"Music / Musicians / Instruments" Essays

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Tempest -- Act 2 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


There would be lots of tropical plants and trees, and perhaps even a tropical bird or two in the trees. However, to show the darkness underlying the scene, it would be set not in full sun, but in twilight, where the lighting would be darker, and more ominous, somehow. There would be storm clouds, and when Caliban hides from the storm, there should be lightening flashing, and thunder, and wind rustling through the leaves of the trees, making the island seem frightening and ominous. This scene is layered, and so the set should be layered too, which some areas that look like a beautiful paradise, and others that look more frightening. There could be a swamp or pond on the set that looked kind of slimy and muddy, where the characters could gather when they talk.

The costumes would be minimal, and what the three were wearing would show their status. Caliban might simply be wearing some kind of shorts or bathing suit, with bare feet and the cloak to hide him from the storm. Perhaps he would wear a hat or bandana on his head. Trinculo and Stephano would be better dressed. They would have polo shirts or t-shirts, better hats (maybe leather), and shoes of some sort that would be right on the island. They would look as if they had survived a shipwreck, but they would certainly look better than Caliban.

Caliban's props would include some sticks of wood, his cape, and that is about it. The other props would be the bottle or bota bag that the men drink from, and that is really all they need. The scene is really carried by the actors, rather than their props and scenery. The scenery and the stage can add to the scene, but this is an important scene that shows who these three characters are, and why they act the way they do, so it is more important that the actors be able to carry off the scene and connect with the audience, rather than relying on the set to create the real meat of the…… [read more]

Interpretation of Song Lyrics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Song's Lyrics

In terms of commercial success, Destiny's Child was one of the most popular female R&B groups of the late 1990's (Destiny's pp). In 1990, original members Beyonce Knowles and LaTavia Roberson met at an audition in Houston, Texas when they were only nine years old, and began developing an act with the help of Knowles' father (Destiny's pp). In 1992, Beyonce's cousin, Kelendria Rowland joined the group and in 1993, LeToya Luckett joined (Destiny's pp). The group finally landed a recording contract with Columbia in 1997, and made their recorded debut on the 1997's "Killing Time," a song included on the soundtrack of the movie "Men in Black" (Destiny's pp). Then their self-titled debut albums was released in 1998, and by the year 2000, the group was the biggest female R&B group on the scene, and the members indisputable superstars (Destiny's pp).

In November 2004, the group released the album Destiny Fulfilled, which includes the song "Free," a very powerful song, the title of which is used to symbolize many things. The term "free" is used to describe a woman's choice to leave a relationship when her partner is ungrateful and no longer puts her best interests ahead of his own, such as in the lines, "telling lies...I stayed and pacified...While I kept denying the truth" (Free pp). The term is also refers to a woman's need to be "free" to express her emotions through her words, as with the lines, "Finally I don't care...I'm going to keep it real with you," meaning she is no longer going to hide the truth, but is finally going to express herself (Free pp).

The chorus reads, "Ain't no feeling like…… [read more]

Formalist Comparative Literary Analysis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … young band "Fun" had recent success with the release of their song, "We Are Young" in collaboration with Janelle Monae. In addition to a variety of musical styles and movements to convey its message, the song also uses several literary elements. To convey the central idea of lovers remaining together and being each other's passion and support despite obstacles, the artists use symbolism, metaphor, and repetition.

In "We Are Young," there are several metaphors, most of which appear to focus on the strenghts of the relationship in question. Three metaphors that appear particularly important include the words fire, sun, and the idea of youth. Youth, conveyed by the line "We Are Young," is a metaphor for strength and resilience. The singer includes both himself and his partner in this assertion, implying that their youth and energy is a collective strength. The word "fire" in the line "let's set the world on fire" conveys the idea of energy as associated with the youth and culminating in the Sun as a metaphor for the extent of the youth and energy that is in the couple as a collective unit. "We can burn brighter than the sun" refers to the fact that, warm and energetic as the sun is, the couple's warmth, energy, and strength are regarded at an even higher level. This element is therefore used to carry the main message of resilience and support despite the various obstacles the couple face.

