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Identify the Context of Electronic Computer Generated and Electro Acoustic Music Performance

Electronic Music: instruments, techniques & PERFORMERS For the most part, electronic music began in the 1950's in Europe, where the various governments provided funds for special recording studios to meet the new demand for different types of music. During this time, the use of tape recorders "became popular and some engineers and composers gathered together various sounds, such as that…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Humanities Role of Music in

Most of the drums are made from wood while some can also be clay pots or shells of turtles. Drums are not only used for composing music but they have several uses. For instance, Africans use talking drums to announce the news of birth of a child, death of a person or information about any public event. Interesting thing about…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Music Enjoyment Some of the Things I

Music Enjoyment Some of the things I learned during this course go well beyond music per se. I have come to be more comfortable with how and why the past truly participated in creating the present. The past cultural foundations are not just isolated window of time that we as students should know about to complete out educations. The cliche about the past being "prologue" to the present is more than a cliche to me now. Prior to this class I have taken history classes and have become fascinated with the origins of and early stages of art, politics, language, culture. Added to my knowledge now, the history and evolution of music forms and styles. I have come to be familiar with many composers through this class and have, on my own, conducted some research into these musical icons. We are so bombarded with media in this era of history, it takes opening one's mind to the past to fully appreciate how the world looked and sounded in the ancient world -- and why things evolved into what we have today. I have learned to be open to understanding how history, even ancient history, links us with the present. When I took philosophy courses I became very interested in the ancient Greeks, especially Plato and his writings for and about Socrates. That was the beginning of the field of philosophy. And now I understand that the Romans adopted much of the basics of Greek music; as time went on the Greek lyre and aulos gave way to horn instruments in Rome. And today we have so many amazing musical instruments -- we live in a richly musical time. Question #2: My favorite composer that I came to learn about and be fascinated by was George Gershwin. The iconic composer of course is among the most prolific of songwriters, but though I was familiar with some of his music prior to the class, I am now far more aware of the litany of great music this American composer has created. All the times I have sung "Summertime…and the livin' is easy…" as a soloist and in choirs, and I loved singing and hearing it because the music and the lyrics are so stunningly beautiful and evocative. My all time favorite Gershwin composition by far is Rhapsody in Blue. I remember my sister had the tune on an LP and I used…

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Pioneering Jazz Musician, Sidney Bechet

In 1945, he moved to Brooklyn and started teaching music to supplement his unstable musician wages. He taught a young man named Bob Wilber the rudiments of both the clarinet and soprano saxophone. After high school, Wilber moved into Bechet's house so that he could have more in-depth lessons. Today, Wilber is a leading exponent of the soprano sax and…

Pages: 17  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Jazz Performance: "Blues After Dark,"

Suddenly, the trumpet and the saxophone begin to diverge. Whereas they were once playing the same melody in unison, they start to "talk" to one another. Dizzie Gillespie actually walks a few steps away to symbolize the changing relationship between the two lead instruments at this moment in the song. This relationship is solidified at the end of the song with the interesting vocals. Style = BeBop Role of Piano = Stride and Comping Role of the Bass = Walking Role of the Drums = Brushing and Riding Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody Performance: "Loverman," Dizzie Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums). In Belgium 1958 "Loverman" begins with Sonny Stitt, and his saxophone doles out ribbons of sound in a flourish before launching gently into the main part of the melody. This is a down tempo number, and a little slow. However, Stitt lifts up the dynamics with his playing. The mood is sad, it is a ballad ideal for a slow dance. The sax, although unaccompanied by the trumpet or any other lead instrument yet, is not quite a solo, it is more of an introduction. The bass backs him up. Style = Bebop ballad Role of Piano = comping Role of the Bass = rhythm and comping Role of the Drums = Brushing Role of the Saxophone = Lead and Melody Performance: "Blues Walk." Dizzie Gillespie Quintet Live in Belgium 1958 with Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet) Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums) The drums feature firmly here, especially at the beginning. The drummer taps in the song, at first indicating a low tempo but then quickening it for the introduction of the head instruments, saxophone and trumpet. This is a lively, upbeat introduction. The trumpet and the saxophone start together, singing loud and clear with one another for a few bars. The same phrase is repeated for another bar, connected by the drums in between. Style = BeBop Role of Piano = Stride and Comping Role of the Bass = Walking (lots of walking) Role of the Drums = Mallets, sticks, riding Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody Conclusion Dizzy Gillespie's 1958 Belgium performance is quintessential bebop. It is impossible not to appreciate and enjoy this music. Every instrument comes together in unison and…

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Electronic Music the Creation and

Electric technology and music have been closely associated since the discovery of usable electronic power. As early as the 1850s, French inventors were looking into ways in which music could be recorded for posterity. However, it would not be until Thomas Edison's invention of the phonograph in 1878 that recorded music would be able to be played back at the…

