"Music / Musicians / Instruments" Essays

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Identify the Context of Electronic Computer Generated and Electro Acoustic Music Performance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,798 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Electronic Music:

instruments, techniques & PERFORMERS

For the most part, electronic music began in the 1950's in Europe, where the various governments provided funds for special recording studios to meet the new demand for different types of music. During this time, the use of tape recorders "became popular and some engineers and composers gathered together various sounds, such as that… [read more]

Humanities Role of Music Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,472 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Most of the drums are made from wood while some can also be clay pots or shells of turtles.

Drums are not only used for composing music but they have several uses. For instance, Africans use talking drums to announce the news of birth of a child, death of a person or information about any public event. Interesting thing about… [read more]

Music Enjoyment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Music Enjoyment

Some of the things I learned during this course go well beyond music per se. I have come to be more comfortable with how and why the past truly participated in creating the present. The past cultural foundations are not just isolated window of time that we as students should know about to complete out educations. The cliche about the past being "prologue" to the present is more than a cliche to me now. Prior to this class I have taken history classes and have become fascinated with the origins of and early stages of art, politics, language, culture. Added to my knowledge now, the history and evolution of music forms and styles. I have come to be familiar with many composers through this class and have, on my own, conducted some research into these musical icons.

We are so bombarded with media in this era of history, it takes opening one's mind to the past to fully appreciate how the world looked and sounded in the ancient world -- and why things evolved into what we have today. I have learned to be open to understanding how history, even ancient history, links us with the present. When I took philosophy courses I became very interested in the ancient Greeks, especially Plato and his writings for and about Socrates. That was the beginning of the field of philosophy. And now I understand that the Romans adopted much of the basics of Greek music; as time went on the Greek lyre and aulos gave way to horn instruments in Rome. And today we have so many amazing musical instruments -- we live in a richly musical time.

Question #2:

My favorite composer that I came to learn about and be fascinated by was George Gershwin. The iconic composer of course is among the most prolific of songwriters, but though I was familiar with some of his music prior to the class, I am now far more aware of the litany of great music this American composer has created. All the times I have sung "Summertime…and the livin' is easy…" as a soloist and in choirs, and I loved singing and hearing it because the music and the lyrics are so stunningly beautiful and evocative.

My all time favorite Gershwin composition by far is Rhapsody in Blue. I remember my sister had the tune on an LP and I used to set the needle down at the beginning of the music, play a few minutes and move the needle back to the start. The clarinet at…… [read more]

Pioneering Jazz Musician, Sidney Bechet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (4,585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In 1945, he moved to Brooklyn and started teaching music to supplement his unstable musician wages. He taught a young man named Bob Wilber the rudiments of both the clarinet and soprano saxophone. After high school, Wilber moved into Bechet's house so that he could have more in-depth lessons. Today, Wilber is a leading exponent of the soprano sax and… [read more]

Jazz Performance: "Blues After Dark Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,038 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Suddenly, the trumpet and the saxophone begin to diverge. Whereas they were once playing the same melody in unison, they start to "talk" to one another. Dizzie Gillespie actually walks a few steps away to symbolize the changing relationship between the two lead instruments at this moment in the song. This relationship is solidified at the end of the song with the interesting vocals.

Style = BeBop

Role of Piano = Stride and Comping

Role of the Bass = Walking

Role of the Drums = Brushing and Riding

Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody

Performance: "Loverman," Dizzie Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums). In Belgium 1958

"Loverman" begins with Sonny Stitt, and his saxophone doles out ribbons of sound in a flourish before launching gently into the main part of the melody. This is a down tempo number, and a little slow. However, Stitt lifts up the dynamics with his playing. The mood is sad, it is a ballad ideal for a slow dance. The sax, although unaccompanied by the trumpet or any other lead instrument yet, is not quite a solo, it is more of an introduction. The bass backs him up.

Style = Bebop ballad

Role of Piano = comping

Role of the Bass = rhythm and comping

Role of the Drums = Brushing

Role of the Saxophone = Lead and Melody

Performance: "Blues Walk." Dizzie Gillespie Quintet Live in Belgium 1958 with Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet) Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums)

The drums feature firmly here, especially at the beginning. The drummer taps in the song, at first indicating a low tempo but then quickening it for the introduction of the head instruments, saxophone and trumpet. This is a lively, upbeat introduction. The trumpet and the saxophone start together, singing loud and clear with one another for a few bars. The same phrase is repeated for another bar, connected by the drums in between.

Style = BeBop

Role of Piano = Stride and Comping

Role of the Bass = Walking (lots of walking)

Role of the Drums = Mallets, sticks, riding

Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody


Dizzy Gillespie's 1958 Belgium performance is quintessential bebop. It is impossible not to appreciate and enjoy this music. Every instrument comes together in unison and has its place. However, the real stars that shine here are Dizzy Gillespie and Sonny Stitt. The tenor saxophone and the trumpet player dominate this concert, showing the full potential of their respective instruments. Their solos are impressive, especially Gillespie's trumpet solo in the "Blues After Dark" recording and Sonny Stitt's in the "Blues Walk."

The only thing I could have done without was "Lover Man." This song has a role as a slow dance number within a greater bebop set, but the impact of that song was much less than for the other songs in the recording. "Lover Man"… [read more]

Electronic Music the Creation Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,470 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Electric technology and music have been closely associated since the discovery of usable electronic power. As early as the 1850s, French inventors were looking into ways in which music could be recorded for posterity. However, it would not be until Thomas Edison's invention of the phonograph in 1878 that recorded music would be able to be played back at the… [read more]

Jazz Pedagogy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Jazz Pedagogy

When it comes to pedagogy, "the art of teaching" (Mish 912), there are many different interrelationships among different theories of knowledge, theories of learning, conceptions of curriculum and approaches of broad inquiry for the purposes of schooling. Every teacher is faced with a challenge to effectively convey his or her message of knowledge and inspire today's youth. It… [read more]

Philosophy of Humanism &amp Music of the Renaissance Era Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,636 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Humanism and the Renaissance: An Overview of the Revival

The word 'Renaissance' means 'rebirth.' The formal 'Renaissance' is defined as the European period spanning from the end of the 13th century to approximately 1600. The title given to this epoch reflects the fact that there was a rebirth of interest in classical antiquity and human individualism. Classical forms and an… [read more]

Role of Viola Da Gamba as a Solo Instrument in the Sixteenth Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (3,042 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Viola Da Gamba

Terms, Structure, and Origins

Viola Da Gamba as a Solo Instrument

Decline of the Viola Da Gamba



The viola da gamba, a member of the viol family, first appeared in Europe during the late fifteenth century. Its popularity soared during the Renaissance and… [read more]

Renaissance -- Baroque Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In the age of the Baroque, the passion for drama even infiltrated the music of the church and made use of the new style of monody and recitative. Italian composers began to produce new a new type of vocal composition with instruments, based on either secular or sacred texts, known as the cantata. However, in Germany, religious music produced a major and truly spiritual form in the Passion. In addition, with instruments partnered with voices, fully independent forms of musical expression emerged.

Another important area of instrumental music was in the interludes and sinfonie of the operas and the sonatas for the instruments, and by the end of the 17th century, the trio sonata, for two melody instruments, a bass and a harmonic accompaniment, and the solo sonata, for one solo instrument, were well-established. By this time, composers had a number of instruments available to them as compared to the Renaissance Period, dominated by stringed instruments like the harpsichord, lute, mandolin and early forms of the guitar. By the end of the 18th century, three main forms of concerted music for instruments were beginning to dominate all music outside of the theatre, being the concerto, the symphony and the chamber music ensemble for strings.

All of these forms expressed in different ways the capabilities of a combination of instruments unheard of at the beginning of the 17th century but commonplace by its end. The violin was quickly recognized for its power, brilliance and coloristic effects which made it gain an equality with the viol which was soon eclipsed by the violin. However, the Baroque desire for contrast continued to be perpetuated in the concerto grosso, mostly by Torelli and Corelli. These were extended works in three or four movements and were written for a string orchestra in which a group of solo instruments was contrasted with a full orchestra. The form reached its fullest expression in the concerti grossi of Vivaldi and Handel and the Brandenburg concertos of J.S. Bach who introduced other instruments besides strings. From the middle of the 18th century, the concerto grosso became unpopular to the three movement solo concerto in which a single instrument was set against the whole orchestra.

Thus, the music of the Renaissance Period was based almost solely on the use of the human voice and perhaps the accompaniment of one or two instruments, but by the Baroque Period, composer had greatly expanded through the use of counterpoint and the application of many instruments, either as solo or orchestral, to create truly magnificent…… [read more]

Jazz and World War Ll Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Jazz and World War II

"Would you tell me please which way I ought to go from here!" asked Alice. "That depends a good deal on where you want to get to," said the Cheshire Cat.

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

Teachers also need to know what they are aiming for before they pick a path to follow. This means that… [read more]

Blues and Ragtime: Paving Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,436 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The rise and success of his band coincided with the emergence of Storyville, the black pleasure district (Buddy Bolden). At the height of their popularity, the group performed regularly in New Orleans' dance halls and parks, as well as in the city's surrounding towns. By 1907, Bolden's health had declined to the point where he had to be institutionalized; Bolden… [read more]

Le Grand Hautbois Research Paper

Research Paper  |  21 pages (6,350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


As Mazarin's mentee and pupil, Louis acquired the prime minister's love of the arts, style and opulence. It was not until later that Louis stopped deferring to Mazarin's authority and assumed his own power as King (Bernard 1970). As the war between France and Spain came to an end and transferred power from the Habsburgs to the Bourbons, Louis assumed… [read more]

Freedom Is Not Following Tradition Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Today, the concept of freedom is a very important one. On both a personal and collective level, freedom is considered one of the fundamental human rights. It is therefore useful to study how freedom manifested itself in the minds of the world's greatest philosophers and artists. Indeed, it is such philosophers and artists that even today shape the most… [read more]

Timbre and Texture in Chidori No Kyoku Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,116 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Timbre and Texture in Chidori no Kyoku and Debussy's Nocturne III

The creation of sound, and the human experience of it, are immensely complicated things. Music, with its multiple voices, rhythms, and consciously layered complexities, takes sound to an entirely new level. There are many elements that create the feel and, more rudimentarily, the sound of a piece of music. Harmony, melody, and rhythm are standard elements of Western music, tough this is arguably beginning to change. Other musical systems have very different interpretations of what music should be; melody and harmony are simply not the same concepts in an Indiana raga as they are in Led Zeppelin song. There are, however, ways of looking astound and music that can apply to an interpretation of every piece. Two of these analytical tools are timbre and texture.

