clarendon, VT: Turtle Publications, 2011. Print.

"The Gamelan in Contemporary Music." March 2011. Web. June 2012. . [read more]

General Music and Genres Essay

… ¶ … Music and Genres

List 3 music Genres that most socially and politically influential over time.

Music plays a critical role in the social and political spheres of the United States. Various music genres were most socially and politically… [read more]

Shared Characteristics of Music and Dance Capoeira House Essay

… Capoeira and House Dance/Music

Capoeira and House Dance and Music

The slave trade between Africa and the Americas had a significant cultural impact on music and dance, which can be seen in traditional capoeira -- the martial art developed by… [read more]

World Music of the United Kingdom Term Paper

… ¶ … Music

Interview Report: "Martin"

Martin was born in the United Kingdom. Most of his family comes from the Midlands, around the industrial city of Birmingham. Much of Birmingham was destroyed by the German air bombs during the Blitz,… [read more]

Amazing Contributions of Blind Musicians Term Paper

… Amazing Contributions of Blind Musicians to Music

Of the five senses, sight is perhaps the most valued of all by many people. In many cases, when a person is deprived of this important sense, the other senses tend to try… [read more]

Popular Music Essay

… Popular Music

One of the things that makes us uniquely human is our ability to communicate. We communicate in a number of ways: language, art, non-verbal cues, and music. Over millennia, music as an art form is a combination of… [read more]

Music Make You Fee Strung Out Granted Essay

… ¶ … Music Make You Fee

Strung Out

Granted, I am by no means a fan of classical music. Yet as a music aficionado, I have found that there is very little music I can experience live that I do not connect with on some basic level. Perhaps it is the nuances of live music, the acoustics involved, the reaction from the crowd, as well as the element of performance augmenting the mere playing of music. It is more than a simple auditory experience, which is why I am not altogether surprised that I did not thoroughly dislike the recent performance of the Johannes String Quartet playing at Town Hall as part of the People's Symphony Concerts on Sunday, April 7.

I must admit, I was partially drawn to this particular performance because of the nature of Johannes String Quartet. They have garnered quite a reputation as classical musicians, with a string of accolades and performances at major venues across the country. More enticing still was the fact that the quartet is made up entirely of strings, with Soovin Kim and Jessica Lee on the violin, Choong-Jin Chang on the viola and Peter Stumpf playing cello. In the form of music that I listen to most often, strings carry a haunting, foreboding sound which has always appealed to me. Even though this application of these instruments is not always realized in classical music, I was pleased to see that more than one of the pieces the musicians played incorporated certain elements of the type of sting performances I am partial to.

Still, one of the more disappointing facets about this performance, to me, at least, was the crowd reaction. True enough, classical music is supposed to be reserved and 'sophisticate', and attracts an audience that is typically difficult to impress and would rather listen than actually feel the music. Yet there were certain passages of some of the pieces played in which the musicians attacked their instruments with a degree of ferocity that even impressed me. Proper decorum in such venues is to wait until the end of the performance to issue applause. Yet the entire feel of the afternoon could have been greatly enhanced if the crowd had been more of a participant, and less of a reserved spectator in the music -- which isd generally the case in more popular and contemporary forms of music.

As the preceding paragraph alludes to, there were certain instances in which the quartet's playing was actually able to build some emotion within me. I would have to say the particular piece that achieved this effect the most was sixth movement of Henri Dutilleux's Ainsi la' nuit, which was composed in 1975 and 1976. Part of me attributes the sentiment that this movement… [read more]

Cool Jazz a Brief History Research Paper

… Brubeck was furious. Brubeck recruited another sax player and his new group was soon playing to critical success. Desmond returned to San Francisco, seeking reconciliation with his former band mate and friend. Encouraged by his family, Brubeck eventually made peace… [read more]

Jazz "Blues After Dark," Dizzy Essay

… The piano does not really play a major role here but it is still a team effort.

Performance: "Loverman," Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Belgium 1958

The style is not bebop, but ballad

The role of the piano is delicate

The role of the bass is regular bass line

The role of the drums is brushing

The role of the saxophone is to play lead and melody

Piano adds accent and punctuation, when necessary. Suddenly the saxophone speaks more, packing sixteenth notes into each bar. The overall feeling is soft and mellow, even as the melody becomes more urgent and complex. At about two minutes, the backing band ceases to play. It is Stitt, on his own. He is speaking directly to the listener. His approach allows him to be his own rhythm as well as his own melody section.

