"Music / Musicians / Instruments" Essays

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Prologue to a Modern Frame Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (628 words)
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Frame Story

Zarina Philips, Shane Matthews, and Katerina Esperanza are waiting for the a-line on the morning of February 9. Were it not for their coincidental schedules this day, their lives couldn't be on more different trajectories. Gus Tiller narrates our story about disparate lives that intersect in both space and time. When the public service announcement blares, "Red alert: the New York City police have declared an emergency. All passengers must now leave the station," Zarina, Shane, Katerina, and Gus are about to go on an unexpected ride together.

Philips, a bitter yet passionate doctor, makes her way to the free medical clinic with the firm belief that she changing the world. She gazes stoically ahead and averts eye contact even as her fellow subway passengers from the turn style unfurled. Everything seems to irk Zarina: the billboard ads for hamburgers and instant soup spark fierce criticism of the American diet. She thinks everyone would love tofu if they'd only just try it. A poster for eye makeup angers her more. When she spies Katerina Esperanza leaning against the tiled wall, Zarina hates her to the core. Although by no means unattractive, Zarina downplays her physicality by dressing rather dowdy. The result is a persona that many have referred to as cloudy. At the same time, Zarina shines when she works, transforming her misanthropic tendencies into healing the poor. She clearly follows her calling and, though her social skills may need polishing her professionalism couldn't improve any more.

Unlike Zarina, Shane Philips entertains himself by actively engaging with those around him wherever he goes. As a busker and professional musician, Shane hoists his guitar case on his shoulder and wipes his nose. He then lights up a cigarette and manages one puff. He exudes kindness even though his tattooed exterior appears rough. When the security guard tells him that smoking is banned from…… [read more]

Earthly Meditation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,265 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Robert Wrigley


There's a mountain and a hundred miles between me and the jazz station, but sometimes

I can live with the static, a kind of extra-tempo air-drum percussion, the dead singer's voice tanged by smokes and too much gin. Some days, all I want is no news, none of the time.

On the other hand, this afternoon it wasn't music pulled me up, but what the field guide calls the black-chinned hummingbird's "thin, excited chippering."

It had got itself trapped in the garage, and though the big door was open, it stayed in the window through which it could clearly see a world.

By the time I heard it, it was so exhausted it let itself be cupped in my slow man's hands, and emitted, as I closed it in, a single chip then silence.

At the edge of the woods I knelt and opened my hands.

Not even thumb-thick, its body pulsed with breath, its wings spread across my palm, its eyelash legs sprawled left and right, indecorously. I stroked it as lightly as I could, as I might not my lover's breast but the down made seemingly of air thereon, and twice.

Then it flew, a slow lilt into the distance. For a while, even peace seemed possible, in the background

Billie Holiday singing "Strange Fruit."

These days, whenever one turns on the radio or flips open a newspaper, it is more bad news. It almost as if the media relishes the killings, violence, rapes and murders. It is what sells. It is what tantalizes. Look at the movies today -- one more bloody like "Saw3" "Crank" and "Primeval" than the other. The TV shows, who knows where the reality stops and the drama starts, or the other way around? The news -- children being abducted, fires, shootings here and abroad. Is this indicative of present times? Or, is it sensationalism? Is it possible to escape from the barrage of negativity and find enjoyment in the simple and pleasure-filled? Despite the name of Wrigley's latest book Earthly Meditation, this is questionable. Even the man in the poem "News," who lives a distance from the nearest populated area, is not able to leave violence behind.

In an interview about his work, specifically Earthly Meditations, Robert Wrigley stated about writing his poems:

writer steeps himself or herself in the craft of the art, keeps extending the range of his/her abilities, keeps trying to write what he/she can't write, what he/she would rather not write, what he/she finds too difficult or frustrating to write. In so doing, the writer prepares him/herself, develops the writing muscle, learns the whole array of tools, and thus, when the process is underway and that metaphorical door opens, the writer walks in and makes new and unforeseen things happen.

When reading "News" silently or out loud these "unforeseen" things are what make the poem so special. The words just flow outward like music. One of the most interesting things about this poem is that… [read more]

Beethoven Romanticism Developed as a Reaction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Romanticism developed as a reaction to the Age of Enlightenment and the rationalism and realism preponderance that dominated that period. In this sense, idealism and imagination, the greater impact of feelings and soul manifestations made their way as the preponderant factor in expressing one's inner emotions. Additionally, the ideas and important characters of the French Revolution made their way in the romantic artistic expressions. Further more, in music, things such as the presence of folk music to reflect the national beliefs of composers characterize the romantic music.

If we refer to Beethoven, first of all, we see in many of his creations the attempt to delimitate a truly ideal hero. His Eroica Symphony is perhaps the best example in this direction, as it was initially created to reflect the glorious figure of General Bonaparte. However, the fact that he chose to crown himself as Emperor of France in a…… [read more]

Story Analysis on Two Kinds by Amy Tan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,056 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … character and theme. "Two Kinds" is a story of immigration to America and all the opportunities that are available to immigrants in this country. The narrator is the protagonist of Tan's novel "The Joy Luck Club," but it could be Tan herself telling the story. She tells the story in the first person, which makes it seem more real to the reader. The character changes throughout the story, which makes her a round character, and the theme of the story is the disagreements between mothers and daughters that can last a lifetime.

This is an interesting story about trying to please your parents and growing up. The character is a very round, dynamic character who shares her thoughts and feelings throughout the story. As a young girl, her mother wants her to do something remarkable, and at first, the little girl does everything she can to please her mother, but she does not succeed. The reader can feel her pain and sorrow when she does not please her mother. She remembers, "And after seeing my mother's disappointed face once again, something inside of me began to die" (Tan 348). Everyone who has tried to please his or her parents and failed can understand just how she felt at that moment. There is nothing worse than disappointing the people you are closest to, and that is why she is sad and guilty at the same time. Her mother wants the best for her, but she is too young to see that, and she begins to resent her mother and her mother's desire for her to be something special.

This character is a round, full character because this experience changes her, and shows her how powerful and strong she can be. She thinks to herself, "I won't let her change me, I promised myself. I won't be what I'm not" (Tan 348). She learns something from this experience and changes, and that helps make her a more complex, believable character. She learns that she has power over her mother, and that she can even hurt her. She learns how to be lazy and still seem to be learning something. In short, she shortchanges herself and does not push herself to be better. Instead, she is determined to go against her mother's wishes, even if it harms her instead. She says, "But I was so determined not to try, not to be anybody different that I learned to play only the most ear-splitting preludes, the most discordant hymns" (Tan 350). She is like many young people; she rebels against her parents and their beliefs and wants to be nothing like them. It takes her years to discover that the only one she really hurt was herself, because she cut herself off from her mother and her mother's feelings. She was selfish and never talked with her mother about it. She also hurt herself because she did not try to achieve things, or be the best. That is the only way people… [read more]

Auditory Stimuli Experiences and Comfort Levels With Dichotic Listening the Cocktail Party Phenomenon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (690 words)
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Auditory Stimulus

Discuss your threshold for auditory stimuli experiences and comfort levels with dichotic listening, or the "cocktail party" phenomenon. Discuss how dividing attention facilitates or impedes your learning. Identify and articulate what you see as the sensory perception problem involved, make recommendations.

I have always prided myself on being a good listener. During a cocktail party, rather than attempting to filter out a great many conversations, you would be apt to find me in the corner, listening intently to one person. I feel justified calling myself a good listener because people have complimented me on this attribute in the past. I am told that when I am in conversation with someone, that person feels as if he or she is the focus of the whole world. Without even necessarily trying, I am always attentive to the thoughts and concerns of others. Because I show a real interest in communicating one-on-one, I have learned to be able to understand what a person is feeling from their tone of voice as much as their word choice. I find that because I am able to listen attentively to people when they speak to me, I can remember the key points of what they have been talking about, points that are forgotten by other listeners in the room. Temperamentally, I would usually prefer to listen rather than to talk, and although this might be seen as an auditory weakness, I think that my introverted yet mindful listening style has its strengths.

However, because individuals think I am a good listener does not mean I am a perfect listener. Because I like to focus on one aspect of a room at a time, I often find it difficult to keep my ear out for other auditory stimulus. For example, I will find myself engaged in an intense conversation at a party, and my other, outraged friend will approach me: "I've been calling your name for a good five minutes! Why did you abandon me?" I often filter out what is not my primary focus, which may simply be a…… [read more]

Media Richness Where Ordinary Word Documents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (331 words)
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¶ … media richness where ordinary Word documents can't. While word processing programs permit some embedded graphics, charts, and tables and the use of hyperlinks, PowerPoint adds the potential of including audio and video clips into a presentation. Moreover, PowerPoint is designed as presentation software: its format uses slides that lend themselves well to overhead projectors and large-screen monitors for use in group settings.

In nearly any field, PowerPoint can enhance a group lecture or discussion. For example, historians can include photographs of key figures, places, and events as well as images of primary source documents in their group presentations. Historians can also use PowerPoint to include audio files: for instance, a clip from a president's speech or a civil rights leader's public address.

At a group convention, a historian could rely on PowerPoint to convey theories and ideas. Opening slides would provide the audience with an outline or overview. Bulleted lists would enable students to take easy notes. The body of the presentation would…… [read more]

Sam Cooke Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,018 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Cooke's "Only Sixteen" is a timeless song with a strong message for both the youth who listen to it as well as an older audience. Though this song only reached #28 on the U.S. pop singles charts, it still deserves to be listed among the great songs like Carl Perkins' "Blue Suede Shoes." Fats Domino's "Ain't That a Shame," Johnny Cash's "I Walk the Line," and the others in the list of hits.

One thing this song has in common with the other songs on this list is that it sings of the trouble that can happen in love. They almost all sing of love, but not in the usual "bubblegum" way that simply informs the audience that love is there. Instead they speak of the reality that love can be difficult, and sometimes painful. Perry Como's "Catch a Falling Star" says "For when your troubles startn' multiplyin' / An' they just might!" But it reminds you to keep a little speck of light in your life. This light will help you get over your troubles, and it might even help you find love. Robert Johnson's "Love in Vain," Howlin' Wolf's "How Many Years," and Fats Domino's "Ain't That a Shame" all speak of the end of a love affair or the things that can go wrong within one. Johnny Cash's "I Walk the Line" shows us that it's far too easy to make a mess of a relationship, and so a fine line must be walked if you wish to remain with the one you love. Muddy Waters' "Hoochie Coochie Man" and Big Mama Thornton's "Hound Dog" both illustrate that there are some people that are best simply avoided when it comes to love. Of course The Soul Stirrers' "Touch the Hem of His Garment" was about a different kind of love completely, but considering Sam Cooke was the front man for this band as well, it just serves to prove that Sam Cooke would be at home on this list.

Another thing that these songs have in common is the fact that the majority of them are lyrically driven with deceptively simple arrangements. The time period of many of these pieces, however, serves as a background to understand that much of the music in these pieces are extremely innovative even if they aren't necessary meant to be the focal point of the piece. In "Only Sixteen" it seems only logical to have Cooke's bright, flawless voice as the focal point of the song. This isn't to say that the arrangements are not noteworthy. Clearly the music is quite innovative for its time.

Of course it isn't simply the subject matter and lyrical drive that places these songs together. The crossover appeal of most of these songs cannot be denied. Carl Perkins' "Blue Suede Shoes" is often considered one of the very first recorded Rock and Roll songs. The song incorporates elements from several different genres including country and blues, and it topped the country, R&B and… [read more]

Elements of the Song We Didn't Start the Fire Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hemingway, Eichmann, Stranger in a Strange Land, Dylan, Berlin, Bay of Pigs Invasion are some words to the song "We didn't Start the Fire" by Billy Joel talking about the 20th Century, particularly the year 1961.

The entire song mentions events that are important to our history and have laid the steps towards what we live as our present. "History… [read more]

Watch Any Tweenager, Teenager Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Although a very imaginative tape, with fantastic set, creative camera use, costumes and special effects, particularly with the size transformations between Alice and the Mad Hatter, it is "nevertheless chilling in its treatment of Alice and her body." The Mad Hatter has apparently turned into a sadist, with no humor. He cruelly rejects Alice, playing around with her by changing size and then sadistically taunting her. He brings food and then steals it; sits her down and then knocks her down; and all about drowns her. Finally, he cuts up her body that is transformed magically into a birthday cake and eats it. " ... this video simply refuses to speak from any clear position. How are we to view eating of Alice's body? It may seem 'sadistic', but the rest of the filmic world does not support such a reading." The reader is left perplexed with how to read the images.

In opposition to Kaplan, postmodernist supporters as Frith claim that beliefs like those by Kaplan and Wollen aid rock's movement toward what Grossberg calls postmodernist "authentic inauthenticity" (224). Frith argues, ignore the resilience of romantic and realist discourses in pop culture -- that is, sensibilities that value self-expression, authenticity, historicity, community of fandom, and commitment to an oppositional stance (225). According to Goodwin, the fundamental problem of the postmodernist taking on music television is that it fails to take into account that music television is, quite simply, music television.

In 1987, Kaplan ended her book by saying, "People often ask if I think that rock video and MTV are merely temporary phenomena which will be quickly exhausted." She responded that rock video is here to stay, but perhaps, although unlikely, MTV may be taken over by the competition. Teenagers would have to want something different from their music video channels and TV producers would have to change audience tastes. Apparently, neither of these things have occurred.

References Cited

Frith, Simon. Performing Rites: On the Value of Popular Music. Cambridge, MA:

Harvard UP, 1996.

Goodwin, Andrew. Dancing in the Distraction Factory: Music Television and Popular Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Grossberg, Lawrence. We Gotta Get Out of This Place. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Kaplan, E. Ann. Rocking Around the Clock: Music Television, Postmodernism, & Consumer Culture. Methuen, London; 1987.

Kaplan, E. "Madonna Politics: Perversion, Repression, or Subversion? Or Masks and/as Master-y," in The Madonna Connection: Representational Politics, Subcultural Identities, and Cultural Theory, ed. C. Schwichtenberg (Oxford: Westview Press, 1993), p. 150.

Van Dorston, A.S. "Postmodernist Music: The Culture of 'Cool' Vs. Commodity: Shop as Usual . . . And Avoid Panic Buying." Unpublished,…… [read more]

Song You're Still the One by Singer Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,016 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … song You're Still the One by singer Shania Twain. Specifically it will analyze and explicate the song line by line, to understand the artist's intent in the song. You're Still the One is a song about love. Many artists sing love songs, they are so common that sometimes it is easy to ignore them or dismiss them. However, Twain's song is a story about sustained love, not the flush of first love, and so, it is more meaningful and more interesting to listen to and dissect. Twain's music is mostly self-written, and she writes about real life issues, from abuse to love and commitment. Love has many stages, and this song represents the continued commitment in Twain's own relationship with her husband, as well as the joy of a committed and caring relationship.


When I first saw you, I saw love.

And the first time you touched me, I felt love.

And after all this time, you're still the one I love.)

Looks like we made it

Shows shock and happiness the relationship has lasted.

Look how far we've come my baby 2

The couple has been through a lot during a long period of time

We mighta took the long way 3

The road was long and difficult

We knew we'd get there someday 4

They had their eyes on a specific goal


They said, "I bet they'll never make it" 5

Others were against them.