Timbre refers to the specific quality of a sound produced by a specific element. Clapping your hands together makes a different sound then slapping your hand on a tabletop -- the vibrations produced by the two pieces of flesh (i.e. your hand) is different from that produced by flesh and wood (i.e. The tabletop). Musically, this is illustrated by the difference between the sounds of different instruments. Even if a piano and a trumpet were perfectly tuned to each other and playing the exact same note, it is impossible to confuse the two sounds. The timbre of air moving through brass tubing (as in a trumpet) is different from the timbre of a vibrating wire (as in a piano), even if the two media are oscillating at the same pitch.

Texture is largely a result of the layering of timbre, though the concept of texture is more easily applied to music than to any non-musical sound. It deals with the layers of and continuity of a piece of music as a whole. The number of voices -- the different elements of timbre (usually, but not always, created by separate instruments) -- in a piece, and the way they interact, creates the texture of a piece of music. Individual instruments with their own unique voices can produce very different textures -- the difference between playing a violin with a bow and plucking the strings, for example, produces two very different textures sound. When other instruments, each capable of their own variations in texture, are included in a piece of music, the available nuances of texture are nearly endless. Though the timbres of a piece are essential to its texture, they do not dictate it. Just so, similar textures can be derived from very different timbres. This can be seen -- or rather, heard -- in a comparison of the third piece Debussy's suite, Nocturnes, and in a traditional Japanese melody, Chidori no Kyoku.

Because timbre is the main element of texture, it is best to take a look at it first. The timbre of Debussy's Nocturne will be more familiar to Western ears than those found in Chidori no Kyoku, though its impressionistic style contains… [read more]

Classical Era Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


His aim was to make music an instrument through which poetry could be expressed based upon the situation of the story, instead of interrupting it for conventional orchestral ritornellos or florid and ornamental singing; to break down the sharp distinction between recitative and aria: in short, to get rid of all the unnecessary things which were against good sense and reason.

Carl Bach (1714-1788) and Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782) were half-brothers who carved a name for themselves in classical music. Carl Emanuel Bach was very well-known in his time and it was due to his musical skills that in 1740, he was appointed 'chamber musician' and 'clavecinist' by emperor Frederick of Berlin. His music was greatly inspired by his own father and was quite ahead of it's time. In his music there are very bold harmonic progressions followed by an abrupt change of mood. His music however experimental is immensely mesmerizing not to mention very elegant and original. Johann Bach on the other hand started his career once his half brother had already established his name. He was directly influenced by his brother's skills, talent and understanding of music. This led to his appointment as music director to Count Antonio in Italy in the year 1754. But Johann decided to move to England in 1762 where his fame won him a place as music master to Queen Charlotte.

Joseph Haydn:

Joseph Haydn was born in 1732 and died in 1809. He was appointed to Esterhazy court at Eisenstadt in 1761, where he had the freedom to experiment with new forms, styles and genres not to mention an exceptionally talented group of musicians to help him bring his experiments to life.

He was known for his musical jokes and surprise effects; he had a fondness for monothematicism and he focused on harmonic invention and motivic development. His works include among others 68 string quartets, 104 still well-known symphonies, 40 classical keyboard sonatas, and two oratorios.

Musical eras don't just disappear at once. New features replace the old and transform one style into the other. The work…… [read more]

Gamelan Music Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


It does take more than one exposure to be able to pick out the layers, or even the harmony because of the intricate nature and complexity of the style. Within these orchestra "themes," though, no performance is the same, because the individual musicians are trained to improvise, dialog, and create a unique performance based on their own emotional experience at the time. In addition, the gamelan experience is also enhanced both visually and emotionally by the use of puppets. These puppet shows accentuate Javanese myth, and also introduce younger listeners to their past.

Examples of Gamelan Styles

1. The Soundscape Gamelan At Soundscape: http://www.soundscapemusicproject.com/music/gamelan/index.html

2. Compositions, technique, world Balinese music: http://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Music/Styles/R/Regional_and_Ethnic/Gamelan/

3. Traditional Examples of gamelan: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hlap5WulHOw

4. Education presentation with audio examples: http:/ / education.northumberland.gov.uk/music/.../Gamelan/Gamelan.ppt


"Akira Fan Site." January 2012. Akira. Web. June 2012. .

"Balinese and Javanese Gamelan." 7 October 2005. Sinisterfrog. Web. June 2012. .

Brown, A. "Creating Her Own Destiny: Anggun Cipta Samsi." June 2009. Gadfly Online. Web. May 2012. .

Gold, L. Music in Bali: Experiencing Music, Expressing CUlture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Kirman, P. "Robert Macht on the Javanese Gamelon." 28 May 1999. Inside World Music. Web. June 2012. .

Lentz, D. The Famelan Music of Java and Bali. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1965. Print.

Martin, B. Listening to the Future. Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing, 1997. Print.

Peterman, L. "Indonesian Music." July 2008. trumpet.sdsu.edu. Web. May 2012. .

Prikosusilo, B. "Indonesia Needs the Harmony of the Gamelan." 22 February 2011. Jakarta Globe. Web. May 2012. .

Spiller, H. Gamelan Music of Indonesia. New York: Routledge, 2008. Print.

Sumarsam. Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Print.

Susilo, H. "Enculturation and Cross-Cultural Experiences in Teaching Indonesian Gamelan." July 2010. Gamlean.org. Web. June 2012. .

Tenzer, M. Balinese Music. North Clarendon, VT: Turtle Publications, 2011. Print.

"The Gamelan in Contemporary Music." March 2011. Soundtrack.net. Web. June 2012. .… [read more]

General Music and Genres Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Music and Genres

List 3 music Genres that most socially and politically influential over time.

Music plays a critical role in the social and political spheres of the United States. Various music genres were most socially and politically influential in relation to the history of the United States. Three critical music genres that were socially and politically influential… [read more]

Shared Characteristics of Music and Dance Capoeira House Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,274 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Capoeira and House Dance/Music

Capoeira and House Dance and Music

The slave trade between Africa and the Americas had a significant cultural impact on music and dance, which can be seen in traditional capoeira -- the martial art developed by Brazilian slaves that incorporates song and dance, as well as house dance and b-boying. These three different styles share similar characteristics that include dance moves, the dance environment, and music.

Capoeira has its roots in African foot fighting which was a culture cultivated by Brazilian slaves. Capoeira blends dance, music, rituals, and fighting, all of which have roots in Africa and in the individual tribes the slaves were abducted from. Capoeira was developed in the "senzalas" where slaves were kept ("History of Capoeira"). Traditionally, capoeira is set up as a "battle" between two individuals. In a traditional capoeira showdown, two dancers compete head to head. One of the dancers assumes the role of the slave, whereas the other assumes the role of the master, which emphasizes the context in which capoeira was developed as well as allows capoeiristas to vent their frustrations and practice the martial art (Rousseau). Capoeira quickly became recognized as a threat to white slave holders, and white society in general, and was eventually outlawed; however, this did not stop individuals from practicing the martial art-dance style.

Capoeira was effective in concealing the martial arts aspect of its style through music and dance. Capoeira dancing takes place in a roda, a circle of composed of musicians, singers, and dancers. Forming a roda requires participation from all participants (Brown). In the roda, music is used to set the tempo of the dance. Singing, also referred to as ladainhna, provides the narrative for the dance. Singing usually incorporates a call and response element that is referred to as chula (Brown).

Capoeira dancing is structured similarly to the call-and-response singing as the movements are both offensive and defensive. Capoeira dancing focuses on basic kicks, sweeps, and head strikes, which can be countered through evasive moves and rolls. Capoeira dancing begins with ginga, which is a triangular, rhythmic step; this step is comparable to the footwork often seen in boxing. Other basic capoeira moves include the au, which is a cartwheel move; balanca, which is a side-to-side step used to prevent the opponent from anticipating the next strike; bananeira, a handstand move; macaco, which is commonly referred to as a monkey move and is a backflip near the ground; negative, used to block an attack; role, a roll; and ponte, a backwards bend that resembles a bridge ("Main Capoeira Moves").

House dancing and b-boying share many similar elements of capoeira dance movements. The largest shared component in them all is battling for power and position within a community by displaying dominance, creativity and endurance. The same characteristics within b-boying and house dancing begin with the element of competition one on one. Like capoeira in which a roda is formed to showcase the dance, house dancing and b-boing often take place within… [read more]

World Music of the United Kingdom Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,012 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Music

Interview Report: "Martin"

Martin was born in the United Kingdom. Most of his family comes from the Midlands, around the industrial city of Birmingham. Much of Birmingham was destroyed by the German air bombs during the Blitz, and this recent history was still a potent memory for members of the previous generation, as the city was rebuilt.… [read more]

Amazing Contributions of Blind Musicians Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,655 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Amazing Contributions of Blind Musicians to Music

Of the five senses, sight is perhaps the most valued of all by many people. In many cases, when a person is deprived of this important sense, the other senses tend to try to compensate for the loss by becoming more sensitive. It is not surprising, then, that some blind people seek vocations… [read more]

Popular Music Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Popular Music

One of the things that makes us uniquely human is our ability to communicate. We communicate in a number of ways: language, art, non-verbal cues, and music. Over millennia, music as an art form is a combination of sound, rhythm and silence. The creation, performance, quality and significance vary between culture and social context. It can be recreational,… [read more]

Music Make You Fee Strung Out Granted Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Music Make You Fee

Strung Out

Granted, I am by no means a fan of classical music. Yet as a music aficionado, I have found that there is very little music I can experience live that I do not connect with on some basic level. Perhaps it is the nuances of live music, the acoustics involved, the reaction from the crowd, as well as the element of performance augmenting the mere playing of music. It is more than a simple auditory experience, which is why I am not altogether surprised that I did not thoroughly dislike the recent performance of the Johannes String Quartet playing at Town Hall as part of the People's Symphony Concerts on Sunday, April 7.

I must admit, I was partially drawn to this particular performance because of the nature of Johannes String Quartet. They have garnered quite a reputation as classical musicians, with a string of accolades and performances at major venues across the country. More enticing still was the fact that the quartet is made up entirely of strings, with Soovin Kim and Jessica Lee on the violin, Choong-Jin Chang on the viola and Peter Stumpf playing cello. In the form of music that I listen to most often, strings carry a haunting, foreboding sound which has always appealed to me. Even though this application of these instruments is not always realized in classical music, I was pleased to see that more than one of the pieces the musicians played incorporated certain elements of the type of sting performances I am partial to.

Still, one of the more disappointing facets about this performance, to me, at least, was the crowd reaction. True enough, classical music is supposed to be reserved and 'sophisticate', and attracts an audience that is typically difficult to impress and would rather listen than actually feel the music. Yet there were certain passages of some of the pieces played in which the musicians attacked their instruments with a degree of ferocity that even impressed me. Proper decorum in such venues is to wait until the end of the performance to issue applause. Yet the entire feel of the afternoon could have been greatly enhanced if the crowd had been more of a participant, and less of a reserved spectator in the music -- which isd generally the case in more popular and contemporary forms of music.