Symbolism is a second element, and used to convey some of the obstacles the couple faces. The first stanza, for example, begins with what can be regarded as a list of challenges. The "scar" that the "lover" is trying to forget, for example, symbolizes what has gone wrong between the couple. There has been some violence. She is trying to forget it and he is trying "take it back." Another symbol in the first stanza is the singer's reference to "some sunglasses." This is an interesting symbol, since it conveys more than one implied meaning. First, it clearly symbolizes what can be referred to as "coolness." The singer's seat has been taken by, presumably, a person he regards as "cooler," more…… [read more]

New America Walt Whitman's Vision Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


[2: (Whitman, N.d.)]

The poem "What He Thought" by Heather McHugh uses a style of prose that is reminiscent of Whitman's work -- it is definitely written in free verse with a wide variety of different line length, punctuation, and content. She writes about a trip she takes to Europe in which she has the opportunity to represent herself as an American poet among her European counter parts or the "Italian literati" as she calls them in the poem.

The statue represents

Giordano Bruno, brought to be burned in the public square because of his offence against authority, which was to say the Church. His crime was his belief the universe does not revolve around the human being: God is no fixed point or central government but rather is poured in waves, through all things: all things move. "If God is not the soul itself, he is the soul OF the world." Such was his heresy. The day they brought him forth to die[footnoteRef:3] [3: (McHugh, N.d.)]

McHugh is appealing to Whitman's vision in this passage by the way she points out the discrimination of beliefs that was present in the historical development of Italy. I believe it is something of a tribute to Whitman's vision that she questions poetry that is created in such an environment. It stands as a contrast of the freedom of belief and expression that America was founded upon.

Works Cited

McHugh, H. (N.d.). What He Thought. Retrieved from Poets.org: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15450

Whitman, W. (N.d.). I Hear America Singing. Retrieved from Poets.org: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15752… [read more]

Swagger: Verb: To Walk Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" And Aaron Carter produced a song called 'Swaged up."

Up-and-comer Soulja Boy, too, used the term a lot when he sang his rap song "She likes my swag," (Souljaboytellem.com). On 'Swag', a song never released, he used the term about 100 times (Wickman, 2012). Later in 2008, he launched his phrase "Turn My Swag On,"

The word 'swagger' may have reached its peak in 2008 when T.I. Jay-Z, Kanye West and Lil Wayne produced the song "Swagga Like Us." In that same year, teenage popstar, Justin Beiber proudly proclaimed that he had a 'swagger coach', and used it in his 'Boyfriend' when he sang "swag, swag, swag on you." (Wickman, 2012). In that same year mention came out about a Swagger Wagon too showing that it had transplanted itself to other fields.

Many corporations fell into the patterns. They recruited 'Swagger for their advertisements, replacing the words for oldies such as 'Fresh's and 'Hype'. It was now hip to say that a certain item or service had swagger, and that icons and celebrities were individuals who possessed swagger. Companies themselves had swagger and, in fact, everything of merit possessed swagger. LL Cool J. In 2008 gave the commercial of Old Spice 'Swagger'. There was also a rap song called Swagger like us, and the term has apparently made its way into foreign countries too.

'Swagger' and 'swag' became so popular that All Things Considered called swag "Hip-Hop's Word of the Year" in 2011, and The New Yorker noted that swag had become "a noun, an adjective, a verb, and an all-purpose expression of agreement or endorsement (Wickman, 2012).

Barrow (2010), however, thinks that 'swagger' may have finally met its demise killed now possibly by Toyota.


Barrow, J (2010), SLANG EDITORIAL: The Death Of "Swagger"


The Atlantic 'Swagger' and Other Everyday Words Invented by Famous Authors http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2012/05/swagger-and-other-everyday-words-invented-by-famous-authors/257474/#slide3

Online Etymology Dictionary


Wickman, F. (March 30, 2012) Who Invented "Swag"?

http://www.slate.com/blogs/browbeat/2012/03/30/who_invented_swag_and_swagger_jay_z_soulja_boy_brand_nubian_.html… [read more]

Happiness' as Myth Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


One moment you are in a good mood and the next in a bad mood. They pass over us; just 'happen'. It is the way that we deal with these thoughts that can best define the outcome of our lives. Aptly, her book was called "Loving what is," and her program became known as "the Work."