Pages: 12  |  Essay  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 10


Jazz Pedagogy

Jazz Pedagogy When it comes to pedagogy, "the art of teaching" (Mish 912), there are many different interrelationships among different theories of knowledge, theories of learning, conceptions of curriculum and approaches of broad inquiry for the purposes of schooling. Every teacher is faced with a challenge to effectively convey his or her message of knowledge and inspire today's youth. It…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Philosophy of Humanism & Music of the Renaissance Era

Humanism and the Renaissance: An Overview of the Revival The word 'Renaissance' means 'rebirth.' The formal 'Renaissance' is defined as the European period spanning from the end of the 13th century to approximately 1600. The title given to this epoch reflects the fact that there was a rebirth of interest in classical antiquity and human individualism. Classical forms and an…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 3


Renaissance -- Baroque Music Renaissance

In the age of the Baroque, the passion for drama even infiltrated the music of the church and made use of the new style of monody and recitative. Italian composers began to produce new a new type of vocal composition with instruments, based on either secular or sacred texts, known as the cantata. However, in Germany, religious music produced a major and truly spiritual form in the Passion. In addition, with instruments partnered with voices, fully independent forms of musical expression emerged. Another important area of instrumental music was in the interludes and sinfonie of the operas and the sonatas for the instruments, and by the end of the 17th century, the trio sonata, for two melody instruments, a bass and a harmonic accompaniment, and the solo sonata, for one solo instrument, were well-established. By this time, composers had a number of instruments available to them as compared to the Renaissance Period, dominated by stringed instruments like the harpsichord, lute, mandolin and early forms of the guitar. By the end of the 18th century, three main forms of concerted music for instruments were beginning to dominate all music outside of the theatre, being the concerto, the symphony and the chamber music ensemble for strings. All of these forms expressed in different ways the capabilities of a combination of instruments unheard of at the beginning of the 17th century but commonplace by its end. The violin was quickly recognized for its power, brilliance and coloristic effects which made it gain an equality with the viol which was soon eclipsed by the violin. However, the Baroque desire for contrast continued to be perpetuated in the concerto grosso, mostly by Torelli and Corelli. These were extended works in three or four movements and were written for a string orchestra in which a group of solo instruments was contrasted with a full orchestra. The form reached its fullest expression in the concerti grossi of Vivaldi and Handel and the Brandenburg concertos of J.S. Bach who introduced other instruments besides strings. From the middle of the 18th century, the concerto grosso became unpopular to the three movement solo concerto in which a single instrument was set against the whole orchestra. Thus, the music of the Renaissance Period was based almost solely on the use of the human voice and perhaps the accompaniment of one or two instruments, but by the Baroque Period, composer had greatly…

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Role of Viola Da Gamba as a Solo Instrument in the Sixteenth Century

Viola Da Gamba Terms, Structure, and Origins Viola Da Gamba as a Solo Instrument Decline of the Viola Da Gamba ROLE OF THE VIOLA DA GAMBA AS A SOLO INSTRUMENT IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY The viola da gamba, a member of the viol family, first appeared in Europe during the late fifteenth century. Its popularity soared during the Renaissance and…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Freedom Is Not Following Tradition

Freedom Today, the concept of freedom is a very important one. On both a personal and collective level, freedom is considered one of the fundamental human rights. It is therefore useful to study how freedom manifested itself in the minds of the world's greatest philosophers and artists. Indeed, it is such philosophers and artists that even today shape the most…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Timbre and Texture in Chidori No Kyoku

Timbre and Texture in Chidori no Kyoku and Debussy's Nocturne III The creation of sound, and the human experience of it, are immensely complicated things. Music, with its multiple voices, rhythms, and consciously layered complexities, takes sound to an entirely new level. There are many elements that create the feel and, more rudimentarily, the sound of a piece of music. Harmony, melody, and rhythm are standard elements of Western music, tough this is arguably beginning to change. Other musical systems have very different interpretations of what music should be; melody and harmony are simply not the same concepts in an Indiana raga as they are in Led Zeppelin song. There are, however, ways of looking astound and music that can apply to an interpretation of every piece. Two of these analytical tools are timbre and texture. Timbre refers to the specific quality of a sound produced by a specific element. Clapping your hands together makes a different sound then slapping your hand on a tabletop -- the vibrations produced by the two pieces of flesh (i.e. your hand) is different from that produced by flesh and wood (i.e. The tabletop). Musically, this is illustrated by the difference between the sounds of different instruments. Even if a piano and a trumpet were perfectly tuned to each other and playing the exact same note, it is impossible to confuse the two sounds. The timbre of air moving through brass tubing (as in a trumpet) is different from the timbre of a vibrating wire (as in a piano), even if the two media are oscillating at the same pitch. Texture is largely a result of the layering of timbre, though the concept of texture is more easily applied to music than to any non-musical sound. It deals with the layers of and continuity of a piece of music as a whole. The number of voices -- the different elements of timbre (usually, but not always, created by separate instruments) -- in a piece, and the way they interact, creates the texture of a piece of music. Individual instruments with their own unique voices can produce very different textures -- the difference between playing a violin with a bow and plucking the strings, for example, produces two very different textures sound. When other instruments, each capable of their own variations in texture, are included in a piece of music, the available nuances of texture…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Jazz and World War Ll