As the preceding paragraph alludes to, there were certain instances in which the quartet's playing was actually able to build some emotion within me. I would have to say the particular piece that achieved this effect the most was sixth movement of Henri Dutilleux's Ainsi la' nuit, which was composed in 1975 and 1976. Part of me attributes the sentiment that this movement…… [read more]

Cool Jazz a Brief History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Brubeck was furious. Brubeck recruited another sax player and his new group was soon playing to critical success. Desmond returned to San Francisco, seeking reconciliation with his former band mate and friend. Encouraged by his family, Brubeck eventually made peace with Desmond and the two went on to collaborate with the Dave Brubeck Quartet, an immensely popular jazz group that… [read more]

Jazz "Blues After Dark," Dizzy Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,082 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The piano does not really play a major role here but it is still a team effort.

Performance: "Loverman," Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Belgium 1958

The style is not bebop, but ballad

The role of the piano is delicate

The role of the bass is regular bass line

The role of the drums is brushing

The role of the saxophone is to play lead and melody

Piano adds accent and punctuation, when necessary. Suddenly the saxophone speaks more, packing sixteenth notes into each bar. The overall feeling is soft and mellow, even as the melody becomes more urgent and complex. At about two minutes, the backing band ceases to play. It is Stitt, on his own. He is speaking directly to the listener. His approach allows him to be his own rhythm as well as his own melody section.

It is apparent now that this was his solo. The phrasing at the end, the way he plays the last notes, is iconic. Although the song itself is very slow and languid, it leaves the listener with a deep emotional impact. The title, "Loverboy," does suggest that there is a love song written here.

Performance: "Blues Walk." Dizzy Gillespie Quintet Live in Belgium 1958 with Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet) Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums)

Style = BeBop

Role of Piano = Stride and Comping

Role of the Bass = Walking

Role of the Drums = Brushing and Riding but also mallets and sticks

Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody

Then, the tempo slows somewhat so that the meat of the song begins. Central phrases are repeated, and the trumpet and saxophone play together. The drumming is lively and integral to the song, adding a fast tempo and coaxing all the other instruments to follow suit. Drumming is not just brushes, but also using sticks. This is also a complex song.

The first solo is the saxophone. Stitt plays a continuous flow of notes, barely stopping to breathe. The piano accompanies with some punctuation. A walking bass line also plays sixteenth notes. In fact, the title of the song could easily refer to the walking bass line. Toward the end of the saxophone solo, the phrasing changes briefly and it has an overall improvised feel.


The Dizzy Gillespie Quintet concert performed with Sonny Stitt on tenor saxophone, Lou Levy on piano, Ray Brown on bass, and Gus Johnson on drums in Belgium in 1948 offers a delightful array of bebop. This recording provides the student with an example of the dynamics of the genre, and what its musicians were capable of doing. Listening to Gillespie play is a treat. The music is uplifting emotionally, and inspiring. The saxophone player is also amazing, and the two together are wonderful. Although my favorite piece was the first one, "Blues After Dark," the entire performance was impressive.

There was nothing that I can say I did not like. Even the… [read more]

Music of Ludwig Van Beethoven Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The Music of Ludwig Van Beethoven

Ludwig Van Beethoven was a German composer born on December 17th, 1770. However, there is a debate about whether he was born on the 16th or the 17th, as babies were traditionally baptized within 24 hours of being born and his official baptism took place on the 17th (Biography.com, 2012). He died on March 26th, 1827, after his health had completely deteriorated and his hearing was completely gone. The fact that he was deaf is very well-known; he somehow managed to write his best work without being able to hear a sound. Beethoven started demonstrating interest in music early on in life; while his father was known to be a less than stellar court singer with a strong alcohol problem, his grandfather was one of Bonn's most famous musicians (Biography.com, 2012). History has it that Ludwig would be forced to spend hours at the piano while his father criticized and beat him at every mistake. He made his first debut at 7 years old -- his father had declared that he was six years old, which was a source of confusion for Beethoven later on life (Prevot, 2001). After that, Beethoven went on to study with Gottlob Neefe, with whom he studied organ and composition. He published his first work, 9 variations in C minor, in 1782 (Prevot, 2001).

Beethoven's Work

Unlike other composers who often stayed within on particular genre or style, Beethoven's body of work extends itself over many different musical styles. While he has written beautiful piano pieces, such as concertos and sonatas, he has also made his mark through impressive symphonies, string quartets and an opera. His most widely acclaimed pieces include the Piano Sonata op.13 in C minor (Sonata Pathetique), Piano Sonata op. 27 no.2 in C. sharp mino (the Moonlight Sonata), Missa Solemnis, String Quartet no. 14, Symphony no.5, Symphony no.9 and Fidelio, his only opera (Biography.com, 2012; Dalhaus & Whittall, 1991). Of course, the list goes on, as Beethoven's body of work is immense and includes many masterpieces still heard in concert halls across the world today.

Beethoven's body of work is often divided into three periods: Early, Middle and Late periods. His first period, referred to as Early, was influenced by other composers such as Mozart while the Middle period is characterized by his debilitating loss of hearing (Biography.com, 2012). However, the disease led him to isolate himself and dive into his compositions. The Middle period, or Heroic period, saw the birth of many acclaimed pieces including 'an opera, six symphonies, four solo concerti, five string quartets, six string sonatas, seven piano sonatas, five sets of piano variations, four overtures, four trios, two sextets and seventy-two songs' (Biography.com, 2012). The last period, the Late period, is perhaps the period during which he wrote his most influential music. This is the period that will be focused on for the objective analysis.

Objective Analysis

I believe that the most interesting work written…… [read more]

Music Appreciation Essay

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Music Appreciation

Describe the characteristics of the twentieth-century concept of melody. Refer to at least one listening example in your response. (Textbook p.301-302, 309-310)

Melody only seems to have taken a back seat in contemporary music when compared to old times. Melodies of innovative new composers are often hard to read as they turn to scales which are not the… [read more]

Innovations and Developments in the Music Festival Industry Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,992 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … business today, the music industry has seen rapid and extreme changes. Not least of these is the change towards the digital media and the Internet. These have changed the face and nature of the music industry, as well as the development and purchase of music by the public. In addition, the current drive towards more green technologies has… [read more]

Race and Music: Richie Valens Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Although Keane encouraged the name change from Valenzuela Reyes to Valens, he wisely did not try to get his new acquisition to ignore his Latin heritage and agreed to release records which contained both English and Spanish language lyrics, a first for a semi-major record label.

Richie Valens' first singles were performed in English, but were infused with the sounds of his heritage by the use of traditionally Hispanic and Latin instruments in the background. However, his greatest hit was the result of a complete utilization of the culture and subsequent introduction of that culture to the Caucasian majority. Valens' most famous single, the hit song "La Bamba" was released entirely in Spanish and became the first Spanish-language song to reach the Billboard pop charts. Also, "La Bamba" is the only song in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest songs of all time to be sung in a language other than English. "La Bamba" was a rerecording of a traditional Hispanic song from the Mexican state of Veracruz but with the infusion of the rock and roll sounds of the era, making it appealing to both Hispanic-Americans and the general public as well (Son Jarocho 2011).

Works Cited:

Lehmer, Larry (2004). The Day the Music Died: The Last Tour of Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper,

and Richie Valens. Schirmer: New York, NY.

"Son Jarocho Music." (2011). National Geographic. Retrieved from http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/page.basic/genre/content.genre/son_jarocho_789/en_US… [read more]

America Popular Music Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (822 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


America Popular Music

The objective of this work is to discuss popular music in America today as well as to examine today's musicians. This work will historically place today's music in context and will discuss the style of music of today.

Popular music, "...reflects a kaleidoscope of contributions, a cross-fertilization of styles and a blending of dreams. It could hardly be otherwise in this nation of immigrants." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Just as America is the melting pot of many nations the many and various forms of music that traveled with people as they immigrated to America is integrated within the fabric of American music. Starr and Waterman state that the United States "is a perfect musical laboratory: take people from every corner of the globe, give them freedom to create. Distribute their effort: by sheet music, phonograph, radio- or, for the younger ready: by Blu-ray Disc, mp3, Internet stream. And what results! European ballads recast with African polyrhythmic textures or blended with a Cuban-flavored habanera (boldfaced terms are defined in the glossary) or a more "refined" rumba. "Cold" bop. "Hot" jazz. "Acid" rock. "Gangsta" rap." (Starr and Waterman, nd)


Starr and Water man writes that American popular music was "almost entirely European in character...until the middle of the 19th century..." (nd) Because the English language was dominant in the United States the music of the Europeans "established early on a kind of mainstream around which other styles circulated." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Influencing early popular music were Irish, Scottish and Italian songs." (Starr and Waterman, nd) French settlers influenced music in North American and the Caribbean and millions immigrated from Ireland and Germany followed by waves of migration which included Cajun fiddling, Jewish klezmer music and the Polish polka, all contributing to the popular mainstream music.

According to Starr and Waterman: "The genesis of African-American music in the United States involved two closely related processes. The first of these was syncretism, the selective blending of traditions derived from Africa and Europe. The second was the creation of institutions that became important centers of black musical life -- the family, the church, the voluntary association, the school, and so on." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Certain features of African music form the core of African-American music and, by extension, of American popular music as a whole." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Included in African-American music that was integrated into the American music are the following:

1)…… [read more]

Music Therapy According to Gary Ansdell Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Music Therapy

According to Gary Ansdell, the music "product" created through Creative Music Therapy is like a "magic mirror" that reflects "physical and emotional vistas," (128). The role of music in therapy has been explored in formal and informal contexts because, as Langer states, "most people connect feelings with music," (213). While listeners and musicians both undeniably and unavoidably associate emotions with music, music in itself is not necessarily emotive. Kivy describes the difference between expressing emotions that are actually there and being expressive of an objective emotional condition (257). Music by itself is a tool, and its instruments are means through which people can express their personal emotional states. However, the use of music in a therapeutic session works mainly because of the communication created through the client-therapist connection. Music is not just a form of self-expression, which would make music ego-centric and allow the client to remain insular. Ansdell emphasizes the importance of listening for the therapeutic process to be effective.

Langer describes the various potential functions of music in a therapeutic context. First, music can be a form of pleasurable sensation. However, as Langer notes, many musical expressions are deliberately discordant and therefore not purely pleasurable. Therefore, music cannot be used in a therapeutic context as a means by which to evoke pleasure in a depressed client. Second, music can evoke an emotional response, any emotional response (211). Music can cause the heart rate to increase or decrease depending on tempo, for instance. Yet the enduring emotional and physiological effects of listening to music are questionable at best. Referring to scientific experiments, Langer states that music's "somatic effects are transient, and its moral hangovers or uplifts seem to be negligible," (212). Thus, listening to music in a therapeutic setting may not evoke any healing results.