Katie Byron should know. She spent years wrestling with depression and, one day, lying on the floor of a neglected motel, awoke to find her depression had disappeared. She returned to her British village a new person. Her family and the villagers noticed her rejuvenated appearance, and v very soon they flocked to her for advice. Byron's ideas differ from the trite prescription of the pop-help industry. They have come from herself. From her suffering. And, as she noted, we pursue one self-help technique after the other in search of that slippery thing called happiness. In the end, happiness is not a bovine concept as commonly thought. Rather it is thoughts, or instance, or circumstances that 'happen. The way we deal with them determines our state of mind. And meaningfulness, rather than happiness, may be a more worthwhile, authentic, and genuine construct to pursue.

Goethe stated it in a different way:

It is not doing the things we like to do,

But liking the things we have to do

That makes life blessed.

'Happiness', a common misnomer, may be just a myth. It is fleeting, bovine, never exists. More authentic and substantial is meaningfulness. That is where our pursuits should lie.


Byron K. Loving what is: four questions that can change your life, New York: Harmony Books, c2002.

Winterson, J. Why be happy when you could be normal? New York:…… [read more]

Hear America Singing, Walt Whitman Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Whitman proceeds to state that he hears "[t]he shoemaker singing as he sits on his bend -- the hatter singing as he stands" (line 6). Singing can also be considered to be functional as Whitman notices "[t]he boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat -- the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck" and "[t]he carpenter singing his, as he measures his plank or beam" (line 5 & 3).

Whitman also pays attention to the songs that women sing although it can be argued that due to the little attention that he pays to them within the poem, their mention appears to be more of an afterthought. By not focusing attention on each individual woman instead writing, "The delicious singing of the mother -- or of the young wife at work -- or of the girl sewing or washing -- Each singing what belongs to her, and to none else," Whitman also highlights the vocational limitations that women were confronted with during that time (line 8). Whitman acknowledges that women had very few opportunities and were often limited to being mothers, wives, or seamstresses and clothes washers.

Regardless of the limitations that women were confronted with and the vast array of vocations that men are part of, they all come together at night to celebrate their mutual efforts in the construction of America. Each person plays a unique role in society and without his or her contribution then there would be no progress. Whitman recognizes that these people also take time to enjoy themselves and their efforts. He writes, "The day what belongs to the day -- At night, the party of young fellows, robust, friendly,/Singing, with open mouths, their strong melodious songs" (line 9-10). In this sense, Whitman associates singing with work and with pleasure each concept being intrinsically linked in the construction of America.

Works Cited

"On "I Hear America Singing." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois at Urbana-

Champaign. Web. 8 June 2012.

Whitman, Walt. "I Hear America Singing." from Leaves…… [read more]

Casablanca Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,154 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The song is heard repeatedly throughout the film, however, it is only played when Rick and Ilsa interact with each other and serves as a reminder that they used to have a passionate affair, and although they still have feelings for each other, Rick recognizes that Ilsa must be with her husband. Additionally, the song's lyrics emphasize that Rick and Ilsa's love for each other is timeless and cannot be broken. While "As Time Goes By" is used to identify the relationship between Rick and Ilsa, it is hard to believe that the song was almost taken out of the film in favor of a song that would be composed by Max Steiner, however, "Hal B. Wallis replied that since the filming had ended, Ingrid Bergman had cut her hair very short for "For Whom the Bell Tolls," which was shooting at a distant locale and she therefore could not re-shoot already-completed scenes that had used "As Time Goes By" (IMDB).