Jazz and World War II "Would you tell me please which way I ought to go from here!" asked Alice. "That depends a good deal on where you want to get to," said the Cheshire Cat. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Teachers also need to know what they are aiming for before they pick a path to follow. This means that…

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Classical Era Which Spanned From

His aim was to make music an instrument through which poetry could be expressed based upon the situation of the story, instead of interrupting it for conventional orchestral ritornellos or florid and ornamental singing; to break down the sharp distinction between recitative and aria: in short, to get rid of all the unnecessary things which were against good sense and reason. Carl Bach (1714-1788) and Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782) were half-brothers who carved a name for themselves in classical music. Carl Emanuel Bach was very well-known in his time and it was due to his musical skills that in 1740, he was appointed 'chamber musician' and 'clavecinist' by emperor Frederick of Berlin. His music was greatly inspired by his own father and was quite ahead of it's time. In his music there are very bold harmonic progressions followed by an abrupt change of mood. His music however experimental is immensely mesmerizing not to mention very elegant and original. Johann Bach on the other hand started his career once his half brother had already established his name. He was directly influenced by his brother's skills, talent and understanding of music. This led to his appointment as music director to Count Antonio in Italy in the year 1754. But Johann decided to move to England in 1762 where his fame won him a place as music master to Queen Charlotte. Joseph Haydn: Joseph Haydn was born in 1732 and died in 1809. He was appointed to Esterhazy court at Eisenstadt in 1761, where he had the freedom to experiment with new forms, styles and genres not to mention an exceptionally talented group of musicians to help him bring his experiments to life. He was known for his musical jokes and surprise effects; he had a fondness for monothematicism and he focused on harmonic invention and motivic development. His works include among others 68 string quartets, 104 still well-known symphonies, 40 classical keyboard sonatas, and two oratorios. Musical eras don't just disappear at once. New features replace the old and transform one style into the other. The work……

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Blues and Ragtime: Paving the

The rise and success of his band coincided with the emergence of Storyville, the black pleasure district (Buddy Bolden). At the height of their popularity, the group performed regularly in New Orleans' dance halls and parks, as well as in the city's surrounding towns. By 1907, Bolden's health had declined to the point where he had to be institutionalized; Bolden…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Le Grand Hautbois During the

As Mazarin's mentee and pupil, Louis acquired the prime minister's love of the arts, style and opulence. It was not until later that Louis stopped deferring to Mazarin's authority and assumed his own power as King (Bernard 1970). As the war between France and Spain came to an end and transferred power from the Habsburgs to the Bourbons, Louis assumed…

Pages: 21  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 12


Gamelan Music Overview- the Gamelan

It does take more than one exposure to be able to pick out the layers, or even the harmony because of the intricate nature and complexity of the style. Within these orchestra "themes," though, no performance is the same, because the individual musicians are trained to improvise, dialog, and create a unique performance based on their own emotional experience at the time. In addition, the gamelan experience is also enhanced both visually and emotionally by the use of puppets. These puppet shows accentuate Javanese myth, and also introduce younger listeners to their past. Examples of Gamelan Styles 1. The Soundscape Gamelan At Soundscape: http://www.soundscapemusicproject.com/music/gamelan/index.html 2. Compositions, technique, world Balinese music: http://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Music/Styles/R/Regional_and_Ethnic/Gamelan/ 3. Traditional Examples of gamelan: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hlap5WulHOw 4. Education presentation with audio examples: http:/ / education.northumberland.gov.uk/music/.../Gamelan/Gamelan.ppt Bibliography "Akira Fan Site." January 2012. Akira. Web. June 2012. . "Balinese and Javanese Gamelan." 7 October 2005. Sinisterfrog. Web. June 2012. . Brown, A. "Creating Her Own Destiny: Anggun Cipta Samsi." June 2009. Gadfly Online. Web. May 2012. . Gold, L. Music in Bali: Experiencing Music, Expressing CUlture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print. Kirman, P. "Robert Macht on the Javanese Gamelon." 28 May 1999. Inside World Music. Web. June 2012. . Lentz, D. The Famelan Music of Java and Bali. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1965. Print. Martin, B. Listening to the Future. Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing, 1997. Print. Peterman, L. "Indonesian Music." July 2008. trumpet.sdsu.edu. Web. May 2012. . Prikosusilo, B. "Indonesia Needs the Harmony of the Gamelan." 22 February 2011. Jakarta Globe. Web. May 2012. . Spiller, H. Gamelan Music of Indonesia. New York: Routledge, 2008. Print. Sumarsam. Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Print. Susilo, H. "Enculturation and Cross-Cultural Experiences in Teaching Indonesian Gamelan." July 2010. Gamlean.org. Web. June 2012. . Tenzer, M. Balinese Music. North Clarendon, VT: Turtle Publications, 2011. Print. "The Gamelan in Contemporary Music." March 2011. Soundtrack.net. Web. June 2012. .…