Two other potential functions of music in the therapeutic setting include playing music as a form of self-expression, and using the product of that self-expression as a symbolic code. Even here, Langer notes weaknesses in music therapy theory. For example, playing music allows for self-expression but more importantly, music demonstrates an "exposition of feeling," (221). The semantics underlying the musical composition may be as important, or more important, than the cathartic effects of self-expression that many music therapists advocate

Ansdell agrees and questions the "almost unquestioned assumption that music is a straightforward expression of feelings," (124). Kivy calls the same unquestioned assumption the tendency to describe music biographically, that is, to attribute certain emotional states to the composer. While the biographical description of music works in many cases, it is far from being universally applicable. Instead, Kivy urges music therapists to cease speculating about the composer's emotional state and reach a more objective means of appreciation and analysis. If the therapist hopes to "perceive something else" in the work other than the purely scientific elements of the music such as tone and notation, then the therapist must understand how music can be expressive of emotions (9). Music…… [read more]

Irish Music Is Interesting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (349 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


When Irish people immigrated to the United States, they brought their music with them. Many of these people moved to the South. Because of this, traditional southern music has a lot in common with Irish music (Wikipedia). The Irish also developed "set dancing" to their music, which is a lot like American square dancing (Wikipedia). Both are done to the music of fiddling, a traditional Irish way of playing the violin.

Traditional Irish music is still performed today in pubs and concert halls, and many modern Irish musicians, including rock musicians, include things they have learned from traditional Irish music in their hit songs. Irish music became much more popular in the United States after the Broadway show "Riverdance" opened. This show combines traditional Irish music and dancing in a modern setting (Wikipedia).


'Classification of Musical Instruments," in Online Music Encyclopedia (OME). Accessed via the Internet 9/16/05.

"Music of Ireland," in Wikipedia. Accessed via the Internet 9/16/05. [read more]

Music in the Upper Grades Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,465 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


An association of music and math has, in fact, long been noted. Creating and performing music promotes self-expression and provides self-gratification while giving pleasure to others. In medicine, increasing published reports demonstrate that music has a healing effect on patients. For all these reasons, it deserves strong support in our educational system, along with the other arts, the sciences, and… [read more]

Avant-Garde Jazz Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Leroi Jones also notes that the individuality expressed during this jazz era is important to the movement because of the unusual harmonies that resulted. Wayne Shorter and Earl Griffith provide examples of this type of diversity. He also asserts that while blues was the original African-American music, bebop re-emphasized a non-Western movement in jazz.

Max Roach offers interesting insight into the definition of jazz and the impact that this music has had on African-Americans. He traces the etymology of the word, which was a word created by white people to describe African-American music, linking it with "free-swinging bawdy-house connotations" (Roach 306). In his mind, the word jazz conjured up images of "dingy places, the worst salaries and conditions that one can imagine" (307). He asserts that the word jazz has "come to mean the abuse and exploitation of black musicians; it has come to mean cultural prejudice and condescension" (307). In his opinion, African-Americans should redefine themselves and their culture and find a new respect for all forms of jazz.

In "America's Classical Music," Billy Taylor notes that jazz has served as a model for all kinds of music, noting that its "influence is international in its scope" (Taylor America's Classical Music 328). Taylor claims that jazz is a distinctively African-American form of classical music that reached across ethnic boundaries. He aptly describes it is a musical mirror that reminds us of the musicians from the past. Jazz is a distinctly African-American form of music and it is certainly America's classical music, despite the fact that many wish to ignore this fact. In his essay, "Negroes Don't Know Anything About Jazz," he also observes that while African-Americans might have been the ones who created jazz music, they know very little about it today. While jazz has its roots firmly planted in the historical slave culture, Taylor claims that jazz is "no longer the exclusive medium of expression of the Negro" ("Negroes Don't Know Anything About Jazz 203). Popular jazzmen of today like Dave Brubeck and Quincy Jones should be listened to and recognized for their achievements. These men "should be accorded the dignity their stature called for" (203). Instead, he notes that there are very few African-Americans interested enough in jazz to even write about it. He believes that African-Americans should somehow be made aware of their musical heritage. A sense of pride in African-American music should be established. He claims that jazz "has done more to break down the color line between the white and colored races, I would say, than religion" (205). He also desires to see a renewed interest in jazz and its influence.

In conclusion, the avant-garde movement in jazz is important because it represents the departure from traditional forms of jazz into a more free-flowing form that allowed musicians to express themselves in a way that they had not done before. Many jazz greats have contributed to this movement and many critics feel that it is a shame to ignore the significance of the jazz… [read more]

Music &amp Personality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,038 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Over 3500 participants covering multiple samples, geographic regions, and methods were used. Questionnaires, and opinion polls were used to formulate the final instrument; Short Test of Music Preferences (STOMP). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was also performed using the LISREL.

Studies 1-3 used from 70-1700 University of Austin undergraduate students, while 4 was an online study using participants from all over… [read more]

Music or Musical Theatre Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,248 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In fact, these two forms of music are the closet types of music that I can compare Forest Flower to -- which is interesting because jazz predates both of them.

The second song actually delivers on all of the magic and the mysticism to which the first song alludes to. It is quite revealing that the first of two songs on the second side is called sorcery. The piano work on this song, as well as on the other on this side, certainly has connotations that are suggestive of a frenzied spiritual encounter. The tempo is decidedly faster than the song on the first side, and continues at a breakneck pace for the duration of side two. Whereas there are a number of pianissimo passages on the first side -- especially during the song's finale, which first climaxes and then hangs on for a few more precious moments -- the second side is the exact opposite and provides a howling, whirling stamping of music that is unlike most modern jazz efforts.


As the second side of this album strongly implies, jazz music was developed out of a larger countercultural movement that took place in the early part of the 20th century. This fact explains the urgency of a number of the pieces on Forest Flower, which is demonstrative of this music as a whole. There were several social and political issues that were going on in the early part of the 20th century which jazz was influenced by. Its popularity increased after the Second World War during the baby boomer generation when segregation was still prevalent and racism and bigotry reigned freely over the country.

Jazz played a prominent role in the beatnik movement, and was certainly rebel music in the fact that it was the music of a younger generation which indulged in drugs, and a counterculture that was the opposite of the post war culture in which ideals of a picket fence, a dog, and 2.5 kids was everywhere in the country. This aspect of jazz is what actually made it revolutionary and dangerous during this time period and that during the Civil Right Movement (Forest Flower was recorded during the height of the latter movement, in the turbulent 60's). This energy explodes from the fingers of these live performers and almost transcends the music itself with a kind of abandonment which is joyous on the first side, and just shy of dangerous on the second.


In conclusion, an examination of several different aspects of Forest Flower reveals that despite the reputation of so-called cool jazz as boring elevator music to play for senior citizens, real jazz is anything but boring or "vapid" (Baraka 179). In fact it is dynamic, riotous, and able to go from 0 to 60 miles per hour (musically) in a matter of seconds. Its socio-political roots were part of a countercultural movement that included both the Beatnik and the Civil Rights movement attests to the vibrancy and rebelliousness of this music.… [read more]

Popular Music and Identity Sound Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,546 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In the musical example 2, one can see and understand how the Tin Pan Alley songs have influenced popular music of today.


Musical experiences cannot be easily described as they differ between two people, but two different people can both identify with a specific song in different ways. This is why popular music is easy to identify with, and it speaks to ones emotions. The writers have tried to justify their different points in regards to music and identity, but Simon Frith has a more compelling argument as he looks at how different music is able to influence people. Having an analysis of popular music has allowed him to determine that music is special because it defines a space that has no boundaries. Popular music can cross borders and be appreciated by different cultures and social groups. This allows different people to identify with the music, and have different experiences based on the music. Simon has demonstrated that sounds do not have to represent or reflect people as it had been assumed. There is a wide spectrum of difference in popular music. Popular music has the potential to allow people to easily identify with it as it is easy to understand and the beats are appealing to majority of people.


Adorno, Theodor W, and George Simpson. On Popular Music. Institute of Social Research, 1942. Print.

Frith, Simon. "Music and Identity." Questions of cultural identity (1996): 108-27. Print.

Hill, S., and B. Fenner. Media…… [read more]

Economics of Hollywood Popular Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,152 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hollywood, Pop Music and Weightlessness

Economics of Hollywood

When we think of Hollywood as a concept, as opposed to an actual place, it's one that we tend to associate with glamorous red carpet premiers, film starlets and, most importantly, giant box office blockbusters. From the Roman epics of Hollywood's Golden Age to the disaster pics of the previous generation to today's special effects extravaganzas, much press coverage, media attention and studio money is invested into the success of a few enormous releases every year.

In spite of our tendency to associate Hollywood directly with these practices, there is evidence that this is the exact approach that is destroying the artistic and economic capacity of our movie industry. According to Tony Kahn, narrator of "The Monster That Ate Hollywood

, the focus on investing prodigious sums of money in large-scale vehicles such as the Marvel superhero movies that currently dominate the theatre landscape has made it exceptionally difficult for films of more modest box office ambitions to gain access to studio money.

In addition to changes in the structure of the industry, there have been great changes to the technical way that films are made. Epstein (2005) describes the impact that technological advancement and computer animation have had on the industry, indicating that "the digital magic which allows the New Hollywood to achieve this potential may have somewhat less salutary consequences for the community that has in the past so powerfully defined Hollywood." (p. 349) This denotes that special effects and digital animation are not just subsuming content but also the role of the performer.

The result is a context in which fewer projects are made on an annual basis and, worse yet, a context where those which are routinely denied access are the more creative, unique and original scripts in circulation. The work by Kahn makes the argument that, in this context, it is extremely difficult for independent films of value to gain any kind of traction. Kahn asserts that this has, consequently, reduced the output of Hollywood to mere spectacle. Today, the institution know as Hollywood has largely been consolidated into just a few major studios, themselves all subsidiaries of larger media conglomerates with a single-minded interest in profitability and little connection to the art of cinema.

2. Popular music

Sadly, the patterns impacting the film industry are deeply intertwined with those impacting the world of popular music. Just as in Hollywood, the music industry has been largely consolidated into just a few major players. Also as in Hollywood, record labels have been devastated by economic downturn, both in a general sense and more specifically within their respective fields. Thurston Moore's insightful documentary, Money for Nothing, would reveal the beginning stages of what would become an outright collapse of the one mighty music industry.