It is apparent now that this was his solo. The phrasing at the end, the way he plays the last notes, is iconic. Although the song itself is very slow and languid, it leaves the listener with a deep emotional impact. The title, "Loverboy," does suggest that there is a love song written here.

Performance: "Blues Walk." Dizzy Gillespie Quintet Live in Belgium 1958 with Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet) Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums)

Style = BeBop

Role of Piano = Stride and Comping

Role of the Bass = Walking

Role of the Drums = Brushing and Riding but also mallets and sticks

Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody

Then, the tempo slows somewhat so that the meat of the song begins. Central phrases are repeated, and the trumpet and saxophone play together. The drumming is lively and integral to the song, adding a fast tempo and coaxing all the other instruments to follow suit. Drumming is not just brushes, but also using sticks. This is also a complex song.

The first solo is the saxophone. Stitt plays a continuous flow of notes, barely stopping to breathe. The piano accompanies with some punctuation. A walking bass line also plays sixteenth notes. In fact, the title of the song could easily refer to the walking bass line. Toward the end of the saxophone solo, the phrasing changes briefly and it has an overall improvised feel.


The Dizzy Gillespie Quintet concert performed with Sonny Stitt on tenor saxophone, Lou Levy on piano, Ray Brown on bass, and Gus Johnson on drums in Belgium in 1948 offers a delightful array of bebop. This recording provides the student with an example of the dynamics of the genre, and what its musicians were capable of doing. Listening to Gillespie play is a treat. The music is uplifting emotionally, and inspiring. The saxophone player is also amazing, and the two together are wonderful. Although my favorite piece was the first one, "Blues After Dark," the entire performance was impressive.

There was nothing that I can say I did not like. Even the… [read more]

Music of Ludwig Van Beethoven Research Paper

… Beethoven

The Music of Ludwig Van Beethoven

Ludwig Van Beethoven was a German composer born on December 17th, 1770. However, there is a debate about whether he was born on the 16th or the 17th, as babies were traditionally baptized within 24 hours of being born and his official baptism took place on the 17th (, 2012). He died on March 26th, 1827, after his health had completely deteriorated and his hearing was completely gone. The fact that he was deaf is very well-known; he somehow managed to write his best work without being able to hear a sound. Beethoven started demonstrating interest in music early on in life; while his father was known to be a less than stellar court singer with a strong alcohol problem, his grandfather was one of Bonn's most famous musicians (, 2012). History has it that Ludwig would be forced to spend hours at the piano while his father criticized and beat him at every mistake. He made his first debut at 7 years old -- his father had declared that he was six years old, which was a source of confusion for Beethoven later on life (Prevot, 2001). After that, Beethoven went on to study with Gottlob Neefe, with whom he studied organ and composition. He published his first work, 9 variations in C minor, in 1782 (Prevot, 2001).

Beethoven's Work

Unlike other composers who often stayed within on particular genre or style, Beethoven's body of work extends itself over many different musical styles. While he has written beautiful piano pieces, such as concertos and sonatas, he has also made his mark through impressive symphonies, string quartets and an opera. His most widely acclaimed pieces include the Piano Sonata op.13 in C minor (Sonata Pathetique), Piano Sonata op. 27 no.2 in C. sharp mino (the Moonlight Sonata), Missa Solemnis, String Quartet no. 14, Symphony no.5, Symphony no.9 and Fidelio, his only opera (, 2012; Dalhaus & Whittall, 1991). Of course, the list goes on, as Beethoven's body of work is immense and includes many masterpieces still heard in concert halls across the world today.

Beethoven's body of work is often divided into three periods: Early, Middle and Late periods. His first period, referred to as Early, was influenced by other composers such as Mozart while the Middle period is characterized by his debilitating loss of hearing (, 2012). However, the disease led him to isolate himself and dive into his compositions. The Middle period, or Heroic period, saw the birth of many acclaimed pieces including 'an opera, six symphonies, four solo concerti, five string quartets, six string sonatas, seven piano sonatas, five sets of piano variations, four overtures, four trios, two sextets and seventy-two songs' (, 2012). The last period, the Late period, is perhaps the period during which he wrote his most influential music. This is the period that will be focused on for the objective analysis.