Pages: 6  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


World Music of the United Kingdom

¶ … Music Interview Report: "Martin" Martin was born in the United Kingdom. Most of his family comes from the Midlands, around the industrial city of Birmingham. Much of Birmingham was destroyed by the German air bombs during the Blitz, and this recent history was still a potent memory for members of the previous generation, as the city was rebuilt.…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Amazing Contributions of Blind Musicians to Music

Amazing Contributions of Blind Musicians to Music Of the five senses, sight is perhaps the most valued of all by many people. In many cases, when a person is deprived of this important sense, the other senses tend to try to compensate for the loss by becoming more sensitive. It is not surprising, then, that some blind people seek vocations…

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General Music and Genres

¶ … Music and Genres List 3 music Genres that most socially and politically influential over time. Music plays a critical role in the social and political spheres of the United States. Various music genres were most socially and politically influential in relation to the history of the United States. Three critical music genres that were socially and politically influential…

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Shared Characteristics of Music and Dance Capoeira House Dance

Capoeira and House Dance/Music Capoeira and House Dance and Music The slave trade between Africa and the Americas had a significant cultural impact on music and dance, which can be seen in traditional capoeira -- the martial art developed by Brazilian slaves that incorporates song and dance, as well as house dance and b-boying. These three different styles share similar characteristics that include dance moves, the dance environment, and music. Capoeira has its roots in African foot fighting which was a culture cultivated by Brazilian slaves. Capoeira blends dance, music, rituals, and fighting, all of which have roots in Africa and in the individual tribes the slaves were abducted from. Capoeira was developed in the "senzalas" where slaves were kept ("History of Capoeira"). Traditionally, capoeira is set up as a "battle" between two individuals. In a traditional capoeira showdown, two dancers compete head to head. One of the dancers assumes the role of the slave, whereas the other assumes the role of the master, which emphasizes the context in which capoeira was developed as well as allows capoeiristas to vent their frustrations and practice the martial art (Rousseau). Capoeira quickly became recognized as a threat to white slave holders, and white society in general, and was eventually outlawed; however, this did not stop individuals from practicing the martial art-dance style. Capoeira was effective in concealing the martial arts aspect of its style through music and dance. Capoeira dancing takes place in a roda, a circle of composed of musicians, singers, and dancers. Forming a roda requires participation from all participants (Brown). In the roda, music is used to set the tempo of the dance. Singing, also referred to as ladainhna, provides the narrative for the dance. Singing usually incorporates a call and response element that is referred to as chula (Brown). Capoeira dancing is structured similarly to the call-and-response singing as the movements are both offensive and defensive. Capoeira dancing focuses on basic kicks, sweeps, and head strikes, which can be countered through evasive moves and rolls. Capoeira dancing begins with ginga, which is a triangular, rhythmic step; this step is comparable to the footwork often seen in boxing. Other basic capoeira moves include the au, which is a cartwheel move; balanca, which is a side-to-side step used to prevent the opponent from anticipating the next strike; bananeira, a handstand move; macaco, which is commonly referred to as a monkey…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


America Popular Music

America Popular Music The objective of this work is to discuss popular music in America today as well as to examine today's musicians. This work will historically place today's music in context and will discuss the style of music of today. Popular music, "...reflects a kaleidoscope of contributions, a cross-fertilization of styles and a blending of dreams. It could hardly be otherwise in this nation of immigrants." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Just as America is the melting pot of many nations the many and various forms of music that traveled with people as they immigrated to America is integrated within the fabric of American music. Starr and Waterman state that the United States "is a perfect musical laboratory: take people from every corner of the globe, give them freedom to create. Distribute their effort: by sheet music, phonograph, radio- or, for the younger ready: by Blu-ray Disc, mp3, Internet stream. And what results! European ballads recast with African polyrhythmic textures or blended with a Cuban-flavored habanera (boldfaced terms are defined in the glossary) or a more "refined" rumba. "Cold" bop. "Hot" jazz. "Acid" rock. "Gangsta" rap." (Starr and Waterman, nd) I. SOURCES of POPULAR MUSIC in AMERICA Starr and Water man writes that American popular music was "almost entirely European in character...until the middle of the 19th century..." (nd) Because the English language was dominant in the United States the music of the Europeans "established early on a kind of mainstream around which other styles circulated." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Influencing early popular music were Irish, Scottish and Italian songs." (Starr and Waterman, nd) French settlers influenced music in North American and the Caribbean and millions immigrated from Ireland and Germany followed by waves of migration which included Cajun fiddling, Jewish klezmer music and the Polish polka, all contributing to the popular mainstream music. According to Starr and Waterman: "The genesis of African-American music in the United States involved two closely related processes. The first of these was syncretism, the selective blending of traditions derived from Africa and Europe. The second was the creation of institutions that became important centers of black musical life -- the family, the church, the voluntary association, the school, and so on." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Certain features of African music form the core of African-American music and, by extension, of American popular music as a whole." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Included in African-American music…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