The 2001 documentary foretells this downfall by warning of the consequences of creating a marketplace that discouraged creativity, embraced formula and trended toward a broad base of mediocrity. As the documentary indicates, the priorities of… [read more]

Music on Fine Motor Skills Effects Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,453 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Music on Fine Motor Skills


The Effects of Music on the Fine Motor Skills of Pre-School Students

This study investigated the effects of music on the fine motor skills of pre-school students. Participants included 12 students 6 boys and 6 girls from ages 3 to 5 years old. These students were… [read more]

Music Appreciation Stravinsky, the Rite of Spring Questionnaire

Questionnaire  |  5 pages (1,420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Music Appreciation

Stravinsky, the Rite of Spring

) the Rite of Spring was written and composed in year 1913. The musical period and the artistic movement that this piece of music belonged to was the modernist period. The artistic movement was a part of the 20th century music which persisted from 1900-1950.

) the purpose for the composure of this… [read more]

Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In this instance, the message is only stimulation -- there is no particular message, only from the doctor to stimulate the patient, something that will begin the recovery process.

Understanding how communication works is valuable not just for selling things, but to overcome challenges in communication all over the world. In a situation where brain damage is causing blockages for certain channels and messages, music is a means to break through, and the core message of stimulation can be received. This allows for the superior recovery that researchers have found with respect to the use of music therapy for brain injured patients.

Works Cited:

Bradt, J., Magee, W., Dileo, C., Wheeler, B. & McGilloway, E. (2010). Music therapy for acquired brain injury. Wiley. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from http://ssh.snvtest.com/wp-content/uploads/articles/06_Music_Therapy_For_Brain_Injury.pdf

Formisano, R., Vinicola, V., Penta, F., Matteis, M., Brunelli, S. & Weckel, J. (2001). Active music therapy in the rehabilitation of severe brain injured patients during coma recovery. Annals of the Instituto Superiore di Sanita. Vol. 37 (4) 627-630.

Hamilton, L., Cross, J. & Kennelly, J. (2001). The interface of music therapy and speech pathology in the rehabilitation of children with acquired brain injury. Australian Journal of Music Therapy. Vol. 12 (2001) 13-20.

Thaut, M.H., Gardiner, J.C., Holmberg, D., Horwitz, J., Kent, L., Andrews, G., Donelan, B. And McIntosh, G.R. (2009) Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1169, 406-416.

Thaut, M. & McIntosh, G. (2010). How music helps to heal the injured brain. The Dana Foundation. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=2612… [read more]

Miles Davis With a Career Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Miles Davis was "a vital part of nearly every important development of innovation and style in jazz after the Second World War," (Kirker). Because Miles Davis composed beyond the jazz genre, his influence on modern music is extensive. His influence on modern jazz is simply unquestionable; Davis is to jazz what Monet is to impressionism. Some go so far as to say Miles Davis left an impact that even extends beyond music; Zack, for example, claims that organizational culture should be "improvisational" rather than being confined to a "highly constrained structure and set of rules," (227). Davis would be hip to that.

Works Cited

Davis, Miles. Miles: The Autobiography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990.

Early, Gerald Lyn. Miles Davis and American Culture. Missouri History Museum, 2001.

Kirker, Tim. "Miles Davis." All About Jazz. Retrieved online: http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=18568#.UTfMJ3zreII

"Miles Davis and John Coltraine." Chapter 42 in?

"Miles Davis: Miles' Styles." NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/2007/07/03/10818946/miles-davis-miles-styles

Pareles, Jon. "Miles Davis, Trumpeter, Dies." The New York Times. September 29, 1991. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0525.html

Tingen, Paul. "Miles Davis and the Making of Bitches Brew." Jazz Times. May 2001. Retrieved online: http://jazztimes.com/articles/20243-miles-davis-and-the-making-of-bitches-brew-sorcerer-s-brew

Walser, Robert. "Out of Notes: Signification, Interpretation, and the Problem of Miles Davis." The Musical Quarterly. Vol. 77, No. 2. 1993, p. 343-365.

Zack, Michael H. "Jazz Improvisation and Organizing: Once More from the Top." Organization Science. Vol. 11, No. 2… [read more]

Bach and Frederick the Book Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


As mentioned earlier, Frederick uses Bach's son Carl to embarrass him. Frederick presents him with the new 15 pianofortes and demands for a 21 note theme to be made. Even though Bach is not too impressed by the new incoming technology, he takes up the challenge. Both Carl and Frederick get surprised by the creations that Bach makes. Bach's skills are tested even further when he is demanded to make a six part fugue on the theme. Even though the composer works two months on it, he managed to produce it.

Gaines states that Bach's determination came from how much he despised Frederick's admiration of the gallant ways of the new art coming in. He was angered by the constant criticism of the contrapuntal mode that Bach rooted for. It can be seen that both the characters influence each other in some way. Bach is impressed by firmness and the confidence Frederick has in his visions about the new form of music. On the other hand, Frederick is astonished and envious of Bach's determination and passion for the love of music. When Bach does manage to complete the tasks he is assigned, Fredericks gets more influenced and affected by Bach's skill and firmness to his choice…… [read more]

Evening in the Palace Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


His marriages were happy and he was absorbed in work that he loved: his music. He was gainfully employed and recognized in all his places and his short bout in jail was only inspired due to an employer's envy. Bach spent his short life absorbed in that which he loved and died content with having become one of Germany's greatest musicians and one of the greatest composers of all times. Although h did not know it, Bach became immortal.

One of the greatest influences on Bach was the ethical and quality-filled education that the received from his brother and instructors who lavished on him the greatest care. Parentless as he was, Bach did not lack love. The story goes that Christoph punished his young brother when he discovered he had copied a forbidden musical manuscript by moonlight over a period of six months, and confiscated the precious copy. Bach grew up in a parentless home but by a brother who cared for him and taught him morals. At the same time, Bach received a well-rounded education at the Gymnasium of Ohrdruf where the instructors encouraged his musical talent.

Frederick, on the other hand, received an education that would have destroyed many a lesser soul. The fact that Frederick not only survived but also flourished with the descriptor 'Great' tagged after his name tells a lot about his resilience. Not many of us are able to achieve that.

Bach achieved greatness due to years of unremitting focus and practice. Frederick's greatness came about due to his perseverance and resilience of a different kind.

Two great men who met at the end of one's life and the pinnacle of the energy of another. Their lives could not have been more different but both can inspire us in…… [read more]

Fantasia 1940 1.5 James Algar Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,490 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Therefore, he defected while on tour in Canada and received political asylum from the Canadian government. The dancer joined the American Ballet Theater for four years in 1974, popularizing traditional Russian ballets including "The Nutcracker" and "Don Quixote." He would eventually work for other companies as both a dancer and director, and has appeared in a number of feature films,… [read more]

Music Misconception Is a False Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,012 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The rap music is a genre filled with diversity of sonic expression; but the fact remains that many rappers "talk about women like they're animals," just as Big Ru does in Ferrell's story (448). As Crouch puts it, "This misogynistic and brutal turn in music is damaging the image of black American women to the point that they are approached outside of the U.S. As freelance prostitutes," (3). The misconceptions have gone so far that they are impacting the lives of individuals in real ways, which is why the media needs to take greater responsibility for its actions.

In "The Negative Influence of Gangster Rap and What Can be Done about It," author Anthony Giovacchini agrees that the media has a direct social responsibility to create positive role models with their music superstars. Musicians, artists, actors, and anyone who becomes famous has the personal responsibility to be a role model because young people are looking up to them as idols. Role models who glorify killing and "bitches" are not doing a service to themselves or to society; yet the trend in gangsta rap continues. "Lives have been lost and people have suffered, yet the gangster rap industry is still flourishing. Society has noticed the negative influence this music has had, yet we still continue to make it succeed through number of record sales," (Giovacchini). In "Go Brooklyn!" Ferrell describes the way the media has a direct influence on the creation of the gangsta mythos. Big Ru, for instance, is a "constructed bad boy" whose story "rivaled any fairy tale on the market," (446). Taking greater social responsibility and personal responsibility, musicians and the media can work together to eradicate misconceptions and create a better world.

Music has a transformative potential, and can build social bonds between disparate groups. The power of music as a unifying force should not be undermined to favor a greed-driven media model that is built on the "cliche" of the gangsta (Ferrell 446). Consumers do need to take their own responsibility for what they listen to; the blame is not with the media alone. However, many young people have yet to develop the critical listening faculties that adults should have. By taking Ferrell's approach of probing to the truth in every gangsta rapper's story and dissecting it, the media can find inspiring role models that reduce violence and promote the economic betterment of disenfranchised communities. The empowerment of blacks, women, and all previously disempowered social groups requires a group effort that the media can spearhead. Media groups control and disseminate information and cultural memes; therefore, the media has the biggest role to play in shaping positive perceptions rather than negative misconceptions.

Works Cited

Crouch, Stanley. "Taking Back the Music." Social Responsibility.

Ferrell, Monique. "Go Brooklyn!" Lead, Follow, or Move Out of the Way

Giovacchini, Anthony M. "The Negative Influence of Gangster Rap and What Can be Done about It." Ethics of Development in a Global Environment. Retrieved online: http://www.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/mediarace/negative.htm… [read more]

Aaron Copland Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,074 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Aaron Copland (1900-1990) was an American composer, teacher of composition, writer, and conductor who had an extremely varied career and became one of the most influential American composers of the 20th century. His use of texture, theme, and tonal settings are such that his works seem uniquely American, giving him the title of the "Dean of American Composers" (Pollack). Copland… [read more]

Music Producers Biographical Introduction: Teo Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,126 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


His work with the foremost pop music group of the 1960s, the Beatles, enabled Martin to fuse classical with pop elements. He composed the musical scores for several Beatles movies including Yellow Submarine. By this time, Martin had ceased working as the head of Parlophone.

In 1973, after the dissolution of the Beatles, Martin composed the musical score for the… [read more]

African-American Literature/Music on America/American Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,728 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


The most important thing is for them to know that the same principle applies when it comes to the music they enjoy today.


Some of the aims were as follows;

Students keenly listening to teachers selected artists which could enable them grasp the content.

Students being able to critically analyze and discuss various aspects of music and artists

Discussing majorly rhythms, lyrics and dynamics and weighing the intent of artists.

Students coming out with their observations by drawing comparisons and contrasting features


Engage students in writing their observation, ideas and opinions. Provision of video, so that students can observe the rhythm of the songs as well as the rhythm of intensity of the sequence of steps and movement in dance groups and intensify their delivery (George, Games, etl. 2006).Enable students observe the size of the funk bands and consider the amount of commitment, cooperation and skill required to produce the music.


1. Johnson, James Weldon, and J. Rosamond Johnson. The Second Book of Negro Spirituals. New York: The Viking Press, 2006.

2. Johnson, James Weldon, J. Rosamond Johnson, and Lawrence Brown. The Book of American Negro Spirituals. New York: Viking Press, 2005.