But just look at us holding on 6

They hold on to their life together

We're still together still going strong 7

But they are stuck together and committed


You're still the one)

They are still in love

You're still the one I run to 8

The husband is her rock during hard times

The one that I belong to 9

She is "his"

You're still the one I want for life 10

She's still happy she married him

You're still the one) 11

He's the right man

You're still the one that I love 12

She's still in love with him

The only one I dream of 13

She only thinks and dreams of him

You're still the one I kiss good night 14

He's always there for her

Ain't nothin' better 15

She is happy with their life and relationship

We beat the odds together 16

The odds were against them I'm glad we didn't listen 17

People said they were not right for each other

Look at what we would be missin' 18

They would not be happy without each other.

Each line of this song builds on the one before it to create a complete picture of the couple's relationship and their commitment to each other. Twain tells a very interesting story with this song, with a beginning, middle, and end. Many love songs talk about falling in love and the excitement and flush of first romance. Not as many talk about staying in love, and what it takes to "win" in love, but… [read more]

Popular Culture That Is Prevalent Globally Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … popular culture that is prevalent globally. I'll also shed some light upon the role that media both electronic and print has played in spreading this culture and thus converting the popular culture into a global culture that has more or less established it's roots in countries all over the world ranging from those in America to those in… [read more]

Hip Hop Culture and Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Hip Hop Culture and Politics

The new generation today are more inclined to music, where most of the time it shows their personality through he way they choose what kind of music to listen. Some teenagers like hip hop because it doesn't need a good voice to follow the trend of music but all you have to do is to have the guts and follow the beat of music. In line with the new generation, an organization was formed called Hip-Hop, their mission as stated on the online source, http://www.hsan.org/content/main.aspx?pageid=7:

Founded in 2001, the Hip-Hop Summit Action Network (HSAN) is dedicated to harnessing the cultural relevance of Hip-Hop music to serve as a catalyst for education advocacy and other societal concerns fundamental to the well-being of at-risk youth throughout the United States. HSAN is a non-profit, non-partisan national coalition of Hip-Hop artists, entertainment industry leaders, education advocates, civil rights proponents, and youth leaders united in the belief that Hip-Hop is an enormously influential agent for social change which must be responsibly and proactively utilized to fight the war on poverty and injustice.

This organization is in line with George Rose book because they have the same views and concepts when it comes to voicing out the opinions of the youth. It is not just music that they were trying to convey message but also through their outfit. They wear outfit that they think it will be express what they feel. During the 1970's, George found out that the way youth expresses their feelings are through writing on the walls, watching concerts with audience participation and wearing outfits that reveal their emotion. The HSAN is almost the same with George except that in this generation where everything is completely different from the past, with the coming of the fastest technology and everybody is online, where you can chat anywhere in the world, there will be no more writings on the wall but instead you can write anything and everything online and people can see and access what you have written.

The organization tried to recruit people from all walks of life but most of its members are artist, youth leaders, from entertainment industry and from any political organization. The political organization can fit them because politically the youth…… [read more]

Sonata-Allegro Form Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (352 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The development will include instances of transposition, transformation, and other ways of shifting the overall feel of the piece before it enters the final phases.

The sonata-allegro form concludes with a recapitulation, which is a reiteration of the exposition. However, whereas the exposition changes keys as well as theme, the recapitulation usually remains in the one main key even when it explores secondary themes. The transition and codetta are presented in the piece's primary key. A coda might follow the exposition.

The sonata-allegro form is still being used in the composition of classical pieces. The form is considered dramatic and rewarding because it is both structured and flexible. As the opening sequence to a multi-movement classical piece, the sonata-allegro form serves as a lively and informative introduction to a concerto or symphony.

Works Cited

'Sonata Form." Wikipedia. Retrieved 15 Sept 2005 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonata_form

'Sonata-Allegro Form." Virtual Music Classroom. Retrieved 15 September 2005 from http://www.musickit.com/resources/son-allegro.html… [read more]

60s Counter Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Counter Culture

The 1960's refers to the years between 1960 and 1969, however over the last two decades, the term, the Sixties, has come to refer to the complex of inter-related cultural and political events that occurred in roughly that period, particularly in the United States (1960's pp).

But these events occurred in other Western countries as well,… [read more]

Beatles on December 27, 1963 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,480 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


And in the 1970's, after the group's break-up, records with just four Beatles songs appeared in the U.S.S.R., but were credited simply to a vocal-instrumental group (Safonov pp). The Soviet authorities committed so many sins against their people that these musical misunderstandings seem to be childish prattle, but, write Safonov, "it was these misunderstandings that sometimes hurt the most, forcing… [read more]

Street Dance and Hip Hop Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,442 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Street Dance and Hip Hop

Hip hop can be termed as one of the most influential cultural movements of the early 1970's and thereafter. The elements that conjure this genre of music and dance might include the hip hop style, hip hop slang and beat boxing. Rap, the oration of lyrics in rhythm with a beat, and DJ are inseparable… [read more]

Master and Commander O'Brian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Master and Commander

O'Brian, Patrick. Master and Commander. Aubrey Maturin Series W.W. Norton & Company: Reprint edition 1990.

The first section of Patrick O'Brian's novel Master and Commander details the meeting between the surgeon Jack Maturin and Captain Jack Aubrey. The two meet when the surgeon accidentally bumps into the captain during a chamber-music recital "The music-room in the Governor's House at Port Mahon, a tall, handsome, pillared octagon, was filled with the triumphant first movement of Locatelli's C major quartet." (3) Thus, this novel of the high seas is immediately set as a series of contrasts, between the wealth and opulence of the life of the governor, and the common wants of ordinary sailors. Despite the beauty of the music, Maturin still desires to find a way to escape the confines of the effete chambers and seek to prove his manhood and his skills as a doctor of the real wounds of real men, under the observing and watchful eye of the Captain.

In the book's first chapter where the recital is held, the house is constructed as a kind of tall fortress, pillared from the world like a ship with high sails, only rather than the rough chanteys of sailors, classical music filters through the rooms, creating a sense of triumph and jubilation in Her Majesty's subjects that is actually removed from the real sacrifices captains like Aubrey must make of limbs and life over the course of the Napoleonic wars.

Part II (53-109)

The second major section of the text begins in a similar domestic scene, only aboard rather than in a fortressed…… [read more]

Roots of Rebellion Grow Out Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Further more, looking at the homogenous characteristic as applied for that specific period, the authorities expected everybody to apply the rules and, thus, to wear the hair the certain measure determined, listen to no other music than that which was accepted, etc.

The result was the 60s cultural revolution that included everything from rock bands, the birth of heavy metal (Deep Purple and Black Sabbath at the beginning of the 70s), long hair, the hippy trend and the sexual revolution. The revolt was caused, besides other things, by the homogenous cultural conformity in which the youths were living and which they happened to reject.

Going back to the first characteristic we have defined, the set of ground rules, the fact that someone imposes a set of rules which are not mandatory for the correct functioning of the mechanism. A set of rules, usually subjectively determined, is what usually causes a revolt/rebellion in the first place. It is the psychological revolt against anything imposed onto somebody.

Referring again to the example previously presented, the set of rules that the authority was trying to implement and impose, a set of rules covering vast aspects of everyday life, cramped the youths' capacity to think for themselves and create their own set of rules (or rather non-rules). The 60s cultural revolution was, among others, a revolt against what had been decided without any consultation and against the implications of authorities (parents, government) into their everyday life. Of course, it also had a political component, as a rejection of the war in Vietnam, but from a cultural perspective, it was a fight against people telling them what to do.

Finally, the rebellion against 'conformity' comes as a natural continuation of those previously discussed. Because the imposed set of rules aiming to homogenize behaviors and manifestations within society is also conform, meaning that certain people have decided what is and what isn't conform with their own values no doubt, gives way to rebellious actions and protests. For the youths creating the cultural revolution in the 60s, the conformity which authority wanted to apply was not the conformity they wanted to adopt.

As such, resuming, the main reasons why a conforming culture may have roots of rebellion growing out are the homogenous nature it is trying to impose on society, the set of ground rules it is unilaterally creating and the conformity, as a direct continuation of the previous two.


1. Hordnes, Lisa. Does Film Noir mirror the culture of contemporary America?2/10 Historical main currents. Last update March 2003. On the Internet at http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/noir/noir02.htm

Hordnes, Lisa. Does Film Noir mirror the culture of contemporary America?2/10 Historical main currents. Last update March 2003. On the Internet at http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/noir/noir02.htm… [read more]

Digital Video Production Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,470 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Anna & Jim (Script)

Anna and Jim (Treatment)

Jim, an African-American, and Anna, a white woman, meet at a cozy jazz nightclub. And are immediately attracted to each other. Jim is a solid and calm; Anna is intelligent and sincere. Two years later, Anna and Jim celebrate the anniversary of their meeting at the same nightclub. She refuses food because… [read more]

Baldwin and Camus How Much Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
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Baldwin and Camus

How much control, if any, does a person have over his/her destiny? Does fate already hold the answers, or is someone faced with decisions that will result in other choices? What happens when one has to make a decision? Is it necessary to follow through, or can it be ignored? These are some of the questions that are faced by the characters in the stories "Sonny's Blues" by James Baldwin and "The Guest" by Albert Camus.

The narrator of "Sonny's Blues" is the older brother, by seven years, of Sonny, who is a heroin addict and serving prison time for being at a drug raid. The narrator, a teacher and husband/father of a wife and two sons has always tried to watch over Sonny: It is their mother's last request to him when dying.

Oh, honey,' she said. 'There's a lot you don't know. But you are going to find out....'You got to hold onto your brother,' she said, 'and don't let him fall, no matter how evil you gets with him.'

At first, he blames himself for Sonny's addiction and arrest. As the story progresses, however, he flashes back to earlier situations that better explain how Sonny reached his present position.

The narrator recalls how Sonny's girlfriend's middle-class family does not understand his passion for music. As a result, Sonny runs away, joins the service and then lives a Bohemian lifestyle in Manhattan's Greenwich Village.

When Sonny gets out of prison, he joins his brother's family and remains shakily off of drugs. It takes some time and a trip to the nightclub where Sonny plays his music, but finally the narrator better appreciates his brother's painful struggle and how important it is to express himself through music and his audience's reaction.

Then they gathered around Sonny and Sonny played....Sonny's fingers filled the air with life, his life. But that life contained so many others. And Sonny went all the way back, he really began with the spare, flat statement of the opening phrase of the song. Then he began to make it his....Freedom lurked around us and I understood at last that he could. make us free if we would listen

Choice is an important element in this story. Several times during his life thus far, Sonny has decisions to make about his future. When he is younger, he decides to leave the frustrating situation with his girlfriend and run away. Although probably not with much thought, he chooses to try heroin and is quickly addicted. After leaving prison, however, he could have once again decided to turn toward this stimulant -- and it takes all his effort not to. He makes his way back into the world of music, although this is not easy either. "And Sonny's hands hadn't been near a piano for over a year."

The Guest" relates the story of a French Algerian schoolteacher, Daru, who has taken a position in the Algerian desert to escape from the pressures of urban life.… [read more]

Cultural Expedition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,398 words)
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¶ … person account of attending an African-American church service as a white male. The writer explores the differences between the African-American service and the service that he is used to attending. He examines music differences, preaching differences and the differences in the reactions of those in the audience.

Again, this is a personal reaction paper and can include "I" statements.

As a counselor for the Department of Mental Health in my geographic area many of my clients are African-American. My office is in the inner city in a predominately Black area therefore most of the clients that I see are African-American mixed white/black. For a long time I resisted getting involved with the area and its events and local color. I felt that my professional position prohibited me from interacting with the neighborhood lest I run into one or more of my clients and create an uncomfortable situation. This belief lasted until I built a regular clientele and realized how important it is that I come to understand their spiritual strengths and beliefs. I am a white male who works with almost all African-Americans. In addition to the obvious demographic difference in our skin color there is a fundamental difference in our spiritual upbringing as well. Many of my clients are deeply religious and spiritual and when they are in session the subject of their church or beliefs comes up again and again. After several months of this occurring I realized that I could be better equipped to help my clients if I attended one of their church services and had a first person understanding about what they do at church and what they believe.

While most of my clients invited me to church on a regular basis I believed it was important for me to locate a church that was a fair distance away from the area that most of my mental health clients reside in. This was to prevent any future conflict of interest. It was also so that none of my clients would feel uncomfortable or embarrassed by having their counselor show up at one of their intimate places, their house of worship. What I did instead was choose an African-American church that was about 20 miles outside of the my office area and I was quite confident that I would not encounter any of my clients or co-workers at the service.

When Sunday morning came I will freely admit I felt apprehensive. I have never been to an African-American church and I had no idea what to expect. I was also concerned about what the congregation would think when they saw me walking to the pews.

A quickly noticed there was only one service offered, unlike the Baptist church I was used to attending which offered three each Sunday morning and also an evening service. This church offered one service but it was to last two and a half hours as opposed to the 60 minute services I have grown up with. I will admit… [read more]

Maria Bombal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,182 words)
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¶ … Tree by Maria Bombal is a story about an unhappy woman with a distorted self-image. She is not really stupid, but she believes she is because her father said she was when she was young. Her father was too tired out from raising her sisters to be a parent to her. He excused himself from meeting her needs by telling everyone that she was stupid and retarded.

Because he did not encourage her to accomplish anything, she did not try to learn. She developed the habit of not thinking about things, not expressing her feelings, and not forming answers to problems in her life. For example, her sisters all found husbands but "no one proposed to her" (p. 523). Instead of looking for a husband, she marries the only one around who accepts her as she is, a man like her father who is not really capable of loving her and meeting her needs. He is too old to be passionate, which naturally she wants: "Why become excited uselessly! Luis loved her with tenderness and moderation: if some time he should come to hate her, he would hate her justly and prudently" (p. 527).

The Tree is a symbol of herself -- the part of herself that hides her from her feelings and denies them. The dressing room is like a space in her mind where she can go to hide. When she is upset, the tree calls her, and she goes to it for shelter instead of dealing with her feelings: "She approached the window, rested her forehead against the icy glass. There was the rubber tree calmly receiving the rain that struck it, softly and steadily" (p. 517). Psychologically, the tree is crying for her. Rain falling on it shows her grief. Running to the tree represents escaping to that part of herself where she can be comforted and she can pretend everything is all right: "How that huge rubber tree chattered! All the birds of the neighborhood came to take shelter in it" (p. 524).

When Brigida tells Luis, "You don't have a heart, you don't have a heart" (p. 523), she's not just talking about his physical heart which she cannot hear beating when she puts her head on his chest. He doesn't love her enough. He isn't really "with her." He doesn't try to imagine how she feels. He is not willing to share who he really is with her. When she questions him about his past, about his childhood, and about his mother, he will not answer her. He goes to sleep. When she asks him why he married her and he replies, "Because you have the eyes of a frightened little doe," and kisses her, his teasing makes her happy because the answer implies in a small way that she is a person, that he has recognized something about her and who she is inside. But this is the only time in the story when he seems to see her as… [read more]

Full Monty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (725 words)
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¶ … Monty the play is a lot like the film of the same name, just some of the details have been changed. In the play, the unemployed men are steelworkers who live in Buffalo, NY. They come up with a plan to help one of their friends who is down on his luck, by creating a show where they strip down to their g-strings for a mostly female audience. The show is funny, and the music is very good, and the entire play is quite entertaining. The playwright uses each character to show real life problems and issues, while using humor to balance the important issues each man has to deal with. One man is fighting to get custody of his son. Another is hiding his job-loss from his wife while he is trying to lose weight. These problems help the characters seem more real, and help the audience identify with them and their issues. The playwright wanted to create more than just a musical comedy, and he managed to do that with sensitivity and an understanding of modern issues that can face just about anyone. That was one of the things I really liked about the play - that it was funny, and kept the audience laughing, but it had a serious side too, and it made the audience aware that every situation has at least two sides.