Innovations and Developments in the Music Festival Industry

¶ … business today, the music industry has seen rapid and extreme changes. Not least of these is the change towards the digital media and the Internet. These have changed the face and nature of the music industry, as well as the development and purchase of music by the public. In addition, the current drive towards more green technologies has…

Pages: 12  |  Essay  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 12


Music Appreciation Describe the Characteristics of the

Music Appreciation Describe the characteristics of the twentieth-century concept of melody. Refer to at least one listening example in your response. (Textbook p.301-302, 309-310) Melody only seems to have taken a back seat in contemporary music when compared to old times. Melodies of innovative new composers are often hard to read as they turn to scales which are not the…

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Music of Ludwig Van Beethoven

Beethoven The Music of Ludwig Van Beethoven Ludwig Van Beethoven was a German composer born on December 17th, 1770. However, there is a debate about whether he was born on the 16th or the 17th, as babies were traditionally baptized within 24 hours of being born and his official baptism took place on the 17th (Biography.com, 2012). He died on March 26th, 1827, after his health had completely deteriorated and his hearing was completely gone. The fact that he was deaf is very well-known; he somehow managed to write his best work without being able to hear a sound. Beethoven started demonstrating interest in music early on in life; while his father was known to be a less than stellar court singer with a strong alcohol problem, his grandfather was one of Bonn's most famous musicians (Biography.com, 2012). History has it that Ludwig would be forced to spend hours at the piano while his father criticized and beat him at every mistake. He made his first debut at 7 years old -- his father had declared that he was six years old, which was a source of confusion for Beethoven later on life (Prevot, 2001). After that, Beethoven went on to study with Gottlob Neefe, with whom he studied organ and composition. He published his first work, 9 variations in C minor, in 1782 (Prevot, 2001). Beethoven's Work Unlike other composers who often stayed within on particular genre or style, Beethoven's body of work extends itself over many different musical styles. While he has written beautiful piano pieces, such as concertos and sonatas, he has also made his mark through impressive symphonies, string quartets and an opera. His most widely acclaimed pieces include the Piano Sonata op.13 in C minor (Sonata Pathetique), Piano Sonata op. 27 no.2 in C. sharp mino (the Moonlight Sonata), Missa Solemnis, String Quartet no. 14, Symphony no.5, Symphony no.9 and Fidelio, his only opera (Biography.com, 2012; Dalhaus & Whittall, 1991). Of course, the list goes on, as Beethoven's body of work is immense and includes many masterpieces still heard in concert halls across the world today. Beethoven's body of work is often divided into three periods: Early, Middle and Late periods. His first period, referred to as Early, was influenced by other composers such as Mozart while the Middle period is characterized by his debilitating loss of hearing (Biography.com, 2012). However, the disease led him…

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Music in the Upper Grades

An association of music and math has, in fact, long been noted. Creating and performing music promotes self-expression and provides self-gratification while giving pleasure to others. In medicine, increasing published reports demonstrate that music has a healing effect on patients. For all these reasons, it deserves strong support in our educational system, along with the other arts, the sciences, and…

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Irish Music Is Interesting Because

When Irish people immigrated to the United States, they brought their music with them. Many of these people moved to the South. Because of this, traditional southern music has a lot in common with Irish music (Wikipedia). The Irish also developed "set dancing" to their music, which is a lot like American square dancing (Wikipedia). Both are done to the music of fiddling, a traditional Irish way of playing the violin. Traditional Irish music is still performed today in pubs and concert halls, and many modern Irish musicians, including rock musicians, include things they have learned from traditional Irish music in their hit songs. Irish music became much more popular in the United States after the Broadway show "Riverdance" opened. This show combines traditional Irish music and dancing in a modern setting (Wikipedia). SOURCES 'Classification of Musical Instruments," in Online Music Encyclopedia (OME). Accessed via the Internet 9/16/05. "Music of Ireland," in Wikipedia. Accessed via the Internet 9/16/05.

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Music Therapy According to Gary Ansdell, the

Music Therapy According to Gary Ansdell, the music "product" created through Creative Music Therapy is like a "magic mirror" that reflects "physical and emotional vistas," (128). The role of music in therapy has been explored in formal and informal contexts because, as Langer states, "most people connect feelings with music," (213). While listeners and musicians both undeniably and unavoidably associate emotions with music, music in itself is not necessarily emotive. Kivy describes the difference between expressing emotions that are actually there and being expressive of an objective emotional condition (257). Music by itself is a tool, and its instruments are means through which people can express their personal emotional states. However, the use of music in a therapeutic session works mainly because of the communication created through the client-therapist connection. Music is not just a form of self-expression, which would make music ego-centric and allow the client to remain insular. Ansdell emphasizes the importance of listening for the therapeutic process to be effective. Langer describes the various potential functions of music in a therapeutic context. First, music can be a form of pleasurable sensation. However, as Langer notes, many musical expressions are deliberately discordant and therefore not purely pleasurable. Therefore, music cannot be used in a therapeutic context as a means by which to evoke pleasure in a depressed client. Second, music can evoke an emotional response, any emotional response (211). Music can cause the heart rate to increase or decrease depending on tempo, for instance. Yet the enduring emotional and physiological effects of listening to music are questionable at best. Referring to scientific experiments, Langer states that music's "somatic effects are transient, and its moral hangovers or uplifts seem to be negligible," (212). Thus, listening to music in a therapeutic setting may not evoke any healing results. Two other potential functions of music in the therapeutic setting include playing music as a form of self-expression, and using the product of that self-expression as a symbolic code. Even here, Langer notes weaknesses in music therapy theory. For example, playing music allows for self-expression but more importantly, music demonstrates an "exposition of feeling," (221). The semantics underlying the musical composition may be as important, or more important, than the cathartic effects of self-expression that many music therapists advocate Ansdell agrees and questions the "almost unquestioned assumption that music is a straightforward expression of feelings," (124). Kivy calls the same unquestioned assumption…