Objective Analysis

I believe that the most interesting work written… [read more]

Music Appreciation Essay

… Music Appreciation

Describe the characteristics of the twentieth-century concept of melody. Refer to at least one listening example in your response. (Textbook p.301-302, 309-310)

Melody only seems to have taken a back seat in contemporary music when compared to old… [read more]

Innovations and Developments in the Music Festival Industry Essay

… ¶ … business today, the music industry has seen rapid and extreme changes. Not least of these is the change towards the digital media and the Internet. These have changed the face and nature of the music industry, as well… [read more]

Race and Music: Richie Valens Term Paper

… Although Keane encouraged the name change from Valenzuela Reyes to Valens, he wisely did not try to get his new acquisition to ignore his Latin heritage and agreed to release records which contained both English and Spanish language lyrics, a first for a semi-major record label.

Richie Valens' first singles were performed in English, but were infused with the sounds of his heritage by the use of traditionally Hispanic and Latin instruments in the background. However, his greatest hit was the result of a complete utilization of the culture and subsequent introduction of that culture to the Caucasian majority. Valens' most famous single, the hit song "La Bamba" was released entirely in Spanish and became the first Spanish-language song to reach the Billboard pop charts. Also, "La Bamba" is the only song in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest songs of all time to be sung in a language other than English. "La Bamba" was a rerecording of a traditional Hispanic song from the Mexican state of Veracruz but with the infusion of the rock and roll sounds of the era, making it appealing to both Hispanic-Americans and the general public as well (Son Jarocho 2011).

Works Cited:

Lehmer, Larry (2004). The Day the Music Died: The Last Tour of Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper,

and Richie Valens. Schirmer: New York, NY.

"Son Jarocho Music." (2011). National Geographic. Retrieved from [read more]

America Popular Music Essay

… America Popular Music

The objective of this work is to discuss popular music in America today as well as to examine today's musicians. This work will historically place today's music in context and will discuss the style of music of today.

Popular music, "...reflects a kaleidoscope of contributions, a cross-fertilization of styles and a blending of dreams. It could hardly be otherwise in this nation of immigrants." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Just as America is the melting pot of many nations the many and various forms of music that traveled with people as they immigrated to America is integrated within the fabric of American music. Starr and Waterman state that the United States "is a perfect musical laboratory: take people from every corner of the globe, give them freedom to create. Distribute their effort: by sheet music, phonograph, radio- or, for the younger ready: by Blu-ray Disc, mp3, Internet stream. And what results! European ballads recast with African polyrhythmic textures or blended with a Cuban-flavored habanera (boldfaced terms are defined in the glossary) or a more "refined" rumba. "Cold" bop. "Hot" jazz. "Acid" rock. "Gangsta" rap." (Starr and Waterman, nd)


Starr and Water man writes that American popular music was "almost entirely European in character...until the middle of the 19th century..." (nd) Because the English language was dominant in the United States the music of the Europeans "established early on a kind of mainstream around which other styles circulated." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Influencing early popular music were Irish, Scottish and Italian songs." (Starr and Waterman, nd) French settlers influenced music in North American and the Caribbean and millions immigrated from Ireland and Germany followed by waves of migration which included Cajun fiddling, Jewish klezmer music and the Polish polka, all contributing to the popular mainstream music.

According to Starr and Waterman: "The genesis of African-American music in the United States involved two closely related processes. The first of these was syncretism, the selective blending of traditions derived from Africa and Europe. The second was the creation of institutions that became important centers of black musical life -- the family, the church, the voluntary association, the school, and so on." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Certain features of African music form the core of African-American music and, by extension, of American popular music as a whole." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Included in African-American music that was integrated into the American music are the following:

1)… [read more]

Music Therapy According to Gary Ansdell Term Paper

… Music Therapy

According to Gary Ansdell, the music "product" created through Creative Music Therapy is like a "magic mirror" that reflects "physical and emotional vistas," (128). The role of music in therapy has been explored in formal and informal contexts because, as Langer states, "most people connect feelings with music," (213). While listeners and musicians both undeniably and unavoidably associate emotions with music, music in itself is not necessarily emotive. Kivy describes the difference between expressing emotions that are actually there and being expressive of an objective emotional condition (257). Music by itself is a tool, and its instruments are means through which people can express their personal emotional states. However, the use of music in a therapeutic session works mainly because of the communication created through the client-therapist connection. Music is not just a form of self-expression, which would make music ego-centric and allow the client to remain insular. Ansdell emphasizes the importance of listening for the therapeutic process to be effective.