3. Monson, Ingrid, and Freedom Sounds: Civil Rights Call Out to Jazz and Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007

4. Radano, Ronald…… [read more]

Music &amp Politics: The Argentine Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Different cultures will adopt the tango style in a way that pays homage to the original culture, but that also incorporates aspects of the local style and local cultural in the expression of tango. The dance is melodramatic and expresses such complex and subtle emotions such as irony, nostalgia, and pessimism. The dance moves require steps that glide across floors… [read more]

Classical Music Is the Final Period Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,086 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … classical music is the final period of western classical music and it originates from the 1940s to the present. "Like modern art, modern music has focused on variety and radical experimentation. Also like modern art, modern classical music witnessed a continuation of prewar developments (Spielvogel, 942). Modern classical music was a direct reflection of the multitude of changes that were sweeping through society that forced individuals to re-evaluate their roles as individuals, men, women and consumers.

Since modern classical music debuted in the 1940s, it's worth examining this decade first and foremost to determine which societal forces were flagrant at the time and impacting the way in which music was composed (Kennedy, 199). Notably in the 1940s, America was a nation at war; these circumstances forced individuals to reevaluate their place in society and how they viewed themselves. "Conditions in wartime America challenged how many men saw themselves and forced many to ask hard questions about their manliness and status: How does society view me? How does the other sex view me? Do they view me as weaker, since I was ranked 4-F in the draft physical? Do they view me as past a man's prime, since I'm too old for the draft?... Wartime society's sudden status upheavals made certain men feel more insecure, and the new film noir genre's appeal came from its depictions of what were men's (and, as we shall see, women's) conscious and unconscious reactions to these changes" (Greenberg & Watts, 318). There's no doubt that the internal unrest that men were feeling about their masculinity, and roles as a provider and protector had an effect on the emergence of modern classical music. Just as the gender roles were shifting from their standard positions music was undergoing a shift from its standard structure and composition. This was directly reflected in serialism: "Inspired by the 12 tone music of Schonberg, serialism is a compositional procedure in which an order of succession is set for specific values: pitch, loudness and units of time. By predetermining the order of succession, the composer restricts his or her intuitive freedom as the work to some extent creates itself" (Spielvogel, 942). This to an extent reflects the impact of the changing gender roles of society; just as the war was forcing the role of men and women to be deconstructed and somewhat swapped, and the roles of men and women respectively were co-evolving with the changing times on their own, as a direct impact of the war.

A particular type of modern classical music, minimalism which was developed by the likes of Philip Glass, Terry Riley and Steve Reich in the 1960s is also a clear reflection of societal values at the time. The 1960s marked the time when people were past the period of the 1950s which was solely devoted to returning to normalcy. The 1960s were thus a period that was ready to experiment again. Television reflected this desire for normalcy with the clean, manicured lawns and neighborhoods… [read more]

Connection Between Music and Politics Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Music and Politics -- the Connections

Music has been used to promote particular political and ideological messages for many years. In the 20th century and well before, there are myriad examples of how music and politics have been intertwined, and this paper will point to several examples of music providing the message with politics the theme.

Hitler and Music in… [read more]

Richard Wagner Great Musician or Controversial Racist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,522 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Richard Wagner -- Great Musician or Controversial Racist?

Regarded one of the most controversial composers of his time, Richard Wagner has over time attracted both admiration and criticism from various quarters. Those who revere the composer regard him one of the greatest composers of all time. However, there are those who hold Wagner in low regard given the anti-Semitic as… [read more]

Music in High Schools Psychology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,221 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The next source to be presented is a simple, teacher-made website that gives 12 simple benefits of music education. These are, in the order in which they are presented, rendered below:

1. Musical training, especially during developmental years, contributes to brain development in the areas of language and reasoning. The source states, "Recent studies have clearly indicated that musical training… [read more]

Tori Amos in Music Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,109 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This is accomplished through using syncopation. The tempo remains steady with slight variations. This is appropriate given the meaning of the song. The volume of the song is considered to be soft. There are very gradual changes in the sound (using Italian terminology this is called a sonnet). The texture remains the same throughout the song with little changes occurring. The most prominent piece is in key lyrics such as fly and airplane. The mode is established in major with slight variations. This is appropriate for this piece of music. The form is following binary patterns. The mood is set as a sad to neutral think piece. The style is considered to be a ballad and is created through use of a guitar accompanied by drums.

A comparison of the two works is revealing that both are using similar strategies to influence the listener. What make them different is in how the lyrics are repeated and the setting. Other than these issues, both songs are using comparable elements to instill the full emotions and feelings.


Clearly, Tori Amos was able to redefine modern music by taking more serious subjects and incorporating them with select instrumentals. These are designed to covey feelings and emotions to the listener. In the songs Parasol and Sleeps with Butterflies, Amos is using these elements through: subtle rhythms as well as tones to covey these ideas. This is what makes both songs similar with each other. As a result, there are only slight differences in the layout and organization of the music. Other than these factors, the two works are showing the challenges that women will face when dealing with change. This is when there is transformation in the music by illustrating the specific insights of women in powerful ways.


"The Bee Keeper." Tori Amos. Last modified 2011.


"Parasol Lyrics." Song Meanings. Last modified 2012.


"Parasol." You Tube. Last modified 2010.


"Sleeps with Butterflies." AZ Lyrics. Last modified 2012.


"Sleeps with Butterflies." You Tube. Last modified 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hr0wRxVr30k

Elerwine Stephen. "Tori Amos." All Music. Last modified 2012.


Chicago Manual. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/

Elerwine Stephen, "Tori Amos," All Music, last modified 2012, http://www.allmusic.com/artist/tori-amos-p22040/biography

Elerwine Stephen, "Tori Amos," All Music, last modified 2012, http://www.allmusic.com/artist/tori-amos-p22040/biography

Elerwine Stephen, "Tori Amos," All Music, last modified 2012, http://www.allmusic.com/artist/tori-amos-p22040/biography

Elerwine Stephen, "Tori Amos," All Music, last modified 2012, http://www.allmusic.com/artist/tori-amos-p22040/biography

Elerwine Stephen, "Tori Amos," All Music, last modified 2012, http://www.allmusic.com/artist/tori-amos-p22040/biography

"The Bee Keeper," Tori Amos, last modified 2011, http://www.toriamos.com/go/galleries/view/457/1/458/albums/index.html

"Parasol Lyrics," Song Meanings, last modified 2012, http://www.songmeanings.net/songs/view/3530822107858526608/

"Parasol," You Tube, last modified 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YlS2VydgXK0

"Parasol Lyrics," Song Meanings, last modified 2012, http://www.songmeanings.net/songs/view/3530822107858526608/

"Parasol," You Tube, last modified 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YlS2VydgXK0

"Parasol," You Tube, last modified 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YlS2VydgXK0

"Parasol Lyrics," Song Meanings, last modified 2012, http://www.songmeanings.net/songs/view/3530822107858526608/

"Sleeps with Butterflies," AZ Lyrics, last modified 2012, http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/toriamos/sleepswithbutterflies.html

"Sleeps with Butterflies," You Tube, last modified 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hr0wRxVr30k

"Sleeps with Butterflies," AZ Lyrics, last modified 2012, http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/toriamos/sleepswithbutterflies.html

"Sleeps with Butterflies," You Tube, last modified 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hr0wRxVr30k… [read more]

Rhythm, Dynamics, Melody, Harmony and Texture Essay

Essay  |  19 pages (5,737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … rhythm, dynamics, melody, harmony and texture, and timbre into a composition to add interest and character. Remember to discuss what each of these elements does.

There are many elements to music, and composers of music must necessarily familiarize themselves with those elements in order to craft rich works full of interest and character. The driving force behind any… [read more]

Elementary Music School Programs Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Music programs are expensive, and so are easily judged as expendable by cash-strapped parents and school district administrators (Gestrich, 2009). Children may be expected to rent their own instruments, an option that will deny a goodly number of children from ever playing an instrument (Gestrich, 2009). If school staff manage to launch a music program in schools such as these, the program is basically boot-strapped -- which means that young aspiring musicians train their ears on inferior instruments, play in rooms without decent acoustics, and may learn to play instruments from instructors who have no experience with their particular instruments (Gestrich, 2009). A music program in a school with inadequate funding to purchase and maintain quality instruments may rely on choir, chorus, and voice programs as the staple offerings (Gestrich, 2009).

Yet a strong model for implementing a successful music program under challenging circumstances does exist (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). In La Rinconada -- the poorest and most dangerous barrio of Caracas, Venezuela -- a music enclave provides a haven for children to escape the barrio for more than half of every school day (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). The program, called El Sistema, transports children emotionally, physically, and artistically beyond their homes in the shanty towns to play classical music (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). The students enrolled in El Sistema are portrayed as both brave and lucky (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). Most are smart enough to recognize a good thing when they see it, and the nurturing that they receive in addition to learning to play music helps keep them in the program until they develop the skills to fully appreciate the gift of music (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). The power and effectiveness of El Sistema is largely its capacity to be a vehicle for social reform and increased inclusion of poor people (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). The program is so clearly making a difference that it is held up as a silver bullet to be implemented in other countries (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). In fact, a number of projects, though launched from a more modest base, are being developed around the world (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008).


The benefits of offering music programs to young children are only just being plumbed. Important individual and social changes result from including music in school curricula. In fact, music programs like El Sistema provide a new lens for exploring the potential of music programs as platforms and mechanisms to increase the social inclusion of children. This is new territory -- taking shape on top of the academic and cognitive benefits derived from listening and playing music -- that offers new possibilities derived from music for individuals and for society.


18 benefits of playing music. Effective Music Teaching [Website] Retrieved http://www.effectivemusicteaching.com/articles/directors/18-benefits-of-playing-a-musical-instrument/

Alleyne, R. (2009, October 27). Playing a musical instrument makes you brainier. The Telegraph. Retrieved http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/6447588/Playing-a-musical-instrument-makes-you-brainier.html

Edwards, A. (2010, January). An inspiring and moving film exploring Venezuela's extraordinary musical revolution. Gramophone Editor's Choice.… [read more]

Brief Primer on the Current State of the Music Recording Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Music Recording Industry:

Bruce Springsteen Scenario:

With the current state of the music recording industry being awkward and expected to continue changing at a furious speed, many artists are faced with several challenges when choosing appropriate business models for marketing and promotion of their music. For Bruce Springsteen, the various business models are renewing his contract with Columbia, signing a contract with Live Nation, and self-distributing his album like Radiohead. In choosing the most suitable business model, Springsteen should consider his age, his current state of successful tours, and desire to continue touring as long as he is able.