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Music Make You Fee Strung Out Granted,

¶ … Music Make You Fee Strung Out Granted, I am by no means a fan of classical music. Yet as a music aficionado, I have found that there is very little music I can experience live that I do not connect with on some basic level. Perhaps it is the nuances of live music, the acoustics involved, the reaction from the crowd, as well as the element of performance augmenting the mere playing of music. It is more than a simple auditory experience, which is why I am not altogether surprised that I did not thoroughly dislike the recent performance of the Johannes String Quartet playing at Town Hall as part of the People's Symphony Concerts on Sunday, April 7. I must admit, I was partially drawn to this particular performance because of the nature of Johannes String Quartet. They have garnered quite a reputation as classical musicians, with a string of accolades and performances at major venues across the country. More enticing still was the fact that the quartet is made up entirely of strings, with Soovin Kim and Jessica Lee on the violin, Choong-Jin Chang on the viola and Peter Stumpf playing cello. In the form of music that I listen to most often, strings carry a haunting, foreboding sound which has always appealed to me. Even though this application of these instruments is not always realized in classical music, I was pleased to see that more than one of the pieces the musicians played incorporated certain elements of the type of sting performances I am partial to. Still, one of the more disappointing facets about this performance, to me, at least, was the crowd reaction. True enough, classical music is supposed to be reserved and 'sophisticate', and attracts an audience that is typically difficult to impress and would rather listen than actually feel the music. Yet there were certain passages of some of the pieces played in which the musicians attacked their instruments with a degree of ferocity that even impressed me. Proper decorum in such venues is to wait until the end of the performance to issue applause. Yet the entire feel of the afternoon could have been greatly enhanced if the crowd had been more of a participant, and less of a reserved spectator in the music -- which isd generally the case in more popular and contemporary forms of music. As the preceding…

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Cool Jazz a Brief History

Brubeck was furious. Brubeck recruited another sax player and his new group was soon playing to critical success. Desmond returned to San Francisco, seeking reconciliation with his former band mate and friend. Encouraged by his family, Brubeck eventually made peace with Desmond and the two went on to collaborate with the Dave Brubeck Quartet, an immensely popular jazz group that…

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Jazz "Blues After Dark," Dizzy

The piano does not really play a major role here but it is still a team effort. Performance: "Loverman," Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Belgium 1958 The style is not bebop, but ballad The role of the piano is delicate The role of the bass is regular bass line The role of the drums is brushing The role of the saxophone is to play lead and melody Piano adds accent and punctuation, when necessary. Suddenly the saxophone speaks more, packing sixteenth notes into each bar. The overall feeling is soft and mellow, even as the melody becomes more urgent and complex. At about two minutes, the backing band ceases to play. It is Stitt, on his own. He is speaking directly to the listener. His approach allows him to be his own rhythm as well as his own melody section. It is apparent now that this was his solo. The phrasing at the end, the way he plays the last notes, is iconic. Although the song itself is very slow and languid, it leaves the listener with a deep emotional impact. The title, "Loverboy," does suggest that there is a love song written here. Performance: "Blues Walk." Dizzy Gillespie Quintet Live in Belgium 1958 with Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet) Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums) Style = BeBop Role of Piano = Stride and Comping Role of the Bass = Walking Role of the Drums = Brushing and Riding but also mallets and sticks Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody Then, the tempo slows somewhat so that the meat of the song begins. Central phrases are repeated, and the trumpet and saxophone play together. The drumming is lively and integral to the song, adding a fast tempo and coaxing all the other instruments to follow suit. Drumming is not just brushes, but also using sticks. This is also a complex song. The first solo is the saxophone. Stitt plays a continuous flow of notes, barely stopping to breathe. The piano accompanies with some punctuation. A walking bass line also plays sixteenth notes. In fact, the title of the song could easily refer to the walking bass line. Toward the end of the saxophone solo, the phrasing changes briefly and it has an overall improvised feel. Conclusion The Dizzy Gillespie Quintet concert performed with Sonny Stitt on tenor saxophone,…

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Race and Music: Richie Valens