Langer describes the various potential functions of music in a therapeutic context. First, music can be a form of pleasurable sensation. However, as Langer notes, many musical expressions are deliberately discordant and therefore not purely pleasurable. Therefore, music cannot be used in a therapeutic context as a means by which to evoke pleasure in a depressed client. Second, music can evoke an emotional response, any emotional response (211). Music can cause the heart rate to increase or decrease depending on tempo, for instance. Yet the enduring emotional and physiological effects of listening to music are questionable at best. Referring to scientific experiments, Langer states that music's "somatic effects are transient, and its moral hangovers or uplifts seem to be negligible," (212). Thus, listening to music in a therapeutic setting may not evoke any healing results.

Two other potential functions of music in the therapeutic setting include playing music as a form of self-expression, and using the product of that self-expression as a symbolic code. Even here, Langer notes weaknesses in music therapy theory. For example, playing music allows for self-expression but more importantly, music demonstrates an "exposition of feeling," (221). The semantics underlying the musical composition may be as important, or more important, than the cathartic effects of self-expression that many music therapists advocate

Ansdell agrees and questions the "almost unquestioned assumption that music is a straightforward expression of feelings," (124). Kivy calls the same unquestioned assumption the tendency to describe music biographically, that is, to attribute certain emotional states to the composer. While the biographical description of music works in many cases, it is far from being universally applicable. Instead, Kivy urges music therapists to cease speculating about the composer's emotional state and reach a more objective means of appreciation and analysis. If the therapist hopes to "perceive something else" in the work other than the purely scientific elements of the music such as tone and notation, then the therapist must understand how music can be expressive of emotions (9). Music… [read more]

Irish Music Is Interesting Term Paper

… When Irish people immigrated to the United States, they brought their music with them. Many of these people moved to the South. Because of this, traditional southern music has a lot in common with Irish music (Wikipedia). The Irish also developed "set dancing" to their music, which is a lot like American square dancing (Wikipedia). Both are done to the music of fiddling, a traditional Irish way of playing the violin.

Traditional Irish music is still performed today in pubs and concert halls, and many modern Irish musicians, including rock musicians, include things they have learned from traditional Irish music in their hit songs. Irish music became much more popular in the United States after the Broadway show "Riverdance" opened. This show combines traditional Irish music and dancing in a modern setting (Wikipedia).


'Classification of Musical Instruments," in Online Music Encyclopedia (OME). Accessed via the Internet 9/16/05.

"Music of Ireland," in Wikipedia. Accessed via the Internet 9/16/05. [read more]

Music in the Upper Grades Term Paper

… An association of music and math has, in fact, long been noted. Creating and performing music promotes self-expression and provides self-gratification while giving pleasure to others. In medicine, increasing published reports demonstrate that music has a healing effect on patients.… [read more]

Avant-Garde Jazz Music Term Paper

… Leroi Jones also notes that the individuality expressed during this jazz era is important to the movement because of the unusual harmonies that resulted. Wayne Shorter and Earl Griffith provide examples of this type of diversity. He also asserts that while blues was the original African-American music, bebop re-emphasized a non-Western movement in jazz.

Max Roach offers interesting insight into the definition of jazz and the impact that this music has had on African-Americans. He traces the etymology of the word, which was a word created by white people to describe African-American music, linking it with "free-swinging bawdy-house connotations" (Roach 306). In his mind, the word jazz conjured up images of "dingy places, the worst salaries and conditions that one can imagine" (307). He asserts that the word jazz has "come to mean the abuse and exploitation of black musicians; it has come to mean cultural prejudice and condescension" (307). In his opinion, African-Americans should redefine themselves and their culture and find a new respect for all forms of jazz.