Additionally, in the chronological narrative, there are many events that transpire that allows the audience to anticipate what is going to happen in subsequent scenes. For instance, when Signor Ugarte boasts to Rick that he was able to obtain letters of transit by murdering a couple German soldiers, the audience can surmise that Rick will somehow find a way to get his hands on the letters, especially when Ilsa suddenly appears and is once again part of his life. Another example of Rick's actions precipitating how future scenes will play out occurs when a young woman approaches him and pleads for help for her and her husband. Although Rick does not owe this young couple anything, he proceeds to tell the croupier to allow the woman's husband to win, but just enough money to pay for documents that will allow them to leave the country. While Rick appears to be cynical, he is truly a romantic at heart and will go out of his way to help other couples be together because he knows that he will never be with the person that he truly loves. A series of events that takes an unexpected turn occur towards the end of the film. While Rick and Ilsa, and to an extent, Victor, recognize that there is an inseparable bond between them, and given that Rick has Signor Ugarte's letters of transit, the audience is led believe that Rick and Ilsa will run away together, however, Rick, as a former gunrunner, recognizes that it is necessary for the defeat of the Third Reich that Victor be granted safe passage out of Casablanca. Additionally, because Rick loves Ilsa so much, he must make sure that she too finds safe passage, even if it means that he entrusts Victor to look out for her.

The use of the song "As Time Goes By" to identify the relationship between Rick and Ilsa has become so ingrained in popular culture that it is difficult to imagine how different the film could have been if a… [read more]

Legality of the "Individual Mandate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to the Legal Dictionary Online, "As a general rule, specific performance is applied in breach of contract actions where monetary damages are inadequate, primarily where the contract involves land or a unique chattel."

In November of 2010, Steinway announced its Imagine Series Limited Edition, which "is modeled after the white Steinway grand piano that John Lennon presented to Yoko Ono on her birthday in 1971, which is still at their famous Manhattan residence -- the Dakota." These limited-edition pianos are unique in that they are specifically modeled after the original Lennon Steinway; however, they do not have the uniqueness of the original model.

Question 4: Episode 1: What is the right thing to do?

Michael Sandel presents difficult questions in his initial episode by presenting what-if scenarios that offer unpleasant choices: to kill five people or to kill one? This seems simple enough to decide, and most would decide on a course of action that would take the fewest lives. When additional variables are factored into the equation, the course of action suddenly seems less clear. Sandel describes these two types of thinking as consequentialist moral reasoning and categorical moral reasoning. Consequentialist moral reasoning was written about by Jeremy Bentham, the 18th century political English philosopher whose ideas were known as utilitarianism. The second school of thought Sandel presents, categorical moral reasoning, is what we read about in Immanuel Kant's writings.

Personal and political risks are inherent in undertaking this type of study, Sandel points out to his students. Reading the theories of these different schools of philosophy causes individuals to see things in a different way, and once they have done so, the experience changes them. The right thing to do, at this early stage of study, would be to take the course of action that takes the fewest lives.


British History Online. University of London and History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved electronically on May 3, 2012 from http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=47463

Mears, Bill. Supreme Court divided over health care mandate. Retrieved electronically on May

3, 2012 from http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/27/justice/scotus-health-care/index.html

Specific performance definition from The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved electronically

May 2, 2012 from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Specific+performance

Statute of frauds and contract law. Retrieved electronically on May 3, 2012, from http://www.expertlaw.com/library/business/statute_of_frauds.html

Steinway announces John Lennon grand piano. Beatles Bible. Retrieved electronically May 2,

2012 from http://www.beatlesbible.com/2010/11/01/steinway-john-lennon-grand-piano/… [read more]

Acoustic Properties of Humpback Whale Article Review

Article Review  |  6 pages (1,809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The findings provide a foundation for future research into the physiology of sound production and the relationship of sound production and whale behavior. This study constricts itself to the study of single whale singers. However, the methodology of this study could be applied to a singer and an escort to examine the difference in the acoustic properties of whale song units used in the company of another whale. This could provide further insight into the meaning or social connotation of the different units.