Although Keane encouraged the name change from Valenzuela Reyes to Valens, he wisely did not try to get his new acquisition to ignore his Latin heritage and agreed to release records which contained both English and Spanish language lyrics, a first for a semi-major record label. Richie Valens' first singles were performed in English, but were infused with the sounds of his heritage by the use of traditionally Hispanic and Latin instruments in the background. However, his greatest hit was the result of a complete utilization of the culture and subsequent introduction of that culture to the Caucasian majority. Valens' most famous single, the hit song "La Bamba" was released entirely in Spanish and became the first Spanish-language song to reach the Billboard pop charts. Also, "La Bamba" is the only song in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest songs of all time to be sung in a language other than English. "La Bamba" was a rerecording of a traditional Hispanic song from the Mexican state of Veracruz but with the infusion of the rock and roll sounds of the era, making it appealing to both Hispanic-Americans and the general public as well (Son Jarocho 2011). Works Cited: Lehmer, Larry (2004). The Day the Music Died: The Last Tour of Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper, and Richie Valens. Schirmer: New York, NY. "Son Jarocho Music." (2011). National Geographic. Retrieved from http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/page.basic/genre/content.genre/son_jarocho_789/en_US…

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Music & Personality Music Has

Over 3500 participants covering multiple samples, geographic regions, and methods were used. Questionnaires, and opinion polls were used to formulate the final instrument; Short Test of Music Preferences (STOMP). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was also performed using the LISREL. Studies 1-3 used from 70-1700 University of Austin undergraduate students, while 4 was an online study using participants from all over…

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Avant-Garde Jazz Music Might Sometimes

Leroi Jones also notes that the individuality expressed during this jazz era is important to the movement because of the unusual harmonies that resulted. Wayne Shorter and Earl Griffith provide examples of this type of diversity. He also asserts that while blues was the original African-American music, bebop re-emphasized a non-Western movement in jazz. Max Roach offers interesting insight into the definition of jazz and the impact that this music has had on African-Americans. He traces the etymology of the word, which was a word created by white people to describe African-American music, linking it with "free-swinging bawdy-house connotations" (Roach 306). In his mind, the word jazz conjured up images of "dingy places, the worst salaries and conditions that one can imagine" (307). He asserts that the word jazz has "come to mean the abuse and exploitation of black musicians; it has come to mean cultural prejudice and condescension" (307). In his opinion, African-Americans should redefine themselves and their culture and find a new respect for all forms of jazz. In "America's Classical Music," Billy Taylor notes that jazz has served as a model for all kinds of music, noting that its "influence is international in its scope" (Taylor America's Classical Music 328). Taylor claims that jazz is a distinctively African-American form of classical music that reached across ethnic boundaries. He aptly describes it is a musical mirror that reminds us of the musicians from the past. Jazz is a distinctly African-American form of music and it is certainly America's classical music, despite the fact that many wish to ignore this fact. In his essay, "Negroes Don't Know Anything About Jazz," he also observes that while African-Americans might have been the ones who created jazz music, they know very little about it today. While jazz has its roots firmly planted in the historical slave culture, Taylor claims that jazz is "no longer the exclusive medium of expression of the Negro" ("Negroes Don't Know Anything About Jazz 203). Popular jazzmen of today like Dave Brubeck and Quincy Jones should be listened to and recognized for their achievements. These men "should be accorded the dignity their stature called for" (203). Instead, he notes that there are very few African-Americans interested enough in jazz to even write about it. He believes that African-Americans should somehow be made aware of their musical heritage. A sense of pride in African-American music should be established. He…

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Popular Music One of the

Popular Music One of the things that makes us uniquely human is our ability to communicate. We communicate in a number of ways: language, art, non-verbal cues, and music. Over millennia, music as an art form is a combination of sound, rhythm and silence. The creation, performance, quality and significance vary between culture and social context. It can be recreational,…

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Enjoyment of Music General Class

Enjoyment of Music What false musical beliefs have change since you have taken this course. I never believed that music has any other value other than simple entertainment and to be used as a pass time. Hence those who extol the virtues of music- beginning from Socrates, who in detailing education was of the opinion that music is the medicine of the soul just as athletics is the cure for the body. The music and art brings about 'good' of the soul while athletics perfects the body and hence he advocated education on those lines. (Benardete, 1992) In the modern world, we find such a faith as not credible. After a course in music I do find that there is something that uplifts, something that refines the mind and this is a personal opinion. There are many 'cures' for overweight to day, a sad reminder that the old philosopher was not very much of the mark when he said that a regimen of exercise looks after the body. Like wise there is now scope to believe that music does change the patterns of the mind, and has a soothing effect. I was to later discover that music does have a very positive effect on the human mind and character. It did alter some moods for me. I came to realize the value of music and why we like certain music over others by the arguments of Minsky (1981) who has detailed why I felt the change. There is no myth about the fact that music does influence the human personality and is not a 'fun' thing or mere time pass as I found out. This brought about a great change in the way I approach music now and the angle from which I approach it. 2. Should music and the arts in general be promoted stronger in schools? There is already music being promoted among children by the TV and other media and albums which are drawing children. The problem is that though there is a great interest in art, there is no venue for understanding of the subtleties of the art or music. Thus, appreciating music or art and participation remains on the periphery. To create better audiences, musicians and artists there must be a method of kindling interest and the school is the best place. Education means acquiring a minimal knowledge and this can also be applied to…