In "America's Classical Music," Billy Taylor notes that jazz has served as a model for all kinds of music, noting that its "influence is international in its scope" (Taylor America's Classical Music 328). Taylor claims that jazz is a distinctively African-American form of classical music that reached across ethnic boundaries. He aptly describes it is a musical mirror that reminds us of the musicians from the past. Jazz is a distinctly African-American form of music and it is certainly America's classical music, despite the fact that many wish to ignore this fact. In his essay, "Negroes Don't Know Anything About Jazz," he also observes that while African-Americans might have been the ones who created jazz music, they know very little about it today. While jazz has its roots firmly planted in the historical slave culture, Taylor claims that jazz is "no longer the exclusive medium of expression of the Negro" ("Negroes Don't Know Anything About Jazz 203). Popular jazzmen of today like Dave Brubeck and Quincy Jones should be listened to and recognized for their achievements. These men "should be accorded the dignity their stature called for" (203). Instead, he notes that there are very few African-Americans interested enough in jazz to even write about it. He believes that African-Americans should somehow be made aware of their musical heritage. A sense of pride in African-American music should be established. He claims that jazz "has done more to break down the color line between the white and colored races, I would say, than religion" (205). He also desires to see a renewed interest in jazz and its influence.

In conclusion, the avant-garde movement in jazz is important because it represents the departure from traditional forms of jazz into a more free-flowing form that allowed musicians to express themselves in a way that they had not done before. Many jazz greats have contributed to this movement and many critics feel that it is a shame to ignore the significance of the jazz… [read more]

Music and Personality Term Paper

… Over 3500 participants covering multiple samples, geographic regions, and methods were used. Questionnaires, and opinion polls were used to formulate the final instrument; Short Test of Music Preferences (STOMP). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was also performed using the LISREL.

Studies… [read more]

Music or Musical Theatre Term Paper

… In fact, these two forms of music are the closet types of music that I can compare Forest Flower to -- which is interesting because jazz predates both of them.

The second song actually delivers on all of the magic and the mysticism to which the first song alludes to. It is quite revealing that the first of two songs on the second side is called sorcery. The piano work on this song, as well as on the other on this side, certainly has connotations that are suggestive of a frenzied spiritual encounter. The tempo is decidedly faster than the song on the first side, and continues at a breakneck pace for the duration of side two. Whereas there are a number of pianissimo passages on the first side -- especially during the song's finale, which first climaxes and then hangs on for a few more precious moments -- the second side is the exact opposite and provides a howling, whirling stamping of music that is unlike most modern jazz efforts.


As the second side of this album strongly implies, jazz music was developed out of a larger countercultural movement that took place in the early part of the 20th century. This fact explains the urgency of a number of the pieces on Forest Flower, which is demonstrative of this music as a whole. There were several social and political issues that were going on in the early part of the 20th century which jazz was influenced by. Its popularity increased after the Second World War during the baby boomer generation when segregation was still prevalent and racism and bigotry reigned freely over the country.

Jazz played a prominent role in the beatnik movement, and was certainly rebel music in the fact that it was the music of a younger generation which indulged in drugs, and a counterculture that was the opposite of the post war culture in which ideals of a picket fence, a dog, and 2.5 kids was everywhere in the country. This aspect of jazz is what actually made it revolutionary and dangerous during this time period and that during the Civil Right Movement (Forest Flower was recorded during the height of the latter movement, in the turbulent 60's). This energy explodes from the fingers of these live performers and almost transcends the music itself with a kind of abandonment which is joyous on the first side, and just shy of dangerous on the second.


In conclusion, an examination of several different aspects of Forest Flower reveals that despite the reputation of so-called cool jazz as boring elevator music to play for senior citizens, real jazz is anything but boring or "vapid" (Baraka 179). In fact it is dynamic, riotous, and able to go from 0 to 60 miles per hour (musically) in a matter of seconds. Its socio-political roots were part of a countercultural movement that included both the Beatnik and the Civil Rights movement attests to the vibrancy and rebelliousness of this music.… [read more]

Popular Music and Identity Sound Essay

… In the musical example 2, one can see and understand how the Tin Pan Alley songs have influenced popular music of today.