The option of choosing to extend his contract with Columbia would be categorized as a profit-sharing deal or manufacturing and distribution deal. As evident in his 35-year relationship with Columbia, the contract extension would mean that profits are shared between him and the company with a favorable environment for the artist's creativity. However, in the profit-sharing deal with Columbia, Springsteen will only get a minimal advance from his latest album. On the other hand, if the deal with Columbia is a manufacturing and distribution deal, the company will only have a limited incentive. While this kind of deal would make Springsteen to have absolute creative control and a great source of income, it would be a big gamble. Actually, the company may not agree to make a manufacturing and distribution deal because of the lesser incentives.

Bruce Springsteen has been largely advised to sign a 360 ten-year deal with Live Nation similar to Madonna's deal. With this kind of deal, every aspect of the Springsteen's career would be managed by the label since he will become a brand that is owned and operated by Live Nation. With a 360 deal, artists have a great chance of gaining wide saturation and sales because every aspect of their career is handled by the label (Byrne, 2008).

The ten-year 360 deal with Live Nation would basically include manufacturing, distributing, and marketing of Springsteen's album as…… [read more]

European Art Music in Terms of Westernization Movement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,940 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Westernization -- European Art Music

How did the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire Begin?

What were the initial Western influences in the arts that made inroads into the Muslim culture during the Ottoman Empire and into the Turkish Republic? What Western ideas and strategies were the first to be recognized? In this section this paper reviews the first influences that… [read more]

Music of Civil Wars, Civil Rights Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Music of Civil Wars, Civil Rights & Freedom Movements of Europe, Africa along with North and South America during the 20th Century

For millions of people, music is a way of being able to relate to different cultural traditions. As, it has served as form of: uniting, individuals from all walks of life behind various social meanings and causes. This… [read more]

Enjoyment of Music General Class Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Enjoyment of Music

What false musical beliefs have change since you have taken this course.

I never believed that music has any other value other than simple entertainment and to be used as a pass time. Hence those who extol the virtues of music- beginning from Socrates, who in detailing education was of the opinion that music is the medicine of the soul just as athletics is the cure for the body. The music and art brings about 'good' of the soul while athletics perfects the body and hence he advocated education on those lines. (Benardete, 1992)

In the modern world, we find such a faith as not credible. After a course in music I do find that there is something that uplifts, something that refines the mind and this is a personal opinion. There are many 'cures' for overweight to day, a sad reminder that the old philosopher was not very much of the mark when he said that a regimen of exercise looks after the body. Like wise there is now scope to believe that music does change the patterns of the mind, and has a soothing effect. I was to later discover that music does have a very positive effect on the human mind and character. It did alter some moods for me. I came to realize the value of music and why we like certain music over others by the arguments of Minsky (1981) who has detailed why I felt the change. There is no myth about the fact that music does influence the human personality and is not a 'fun' thing or mere time pass as I found out. This brought about a great change in the way I approach music now and the angle from which I approach it.

2. Should music and the arts in general be promoted stronger in schools?

There is already music being promoted among children by the TV and other media and albums which are drawing children. The problem is that though there is a great interest in art, there is no venue for understanding of the subtleties of the art or music. Thus, appreciating music or art and participation remains on the periphery. To create better audiences, musicians and artists there must be a method of kindling interest and the school is the best place. Education means acquiring a minimal knowledge and this can also be applied to music. As to what can be taught and promoted in schools and colleges may vary. For example popular music is universal, and so are films and other forms of art. (Walker, 2007)

It is however not possible to classify what is popular and what is perfect for the teaching - in the sense of acquiring knowledge. Since we are aware that humans have to have some basic understanding…… [read more]

Salsa Music the Late 1950 Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Salsa Music

The late 1950's is the starting point for the classification of a genre of music as salsa. The stylistic and rhythmic elements of the music have a wider history. There are elements of salsa music identified in popular Latin dance rhythms (Sommers 36). While these rhythms have given nuance to salsa music, its true beginnings lie in Afro Cuban music. Salsa music speaks to the historical experience of struggle, resistance and the desire for self-determinism possessed by Afro-Cuban slaves. Slaves chose not to adopt the cultural symbols of the slave masters and instead held on to musical forms that find modern expression through salsa.

The practice of fusing together Cuban rhythms and jazz took place in New York in the 1940's. Two of the main creators of this fusion were Cuban brothers-in-law Machito and Mario Bauza (Mauleon).The primary purpose of this music was to provide impetus for dancing. This type of experimentation with Cuban music was not limited to Cuban bands; Puerto Rican's were also engaged in the practice. Therefore, Tito Rodriguez and Tito Puente though Puerto Rican were innovators and preservers of Cuban music. There was significant cross-fertilization of the musical forms until the Cuban revolution in 1959.

With the revolution came the exodus of Cuban musicians to New York and it here that Salsa was created. Suggesting that salsa was created at this time is not to deny the influence of the Cuban son and other forms of music; rather it is an attempt to date historically a complex and diverse process that produced fantastic music (Hernandez 110). It is during the 1960's in New York that the coming together of musicians from various Spanish-speaking countries produced the musical hybrid salsa. It is also in this era that the term salsa (also a spicy dish) gained widespread usage.

Salsa is different from its Cuban ancestors because of the increased use of the trombones, the critical role of the Cuban timbales, the jazz type harmony and the integration of Puerto Rican indigenous "rhythms, instruments and stylistic elements" (Mauleon). So that salsa is not identified by one element but rather by the final product, that is the fusion of these multiple elements. The evolution of salsa music continued into the 1980's and salsa emerged as salsa romantica.

Salsa music is structured music. It has an introduction, a melodic phase, a percussion phase, (the montuno), followed by another melodic phase and the conclusion (History of Salsa). Musical exclamations proclaim a change. The percussion phase has the most rhythmic energy of all the phases. A central feature of salsa music is the rhythmic pattern known as clave. The clave is a uniquely African rhythm that finds expression across Latino groups with Afro-Caribbean heritage. In the African celebration one individual will play a constant rhythm (the clave) while the other musicians play in harmony, thus producing a polyrhythm (History of Salsa). The clave is played by hitting wooden sticks against each other. "The clave (rhythm) comes in two flavors: 2-3 and… [read more]

Humanism and 16th Century Music Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Humanism and 16th century music 'Humanism' is the term used to describe the philosophy that came to dominate Western culture in the 16th century. Humanism was a reaction to the single-minded focus on faith that characterized most of the intellectual life of the medieval era. Before, classical learning was feared and disdained as pagan: in the 16th century there was a revival of interest in Greek and Roman science, history, literature, and art. Classical and sacred allusions and metaphors were now both used freely, often interchangeably. A new faith in the ability of physical, earthly beauty to provide a glimpse of transcendence in the mortal world began to emerge in the art of this period (Kries 2009). Symmetry and classical proportions grew in importance in all areas of design, versus the asymmetry and grotesque nature of the Gothic aesthetic. Personal life, individualism and non-sacred elements of the world, as a result of this new embrace of earthly realities, took on a new level of cultural importance.

The 16th century saw a flowering of interest in classical antiquity in all of the arts. However, unlike painting and writing, no useful records of what Greek and Roman music remained to guide musicians and composers. "Knowledge of ancient Greek music was restricted to a handful of indecipherable fragments, known only to a small circle of scholars" ("The Renaissance," Free Encyclopedia, 2009). The relationship between Renaissance music and its classical models was thus "not pragmatic but aesthetic" ("The Renaissance," Free Encyclopedia, 2009). Composers drew inspiration from the myths of the ancient world, as well as from neo-classically themed art and literature of their contemporaries. The fine arts also often appropriated musical images and terminology: one popular theme was the symbolism of Orpheus' ability to temporarily transcend death with song. Musicians were featured prominently in artworks of the period by Caravaggio and Titan (Arkenberg 2002). In art, music was depicted as expressing human emotion, purely and authentically, in a way that the other arts often could not.

The rise of secular music was perhaps the most notable feature of this period. While during the immediately preceding centuries, formally composed music was primarily sacred, the new interest in personal life and 'the human' came to the forefront during this period and allowed more sophisticated composition for dances and romantic songs. Dance music experienced rapid innovations: the century "saw the development of instrumental music such as the canzona, ricercare, fantasia, variations, and contrapuntal dance-inspired compositions, for both soloists and ensembles, as a truly distinct and independent genre with its own idioms separate from vocal forms and practical dance accompaniment" (Arkenberg 2002). While folk dancing had always existed, now dance music began to be elevated to its own status as a true art form. Setting poetry to music, love songs, and folk songs all became popular at the court as well as in the streets. High and low culture began to merge. More people began to compose as well as play music.

At the beginning of the 16th… [read more]

Passing Music on From Generation to Generation in Different Societies Cultures Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,568 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Passing Music on From Generation to Generation in Different Societies

The musical traditions of a culture are a major force in that culture's expression, or in some cases, lack thereof. Music is a defining element of culture, which develops steadily as the culture which produces it changes as well. The passing down of music from generation to generation is a… [read more]

Rock and Roll Clearly Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Rock and Roll

Clearly music is as an integral part of a society's history as a widespread phenomenon of everyday interactions and occurrences. It has existed as early as humans themselves. As Bennett Reimer (2000, p.25), music educator and philosopher, noted: "Whenever and wherever humans have existed, music has existed also." Thus music that becomes popular acts as a gauge… [read more]

Relationship of Music and Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,188 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Author Asai notes, "The taiko is a cylindrical drum with two drumheads. Each drumhead has a wide rim with up to twelve holes, through which ropes (himo) are strung. D? is the term for the drum body and wa or mimi refers to the rim" (Asai, 1999, p. 120). The drums are played with drumsticks called bachi, which are often… [read more]

Authorship and Attribution in Early Music Research Thesis

Thesis  |  14 pages (3,487 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Authorship and Attribution in Early Music Research

Scholars of early music face a problem that is one of an important nature and one that endures and that is the question of who is actually the composer of music surviving today and in the form of various written manifestations from early period of music. The work of Bruce Haynes entitled: "The… [read more]

Baroque Music the Life and Works Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,159 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Baroque Music

The Life and Works of Johann Sebastian Bach

One of the most famous German Baroque composers and musicians was Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach came from a long legacy of musically inclined individuals, a family traditional which was epitomized by the life and career of Johann Sebastian Bach. Through his heritage, education, and experience with the best musical programs in Germany, Bach quickly rose to the top of German society. He made friends with royalty and brought great discipline to even the most fractured musical schools in Germany. The incredible ambiance of his original performances has continued through the generations into modern day performances, which give credence to the brilliance within every Bach composition.

Born in 1685, Johann Sebastian Bach entered into an already musically inclined family. His father, Johann Ambrosius, was under the employment of the Duke of Eisnach as a court trumpeter, (Smith, 1996). Johann Ambrosius also served as the director of musicians within their native town. Also musically inclined within the Bach family were his older brothers and uncles, who brought variety and expertise to the future composer and musician. In fact, it was his father who introduced him to the violin and harpsichord, and his older brother who directed him towards mastering the organ. Johann Sebastian Bach was forced to live with his oldest brother when both his parents died within a year's time, when he was still a child of nine years old.