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Salsa Music the Late 1950's Is the

Salsa Music The late 1950's is the starting point for the classification of a genre of music as salsa. The stylistic and rhythmic elements of the music have a wider history. There are elements of salsa music identified in popular Latin dance rhythms (Sommers 36). While these rhythms have given nuance to salsa music, its true beginnings lie in Afro Cuban music. Salsa music speaks to the historical experience of struggle, resistance and the desire for self-determinism possessed by Afro-Cuban slaves. Slaves chose not to adopt the cultural symbols of the slave masters and instead held on to musical forms that find modern expression through salsa. The practice of fusing together Cuban rhythms and jazz took place in New York in the 1940's. Two of the main creators of this fusion were Cuban brothers-in-law Machito and Mario Bauza (Mauleon).The primary purpose of this music was to provide impetus for dancing. This type of experimentation with Cuban music was not limited to Cuban bands; Puerto Rican's were also engaged in the practice. Therefore, Tito Rodriguez and Tito Puente though Puerto Rican were innovators and preservers of Cuban music. There was significant cross-fertilization of the musical forms until the Cuban revolution in 1959. With the revolution came the exodus of Cuban musicians to New York and it here that Salsa was created. Suggesting that salsa was created at this time is not to deny the influence of the Cuban son and other forms of music; rather it is an attempt to date historically a complex and diverse process that produced fantastic music (Hernandez 110). It is during the 1960's in New York that the coming together of musicians from various Spanish-speaking countries produced the musical hybrid salsa. It is also in this era that the term salsa (also a spicy dish) gained widespread usage. Salsa is different from its Cuban ancestors because of the increased use of the trombones, the critical role of the Cuban timbales, the jazz type harmony and the integration of Puerto Rican indigenous "rhythms, instruments and stylistic elements" (Mauleon). So that salsa is not identified by one element but rather by the final product, that is the fusion of these multiple elements. The evolution of salsa music continued into the 1980's and salsa emerged as salsa romantica. Salsa music is structured music. It has an introduction, a melodic phase, a percussion phase, (the montuno), followed by another melodic…

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Humanism and 16th Century Music 'Humanism' Is

Humanism and 16th century music 'Humanism' is the term used to describe the philosophy that came to dominate Western culture in the 16th century. Humanism was a reaction to the single-minded focus on faith that characterized most of the intellectual life of the medieval era. Before, classical learning was feared and disdained as pagan: in the 16th century there was a revival of interest in Greek and Roman science, history, literature, and art. Classical and sacred allusions and metaphors were now both used freely, often interchangeably. A new faith in the ability of physical, earthly beauty to provide a glimpse of transcendence in the mortal world began to emerge in the art of this period (Kries 2009). Symmetry and classical proportions grew in importance in all areas of design, versus the asymmetry and grotesque nature of the Gothic aesthetic. Personal life, individualism and non-sacred elements of the world, as a result of this new embrace of earthly realities, took on a new level of cultural importance. The 16th century saw a flowering of interest in classical antiquity in all of the arts. However, unlike painting and writing, no useful records of what Greek and Roman music remained to guide musicians and composers. "Knowledge of ancient Greek music was restricted to a handful of indecipherable fragments, known only to a small circle of scholars" ("The Renaissance," Free Encyclopedia, 2009). The relationship between Renaissance music and its classical models was thus "not pragmatic but aesthetic" ("The Renaissance," Free Encyclopedia, 2009). Composers drew inspiration from the myths of the ancient world, as well as from neo-classically themed art and literature of their contemporaries. The fine arts also often appropriated musical images and terminology: one popular theme was the symbolism of Orpheus' ability to temporarily transcend death with song. Musicians were featured prominently in artworks of the period by Caravaggio and Titan (Arkenberg 2002). In art, music was depicted as expressing human emotion, purely and authentically, in a way that the other arts often could not. The rise of secular music was perhaps the most notable feature of this period. While during the immediately preceding centuries, formally composed music was primarily sacred, the new interest in personal life and 'the human' came to the forefront during this period and allowed more sophisticated composition for dances and romantic songs. Dance music experienced rapid innovations: the century "saw the development of instrumental music such as the…

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Passing Music on From Generation to Generation in Different Societies Cultures

Passing Music on From Generation to Generation in Different Societies The musical traditions of a culture are a major force in that culture's expression, or in some cases, lack thereof. Music is a defining element of culture, which develops steadily as the culture which produces it changes as well. The passing down of music from generation to generation is a…

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Rock and Roll Clearly Music Is as

Rock and Roll Clearly music is as an integral part of a society's history as a widespread phenomenon of everyday interactions and occurrences. It has existed as early as humans themselves. As Bennett Reimer (2000, p.25), music educator and philosopher, noted: "Whenever and wherever humans have existed, music has existed also." Thus music that becomes popular acts as a gauge…

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