Musical experiences cannot be easily described as they differ between two people, but two different people can both identify with a specific song in different ways. This is why popular music is easy to identify with, and it speaks to ones emotions. The writers have tried to justify their different points in regards to music and identity, but Simon Frith has a more compelling argument as he looks at how different music is able to influence people. Having an analysis of popular music has allowed him to determine that music is special because it defines a space that has no boundaries. Popular music can cross borders and be appreciated by different cultures and social groups. This allows different people to identify with the music, and have different experiences based on the music. Simon has demonstrated that sounds do not have to represent or reflect people as it had been assumed. There is a wide spectrum of difference in popular music. Popular music has the potential to allow people to easily identify with it as it is easy to understand and the beats are appealing to majority of people.


Adorno, Theodor W, and George Simpson. On Popular Music. Institute of Social Research, 1942. Print.

Frith, Simon. "Music and Identity." Questions of cultural identity (1996): 108-27. Print.

Hill, S., and B. Fenner. Media… [read more]

Economics of Hollywood Popular Music Term Paper

… Hollywood, Pop Music and Weightlessness

Economics of Hollywood

When we think of Hollywood as a concept, as opposed to an actual place, it's one that we tend to associate with glamorous red carpet premiers, film starlets and, most importantly, giant… [read more]

Music on Fine Motor Skills Effects Research Paper

… ¶ … Music on Fine Motor Skills


The Effects of Music on the Fine Motor Skills of Pre-School Students

This study investigated the effects of music on the fine motor skills of pre-school… [read more]

Music Appreciation Stravinsky, the Rite of Spring Questionnaire

… Music Appreciation

Stravinsky, the Rite of Spring

) the Rite of Spring was written and composed in year 1913. The musical period and the artistic movement that this piece of music belonged to was the modernist period. The artistic movement… [read more]

Music Term Paper

… In this instance, the message is only stimulation -- there is no particular message, only from the doctor to stimulate the patient, something that will begin the recovery process.

Understanding how communication works is valuable not just for selling things, but to overcome challenges in communication all over the world. In a situation where brain damage is causing blockages for certain channels and messages, music is a means to break through, and the core message of stimulation can be received. This allows for the superior recovery that researchers have found with respect to the use of music therapy for brain injured patients.

Works Cited:

Bradt, J., Magee, W., Dileo, C., Wheeler, B. & McGilloway, E. (2010). Music therapy for acquired brain injury. Wiley. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from

Formisano, R., Vinicola, V., Penta, F., Matteis, M., Brunelli, S. & Weckel, J. (2001). Active music therapy in the rehabilitation of severe brain injured patients during coma recovery. Annals of the Instituto Superiore di Sanita. Vol. 37 (4) 627-630.

Hamilton, L., Cross, J. & Kennelly, J. (2001). The interface of music therapy and speech pathology in the rehabilitation of children with acquired brain injury. Australian Journal of Music Therapy. Vol. 12 (2001) 13-20.

Thaut, M.H., Gardiner, J.C., Holmberg, D., Horwitz, J., Kent, L., Andrews, G., Donelan, B. And McIntosh, G.R. (2009) Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1169, 406-416.

Thaut, M. & McIntosh, G. (2010). How music helps to heal the injured brain. The Dana Foundation. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from [read more]

Miles Davis With a Career Research Paper

… Conclusion

Miles Davis was "a vital part of nearly every important development of innovation and style in jazz after the Second World War," (Kirker). Because Miles Davis composed beyond the jazz genre, his influence on modern music is extensive. His influence on modern jazz is simply unquestionable; Davis is to jazz what Monet is to impressionism. Some go so far as to say Miles Davis left an impact that even extends beyond music; Zack, for example, claims that organizational culture should be "improvisational" rather than being confined to a "highly constrained structure and set of rules," (227). Davis would be hip to that.

Works Cited

Davis, Miles. Miles: The Autobiography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990.

Early, Gerald Lyn. Miles Davis and American Culture. Missouri History Museum, 2001.

Kirker, Tim. "Miles Davis." All About Jazz. Retrieved online:

"Miles Davis and John Coltraine." Chapter 42 in?