David Yazbek wrote the music for the play, and Terrence McNally was the playwright. They managed to get a good balance between the music and the acting, and I have to admit I was a little apprehensive about this film being turned into a musical. I was afraid it might be too "sappy" or over the top. However, the music, which mostly sounds like pop, really is a nice touch and helps keep the action from getting too funny at times, or too serious. Some of the songs were quite memorable. I thought "Michael Jordan's Ball" was especially funny, and the way Yazbek wrote it, in a bouncy, very male quality, helped give it the feel of the court action in a big basketball game. "Big Black Man" was jazzy and fun,…… [read more]

Thomas Mann's "The Infant Prodigy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,306 words)
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As an individual he has still to develop, but as a type is already quite complete, the artist par excellence. He has in himself all the artist's exaltation and his utter worthlessness, his charlatanry and his sacred fire, his burning contempt and his secret raptures." The reader gets the impression that it takes one to know one or else how… [read more]

Swing Dance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,911 words)
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¶ … Frankie Manning, the father of the Lindy Hop swing dance, and a legend in swing dance circles. Frankie Manning did not invent the Lindy Hop, as many people believe. However, he created some of its most famous moves and steps, and continues to teach the dance today, at the ripe old age of 90. Frankie Manning began his… [read more]

Spinning a Little Too Fast Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (997 words)
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These marks give the tables a sense of dignity -- they are old warriors come to rest in a quiet and safe place, living out their days as a home to magazines and coffee mugs and the odd scone. As I look around me, I see an eclectic mix of books and magazines free to the reader but don't take them home. Based on my whim, I can see the latest fashions from Milan, read about the NASCAR standings, gauge the stock market or simply peruse the latest gossip about Britney and Jessica. A full set of the Encyclopedia Britannica from 1967 fills a bookshelf, and I can amuse myself at anytime reading about the exploits of Captain Cook or the reproductive cycle of frogs. The magazines are always changing, the books are always the same, giving a sense of constancy and change which keep the karma of the shop in balance.

I am such a regular; I no longer have to order but am usually brought a cup of the usual. I eschew the fancier (and pricier) drinks for a large mug of a dark Sumatran Blend, no cream, please. I sip the coffee slowly, partly out of caution as the brew is always piping hot and freshly brewed, and partly as there is no hurry. I never come to my shop if I need to hurry. The coffee is bitter, but not excessively so, but also rich and full bodied -- everything Folgers wants to be and cannot. If I am feeling peckish, I may ask for a blueberry scone, and the pierced girl heats it in the small toaster oven for me if I ask her to. There are no microwaves in this shop. It wouldn't be fitting.

Conversation in my shop is held to a minimum. It is not frowned upon, but somehow the timbre and tone of the place does not lend itself to confidences or idle chatter. All the same, the other denizens and I do not huddle over our drinks like rummies in a dive bar. A nod of the head, a few moments of eye contact. That is all we need to acknowledge that we are all here to experience the same moment. Soft music is always playing; usually some jazz but sometimes the pierced girl will vary the mood with a CD of Pink Martini.

As I sit in my chair, in my shop, drinking my coffee, I feel my heartbeat slow and my breathing take on a more regular pattern. I am breathing from the diaphragm now, not the short, choppy breaths from my chest that seem to fill my day as I race from work to school to home and back again. I feel the relaxation flow through my body as I realize that, for the next 30 minutes I have no where to go and no one to be but a person drinking a cup of coffee and…… [read more]

Clay Walker Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,557 words)
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Clay Walker

Biography and Discussion of Clay Walker and His Musical Development and Style

Today, country music is a multi-billion dollar industry, and has actually surpassed rock and roll and pop music as the best-selling music genre in the United States (Carr, Cash, McDill et al., 1998). One of the recording stars responsible for this explosion in popularity of country… [read more]

Eminem Safe? An Examination of a Folk Term Paper

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¶ … Eminem Safe? An Examination of a Folk Devil and Moral Panics

Today's pop culture is more heavily based on music than ever before in history. The advent of music videos and the Internet has made music one of the most prevalent features in society. Today's youth are especially affected by the "fast-paced-MTV-sound-byte-information-glutted age that is at the center… [read more]

Messe De Notre Dame Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (345 words)
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Messe De Notre Dame: Listening Reaction

Machaut's Messe de Notre Dame, from which this "Kyrie" portion is extracted, is part of a contemporary author's creative interpretation of the liturgy of the Latin Catholic Mass. It was specifically composed for the Notre Dame Cathedral in France. It is a polyphonic piece, in contrast to the plainsong that was popular at the time, characteristic of Gregorian chant. Although it is confined to a conventional musical liturgical format, it makes use of creative, interwoven pieces of voice and musical composition and has a texture of many, rather than a singular, driven, lyrical impetus. In other words, its orchestration makes use of many different kinds of voices with different timers, and fills the space where the composition La Messe De Notre Dame was likely to have taken place with different sounds, probably resulting in different listeners hearing the mass differently, depending on where they were sitting in the cathedral. (Wulff, "Guillaume de Machaut," 2004)

Guillaume de Machaut's mass was one of the earliest polyphonic masses. It…… [read more]

Advertisement This Ad Will Target Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (364 words)
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Some of their eyes follow her. We think she might be headed for the washrooms but she goes for the front door. As soon as she gets outside she fumbles through her purse for a cigarette. Some scruffy-looking people outside look her over and one man offers her a light. She smokes by herself.

The third segment depicts an Asian woman sitting on a blanket on the grass with her boyfriend. The scenery is idyllic. The woman is smoking but the boyfriend is not. She takes a long drag, which the camera shows in close-up and slow motion. Smoke fills her mouth. She then turns her head to the boyfriend and as the last vestiges of smoke leave her mouth she closes in on a kiss. The camera focuses on the boyfriend's brow, which furrows slightly when he kisses her, indicating his displeasure at the way her mouth tastes.

The loud music still plays. Only the following slogan appear on the bottom of the screen: "Think…… [read more]

Conformity and Rebellion in Works Term Paper

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" Moreover, "We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was 'legal' . . . (639). As a Baptist minister with a moral obligation to uphold the laws of the land, King in this letter articulates the moral, ethical, and need to deliberately break the law for the greater good. The letter suggests that the non-violent civil rebellion in which he is engaged, even if it means breaking present unjust laws, is necessary to establish a more just society.

In Melville's "Bartleby the Scrivener" (334-60), Bartleby, hired by a Wall Street lawyer to copy documents, soon refuses to do any work. After Bartleby's death, his boss learns that before coming to him, Bartleby was "a subordinate clerk in the Dead Letter Office" (360). Perhaps copying was but a slight improvement, if that. Bartleby works out at first, but one day, told to check a paper, he says, "I would prefer not to" (340). This is his first rebellion, reasons unclear. His boss is confounded. Eventually the office moves; Bartleby, refusing to work, obstructs their progress. Even after abandoning Bartleby, though, his ex-boss takes an odd, even sympathetic interest in him. He himself is "a man who, from his youth upwards, has been filled with a profound conviction that the easiest way of life is the best (334). The boss's attitude is perhaps a passive-aggressive rebellion of his own against the competitiveness, even in 1853, of his work. Returning to his old office, he asks if Bartleby might "prefer" a clerkship, bartender job, or job entertaining "some young gentleman." Bartleby prefers "not to make any change at all" (357).

When Bartleby is finally removed from the office and hauled off "to the Tombs as a vagrant" (358) his ex-boss tries to keep him alive with good food; but with nothing to either live for or rebel against, Bartleby dies. Bartleby's is the vaguest rebellion described; it seems all at once about work, society, and life. Reaction of others to Bartleby's behavior prove that rebellion, however justified or unjustified, cannot be static: others will simply move around the rebel, or, if that fails, remove him.

In Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery" (386-92) Tessie Hutchinson's rebellion against being stoned to death, having "won" the annual village lottery where someone (for historical yet forgotten reasons) dies, comes too late. Her fate is foreshadowed by her lateness to the event, "Wouldn't have me leave m'dishes in the sink . . ." (388), a small rebellion against the lottery itself, and an attitude shared, though only timidly stated, by a few others. When Mr. Adams mentions another village speaks of "giving up the lottery" (389), Old Man Warner, the oldest man here and survivor of 77 lotteries (390) implies that to so would be uncivilized. There was once a saying "Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon" (389), suggesting some possible pagan or perhaps religious historical significance to today's event. But even the oldest man cannot state a reason to hold lotteries now. It… [read more]

Nina Simone Developed a Distinctive Term Paper

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Other characteristics of the Simone art are: her original timing, the way she uses silence as a musical element and her often understated live act, sitting at the piano and advancing the mood and climate of her songs by a few chords. (Dr. Nina Simone: Biography)

Nina Simone also extended the influence of her music later to express her views on political and racial issues. Her music is also seen by many to be a symbol and an artistic icon of the struggle against discrimination and racism. When four black children were killed as a result of a racially inspired bombing of a church in Birmingham in 1963, Simone write the song, Mississippi Goddam. This was a harsh critique of the attitude towards black people in the U.S.A. It was a bitter and emotional song and was an example of the way that she could evoke a wide range of human feelings. Her music is often seen as a political weapon in the struggle agonist discrimination and oppression.

Her anger was born out of the racial brutality of her childhood in the Deep South. Her first love was Bach and classical piano, but she was forced into jazz and soul. Forty years on, her music is as potent a political weapon as ever. ( Interview: The Nina Simone Web)

Simone became disillusioned not only with racial prejudice in the United States but also with the record companies and show business in general. In 1947 she left the U.S.A. To live in Barbados. She later lived in various countries, including Liberia and Switzerland, and finally settled in the South of France. She was a special guest at Nelson Mandela's 80th birthday in 1998 and was awarded the Achievement in Music Award in Dublin in 1999. She passed away after a long illness at her residence in the South of France on the 23rd of April, 2003. Her ashes were spread in different African countries.


Gayford, M. Difficult? She just hates Showbiz. The Nina Simone Web. 1998. Accessed November 24, 2004. http://www.boscarol.com/nina/html/articles/telegraph.html

Biography. The Nina Simone Web. November 23, 2004.


Dr Nina Simone: Biography. November 23, 2004.


Interview: The Nina Simone Web. November 23, 2004.



The list of Nina Simone's recordings is extensive. The following is a list of the various record labels she worked for with links to the full listing of her published music.

BETHLEHEM (1957-1959) (LP)

COLPIX (1959-1964) (LP)

PHILIPS (1964-1967) (LP)

RCA (1967-1974) (LP)

CTI (1978) (LP)

CARRERE (1982) (LP)

VPI (1985) (CD)

VERVE (1987) (LP)


ELEKTRA (1993) (CD)


METEOR (1999) (CD)


Dr Nina Simone: official discography http://ninasimone.com/discography.html… [read more]

Synopses on Any Experiment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,365 words)
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¶ … Jammin' Spiders Biology Experiment

The goal of this experiment, conducted in 2001 by Jack Feichtner et al. Of Miami University in Ohio, was to study the effect that music has on spiders. The species of spider chosen for the experiment was Theridiiae, and the effect chosen was the orientation of the spider within a given, created environment. Research had previously revealed that spiders are sensitive to vibration for a number of survival reasons. Spiders do not have very good eyesight, so vibrations are used to sense prey caught in the web and the presence of a possible mate on the web. Previous experiments had been performed on the effects that drugs have on the building of spider webs, and based on this research the students hypothesized that there will be a measurable pattern in how the spiders react to the music, and that the spiders will be attracted to softer vibrations and repelled by harsher vibrations.

The original design of the experiment involved studying regular house spiders within their natural environment, but the webs proved to be too small to evaluate without the aid of equipment not available, and there was not an easy way to measure comparative data easily. The revised experiment design explored how spiders inhabit a given space to properly evaluate one statistically is not available to us. In addition, this design was ineffective, as it did not yield statistical data. Thus, the revised experiment explored the way that spiders inhabit a given space because of musical stimulus. This experiment was significant because it related to the way in which human interaction, and noise such as car horns and telephones, affects spiders.

The materials used in this experiment included 20 spiders (the subjects), 20 clear cylindrical containers (the habitats), two compact disc players with speakers, three compact disks (Bach's Ave Maria, Peter Kruder's Tanto Tempo, and Outkast's Bombs Over Baghdad), crickets to feed the subjects, and a measuring mechanism to determine the spiders orientation.

The twenty spiders were organized into four groups of five spiders each, and each group was kept in a different classroom, each inside of an individual container. The climate was moderate and easily monitored to be consistent. The containers were set up in a line above the speakers that would play the music (except the control group which was exposed to no music). The music played 24 hours a day, and once a day the spider's location in the container was noted. Group one was exposed to Bach's "Ave Maria," chosen for the repetition of rhythm and melody with few variations in meter and beat. Group two was exposed to Peter Kruder's "Tanto Tempo," chosen for the higher levels of vibration and variable beats. Group three was exposed to Outkast's "Bombs over Baghdad," chosen for the loud, steady beats and constant vocals.

On Thursdays the spiders were fed one cricket each, and consumption of the food was noted.

Data was gathered daily for a total of 15 days, introducing the music… [read more]

Hip-Hop Culture, Its Origins Term Paper

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Frazitta accuses artists who succumb to this sort of lure of falsehood and hypocrisy. The hip-hop music created in this way is then also the art form that reaches countries such as Japan, who accepts it without question as authentic. Thus the true cultural meaning behind the music is lost.

Others however beg to differ with this point regarding the depth of the Japanese culture. Johnson for example claims that, despite cultural and language barriers, the Japanese youth does to some extent identify with African-Americans in their quest for freedom from oppression, and thus also with the culture associated with hip-hop. The basis for this view is the assertion that the Japanese culture is not entirely as free of heterogeneity and consequent oppression as may appear to be the case. Indeed, minority groups such as the Ainus and Koreans living in Japan have been the target of discrimination. Artists such as Takagi Kans have thus targeted issues of oppression and commercialism that appear to pervade culture and music, especially in this country. To which extent this is true remains open to debate.

France, in contrast to Japan, unequivocally appears to understand the culture of hip-hop and the issues that it promotes (Richardson). This perception is promoted by the apparently similar socioeconomic problems that certain groups in this country experience. These to a large extent seems to parallel the oppressive practices targeted against minority groups in the United States. Ghettos, although ethnically more diverse than those of the United States, are for example part of the culture being oppressed in France. The economic hardships and other issues experienced here give rise to a culture that parallels the hip-hop movement in the United States. It is thus understandable that hip-hop music crossing the European country's border would strike a chord within the French ghetto. In contrast to the Japanese, often perceived to impose their own culture and commercialism upon hip-hop music, the French adopted hip-hop music as part of their own culture of oppressed suffering. The basis from which this was done is the same as that in the United States. Japan on the other hand, although it may be true that Japanese rappers have come to see and comment on social injustice in their own country, has not done so from a basis of obvious suffering. The initial adoption of the music was the initial result of media-induced popularity.

Globalization can be seen as both a blessing and a curse for hip-hop music and its associated culture. On the one hand, it makes other cultures aware of hip-hop and the benefit of social consciousness and its expression. On the other hand globalization tends to encourage commercialization. This again results in the potential loss of what is most valuable in this culture and its music.