Despite the tragedy, Bach's older brother proved an amazing teacher and mentor for the budding composer. After introducing him to the organ, Johan Christoph, his older brother, directed him to study composition through emulating such greats as German composers Jakob Froberger, Johann Caspar Kerll, and Pachelbel, (Smith, 1996). There is a popular anecdote which claims Johann Christoph found Sebastian Bach copying valuable compositions by the light of the moon. While excelling in other subjects such as Latin, Greek, and Theology, Sebastian Bach continued to develop his musical prowess during his years as a school boy in the Baroque period Germany. During this period he also explored his musical talent through vocals, when he joined the choir at the Michaelis monastery at Luneberg. Here at Luneberg, Bach excelled within the prestigious choir through his beautiful Soprano voice. After several years, Bach traveled back to his native home in Thuringia to work as an organist. Throughout the next several years, he perfected his skills on the organ, employed by several high ranking German Dukes.

Bach really entered into his prime during the years of his early adulthood. After marrying his first cousin Maria Barbara, who was also heavily involved in the Bach musical tradition, Bach returned to his previous position under the Duke of Weimar in 1708. Though he came from a well-known musical family, he really captured public attention in a public performance in Dresden in 1713, where he performed solo in organ competition, (Smith, 1996). His main competitor, Louis Marchand, fled back to his native France on the day of the… [read more]

Music and Psychology Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (4,314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Music and Psychology

The power and importance of music from a psychological and philosophical standpoint has been discussed and explored in many studies and theses. The saying that music has the power to "calm the savage beast" refers to the commonly accepted notion that music can influence the mind and consciousness and has healing and recuperative powers. This has led… [read more]

Classical Music the Performance I Am Reporting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (841 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Classical Music

The performance I am reporting on took place in December, 1991. It was a professional performance of Mozart's Requiem Mass in D Minor. The mass was performed by the English Baroque Soloists and the Monteverdi Choir. There were four vocal soloists - two male and two female. The female soloists were Barbara Bonney (solo) and Anne Sofie van Otter (mezzo solo). The male soloists were Anthony Rolfe Johnson (tenor) and Alastair Miles (bass). There was also a trombone solo, and this was performed by Susan Addison.

The instruments featured in the ensemble included bassoons, violins, cello, viola, basset horns, trumpets, trombones, timpani and double bass. The Monteverdi Choir comprises both male and female vocalists, around twenty individuals in total.

The performance was held at the Palau de la Musica Catalana, in Barcelona, Spain. This particular viewing of the performance was from a BBC telecast, therefore the cost was free. The performance was around 45 minutes in length.

The Palau exudes an ambiance of opulence, well-suited to such a rich work. The facility is ornate, featuring many statues and exquisite glasswork on the ceiling. The setting is formal, but the spaciousness of the room allows it to retain a degree of warmth that suits the music well.

Acoustically, the room is strong, albeit imperfect. The spaciousness allows for the power of the work to reveal itself. The basic room design allows the sound to flow to the listeners, while some of the soft angles and statues deflect the sound. It appears that certain sections of the audience are situated in relatively enclosed spaces with a lower ceiling that will absorb some of the sound waves. This is less than ideal, since the reverberations are part of what lends the work its majesty and power. Some of the strongest parts of the piece involve an enormous amount of vocal texture and in these areas the effectiveness of such texture may be diminished.

The requiem contains 8 movements. They are, in order: Introit, Kyrie, a Sequence, Offertory, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agnus Dei and Lux Aeterna. The Sequence is comprised of the following subsections: Dies Irae, Tuba Mirum, Rex Tremendae, Recordare, Confutatis, and Lacrimosa. The Offertory is comprised of two subsections: Domine Jesu Christe and Hostias.

The part I enjoyed most was Dies Irae. This section in particular I found a very powerful and energetic section. The pace and texture were both exceptional here, and carried a tremendous amount of majesty to the piece. Hostias was another section I particularly enjoyed. While I…… [read more]

Benny Goodman's Style of Music Term Paper

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Benny Goodman's Style Of Music

Benny Goodman's Disciplined and Multi-Faceted Musical Style

Benny Goodman is one of the biggest names in not only jazz, but also American popular music as well. Born in 1909, he is most known for his work as a composer and jazz clarinetist; however, he was also an excellent saxophone master and classical musician as well.… [read more]

Compare and Contrast American Music and Asian Term Paper

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American and Asian Music

As an Asian student taking a "History of American music" class, I have been learning many new things about American music. This is not a type of music that I usually listen to. I usually listen to Pop music from my own country, China. Specifically, I enjoy listening to the Chinese pop ballad, or K-pop. While… [read more]

Music and Movement Early Childhood Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,732 words)
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Music Education

Over the past decade, researchers have paid increasing amount of interest to the impact of music on child development. For example, in 1993 Alfred a. Tomatis coined the term "The Mozart effect" for the alleged increase in brain development that takes place in children under the age of three when listening to music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart based… [read more]

Music Therapy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,543 words)
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Music Therapy

It has long been said that "music soothes the soul." Since humans first walked on the earth, they have used music as a way of gaining inner peace, solitude and pleasure. With voice alone or musical instruments, with friends and family and small groups and large, music has been an important part of human societies throughout the world.… [read more]

Dante's Divine Comedy and Mehta's River Sutra Term Paper

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Music: A Connection to the Divine

The written word can be thought of as the language that we use to describe our physical world, that which we see with our eyes and touch with our hands. However, music is the language for that which cannot be physically experienced. We use our ears to hear the notes and sounds, but music… [read more]

Benefits of Music and Therapeutic Influence on Alzheimer Patients Term Paper

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¶ … Music and therapeutic influence on Alzheimer Patients

Types of therapies used through using music for Alzheimer Patients?

Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder mostly attributed to the lesions that slowly and gradually destroy cells in the brain. With the death of nerve cells the influenced areas of the brain shrivel and gradually become smaller. The fields of brain… [read more]

Music the Evolution Musical Notation -- Classical Essay

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The Evolution Musical Notation -- Classical vs. Jazz Styles

Musical notation is one way that musical compositions can be passed from one generation of performers to the next generation of performers. Without any written musical notation at all, music would have to be learned by ear. This would mean that it would be impossible for someone from a different tradition or historical time to learn a musical composition, without hearing the song from someone to whom the music had 'passed down to,' through teaching. Musical notation makes musical training both more diverse as well as more practical.

Classical musical notation developed as written, precise and formalized style of notation. The composer gives instructions to the performers as to how the piece should sound and unfold. In contrast, the less precise and more skeletal framework of jazz notation reflects this musical tradition's improvisational style and origins. Rather than give directions to the musicians in a strict and formalized fashion, jazz notation acknowledges the fact that during a performance, the musicians may communicate with one another in a way that requires certain spontaneous derivations from the musical score to make the music come 'alive.' Derivations from the musical line are allowed, so long as the performers remain connected and still render the music as a coherent whole. Jazz musicians may know where they begin and end, but the journey to that end is often an open question.

Strictly adhered to, classical musical notation has certain obvious advantages. It enables the players to have a very directed plan of musical attack, which theoretically enables the musicians to always play according to the same melody and in the same harmony with greater ease than improvisation. Under the direction of a conductor, classical musicians are further directed how to render the various softness or loudness of the composition -- unity and smoothness is facilitated through this method. The usefulness of this unity of purpose was understood relatively quickly in the development of music. Although jazz notation's more improvisational style might seem to be closer to the 'natural' way that music is learned and played, musical notation has existed since ancient times. Today, standard notation includes a staff with notes, as well as information about pitch, rhythm, and other crucial aspects to render a performance with as much exactitude to the composer's original vision as possible. ("Musical notation," Wikipedia, 2006)

Jazz originated as a popular music form, a derivation of 'the blues,' and even farther back to the spontaneous "call and response" of the slave songs and their use of "improvisation as an essential part of the creative process; extensive use of slurs, moans, cries, and bends in both the vocal and instrumental performance." (Marsalis, 2001) Jazz was passed along, like music's oldest forms, in an aural tradition, as musicians learned by ear from other musicians, and developed their own jazz style. Gradually, however, there became a need to transcribe at least some of the jazz rhythms and notes down, but in a way that… [read more]

Music Education or Cross Platform Development Term Paper

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Music Education or Cross Platform Development

Pitch is commonly mistaken for being a term which is analogous to frequency; however, pitch is actually based on perception. Pitch is the human perception of the frequency of a musical note. (Heresiarch 2005) While pitch is related to the frequency, or physical rate of vibration in a sound wave, it is distinctly different.… [read more]

Music Violence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In response, they decided " to clamp down on the ringleaders of the Swing movement, recommending a few years in a concentration camp with beatings and forced labor. The crackdown soon followed: clubs were raided and participants were hauled off to camps." (Magnus) Meanwhile, music was responsible for another kind of violence in Germany. A significant factor in the anti-Jew propaganda of the time included state-sponsored music which taught the public to be violent and hateful towards minority groups. Swing music was called violent and immoral, and therefore it caused violent consequences for those who listened to it, but at the same time music was used to instill violence in other ways. This represents the horrible ambiguity of the music violence discussion. Is it more violent to listen to music that makes one move violently in the form of dancing? Or is it more violent to listen to music that teaches violence towards others? It is very much the same debate that rages on today. Music that is considered "violent" by many groups often expresses sentiments such as wanting to die, or considering killing someone. However, compare that to Christian songs which speak of God bringing fiery judgment down upon sinners.

The music violence debate is a way for people to displace their own guilt about human nature. Violence is bound to occur in any society. Music is an expression of human existence. Native cultures have spoken of violence in the form of musical expression, as well as telling stories about music being the cause of violence. From the beginning of civilized culture, this has been true as well, from the violent mythologies told in the form of song, to the mythologies which warned about the violent potential of music. In wartime music has been used on the battlefield and to portray the violence of the battle in performances of battle songs. Classical music and opera have always had gruesome and violent subject matter, and performances of such music has caused riots many associate today only with Rock n Roll incidents.


Antandrus, et al. "The Rite of Spring." Wikipedia. 26 November 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rite_of_Spring

The Kentish Guards. "History of Fife and Drum." The Regimental Drum Major Association http://www.drummajor.net/Fife/History%20of%20Fife%20and%20Drum/

Hardy, Michael. "Sirens." Wikipedia. 14 November 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sirens

Magnus, Johan. "The Swing Movement in Nazi Germany." Wikipedia. 17 October 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Swing_Movement_in_Nazi_Germany

Sumida, John. "Representation of War in Western Music." Reader's Companion to Music History. Houghton Mifflin College Division. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/mil/html/mh_043500_representat3.htm… [read more]

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