"Miles Davis: Miles' Styles." NPR. Retrieved online:

Pareles, Jon. "Miles Davis, Trumpeter, Dies." The New York Times. September 29, 1991. Retrieved online:

Tingen, Paul. "Miles Davis and the Making of Bitches Brew." Jazz Times. May 2001. Retrieved online:

Walser, Robert. "Out of Notes: Signification, Interpretation, and the Problem of Miles Davis." The Musical Quarterly. Vol. 77, No. 2. 1993, p. 343-365.

Zack, Michael H. "Jazz Improvisation and Organizing: Once More from the Top." Organization Science. Vol. 11, No. 2 [read more]

Bach and Frederick the Book Book Report

… As mentioned earlier, Frederick uses Bach's son Carl to embarrass him. Frederick presents him with the new 15 pianofortes and demands for a 21 note theme to be made. Even though Bach is not too impressed by the new incoming technology, he takes up the challenge. Both Carl and Frederick get surprised by the creations that Bach makes. Bach's skills are tested even further when he is demanded to make a six part fugue on the theme. Even though the composer works two months on it, he managed to produce it.

Gaines states that Bach's determination came from how much he despised Frederick's admiration of the gallant ways of the new art coming in. He was angered by the constant criticism of the contrapuntal mode that Bach rooted for. It can be seen that both the characters influence each other in some way. Bach is impressed by firmness and the confidence Frederick has in his visions about the new form of music. On the other hand, Frederick is astonished and envious of Bach's determination and passion for the love of music. When Bach does manage to complete the tasks he is assigned, Fredericks gets more influenced and affected by Bach's skill and firmness to his choice… [read more]

Evening in the Palace Book Report

… His marriages were happy and he was absorbed in work that he loved: his music. He was gainfully employed and recognized in all his places and his short bout in jail was only inspired due to an employer's envy. Bach spent his short life absorbed in that which he loved and died content with having become one of Germany's greatest musicians and one of the greatest composers of all times. Although h did not know it, Bach became immortal.

One of the greatest influences on Bach was the ethical and quality-filled education that the received from his brother and instructors who lavished on him the greatest care. Parentless as he was, Bach did not lack love. The story goes that Christoph punished his young brother when he discovered he had copied a forbidden musical manuscript by moonlight over a period of six months, and confiscated the precious copy. Bach grew up in a parentless home but by a brother who cared for him and taught him morals. At the same time, Bach received a well-rounded education at the Gymnasium of Ohrdruf where the instructors encouraged his musical talent.

Frederick, on the other hand, received an education that would have destroyed many a lesser soul. The fact that Frederick not only survived but also flourished with the descriptor 'Great' tagged after his name tells a lot about his resilience. Not many of us are able to achieve that.

Bach achieved greatness due to years of unremitting focus and practice. Frederick's greatness came about due to his perseverance and resilience of a different kind.

Two great men who met at the end of one's life and the pinnacle of the energy of another. Their lives could not have been more different but both can inspire us in… [read more]

Fantasia 1940 1.5 James Algar Essay

… Therefore, he defected while on tour in Canada and received political asylum from the Canadian government. The dancer joined the American Ballet Theater for four years in 1974, popularizing traditional Russian ballets including "The Nutcracker" and "Don Quixote." He would… [read more]

Music Misconception Is a False Term Paper

… The rap music is a genre filled with diversity of sonic expression; but the fact remains that many rappers "talk about women like they're animals," just as Big Ru does in Ferrell's story (448). As Crouch puts it, "This misogynistic and brutal turn in music is damaging the image of black American women to the point that they are approached outside of the U.S. As freelance prostitutes," (3). The misconceptions have gone so far that they are impacting the lives of individuals in real ways, which is why the media needs to take greater responsibility for its actions.

In "The Negative Influence of Gangster Rap and What Can be Done about It," author Anthony Giovacchini agrees that the media has a direct social responsibility to create positive role models with their music superstars. Musicians, artists, actors, and anyone who becomes famous has the personal responsibility to be a role model because young people are looking up to them as idols. Role models who glorify killing and "bitches" are not doing a service to themselves or to society; yet the trend in gangsta rap continues. "Lives have been lost and people have suffered, yet the gangster rap industry is still flourishing. Society has noticed the negative influence this music has had, yet we still continue to make it succeed through number of record sales," (Giovacchini). In "Go Brooklyn!" Ferrell describes the way the media has a direct influence on the creation of the gangsta mythos. Big Ru, for instance, is a "constructed bad boy" whose story "rivaled any fairy tale on the market," (446). Taking greater social responsibility and personal responsibility, musicians and the media can work together to eradicate misconceptions and create a better world.