Questions for Further Exploration

An interesting question that could be posed in relation to hip-hop music relates to globalization: to what extent is this a negative force for hip-hop music and its culture? Are there some redeeming… [read more]

Personal Achievement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (975 words)
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Personal Achievement

Everyone has achieved something. For some people an achievement is playing sports; for others it is receiving good grades. Webster's dictionary defines achievement as a 'great or heroic deed' or 'something accomplished by valor, boldness or praiseworthy exertion.' Achievement is also defined as accomplishing a task successfully. Throughout the course of our lives we all have ample opportunities to achieve something, whether it be great or something relatively minor. Today and every day, I am concerned with realizing not just an achievement, but an outstanding achievement.

What makes an achievement outstanding? An outstanding achievement is one that a person has worked diligently for and is proud of. An outstanding achievement is one that infuses the person who has accomplished it with pride, confidence and satiety. It is also an achievement that one accomplishes through adversity, challenge and hard work. Some achievements are relatively easy to attain, others are not. Those that are difficult to achieve typically result in the greatest reward, and thus fall into the realm of outstanding.

I consider my outstanding achievement to be acquiring the position of field commander (director) of my high school's marching band. Why is this achievement so significant for me? My achievement represents the fulfillment of a journey and a dream. Since my freshman year in high school, I dreamed about becoming field commander. I imagined what it would be like to hear my name at football games and for people to see me leading the band. Most of all, I considered all the things I could add to the marching band and school as a team if I were elected as field commander. I knew that deep down I had something to contribute to the team, and I made a commitment early on in my academic career to realize my goals and dreams. I also knew that above all else I wanted the opportunity to lead, and to teach people to love and appreciate music in the way that I did. To achieve my dream I had to lead.

How did I become leader? I set a goal. I decided I had to put in 110% effort to ensure that I became field commander. I also recognized that to be a field commander, I had to be not simply a leader, but a strong leader, I had to be confident in my skills and abilities so I could lead confidently and inspire others to achieve greatness. A leader isn't simply one who directs a group of people. A leader is someone who has the ability to inspire. I knew that deep down I had the ability to inspire, I just had to figure out how to bring out that talent and share it with others, so that I could also inspire others to greatness.

Did I face challenges along the way? Of course, and that is why my achievement is that much more meaningful. There are always…… [read more]

Bee Gees the Bees Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (840 words)
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The album became the biggest selling soundtrack album ever (Stuessy 352). They also wrote the number one hit, 'If I Can't Have You' for Yvonne Elliman, and two versions of 'More Than a Woman,' one by the Bee Gees and the other by Tavares, charted simultaneously (Bee pp).

A fourth Gibb, Andy, managed to enjoy massive success as well by releasing dance albums, however as the 1970's came to a close, the group's popularity began to decline as listeners began to be drawn to heavy metal and punk music (Bee pp).

After Barry and Robin both went solo with disappointing results, the brothers then did production work for Barbra Streisand, Diana Ross and Dionne Warwick, worked with Kenny Rogers and produced the hit 'Islands in the Stream' for Rogers and Dolly Parton (Bee pp). In 1987 they released 'E.S.P.' And in 1989, 'One' and in 1997, 'Still Waters' went double platinum and a new single, 'Alone' was a new hit for the group (Bee pp). In November 1997, the Bee Gees performed a live concert in Las Vegas, which was shown on Pay-Per-View cable and later shown on HBO, and released the following year on CD as 'One Night Only' (Bee pp).

The Bee Gees are among the top five of the most successful recording artists of all time, achieving world-wide record sales in excess of 110 million (Bee pp). In 2000, they released what became their final album as a group, 'This is Where I Came In' that gave the opportunity for all three Bee Gees to each contribute a lead vocal (Bee pp). Maurice died on January 12, 2003 from a cardiac arrest, and shortly after, the remaining brothers announced that although they would continue to write and record, they would no longer use the name, 'The Bee Gees' (Bee pp).

During their career, the Bee Gees earned five Grammy Awards and in 1994 all three were individually inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame and into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997 (Bee pp).

Work Cited

"How Can You Mend a Broken Group." The Rolling Stone. July 14, 1977.

"The Bee Gees." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bee_Gees

Taylor, Chuck. "The Bee Gees: Four Decades of Success." Billboard. March 2001;pp.

Larkin, Colin. Encyclopedia of Popular Music; pp 449.

Stuessy,…… [read more]

Mardi Gras Parade Experience Term Paper

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Mardi Gras Parade

Nothing I ever heard about or read about Mardi Gras in books or magazines or watched in movies or on television prepared me for my first Mardi Gras parade. It surpassed my most outrageous expectations. It was an experience that I will never forget and one that I'm certain I will be recounting to my children and grandchildren in years to come.

My cousin Anne and her husband Hugh live just off St. Charles on Napoleon, and so I was fortunate to not only have a free place to stay but to have my own personal tour guides. The first thing that I learned was that during Mardi Gras, even locals take either a taxi, trolley, city bus, or walk to their destinations. No one drives their car because parking spaces are nil and even if you found one chances are extremely high that when you returned to that spot your car would not be there or would be unrecognizable due to missing parts and such by vandals.

According to Anne and Hugh, a must-see parade was Endymion. It seems that Endymion was one of the main krewes that brought life back into Mardi Gras in the early 1970's. It is noted for being the people's parade because it brought young people back and flooded Carnival with contemporary music and celebrities. Endymion is also famed for its enormous floats, many being the largest ever assembled and for its elaborate royalty costumes. I was promised that the Endymion parade was an experience to remember.

Saturday afternoon we took a taxi down Orleans Avenue to City Park, the beginning of the Endymion parade route. Both sides of the street were literally packed with thousands of people, at least eight to ten deep, while mounted police patrolled up and down. The meridian was lined with sofas, stuffed chairs, rocking chairs, lawn furniture, barbecue grills, large ice chests, six-pack coolers and the like. Many people had spent the night on the street to ensure a good spot to watch the parade. One look around and I began to understand why this was known as the people's parade.

There were so many people and so much going on that I could gaze in one direction for twenty minutes and never be bored. People of every age, shape and size were dressed in every imaginable way, from authentic carnival costumes to jeans and tee-shirts and even bathrobes and flip-flops. The colors, sights and sounds, and the incredible aromas bombarded my senses.

Music poured from the bands playing in City Park, from the portable radios and stereos up and down the street, from the open doors of local bars and restaurants, and from the young boys dotted throughout the crowds playing steel drums. All of this music seemed to meld into one sound, one beat, a distinctive carnival drum beat. Yet if I moved ten feet in any direction, I could discern a certain song, then ten more feet brought a different piece of… [read more]

Beethoven: Greatest Hits CD Term Paper

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There is still much about the man that is not known.

While the ninth symphony is on the Greatest Hits CD, there are other works that are also listed and that many enjoy very much. There is no need to discuss each particular song here, as they can easily be found on the CD and on many lists at Web sites and companies where the CD can be purchased. It is important to note, however, that the term 'Greatest Hits' is relative. In other words, the idea that these are Beethoven's Greatest Hits is an idea that comes from those that put the CD together. Beethoven himself could obviously not pick and choose which of his many beautiful compositions he wanted to put on the CD, so those that compiled it had to pick which compositions to use and choose what to call the CD. Those that are very serious fans of Beethoven might have a different opinion as to whether the compositions presented on the CD are actually Beethoven's 'Greatest Hits.'

Whether I think that these are the 'Greatest Hits' of Beethoven or not is apparently irrelevant to those that created the CD, because they did not ask whether I liked these particular works or thought that they were Beethoven's best. However, I do agree that these are really Beethoven's best works. The CD flows very well and most of the compositions that are found on it are very passionate. They speak of a great man and the amazing talent that he had in the face of adversity, which is something that is found still today, but not very often, it seems. It is difficult, however, to say that there are not other songs that should be on this particular compilation, as all of what Beethoven created should belong to his 'Greatest Hits.'… [read more]

Fiction With Documentation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,059 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


No adult, she has "a quick, nervous giggle," like a girl, not a woman. (152). Connie has, in essence 'bought' the myth that to be a rebellious young adolescent girl, one must be in love with, or be attractive to boys. She constantly looks at herself in mirrors to see if she is "all right," which is not out of vanity, as her mother accusers her of, but of uncertainty in a self entirely constructed by a false culture, of makeup and posturing.

Arnold Friend has also bought into a myth, namely that by taking on the clothing and the persona of an exciting young high school boy, he can be attractive to a young, high school girl. He does not see Connie as she truly is, rather he merely a representation of female teenage sexuality, ripe for the taking. He misreads her standoffishness, not of the fear it actually is, but as the actions of a coquette -- another myth he 'buys' into, that no means yes.

Connie is so defenseless by the end of the story, that, rather than being frightened of her own sexuality, she has seemingly become disassociated from the body that has been read so wrongly by Friend. She lets him into her parent's home, but retreats, not into freedom, but into the home of her childhood, "she backed away into a place, she had never seen before, some room she had run inside." (162-163) Even "her heart" is no longer solid, as her physical self dissolves in front of Friend's advances, and her home feels like a "cardboard box," like in a fairy tale, no longer providing sanctuary from the big bad wolf or the ogre that Friend is. (163)

But unlike a wolf of ogre, Friend is not mythological in his menacing intensity. He has power over Connie because her sense of adult feminine identity is so fragile, created with music and rock and roll. His clothing is a tribute to a culture of you are what you wear, rather than an attempt to strip such trappings away, like the raw folk rock of Dylan, who began playing music on an acoustic guitar during the early 1960's. The face of Arnold Friend is evident in may sexual predators today, taking on the guise of teens to lure teenage girls into an illusion of maturity, perhaps through the Internet or some other nefarious, anonymous means. Many Connies walk the streets, feeling that a midriff baring top means that they are mature, rather than their character. "The whole terrifying episode," suggests Larry Rubin, echoing Tierce and Crafton, is merely perhaps "a dream," a rape fantasy constructed while the girl is "drying her hair." (Rubin 166) Such an interpretation, however, belies the fact that it is unlikely a young girl would understand the motivations of an older man wishing to be with and like a child, of an adult wishing to put on a teen identity, when she so painfully wishes to grow up.

Work Cited… [read more]

Rock and Roll Stars Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (307 words)
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It is important that it is the individual who decides for himself/herself what to believe in, what person or people who will influence him/her. Thus, if an individual considers The Beatles his/her idols despite the bad publicity given them, then it is entirely up to the individual to decide whether they are role models or not. Indeed, if analyzed thoroughly, we, the spectators, are 'choosers' or 'selectors' of the market of personalities 'available' to us, and our decision to consider one personality to become a role model over another is a decision mainly influenced by the individual's culture, social environment, personality and attitudes. Thus, rock and roll stars have every right to be called role models, in the same way that we, as spectators and members of popular culture, have the right to choose which among them (personalities) we consider rightfully as a role model or not.… [read more]

Blues Brothers and Hedwig Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As for the Blues Brothers album, this a terrifically classic popular blues score; this is a wonderful throwback of "old school" sounds from the fifties, sixties, seventies. And the appearances by the likes of the late legendary Ray Charles, James Brown (without the "Famous Flames"), John Lee Hooker, Aretha Franklin, and Cab Calloway, adds a class to the craziness and reckless folly the boys, including the late John Belushi are on.

Though Hedwig's genre certainly stays true to that particular cult of musical shrillness and messiness, it just seems quite forced and absolutely confused about its own identity. Hedwig appears to be an instance where a movie is wrapped around music - whereas the Blues Brothers music actually wraps music around the scenes and characters. The Blues Brothers soundtrack makes the movie come alive, become more complete, more believable, notwithstanding the outrageous car chases and stunts.

Boom, Boom, Boom" by John Lee Hooker is entirely appropriate during the scene at an outdoor street scene in front of a discount music score. And Aretha Franklin singing "Freedom" in the Soul Food Cafe is lovely, as a big city restaurant becomes a Broadway show tune extravaganza. James Brown in the church is fabulous, and the dancing of the congregation is a stunning and perfectly produced parody.

The scene for the "Jailhouse Rock" portion of the movie is timeless, and a tribute to the late Elvis Presley. Having Cab Calloway, James Brown, Aretha Franklin and Ray Charles sing lines from the Presley tune is corny but entertaining.

The contrast between Hedwig and the Blues Brothers music is so dramatic, so loud, one may as well be comparing pickles and plutonium. As to which one is the pickle and which the plutonium, it depends upon your age, and your musical perspective.


Paoletta, Michael. "Original Soundtrack Recording: Hedwig and the Angry Inch."

Albums: Pop. Billboard. 113 (2001).

The Blues Brothers

Hedwig and the…… [read more]

Interviewing Technique the Cruxshadows Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,116 words)
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Rogue was very expressive physically, having a background in theatrical performance, so his nonverbal communication was very obvious. His eyes grew wide when he was on an interesting subject, his facial expressions of excitement or disappointment were very obvious. When he was telling the story of the Angel Cycle, the basis of his work, he almost acted out the story, jumping around and making huge gestured with his hands, pointing to the sky and putting on quite a performance. When expressing his amazement with the size of the crowd that attended the show, he counted on his fingers absent-mindedly, and then used his hands to show the grand vastness of the size of the crowd. When telling the story about climbing the side of the stage, Rogue made gestures as if he were climbing and dancing and reenacting the performance. It was also obvious when Rogue was having difficulty understanding the German interviewer because his face scrunched up into an expression of confusion and he would tilt his head to the side as if trying to concentrate harder on the words. Finally, Rogue showed not only excitement but exhaustion, as the stance of his body showed that he was physically worn out from the show. He was proud to be there, and quite happy with the performance, but also needed to get some rest.

The interviewer was very responsive to the answers given, nodding and showing great amounts of interest. Every few words, the interviewer would say "Yah" or "Mmhmm" to communicate that he was following the conversation and in agreement with Rogue. The tone was very respectful, almost as if he were in awe to be speaking to the performer, and it came across that he was probably a fan of the band as well as a television personality. When Rogue got very worked up about computers or art, the reporter acknowledged Rogue's excitement and asked him to elaborate on the subjects that he was most interested in.

Additive responses from the interviewer included many instances of him asking Rogue to elaborate on various topics. For example, when Rogue was telling the story of the Angel, he was prompted several times to give more information, to add more to what he was saying. The interviewer asked Rogue, "Please, tell me more about The Angel. How did the satellite become sentient?" Interchangeable responses given by the interviewer included several instances of trying to overcome language barriers, and rephrasing the same questions and answers in several ways to get across the point. During the computer discussion, Rogue was very enthusiastic about Macs, and the reporter asked him, "So you think Macs are definitely better?" There were a couple cases of rhetorical or non-answerable questions that could be categorized as non-facilitative as well.

Tell me more about the history of the band," is an example of probing.

The Angel is a metaphor?" is an example of paraphrasing something Rogue had said.

Mmhmm," "Yah," and "Eh?" are examples of making the minimum verbal… [read more]

Beatles Success -- Why? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (318 words)
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But by fusing Brit Pop with sexuality and rock n' roll, the Beatles highlighted a larger truth about themselves as a group -- they had an ability to plug into whatever cultural trope currently seized the heart and imagination of American teens and to make it into something artistic and interesting and unique, yet make it enough 'of the moment' that it could become popular. The integrated experience of the rock concert concept album, seamlessly transporting one song to another, for instance, was brilliantly realized in "Sergeant Pepper." The counterculture was brilliantly rendered into the band's later works, but still retaining the colorful and irreverent style that made them famous in the first place. Thus a constellation of timing, of cultural savvy, and sheer collective artistic brilliance all explains…… [read more]

Davis, Angela. Y. Blues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (903 words)
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This bias may be inevitable, given Professor Davis' own background. But these women were not of the academy -- their music was performed as a living text. However, although the inclusions of the lyrics and the lyrical analysis is not as strong as the first more historically oriented part of the book that seems to be more in line with Davis' abilities as an historian, the analysis of the lyrics does reveal that these artists did discuss issues of domestic violence and transgressing lesbian love in a way that is seldom given credit.

Davis' book still falls short in her discussion of Holiday, whose legacy seems more tenuously connected to the more expansive creative control Smith and Rainey exercised over their own lives and work. Holiday was also more known as a voice rather than a composer. Because she did not write her own songs, the emotional quality of her voice in transforming the songs she sung is lost on the page.

Biographically, Davis uses contemporary transcripts as well as the lyrics of these women to substantiate her thesis that these Black women were successful creative artists during their day, even if their art has been marginalized geographically. Again, this portrait seems more effective when the lives of Rainey and Smith are used to substantiate Davis' thesis, because of their work in organizing their own bands. Through these two women, Davis clearly shows Black women were profoundly successful, in a way often ignored by musical and civil rights historians alike.

Davis' exploration of non-literary Black African-American female art acts as important inclusion to the study of mainly literary texts such as The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature. The issue is not simply one of class, but of genre was well. The greatest value of Angela Y. Davis' Blues, Legacies, and Black Feminism is that it provides more historical context for musical, performance art than has hitherto existed, giving a depth and a body to lyrical analysis lacking in, for instance, an anthology simply giving the words of popular spirituals on the page, or confining poetic analysis to purely formal expressions.

There is something uniquely liberating about including performance art in general as part of the history of African-American life as well, because African-Americans (particularly women and working class African-Americans) have so long been denied literacy, much less inclusion into the literary canon. By making a persuasive case for music to stand side-by-side literary achievement, a persuasive case is also made for African-American's ability to stand with Hemingway and Hawthorne both over the course of American artistic development, over the…… [read more]

Newsletter to Generation Bling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Do not the names of the past generations of dandies, mods, and other fashionable young people still roll off the tongues of historians?

Moreover, there is an urban, Black, hip-hop ethos to our 'Generation Bling-Bling' that is racially democratic in a way that no other generation has manifested itself. We are a generation stripped of the cultural markers of traditional access to status and class, such as race, or using the correct manners. We are a generation that doesn't care who your parents were, what your daddy did and your mama wore to church. The status some one from our generation gleans through quick money and knowing the beat to the right music has a kind of rough democracy to it. Flash, dash, and showing what tribe you identify with when are on the stage of the street -- that is the true music of 'Generation Bling-Bling.'

Works Cited

Bling-Bling Added to the Oxford Dictionary." (2003). Retrieved on May 4, 2004 at http://www.southend.wayne.edu/days/2003/may/5152003/misc/bling/bling.html

CNN. "Freshman Know Bling-Bling, not Paul Newman." (September 3, 2003). Retrieved on May 4, 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2003/EDUCATION/09/03/sprj.sch.mindset.list.ap… [read more]

Group Temptation With Respect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



They made some of the most powerful records to come out of the Motown studios and the consistency and quality of their output is probably unsurpassed by any other group working in the pop music or soul genres. The group started life as The Elgins, signing to Motown in 1961. They began the first of a series of successful collaborations by teaming up with Smokey Robinson in 1962. This partnership created such timeless classics as 'The Way You Do The Things You Do', 'My Girl', 'Since I Lost My Baby', 'Don't Look Back', 'Get Ready' and 'It's Growing'. This work alone would be enough to ensure a place in the history of soul but the group then moved on to work with Holland, Dozier and Holland and Whitfield, continuing to notch up hits such as 'Ain't Too Proud To Beg', 'I Know I'm Losing You' and 'Beauty Is Only Skin Deep'." http://www.rhythmandtheblues.org.uk/artists/temps.shtml

Given above are the names of the musical achievements, which the temptation had made during their musical career. These records are still appreciated by the music lovers because they still have the power to influence the soul of the listeners. Their quality of music is unmatchable and their music is very different from the other musical albums of the late sixties and seventies.


The researches and analysis reveals the fact that The Temptation was liked by the listeners all round the world because of their quality of music. The Temptation expressed their ideas and thoughts through their music. Their music had a positive impact on the listeners. They not only enjoyed the music but they also tried to understand the wordings of the songs. It is all due to the efforts and achievements of the group members that the Temptation are still recognized and appreciated for their music.

Works Cited

As retrieved from The Temptations http://www.history-of-rock.com/temptations.htm

On May 3rd, 2004

As retrieved from The Temptations (Formed in 1960 in Detroit)

http://www.rhythmandtheblues.org.uk/artists/temps.shtml. On May 3rd, 2004

As retrieved from THE TEMPTATIONS 1960's ~ http://www.wntb.com/blackachievers/thetemptations/On May 3rd, 2004… [read more]

Advertising Designers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The text of the band name is not a black, but rather very subtle tones of grays and violets. Although all of the band members are obviously wearing black clothing, the colors of the clothing is nonetheless rich and varied. All of the fabric appears to be either texturally appealing or tinted with hints of other colors. The hair of each band member is different: red, purple, off-white, and blue-black, yet none of these air colors appear strange within the visual environment of the photo. In fact, the hair colors in a way bring together the rest of the image. The red hair of the female on the far left brings out the red of her lips, the purple hair of the female in the back-center position brings out the violet tint on the fabric of the front-most figure's clothing; the very subtle bluish tint of the front model's hair matches the color of the other band member's vinyl clothing where the light reflects off of it. Additionally, each band member's hair is color-matched with the inserted image of the cover of the album. The red hair in the upper-left corner draws diagonally to the red female figure of the album cover in the bottom-right corner.

The purple hair matches the purple lighting and flowers in the album cover, the off-white hair matches the moth in the album cover. The blue-black hair of the lead model matches the blue stone-like frame of the album cover.

The composition of this advertisement is additionally effective because it creates a sense that the band members are both very serious about their work, and also that it is an extension of themselves. The fact that the band members are so… [read more]

Billy Joel's Piano Man Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,012 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The fact that the songs begins by mentioning the old man may be the piano's player's way of telling us that we are all getting older.

This song is also popular because it reflects on a certain melancholy that people often encounter when they feel life may be slipping away from them before they have a chance to achieve their dream. This is clear because we know that John would rather be somewhere acting and the waitress is "practicing politics" on the businessmen who are slowly getting drunk. In addition, "Paul is a real estate novelist" and Davy may stay in the Navy forever. The images we discover in this song are of people who are trying to find their way in life and discovering along the way that life can sometimes be difficult.

The important aspect of these characters is that "They're sharing a drink called loneliness/But it's better than drinking alone" (Joel). The bar gives the people a sense of belonging that they cannot find anywhere else. More importantly, as the piano player says, they have come to the bar "to forget about life for awhile" (Joel).

Sing us a song, you're the piano man

Sing us a song tonight

Well, we're all in the mood for a melody

And you've got us feelin' alright

Another interesting aspect of this song is how the piano player manages to stay above the melancholy. Perhaps he feels this is his responsibility to the people who come to hear him play. His job is to lift their spirits and help them realize that life is not so bad after all. An example of this can be found in the repetition of "la de da" section of the song. This makes the song appealing and it is also something we can remember. The chorus is also something that we can remember and we can easily visualize everyone at the bar singing it along with the piano player. It could also indicate that the piano player is at least doing something he loves to do, unlike the others who seem to work at jobs they hate.

In conclusion, Piano Man has maintained popularity over the years because it is not filled with images of grandeur. Instead, it presents us with an image of life that is real in many ways. In fact, the images are so ordinary we can easily relate. Because of this aspect, Joel probably desires to reach anyone who will listen to the song. However, Americans that are older than 25 can probably appreciate the song's message because they understand that life can sometime become complex and difficult. Joel's message is to not be so caught up in the future that we are miserable in the present. We should find happiness wherever we are in life.

Works Cited

Joel, Billy. Piano Man. 1973. Billy Joel Lyrics Page. Site Accessed March 26, 2004. http://www.billyjoel.com/frameset_lyrics.html… [read more]

Japan Pop! History of Japanese Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In Japan the importance of Karaoke revolves around participation, not in singing talent, and shying away from participation in the group activity may actually harm ones relationship with his/her guests and peers.

Karaoke in its truest form recognizes someone for their effort rather than there talent. An individual who shows off in front of the microphone in Japan is likely to be less highly regarded than someone who exhibits "doryoku" or sincere effort (Shimatachi, 103). Many American's feel that they should not perform if they do not have adequate talent; this is perhaps a side effect of a culture that pushes competition in all aspects of life. However, In Japan, the culture emphasizes a philosophy more along the lines of everyone is created equal (Shimatachi, 104).

Most people in Japan begin participating in Karaoke rituals very early on in life. Teenagers typically will get together in karaoke "boxes" which are small rooms with a microphone and music box, and everyone in the group takes a turn singing, no matter their talent (Shimatachi, 104). This is somewhat similar to a type of singing called "freestyling" in the United States, where smaller groups of people sometimes gather around a microphone and rap impromptu (Shimatachi, 104). Again the differences are evident though. In Japan, everyone participates in this event, no matter how poor a singer; in the U.S., those who do not have good rapping or freestyling abilities are likely to be chided and ridiculed, and not invited to participate. There is a very "obvious distinction between those with talent and those who remain spectators" (Shimatachi, 104). This again is perhaps due in part to the more individualized and competitive notions that are built into the psyche of Americans at an early age.

In most other areas of the world excluding Japan, Karaoke is still seen very much as it is in America, as primarily a talent contest. However, the Japanese form of Karaoke, which emphasizes consensus building, establishing a middle ground, and bringing people together does offer a great deal of value, and should be examined for its usefulness in a business climate (Shimatachi, 105). In Germany reputable business leaders recently participating at a Karaoke event at the New Town World Forum became interested in using Karaoke as "a means of developing community spirit" in environments where people might otherwise feel isolated (Shimatachi, 105). It is unlikely that the spirit of Karaoke within the United States will change any time soon, but the possibility still exists. Japan has made a significant contribution by introducing Karaoke as a potential "catalyst" for "cultural unification" (Shimatachi, 105).


Craig, Timothy J. Japan Pop! Inside the world of Japanese popular culture. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, (2000).

Shimatachi, Hiro R. "A Karaoke Perspective on International Relations" In, Japan Pop! Inside the…… [read more]

Diversity Critique of Michael Jackson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They saw past his flaws and accepted his success. However, as is often the case, when the blockbuster singles were harder to come by, Jackson opened up his eccentricities to the world as pleaded for continued fan support. Much of Jackson's criticism comes from the black community. They could no longer relate to the King of Pop. Although he claims his dramatic color change, for example, comes from a skin disease, the black community saw Jackson as a black man trying to escape from his roots by medically changing his skin color. His appearance today seems too unreal for the average person to understand who Michael Jackson has become. There have obviously been some major facial reconstruction sessions but Jackson claims he had only one corrective surgery. And childcare advocates have been given too many demonstrations of a person not completely in touch with the reality that children around him should be treated a different way than what he seems to think is normal. Although I would love to say that the media and public opinion may have been too harsh on Michael Jackson, he continues to do idiotic things to keep himself in the negative spotlight. If it isn't dangling a baby out of hotel window it's getting charged as a child molester and sexual deviant. How does a publicist integrate ways of improving an image of a person with such poor judgment?

Works Cited

ALLMICHAELJACKSON.com. Ed. Unknown. 21 Nov. 03 http://www.allmichaeljackson.com/biography.html.

Britt, Donna. "Shielding Kids Should Come Before Reprisal." Washington Post [Washington, DC] 21 Nov. 03, Metro.

FLACCUS, GILLIAN. "Bitter Rivalry Between DA, Michael Jackson Reflected In Latest Case." AP Worldstream 21 Nov. 2003.

Marino, Nick. "POP NOTES: HIP-HOP'S RISE, MICHAEL'S DEMISE How Rap Hastened Michael Jackson's Decline, Long Before Latest Scandal." The Atlanta Journal and Constitution [Atlanta] 21…… [read more]

Psycho Three Scenes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The violin music continues to play as Norman returns to the house; the lighting is dark and shadowy until the editor cuts to Marion writing in bank ledger.

The build-up to the murder is intensified when the music stops, around the time Marion steps into the shower. Hitchcock includes incredible details like a close-up of the shower head seen from below, with a low angle camera shot and also provides various views of her bathing. When we can see through the curtain, a figure enters the bathroom and the next several minutes of the film fly by.

The pacing of the Psycho shower scene is accomplished through the editing, especially elaborately fast cuts. The feeling conveyed is chaotic, as the camera cuts from stabbing knife to second-long shots of various parts of Marion's body as she struggles against her attacker. Coinciding with the stabbing is high-pitched, shrieking violin sounds that mimic human screams. As the murderer closes in on his pray, the knife becomes clearer and more focused -- and therefore more intense -- than it was toward the beginning of the scene. Frequently, Hitchcock shows Marion's bare feet in this scene, such as when she enters the shower and before she dies; thus the director offers both extremely low and extremely high angles to intensify the murder even more. Blood and water mingle, running counterclockwise down the drain. The shot lingers there; all the shots are longer than they were during the stabbing scene. Paralleling the motion of blood and water, an ECU of Marion's dead face spins counterclockwise, panning out gradually to reveal a droplet of water in the corner of her eye that looks like a tear.

Arbogast's murder scene employs different editing techniques. As the private investigator examines his surroundings in the Bates mansion, the audience sees both what he sees and his reaction to them, as the scene cuts from his face to his surroundings. The main source of light in the scene originates from the top of the stairs. As he climbs, the camera follows him from above, with a high angle shot. The pacing is deliberately slow to create the suspense that Hitchcock is so famous for.

The scene cuts to a door slightly ajar, seen from the floor. A wedge of light streams out while the door creeps open, indicating the presence of someone sinister. Moreover, the door and the light create a natural diagonal in the same way that the shower curtain bar created a natural diagonal in the previous murder scene. This creates a sense of continuity between the two murders. Arbogast's murder takes place from an extremely high angle: a bird's eye view. This concept hearkens to an earlier scene of Arbogast seeing the stuffed birds in the motel office.

The same piercing violin music accompanies this murder, as it did the first one. Moreover, it happens just as fast, without any shot of the murder's face. This time, the killer's garb is shown to be that of an… [read more]

Classicism Manifested Itself Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



In 18th-century France soft porcelain and hard-paste porcelain was available to engravers such as JD Ridinger, who produced black and white engraved porcelain bowls and saucers. Porcelain dessert services became popular in Vienna and were used in noble houses.

During the Classicism period, porcelain with color applied by Meissen painters became fashionable among the Europeans and the Wedgwood factory was commissioned to create services for Catherine the Great of Russia.

A great designer of "Meissen porcelain commedia dell 'arte figures in characteristic theatrical poses (unknown, 50)" was Kaendler.


Classicism affected the 18th-century in everything "from couture to furniture, prints, paintings and porcelain (unknown, 50)." By looking at its manifestation during this time, it is possible to understand the influence and progression of the art, music and architecture of the period.