Music has a transformative potential, and can build social bonds between disparate groups. The power of music as a unifying force should not be undermined to favor a greed-driven media model that is built on the "cliche" of the gangsta (Ferrell 446). Consumers do need to take their own responsibility for what they listen to; the blame is not with the media alone. However, many young people have yet to develop the critical listening faculties that adults should have. By taking Ferrell's approach of probing to the truth in every gangsta rapper's story and dissecting it, the media can find inspiring role models that reduce violence and promote the economic betterment of disenfranchised communities. The empowerment of blacks, women, and all previously disempowered social groups requires a group effort that the media can spearhead. Media groups control and disseminate information and cultural memes; therefore, the media has the biggest role to play in shaping positive perceptions rather than negative misconceptions.

Works Cited

Crouch, Stanley. "Taking Back the Music." Social Responsibility.

Ferrell, Monique. "Go Brooklyn!" Lead, Follow, or Move Out of the Way

Giovacchini, Anthony M. "The Negative Influence of Gangster Rap and What Can be Done about It." Ethics of Development in a Global Environment. Retrieved online: [read more]

Aaron Copland Research Paper

… Aaron Copland (1900-1990) was an American composer, teacher of composition, writer, and conductor who had an extremely varied career and became one of the most influential American composers of the 20th century. His use of texture, theme, and tonal settings… [read more]

Music Producers Biographical Introduction: Teo Essay

… His work with the foremost pop music group of the 1960s, the Beatles, enabled Martin to fuse classical with pop elements. He composed the musical scores for several Beatles movies including Yellow Submarine. By this time, Martin had ceased working… [read more]

African-American Literature/Music on America/American Culture Research Paper

… The most important thing is for them to know that the same principle applies when it comes to the music they enjoy today.


Some of the aims were as follows;

Students keenly listening to teachers selected artists which could enable them grasp the content.

Students being able to critically analyze and discuss various aspects of music and artists

Discussing majorly rhythms, lyrics and dynamics and weighing the intent of artists.

Students coming out with their observations by drawing comparisons and contrasting features


Engage students in writing their observation, ideas and opinions. Provision of video, so that students can observe the rhythm of the songs as well as the rhythm of intensity of the sequence of steps and movement in dance groups and intensify their delivery (George, Games, etl. 2006).Enable students observe the size of the funk bands and consider the amount of commitment, cooperation and skill required to produce the music.


1. Johnson, James Weldon, and J. Rosamond Johnson. The Second Book of Negro Spirituals. New York: The Viking Press, 2006.

2. Johnson, James Weldon, J. Rosamond Johnson, and Lawrence Brown. The Book of American Negro Spirituals. New York: Viking Press, 2005.

3. Monson, Ingrid, and Freedom Sounds: Civil Rights Call Out to Jazz and Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007

4. Radano, Ronald… [read more]

Music and Politics: The Argentine Essay

… Different cultures will adopt the tango style in a way that pays homage to the original culture, but that also incorporates aspects of the local style and local cultural in the expression of tango. The dance is melodramatic and expresses… [read more]

Classical Music Is the Final Period Research Paper

… ¶ … classical music is the final period of western classical music and it originates from the 1940s to the present. "Like modern art, modern music has focused on variety and radical experimentation. Also like modern art, modern classical music… [read more]

Connection Between Music and Politics Essay

… Music and Politics -- the Connections

Music has been used to promote particular political and ideological messages for many years. In the 20th century and well before, there are myriad examples of how music and politics have been intertwined, and… [read more]

Richard Wagner Great Musician or Controversial Racist Term Paper

… Richard Wagner -- Great Musician or Controversial Racist?

Regarded one of the most controversial composers of his time, Richard Wagner has over time attracted both admiration and criticism from various quarters. Those who revere the composer regard him one of… [read more]

Music in High Schools Psychology Research Paper

… The next source to be presented is a simple, teacher-made website that gives 12 simple benefits of music education. These are, in the order in which they are presented, rendered below:

1. Musical training, especially during developmental years, contributes to… [read more]

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