Works Cited

McLellan, Joseph. Beethoven, on Balance; Ecstatic Beauty Flows Through Borromeo

String Quartet. The Washington Post. (2000): 25 May. Pp. J03.

Unknown. Antiques & Collecting: Dedicated followers of all things. Birmingham Post.

2001): 11 August. Pp. 50.

Unknown. Classicism. The Hutchinson Dictionary of the Arts. (1998): 01 January.

Unknown. French architecture. The Hutchinson Dictionary of the Arts. (1998):

01 January.

Worsley,…… [read more]

Reducing the Problem of Piracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is hypothesized that the enhancement of CD packaging and the threat of being caught will result in a decreased likelihood of piracy in comparison to the absence of the former conditions.

The following information provides a FICTITIOUS EXAMPLE of a study that could be conducted to study the hypothesis in question)



The participants in this study were… [read more]

Sixties and the Early Seventies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There is a separation between elite and mass culture music which exists in the mindsets of those who listen to punk and alternative music even today. Some critics have said that punk music has "snob appeal" in that it is written for an underground audience and an underground culture which tends to be educated and tends to be very selective in what they listen to.

The language of the average punk rocker tends to be laced with education. Politics and the arts dominate conversation. Though there are definitely those who break the mold. Many of the bands and band members use a great deal of profanity to rile up their fans. Some bands, such as the Sex Pistols, were known primarily for their outspoken politics and often violent stage shows.

Despite the internal turmoil in the punk movement, punk rock made several things clear to international audiences. Punk Rock in its subculture, managed to break down many barriers of expression and language. It made an indentation in the commercial music industry. It provided a fresh alternative to a boring, stagnant music scene. (Oh, Pg 2)

Other subcultures have been heavily influenced by the punk movement. Eighties heavy metal and hard rock were subcultures imitated some of the punk stylings. The grunge movement of the early nineties, thrash metal, and the modern skateboarding culture all have seeds in the punk movement.

The subculture of Punk Rock is still very much a part of the modern music scene. Many see it as the past, as something that no longer exists; but it cannot be forgotten that this is an underground form of music. Punk Rock pockets still exist in all of the major music towns across North America and Great Britain. As a form the music is constantly growing and changing. Along with the music, so too is the subculture always growing and changing.


Oh, Charles. "The History of Punk Rock: Origins and Significance." Writing Assortment. February 25, 2003.

McLemee, Scott. "Safety Pin as Signifier." The Chronicle. August 2, 2002. read more-->[read more]

Country Combines a Coming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,320 words)
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Emmett's running away serves as a psychological turning point in Sam's life, and she distances herself somewhat from her uncle's life. Following that incident Sam also understands why her mother left Hopewell and tells Lonnie "I don't want to stay here," (p. 187). Sam wants to extricate herself from the complicated lives of those around her, including Emmett and Dawn. She begins to assert her independence more fully after she comes to terms with her mother's detachment. Although she wonders if it was "better not to care," Sam also knows that "there was so much she had to find out before she took off the way her mother had," (p. 190). Her maturity belying her age, Sam decides to forge her own path instead of blindly following in her mother's escapist footsteps.

Sam's sexual maturity is obvious throughout the novel and actually does not change too much. However, she does realize that Lonnie will not offer her the richness of a fully realized relationship and she breaks up with him. Exploring romance with Tom, an older man and Vietnam vet, Sam reaches a greater understanding of her own sexuality but simultaneously uncovers her inability to completely understand men. "Men were a total mystery," she muses (p. 184). Sam knows that like owning a car gave her power, that her sexuality also affords her a degree of power. In a curious mingling of innocence and experience, Sam confronts Tom's sexual dysfunction and thinks about the penis pump in a humorously matter-of-fact manner. Similarly, when Sam and Dawn discuss using Drano as a gender test for a baby, the teens do so without skepticism. Of course, this is partly a result of their small-town upbringing, still steeped in their grandmother's folklore.

However, Sam is an independent learner, a young woman who is "full of fire," (p. 60). She runs both as a way to relieve stress but also as a means to set herself apart from the crowd. Sam enjoys being different and asserts her individuality with aplomb. Her willingness to try new things is reflected in her odd food choices, like the smoked oysters and the clams on the menu. Sam also likes to feel that she has a semblance of control over the lives of others, as she tries to talk Dawn into having an abortion and constantly barrages Emmett with questions and concerns about Agent Orange. In large part, Sam's evolution hinges on her feeling like she is at "the center of others' dramas," and that "it was all up to her," (p. 178). Having her car allows her to break free from this position, as it permits her to find freedom.

Sam's journey of discovery is made largely because Vietnam doesn't seem real enough to her. Sam's epiphany comes when she attempts to reenact her father's experiences in country. Attempting to recreate the paddies of Vietnam by spending the night in the swamp, Sam seeks a palpable experience of the Vietnam War. But Emmett reminds her that… [read more]

Satire on Teenage Girls Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
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If she really wants to look like Jennifer Lopez, she'll have to do better than that.

None of them try particularly hard in school, but all are of above average intelligence. Their popularity depends on it, for one can't afford to waste the precious high school years on homework. Suddenly Madison's cell phone rings. They all look around and ask, "Was that you?" Fumbling in their purses (one with faux fur trim, the others pink leather), the girls identify the culprit caller.

Joey! Hi!" squeals Madison.

The others lean in gingerly, huge grins on their faces. Madison has had a crush on Joey for years and they're all dying for them to go out. The conversation continues, and the other three resume their meaty conversations and pay more attention to the MTV. The veejay is Danielle's favorite, a multi-racial woman with sensual dreadlocks.

I have GOT to get a shirt like that!" Rhonda exclaims. The girls vow to go shopping together the following day after school.

When Madison finishes her chat with Joey, the others begin their barrage of questions. Madison's eyes bulge but she betrays little. They aren't going out yet. Madison offers the others a cigarette from her pack. Joey smokes, but none of the others connect the offer with the phone call.

Before the foursome gets a chance to walk out of the house to indulge their vices, Danielle's mother calls her. After she impatiently screams, "What?" several times, Mrs. Jones opens her bedroom door.

I asked you not to barge in mom!" shouts Danielle.

I'm here to tell you that this Sunday we'll be going to a party at your aunt Jen's house. I want you to wear that blue dress we bought you for Christmas. OK?"

Danielle's mom smiles and says hello to her daughter's three best friends. Glancing down at their flared pants and pointy-toed boots, Mrs. Jones laughs to herself when Danielle says, "Mom! Why can't I ever just do my own thing?"… [read more]

Knowledge Views on the Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,893 words)
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The subjectivity of the social scientist can be carried even further with some of the other examples. A musicologist studies music and the history of music. Music, unlike regular historical events, can be quantified without much argument. The different notes in a musical scale can be said to correspond to specific oscillations of sound waves, numerical and physical values that… [read more]

Psychoanalytical Critical Analysis of Leslie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (945 words)
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She indicates that she is wallowing in her pain by dancing alone, that she wants to be left alone and that only Johnny can make her happy.

An analysis of this behavior would indicate a co-dependent person who cannot find happiness alone and needs to be validated by someone else's love of her. She is obviously devastated that someone else would be chosen over her and this could be an indication of a deflated ego. She is lacking a healthy sense of self and is allowing the actions or lack of actions on the part of another to affect her happiness.

These tendencies and idiosyncrasies indicate a lack of development, even as an adolescent, which we assume she is. Her choice of words indicates a sense of absence and a profound display of "self-Cancellation." She appears to have lost her self in her progressive dependence on her relationship with Johnny to bring her happiness.

Of course, she could also be exhibiting displacement behavior, causing her undue and extraordinary distress by putting too much significance on the events that took place in the beginning. Whatever the reason, she is apparently suffering through what must seem like an eternity.

The fact that the song was written in the 1960s when "going steady" was signified by wearing someone's ring is only another indicator of her angst. Imagine the overwhelming embarrassment this individual experienced when her believed boyfriend asks another girl to wear his ring on her birthday.

Suppressed anger almost rings through the words, particularly as described in the last two lyrics. The words also portray the fragility of this individual's self-worth within her own environment. Repression and a fragile ego have allowed her to fall victim the actions of others. She has not been able to create a world for herself in which she is free and independent enough to function on her own.

The remainder of the song suggests the ability to also take pleasure in another's pain. "well, now it's Judy's turn to cry...cause Johnny's come back to me" shows a propensity to feel superior in the face of another's loss or weakness. Again, this is not healthy behavior and could lead to a continuing pattern of destructive behavior.

In summation, the song depicts a young woman in conflict, who has a lack of self; a bruised ego and has some repressed feelings and emotions that allow her to become emotionally distraught by the behavior of others. She appears to be co-dependent and incapable of finding worth just in being with herself. She needs validation from others. Only when she feels that another is in pain and that she has Johnny back does she find equilibrium…… [read more]

Industry Structure: Perfect Competition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
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In every other aspect, these companies work independently from each other, invariably affecting market price and buying trends.

In 1942], a new record firm broke ranks and introduced a "pro-airplay" business model. Capitol Records executives believed that broadcasting recordings would stimulate rather than harm sales. In search of airplay, Capitol routinely promoted its recordings at radio stations, and it became the first record firm that routinely delivered free recordings to disk jockeys. With a dramatic increase in record sales, Capitol quickly rose to dominance in the record industry. Unable to ignore Capitol's successful "pro-airplay" model, other dominant record firms begrudgingly ceased their quest for attaining fees from radio stations." (Dowd, 2001, 2).

Another economic principle discussed in the article concerns consumer demand models. Fanning states, "I think the [industry's] approach of providing a limited catalog of music, providing services that are significantly below the consumer's expectations, and then simultaneously scaring them from trying to do what they want is the wrong approach. They really need to try to determine what are the core things that people really love and respect from a music service and make sure they satisfy those needs." (Wingfield, 2002, 2). In the theory of demand and supply, consumers will only purchase what they want. If a company offers them exactly what the consumer wants, it won't matter if it happens to be illegal. There will always be a market to consume that particular good. "If the marketplace desires a product, it will be provided -- regardless of whether the means of procuring that product is considered illegal. In the absence of nothing, the illegal service will continue." (Scott, 2001, 3).

When their very livelihood is at stake, record companies tend to cooperate to shut down their antagonists. However, a situation of independence and aggressive competition exists amongst them in vying for the consumer's dollars. These recording companies spend millions of dollars for exclusivity to a particular artist. In fact, their competitiveness is best shown by the fact that Bertelsmann were thinking of dropping their lawsuit against Napster and possibly lending the website up to $50 million because the executives liked the idea of a symbiotic relationship between record companies and websites like Napster (Dowd, 2001, 3).

The article "When the Music Stops" by Wingfield is interesting in the fact that it provides insight into the rather complicated industry of recorded music. In this oligopolistic market, collusion and competition occur almost simultaneously as record companies fight for survival and supremacy in a market that is constantly being attacked by technological innovation and the changing nature of consumer demand.


Dowd, Timothy J. (April 2001). The Napster Episode. http://www.icce.rug.nl/~soundscapes/VOLUME04/Napster_episode.html

Oligopoly. http://english.pbc.or.id/glos/o.html

Scott, John. (May 21, 2001). Who Will Make the Rules? Music Industry Faces Off at DC Conference. http://www.openp2p.com/pub/a/p2p/2001/05/21/lawyers.html

Wingfield, Nick. (November 2002). "When the Music Stops" in The Wall Street Journal, November 2002. http://www.wsjclassroom.com/archive/02nov/MEDI.htm… [read more]

Personal Thought and Authenticity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,071 words)
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One learns from something, and just in seconds, his or her mind wanders anywhere, creating his or her own thoughts, and makes an analysis about it. It's one's right to produce one's analysis. It's also one's right to believe on others', or to deny it.

If a person gives personal thoughts, based on one's personal experience, it will be a strong original concept for someone. People learn best from their experience. Although it is something about mind, the memory lasts in the deepest part of the heart. It haunts some people's dreams. It fills every step they take along the sidewalk. It plays in the conscious and unconscious vision. It cheers up the day, and could weighs down the night. It could affect people when they make decision, and consequently, affect others within their ring.

On the contrary, if a person chooses not to give a personal thought, that could be wise in other case. People don't read mind. People draw conclusion based on the prodigious impression they get from their learning process, including from personal experience. It is about a simple drawing; what is blue to one person could look red for others. Everything seems to be based on logical linking of facts one another. Conclusion is made based on assumption, which differs for each person. Accepting others' thought, is also an element of authenticity. Otherwise, people would learn for nothing.


Authenticity - experience outside the traditional for pop music, and fashion, means creating new shape, new song, fantasy, elements of thoughts.

For art and cooking - authentic = original, proven in the past.

So, what is original?

Who determines the tree of origin?

To be origin for other people?

Who created our own origin?

Does my mind need to work to find my own "origin"?

Should I always adapt things other people already done?

If it is about personal journey, should a writer bring a personal approach to gain the authenticity of one's work?

Well, yes and no.

A mean, it is a subjective matter. One learns from something, and just in seconds, his/her mind wanders anywhere, creating his/her own thoughts, analysis about it. It's one's right to produce one's analysis. It's also one's right to believe on others'. Or to deny it.

If a person gives personal thoughts, based on one's personal experience, it will be a strong original concept for someone. People learn best from their experience. Although it is something about mind, the memory lasts in the deepest part of the heart. It haunts some people's dreams. It fills every step they take along the sidewalk. It plays in the conscious and unconscious vision. It cheers up the day, and could weighs down the night.

It could affect people when they make decision, and consequently, affect others within their ring.

And if a person chooses not to give a personal thought, that could be wise. People don't read mind. People draw conclusion based on the prodigious impression they get from their learning process, including… [read more]

Piano Lesson, by August Wilson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (756 words)
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You gonna look up one day and it's all gonna be past you. Life's gonna be gone out of your hands -- there won't be enough to make nothing with. I'm standing here now, Berniece -- but I don't know how much longer I'm gonna be standing here waiting on you (Wilson 68).

Berniece also changes at the end of the play. She finally sits down to play the piano again, which she has not done since her youth. She brings the family back together - not just Boy Willy, but even the spirits of her ancestors, and saves their heritage.

The Piano Lesson's" protagonist is Boy Willy, he is the central pivot the play revolves around. It is his idea to sell the piano so he can buy a small plot of land that belonged to the family's ancestor. He also sets the main action of the play in motion, when he barges into Berniece's house to get the piano to sell.

I take my hat off whenever somebody say my daddy's name. But I ain't gonna be no fool about no sentimental value. You can sit up here and look at the piano for the next hundred years and it's just gonna be a piano. You can't make more than that. Now I want to get Sutter's land and I can go down and cash in the crop and get my seed. As long as I got the land and the seed then I'm alright...Cause that land give back to you. I can make me another crop and cash that in. I still got the land and the seed. But that piano don't put out nothing else. You ain't got nothing working for you (Wilson 51).

Boy Willie is trying desperately to be equal with the white people - one reason he wants to buy the land. He does not have time for the sentimentality of Berniece, he can only see the land as something concrete that can make him money, and make him a "man." He is also the character who changes the most at the end of the play. Berniece may begin playing the piano again, but Boy Willie gives up the piano, and his dream of owning the land. He has shifted…… [read more]

Stravinsky Fountain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,229 words)
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Stravinsky's style is soft and lovely, serene and mellow in the pieces depicted by this sculpture. The artist has been sure to make the curves silky smooth and swooping. A person is tempted to go over to the body and relax her mind among the voluptuous curves. The shapes in this sculpture represent swirls of color, a target on a… [read more]

Amadeus Is the Fictional Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (880 words)
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The sound of music falling brings Salieri out of his reveries as he studies Mozart's manuscripts for the first time and realizes Mozart's genius. In his anger at God, we hear the fire before he burns his crucifix on it, as he vows to ruin Mozart.

The absence of sound is also used effectively. When Salieri appears at Mozart's door, dressed in his father's masquerade costume, the complete silence focuses us on Mozart's terror, finally broken by the sound of coins. Silence also communicates his anxiety when he comes home and realizes Constanza has left him.

Later, when Mozart is completely immersed in composing the Requiem Salieri has secretly commissioned, the volume of the music he hears in his head as he composes communicates this to us.

Later, Mozart collapses at the opening performance of his opera The Magic Flute. Salieri pretends to befriend him, bringing him back to his apartment. However, the silence reminds us that danger is near. This is combined with camera angles to communicate Salieri's intent.

As Salieri writes down the music dictated to him by Mozart, we here the music in Mozart's head. Gradually, Salieri is drawn into the music as well. The use of the music and their singing communicates their collaboration on the project.

In the next scene, Mozart's wife returns to their home by carriage to the sound of dramatic music from the Requiem, sensing that something is wrong.

Music often shows Mozart's state of mind, and as he asks to sleep, the music gradually fades away, just as Mozart is fading away. In the ensuing silence, Constanza confronts Salieri and orders him to leave. This scene ends with Mozart's death, the ultimate silence.

Once more, sound is used to aid in transition. As pallbearers remove Mozart's body from his apartment building, we hear the rain through the opening door before we see it, assisting the transition from inside to outside. Music of the Requiem plays, louder than ambient sounds such as the carriage, suggesting that his music will transcend his death. Some sounds at the end of the movie are harshly realistic, however: his casket contains a trap door on the end, and his body is dumped into a mass grave with a jarring thud. We hear as well as see the coffin, which will be reused, put back on the carriage.

As this scene ends, the music ends and we return to Salieri's confession to the priest. Salieri has become completely mad, and is convinced that even Mozart's death mocked him. As the movie ends, Salieri - and the audience - hear Mozart's crude laugh one more time.… [read more]

History of Social Dancing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (735 words)
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Over the years, the flamenco dance has progressed, but today the same can only be seen in traditional Hispanic gatherings.

Another social dance, the Slow Fox Trot evolved during the Victorian era, which gained popularity due it's faster pace. The name given to it was, One Step or Two Step, and it was performed by the dancers in such a manner, that they put a step per beat or two steps per bar. In the United States, the Slow Fox Trot became famous when it was introduced as the Castle Walk in the nightclub performances of Vermon and Irene Castle as well as popularized by Harry Fox in the New York stage show "Ziegfeld Follies in 1913.

The later part of the 19th century witnessed various types of dances more commonly know as Quicksteps. For example the Charleston, the Shimmy, and the Black Bottom, all brought and developed by the Negro working class. It gained popularity in the white section of the society after it was included in Ziegfeld Follies, who toured the entire U.S., and publicized music and dances which were previously limited to the Negroes. In this particular dance, the dancers wildly swayed their arms and legs at 200 to 240 beats per minute with an equally fast paced music. The Shimmy was another import from the Nigeria, where it was called the Shika. This particular dance was termed sexy, as the dancer, normally a female, would move the lower part of her body in such a speed, all without moving her legs, that the audience would be awestruck by the movements of the body. The present day shika, is performed by shaking the shoulders or hips in a very rapid style, all the while rotating them alternatively left, right, forward, and backward on the vertical axis of the body. (Evans 2001)


Evans, Don Herbison, History of Modern Ballroom Dancing, December 2001 http://www-staff.mcs.uts.edu.au/~don/pubs/modern.html

Primary Sources:

memory.loc.gov/ammem/dihtml/diessay9.html www-staff.mcs.uts.edu.au/~don/pubs/modern.html www.dosado.com/articles/hist-maca.html www.centralhome.com/ballroomcountry/foxtrot.htm www.mayihavethisdance.com/onlineinstructionhome.htm www.folkdancing.org… [read more]

Seattle: A City of Community Essay

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This sense of locality increases the sense of communality amongst inhabitants and residents of particular neighborhoods within a city.

Even Seattle's commercial industry is noted for its friendliness. Starbucks coffee is perhaps the most famous product of the city. Starbucks is credited today with introducing a revolution in America's suburban malls and fast food eating establishments, making them places to meet and commune with other individuals, rather than simply grab a cup of joe and run. Starbucks provided a franchised version of a European sidewalk cafe. In Seattle, individuals were more apt to sit in open areas to engage in conversation, rather than congregate in smoky corners of bars to sit and chat privately, or to go to people's houses to engage in isolation with individuals they already knew from work. This openness of exchange allows for a freer flow of artistic exchange and creativity, and also creates a greater sense of engagement with the community and a greater sense of responsibility to the community.

Perhaps this is one reason why Seattle is known as one of the most environmentally friendly cities in the entire United States. Part of this distinction is no doubt rooted in the city's beauty, but perhaps it is also linked to the greater sense of responsibility individuals have to something larger than themselves and their immediate family and place of work. Environmentalism by its very nature is not about the individual. Environmentalism is about the individual's responsibility to make a quality life for everyone else living on the planet, and for future generations.

Another reasons for Seattle's social consciousness may be its youth. Seattle is a relatively young and impressionable place, and is filled with transplanted individuals, rather than people who grew up where they lived and continued to live in their current establishment simply out of routine. Businesses as a result have more of an incentive to encourage their new, young workers to stay with benefits and with fair labor practices, an idea that is again best exemplified by Starbucks excellent stock options policies for even its rank-and-file employees. A young city is also much more focused on nightlife rather than on production, which allows for a greater exchange between individuals of different professions and classes. Young people also tend to be more mobile in their professions and in their social relationships, another reason for Seattle's essentially communitarian ethos.

Seattle's plurality of cultures and attitudes, as well as its strong emphasis on the outdoors and upon healthy living is quintessentially American. But it is also evidence that one cannot make too many broad and sweeping generalizations about life in American cities. Seattle is a testimony to the diversity of attitudes in America.… [read more]

Ich Grolle Nicht Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,161 words)
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Schubert did, in fact, have a great affinity for the quasi-verbal expressive style of Schubert. "Ich Grolle Nicht" employs some of these elements of style, including contrasting sections in related keys without genuine modulation, which yields new contrasts within the piece. Schumann demonstrates his mastery of singing a piano piece and turning it back into a lieder. This is seen in the prelude and postlude of "Ich Grolle Nicht," which exist as self-expressive solos.

Schumann held a lifelong concern with the status of society and the human condition. His setting of "Ich Grolle Nicht" exemplifies the exploration of the tensions between forced optimism and brooding doubt. Schumann took the poem a step beyond the world of intense and changing moods that the poet originally created.

Much of Charles Ives' early attention was centered on finding the profound emotions and spiritual aspirations of everyday music. He aimed to capture the spirit of the people and the sweet sound of the essence of emotion itself. Studying under Horatio Parker at Yale brought much education about shaping the forces of music in Ives' life.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Ives faced the dilemna of how to more properly organize his various musical interests into a cohesive form he could call his own. His enthusiasm and interest led him to the traditional European form of symphony, sonata, and string quartet, while also upholding his love of tradiational American forms and his desire to experiment.

It was during this time of his search for a common thread to his compositions that Ives composed his setting of "Ich Grolle Nicht." This piece is very characterstic of much of his work and experimentation at the time. The piece opens very softly, and is much more instrumental throughout than Schumann's version.

The air of subtlety expressed in Ives' treatment is much more elaborate than in Schumann's. Ives takes care to keep the entire work fairly mellow. The tune seems to roll along much smoother than that of Schumann. Ives creates a much more dramatic distinction between piano and vocal segments.

Ives also seems to be more interested in bringing attention to the aspect of "Ich Grolle Nicht" as a love poem, rather than as a statement on civilization. The slower tempo and smoother harmony serves to lessen the emotional impact of the song from being a biting commentary to a much more soothing melody.

Schumann uses a diatonic melody in his version, whereas Ives has opted for a chromatic expression of the poem, perhaps as a means of experimentation with the piece.

Schumann's harmony is very individual; he does not employ chromatic colouring to a very great extent, but is fond of sudden modulations to comparatively remote keys, and diatonic dissonances and sequences that may be traced to his love for the work of Bach.

The presentation supplied by each composer is unique, and presents his own view of the world and the treatment of music at that time in his life, especially as each man… [read more]

Dreamer and the Dream Emily Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (570 words)
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She is an actress reciting lines. She portrays a normal, small town girl who goes to school, falls in love, gets married, has babies, and dies. Throughout the production, the omnipresent Stage Manager has to remind the audience that they are watching a play; that it is not real life. Antithetically, Princess Diana lived a life that had the appearance of a dream. She falls in love with the Prince of Wales, has a magnificent storybook wedding, enters a life of pomp and circumstance, moves into the castle, and gives birth to two princes in the following three years. She probably had to remind herself that all of this was real. However, as time passed, her life progressed from real to surreal. Diana's dream life became a bad dream, a nightmare of and self-deprecation, deceit, divorce, and humiliation. Emily's simple, happy, ordinary life was a dream that Diana was never able to realize

Emily is a lovable and loving character whose life begins and ends with the curtain. She is an illustration of human warmth and simple pleasures. Because she is part of a work of fiction, she can return from the grave and travel in time to her twelfth birthday. We are able to take advantage of the lessons she learned after death to enhance our own lives while we are still living. We can find joy in a beautiful sunrise or music in the voice of a loved one. We can delight in a thunderstorm and take pleasure from everything around us. We are able to do this because Emily is a character in a play. However, Diana's death, as she was human,…… [read more]

New America Walt Whitman's Vision Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


[2: (Whitman, N.d.)]

The poem "What He Thought" by Heather McHugh uses a style of prose that is reminiscent of Whitman's work -- it is definitely written in free verse with a wide variety of different line length, punctuation, and content. She writes about a trip she takes to Europe in which she has the opportunity to represent herself as an American poet among her European counter parts or the "Italian literati" as she calls them in the poem.

The statue represents

Giordano Bruno, brought to be burned in the public square because of his offence against authority, which was to say the Church. His crime was his belief the universe does not revolve around the human being: God is no fixed point or central government but rather is poured in waves, through all things: all things move. "If God is not the soul itself, he is the soul OF the world." Such was his heresy. The day they brought him forth to die[footnoteRef:3] [3: (McHugh, N.d.)]

McHugh is appealing to Whitman's vision in this passage by the way she points out the discrimination of beliefs that was present in the historical development of Italy. I believe it is something of a tribute to Whitman's vision that she questions poetry that is created in such an environment. It stands as a contrast of the freedom of belief and expression that America was founded upon.

Works Cited

McHugh, H. (N.d.). What He Thought. Retrieved from Poets.org: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15450

Whitman, W. (N.d.). I Hear America Singing. Retrieved from Poets.org: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15752… [read more]

Swagger: Verb: To Walk Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" And Aaron Carter produced a song called 'Swaged up."

Up-and-comer Soulja Boy, too, used the term a lot when he sang his rap song "She likes my swag," (Souljaboytellem.com). On 'Swag', a song never released, he used the term about 100 times (Wickman, 2012). Later in 2008, he launched his phrase "Turn My Swag On,"

The word 'swagger' may have reached its peak in 2008 when T.I. Jay-Z, Kanye West and Lil Wayne produced the song "Swagga Like Us." In that same year, teenage popstar, Justin Beiber proudly proclaimed that he had a 'swagger coach', and used it in his 'Boyfriend' when he sang "swag, swag, swag on you." (Wickman, 2012). In that same year mention came out about a Swagger Wagon too showing that it had transplanted itself to other fields.

Many corporations fell into the patterns. They recruited 'Swagger for their advertisements, replacing the words for oldies such as 'Fresh's and 'Hype'. It was now hip to say that a certain item or service had swagger, and that icons and celebrities were individuals who possessed swagger. Companies themselves had swagger and, in fact, everything of merit possessed swagger. LL Cool J. In 2008 gave the commercial of Old Spice 'Swagger'. There was also a rap song called Swagger like us, and the term has apparently made its way into foreign countries too.

'Swagger' and 'swag' became so popular that All Things Considered called swag "Hip-Hop's Word of the Year" in 2011, and The New Yorker noted that swag had become "a noun, an adjective, a verb, and an all-purpose expression of agreement or endorsement (Wickman, 2012).

Barrow (2010), however, thinks that 'swagger' may have finally met its demise killed now possibly by Toyota.


Barrow, J (2010), SLANG EDITORIAL: The Death Of "Swagger"


The Atlantic 'Swagger' and Other Everyday Words Invented by Famous Authors http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2012/05/swagger-and-other-everyday-words-invented-by-famous-authors/257474/#slide3

Online Etymology Dictionary


Wickman, F. (March 30, 2012) Who Invented "Swag"?

http://www.slate.com/blogs/browbeat/2012/03/30/who_invented_swag_and_swagger_jay_z_soulja_boy_brand_nubian_.html… [read more]

Happiness' as Myth Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


One moment you are in a good mood and the next in a bad mood. They pass over us; just 'happen'. It is the way that we deal with these thoughts that can best define the outcome of our lives. Aptly, her book was called "Loving what is," and her program became known as "the Work."

Katie Byron should know. She spent years wrestling with depression and, one day, lying on the floor of a neglected motel, awoke to find her depression had disappeared. She returned to her British village a new person. Her family and the villagers noticed her rejuvenated appearance, and v very soon they flocked to her for advice. Byron's ideas differ from the trite prescription of the pop-help industry. They have come from herself. From her suffering. And, as she noted, we pursue one self-help technique after the other in search of that slippery thing called happiness. In the end, happiness is not a bovine concept as commonly thought. Rather it is thoughts, or instance, or circumstances that 'happen. The way we deal with them determines our state of mind. And meaningfulness, rather than happiness, may be a more worthwhile, authentic, and genuine construct to pursue.

Goethe stated it in a different way:

It is not doing the things we like to do,

But liking the things we have to do

That makes life blessed.

'Happiness', a common misnomer, may be just a myth. It is fleeting, bovine, never exists. More authentic and substantial is meaningfulness. That is where our pursuits should lie.


Byron K. Loving what is: four questions that can change your life, New York: Harmony Books, c2002.

Winterson, J. Why be happy when you could be normal? New York:…… [read more]

Formalist Comparative Literary Analysis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … young band "Fun" had recent success with the release of their song, "We Are Young" in collaboration with Janelle Monae. In addition to a variety of musical styles and movements to convey its message, the song also uses several literary elements. To convey the central idea of lovers remaining together and being each other's passion and support despite obstacles, the artists use symbolism, metaphor, and repetition.

In "We Are Young," there are several metaphors, most of which appear to focus on the strenghts of the relationship in question. Three metaphors that appear particularly important include the words fire, sun, and the idea of youth. Youth, conveyed by the line "We Are Young," is a metaphor for strength and resilience. The singer includes both himself and his partner in this assertion, implying that their youth and energy is a collective strength. The word "fire" in the line "let's set the world on fire" conveys the idea of energy as associated with the youth and culminating in the Sun as a metaphor for the extent of the youth and energy that is in the couple as a collective unit. "We can burn brighter than the sun" refers to the fact that, warm and energetic as the sun is, the couple's warmth, energy, and strength are regarded at an even higher level. This element is therefore used to carry the main message of resilience and support despite the various obstacles the couple face.

Symbolism is a second element, and used to convey some of the obstacles the couple faces. The first stanza, for example, begins with what can be regarded as a list of challenges. The "scar" that the "lover" is trying to forget, for example, symbolizes what has gone wrong between the couple. There has been some violence. She is trying to forget it and he is trying "take it back." Another symbol in the first stanza is the singer's reference to "some sunglasses." This is an interesting symbol, since it conveys more than one implied meaning. First, it clearly symbolizes what can be referred to as "coolness." The singer's seat has been taken by, presumably, a person he regards as "cooler," more…… [read more]

Hear America Singing, Walt Whitman Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Whitman proceeds to state that he hears "[t]he shoemaker singing as he sits on his bend -- the hatter singing as he stands" (line 6). Singing can also be considered to be functional as Whitman notices "[t]he boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat -- the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck" and "[t]he carpenter singing his, as he measures his plank or beam" (line 5 & 3).

Whitman also pays attention to the songs that women sing although it can be argued that due to the little attention that he pays to them within the poem, their mention appears to be more of an afterthought. By not focusing attention on each individual woman instead writing, "The delicious singing of the mother -- or of the young wife at work -- or of the girl sewing or washing -- Each singing what belongs to her, and to none else," Whitman also highlights the vocational limitations that women were confronted with during that time (line 8). Whitman acknowledges that women had very few opportunities and were often limited to being mothers, wives, or seamstresses and clothes washers.

Regardless of the limitations that women were confronted with and the vast array of vocations that men are part of, they all come together at night to celebrate their mutual efforts in the construction of America. Each person plays a unique role in society and without his or her contribution then there would be no progress. Whitman recognizes that these people also take time to enjoy themselves and their efforts. He writes, "The day what belongs to the day -- At night, the party of young fellows, robust, friendly,/Singing, with open mouths, their strong melodious songs" (line 9-10). In this sense, Whitman associates singing with work and with pleasure each concept being intrinsically linked in the construction of America.

Works Cited

"On "I Hear America Singing." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois at Urbana-

Champaign. Web. 8 June 2012.

Whitman, Walt. "I Hear America Singing." from Leaves…… [read more]

Casablanca Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,154 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The song is heard repeatedly throughout the film, however, it is only played when Rick and Ilsa interact with each other and serves as a reminder that they used to have a passionate affair, and although they still have feelings for each other, Rick recognizes that Ilsa must be with her husband. Additionally, the song's lyrics emphasize that Rick and Ilsa's love for each other is timeless and cannot be broken. While "As Time Goes By" is used to identify the relationship between Rick and Ilsa, it is hard to believe that the song was almost taken out of the film in favor of a song that would be composed by Max Steiner, however, "Hal B. Wallis replied that since the filming had ended, Ingrid Bergman had cut her hair very short for "For Whom the Bell Tolls," which was shooting at a distant locale and she therefore could not re-shoot already-completed scenes that had used "As Time Goes By" (IMDB).

Additionally, in the chronological narrative, there are many events that transpire that allows the audience to anticipate what is going to happen in subsequent scenes. For instance, when Signor Ugarte boasts to Rick that he was able to obtain letters of transit by murdering a couple German soldiers, the audience can surmise that Rick will somehow find a way to get his hands on the letters, especially when Ilsa suddenly appears and is once again part of his life. Another example of Rick's actions precipitating how future scenes will play out occurs when a young woman approaches him and pleads for help for her and her husband. Although Rick does not owe this young couple anything, he proceeds to tell the croupier to allow the woman's husband to win, but just enough money to pay for documents that will allow them to leave the country. While Rick appears to be cynical, he is truly a romantic at heart and will go out of his way to help other couples be together because he knows that he will never be with the person that he truly loves. A series of events that takes an unexpected turn occur towards the end of the film. While Rick and Ilsa, and to an extent, Victor, recognize that there is an inseparable bond between them, and given that Rick has Signor Ugarte's letters of transit, the audience is led believe that Rick and Ilsa will run away together, however, Rick, as a former gunrunner, recognizes that it is necessary for the defeat of the Third Reich that Victor be granted safe passage out of Casablanca. Additionally, because Rick loves Ilsa so much, he must make sure that she too finds safe passage, even if it means that he entrusts Victor to look out for her.

The use of the song "As Time Goes By" to identify the relationship between Rick and Ilsa has become so ingrained in popular culture that it is difficult to imagine how different the film could have been if a… [read more]

Legality of the "Individual Mandate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to the Legal Dictionary Online, "As a general rule, specific performance is applied in breach of contract actions where monetary damages are inadequate, primarily where the contract involves land or a unique chattel."

In November of 2010, Steinway announced its Imagine Series Limited Edition, which "is modeled after the white Steinway grand piano that John Lennon presented to Yoko Ono on her birthday in 1971, which is still at their famous Manhattan residence -- the Dakota." These limited-edition pianos are unique in that they are specifically modeled after the original Lennon Steinway; however, they do not have the uniqueness of the original model.

Question 4: Episode 1: What is the right thing to do?

Michael Sandel presents difficult questions in his initial episode by presenting what-if scenarios that offer unpleasant choices: to kill five people or to kill one? This seems simple enough to decide, and most would decide on a course of action that would take the fewest lives. When additional variables are factored into the equation, the course of action suddenly seems less clear. Sandel describes these two types of thinking as consequentialist moral reasoning and categorical moral reasoning. Consequentialist moral reasoning was written about by Jeremy Bentham, the 18th century political English philosopher whose ideas were known as utilitarianism. The second school of thought Sandel presents, categorical moral reasoning, is what we read about in Immanuel Kant's writings.

Personal and political risks are inherent in undertaking this type of study, Sandel points out to his students. Reading the theories of these different schools of philosophy causes individuals to see things in a different way, and once they have done so, the experience changes them. The right thing to do, at this early stage of study, would be to take the course of action that takes the fewest lives.


British History Online. University of London and History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved electronically on May 3, 2012 from http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=47463

Mears, Bill. Supreme Court divided over health care mandate. Retrieved electronically on May

3, 2012 from http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/27/justice/scotus-health-care/index.html

Specific performance definition from The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved electronically

May 2, 2012 from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Specific+performance

Statute of frauds and contract law. Retrieved electronically on May 3, 2012, from http://www.expertlaw.com/library/business/statute_of_frauds.html

Steinway announces John Lennon grand piano. Beatles Bible. Retrieved electronically May 2,

2012 from http://www.beatlesbible.com/2010/11/01/steinway-john-lennon-grand-piano/… [read more]

Butterfly Screen Play M Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,072 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Much to his surprise, a young woman has become interested in him. She is strong and sees great potential in Rene, so she tolerates his awkward behavior. The couple marries and his wife helps Rene gain employment with the French Embassy in China.

In an office next to the embassy, the Chinese are attempting to somehow gain access to the confidential information regarding the French's plans for China. Realizing that the French appear to be planning something, Commarade Chin employs the help of one of China's best spys, Song Liling. Song's assignment is to somehow gain access to the embassy through the embassy's newest member, Rene. So immediately Song begins researching Rene and hashes out a plan to strike up an affair with the man. The key to Song's plan is to convince Rene that he is a misunderstood woman. Song already knows that Rene is not the brightest member of the embassy, so with the help of Chin, he creates his disguise.

Knowing how much Rene loves the opera, Chin works with the local opera house to have Song impersonate an opera diva on the night when Rene is seeing the opera "Madame Butterfly." The plan works and Rene is taken aback by this talented opera diva. Rene goes to speak with Song after the performance where Song uses all of his "feminine" charms among them his ability to use an effective falsetto voice and bat his eyes. Rene is so flattered by the flirting that he is instantly charmed and decides to sneak away from his wife that night in order to have an affair with Song. Their love affair continues during the duration of Rene's stay in China. Unbeknownst to Rene, he is constantly revealing classified information to his lover who is reporting every word to Chin.

After a year at the embassy, Rene has a meeting with Manuel Toulin to discuss his plans for China. Horrified by Manuel's suggestions, Rene resigns and moves back to France with his soon-to-be ex-spouse who can now not even tolerate her husband.

After many years, Song is once again called into Chin's office and told that he must continue his affair with Rene in order to obtain more information for the government. This time Song is given a child and told to explain that the child is the result of their affair and should be adopted by Rene. Rene is stunned, but foolish as always so he believes the ploy and resumes his relationship with Song which continues for 15 years until Rene is arrested one day by the French police for treason.

Now Rene's memories shift to the trial where he was made a fool as Song reveals his true identity and admits that the entire plan had been a rouse. Rene is stunned and embarrassed beyond words as the evidence of his treason continues to surface.

After the trial scene ends, the viewers are back in Rene's cell where he explains that he has lived ever since.

Reference… [read more]

Concert Reviews in Los Angeles: Sting Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Concert Reviews in Los Angeles:

Sting at the Wiltern Theatre, November 29th, 2011:

On the first of a three night stand, Sting took the stage at the sold-out Wiltern Theatre to rapturous applause. The former Police frontman and solo superstar rifled through an array of hits from the whole of his catalogue, delivering a performance that was once rewarding and simultaneously, almost businesslike in demeanor.

Sting's reputation for terse dialogue and restrained showmanship are justified. But so too is recognition of his brilliance as a songsmith. With the backing support of drummer Vinnie Colauita, guitarist Dominic Miller and a female vocalist and violinist included in the arrangement, Sting shone as the singer, bassist and mind behind such solo hits as the sultry "Fortress Around Your Heart," the soaring "Desert Rose" and the elegant "Fields of Gold." Sting's trademark quirkiness and stoicism were frequently on display but the superstar did lead a rousing sing-along on "Desert Rose," which is does bear noting was only the first of three encores. In spite of the performance's relative brevity, clocking in at just two hours, this approach created the feel of a far grander performance.

This was also helped by the emphasis that the performer placed on material from his days with the Police during the segment of the show. While 80s radio stables like "Every Little Thing She Does is Magic" and "Driven to Tears" appear during the regular set, the first encore would segue into a haunting rendition of the 1983 #1 hit "Every Breath You Take." This was followed by a second encore featuring "Next to You" from the Police's 1978 debut record, Outlandos d'Amour and a third encore in which Sting performed a solo acoustic "Message in a Bottle." At the risk of seeming sentimental, I was…… [read more]

Acoustic Properties of Humpback Whale Article Review

Article Review  |  6 pages (1,809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The findings provide a foundation for future research into the physiology of sound production and the relationship of sound production and whale behavior. This study constricts itself to the study of single whale singers. However, the methodology of this study could be applied to a singer and an escort to examine the difference in the acoustic properties of whale song units used in the company of another whale. This could provide further insight into the meaning or social connotation of the different units.

Au and colleagues present three major research findings. For single whale singers emerged between 15 and 25 meters in the ocean, the authors found a maximum source level of 173 dB and calculated that conspecifics of the singer at two-whale lengths distance would be exposed to a source level of 147 dB. They estimate the upper frequency of whale hearing beyond 24 kHz and found the beginning of directivity in high-frequency song units. These research findings have an impact on the larger topic of interest by illustrating the potential danger of anthropogenic sound pollution of the ocean and by providing a foundation for future research on the physiology of sound production in humpback whales.


Au, W.W.L., Pack, A.A., Lammers, M.O., Herman, L.M., Deakos, M.H., Andrews, K. (2006). Acoustic properties of humpback whale songs. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120, 2, 1103-1110.

Darling, J.D., Berube, M. (2001). Interactions of singing humpback whales with other males. Marine Mammal Science, 17, 3, 570-584.

NRC (National Research Council). (2003). Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals. National Academy, Washington, D.C.

Payne, K., Tyack, P., Payne, R. (1983). Progressive changes in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): a detailed analysis of two seasons in Hawaii. Communication and Behavior of Whales, 9-57.

Richardson, W.J., Greene, Jr. C.W., Malme, C.I.,…… [read more]

Piano Lesson in August Wilson Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (952 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


She again reveals her suspicions that Willie murdered Sutter and laments that "all this thieving and killing and thieving and killing, and what did it ever lead to? More killing and more thieving" (Wilson 52). If she could, she would simply escape the past and leave it buried and forgotten, although in the end she makes a different choice. She has an affair with Willie's friend Lymon, which symbolizes the end of her widowhood, but she also seems reluctant to marry him -- or Avery for that matter. Given that she is the heroine of the story and the true keeper of the old traditions, neither of those characters seem quite up to her standards.

In the last act of play, Berniece finally accepts the power of the piano and everything that it represents, by using it to save her brother's life against Sutter's vengeful ghost. At the same time, she also had a gun and was prepared to shoot Willie if he attempted to move the piano without her permission, but when it came to the struggle against Sutter, she has to protect her brother and reluctantly invokes the spirits of their ancestors when Avery's prayers fail to exorcise the evil spirit. Up to this time, she had feared to power of their ancestors, but when it became a matter of saving Willie's life she cries out "I want you to help me" and names her mother Mama Ola, and also Mama Esther and Mama Berniece.

In the end, the ancestors drive Sutter out of the house thanks to the power of Berniece, although she was also prepared to kill Willie or anyone else to protect the piano. Berniece is truly a heroic shaman and priestess, even though the play is set in Pittsburgh during the Great Depression, which would seem a very unlikely location for any of these traditional beliefs. Throughout most of the play she had actually feared this and may even have considered marrying Avery, the Christian minister. She decides whether the old traditions, legacies and family history will survive rests in her hands, since she could simply have agreed to sell the piano and taken half of the money, or agreed to let Avery use it in his church. Her choice was to save her brother's life but not to follow his plans to take the place of the Sutter family, which had enslaved, oppressed and lynched them for generations. Instead, her path was the feminist and matriarchal one, that leads them back to Africa and away from modern America.


Wilson, August. The…… [read more]

What Does the Grass Symbolize in Whitman's Song of Myself? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Song of Myself

An Analysis of the Symbolism of Grass in "Song of Myself"

Walt Whitman's "Song of Myself" is the answer to Ralph Waldo Emerson's challenge that American poetry define itself according to its own terms. "Song of Myself" -- as the title implies -- does exactly that: It is both revolutionary in design and evocative in its use imagery. Appearing in Whitman's life-long work of revision Leaves of Grass, "Song of Myself" uses the image of grass to define Whitman's democratically American soul -- and at the same time struggles to identify the exact significance of each blade of grass. This paper will analyze the symbolism of grass in "Song of Myself" and show why it takes on a significance that is at once tangible and elusive.

The very first stanza tells us exactly what kind of poem "Song of Myself" is -- it is an exultation of Self: "I celebrate myself, and sing myself" (1.1). It is also a poem of community -- and the bonds of community -- as dictated by Whitman's Self: "What I assume you shall assume, / For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you" (1.2-3). The reflections that Whitman presents, of course, are his own -- free from "creeds and schools" (1.10), and "without check with original energy" (1.13). Therefore, it is on Whitman's watch that the soul of America will be sung: "I lean and loafe at my ease observing a spear of summer grass" (1.5). And it is the spear of summer grass that becomes for him the object of his ruminations.

The grass is a symbol of all that is common in the common man of America -- it is the new man who has grown up out of the soil of a disparate ancestry, now rooted in the New World. Of course, Whitman invites us to join him as he reflects: "Loafe with me on the grass" (5.3). But his reflections are put into perspective by the query of a child who asks…… [read more]

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