Au and colleagues present three major research findings. For single whale singers emerged between 15 and 25 meters in the ocean, the authors found a maximum source level of 173 dB and calculated that conspecifics of the singer at two-whale lengths distance would be exposed to a source level of 147 dB. They estimate the upper frequency of whale hearing beyond 24 kHz and found the beginning of directivity in high-frequency song units. These research findings have an impact on the larger topic of interest by illustrating the potential danger of anthropogenic sound pollution of the ocean and by providing a foundation for future research on the physiology of sound production in humpback whales.


Au, W.W.L., Pack, A.A., Lammers, M.O., Herman, L.M., Deakos, M.H., Andrews, K. (2006). Acoustic properties of humpback whale songs. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120, 2, 1103-1110.

Darling, J.D., Berube, M. (2001). Interactions of singing humpback whales with other males. Marine Mammal Science, 17, 3, 570-584.

NRC (National Research Council). (2003). Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals. National Academy, Washington, D.C.

Payne, K., Tyack, P., Payne, R. (1983). Progressive changes in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): a detailed analysis of two seasons in Hawaii. Communication and Behavior of Whales, 9-57.

Richardson, W.J., Greene, Jr. C.W., Malme, C.I.,…… [read more]

Piano Lesson in August Wilson Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (952 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


She again reveals her suspicions that Willie murdered Sutter and laments that "all this thieving and killing and thieving and killing, and what did it ever lead to? More killing and more thieving" (Wilson 52). If she could, she would simply escape the past and leave it buried and forgotten, although in the end she makes a different choice. She has an affair with Willie's friend Lymon, which symbolizes the end of her widowhood, but she also seems reluctant to marry him -- or Avery for that matter. Given that she is the heroine of the story and the true keeper of the old traditions, neither of those characters seem quite up to her standards.

In the last act of play, Berniece finally accepts the power of the piano and everything that it represents, by using it to save her brother's life against Sutter's vengeful ghost. At the same time, she also had a gun and was prepared to shoot Willie if he attempted to move the piano without her permission, but when it came to the struggle against Sutter, she has to protect her brother and reluctantly invokes the spirits of their ancestors when Avery's prayers fail to exorcise the evil spirit. Up to this time, she had feared to power of their ancestors, but when it became a matter of saving Willie's life she cries out "I want you to help me" and names her mother Mama Ola, and also Mama Esther and Mama Berniece.

In the end, the ancestors drive Sutter out of the house thanks to the power of Berniece, although she was also prepared to kill Willie or anyone else to protect the piano. Berniece is truly a heroic shaman and priestess, even though the play is set in Pittsburgh during the Great Depression, which would seem a very unlikely location for any of these traditional beliefs. Throughout most of the play she had actually feared this and may even have considered marrying Avery, the Christian minister. She decides whether the old traditions, legacies and family history will survive rests in her hands, since she could simply have agreed to sell the piano and taken half of the money, or agreed to let Avery use it in his church. Her choice was to save her brother's life but not to follow his plans to take the place of the Sutter family, which had enslaved, oppressed and lynched them for generations. Instead, her path was the feminist and matriarchal one, that leads them back to Africa and away from modern America.


Wilson, August. The…… [read more]

Proud Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I know people who shy away from anything that may seem out of the ordinary. They never take the initiative and their whole existence becomes monotonous and habitual, day in and day out. Seal, in his 1991 megahit, "Crazy," characterizes this idea in one fell swoop: "But we're never gonna survive unless, we get a little crazy…" What's survival without living? Without getting a little crazy?

It seems that Gnarls Barkley and Seal have very similar understandings of the word "crazy." By contrast, Pierre Bouvier, the lead singer and songwriter of the Canadian band Simple Plan, describes "crazy" in a totally different manner. In their song, "Crazy," he sings, "Tell me what's wrong with society, When everywhere I look I see, Young girls dying to be on TV, They won't stop 'til they've reached their dreams, Diet pills, surgery Photoshop pictures in magazines, Telling them how they should be, It doesn't make sense to me, Is everybody going crazy?" It seems that he is referring to people who are committing mindless actions without thinking for one second about what they're doing or the ramifications those actions can have. These people are plummeting downward into a materialistic abyss that's filled with the heightened emphasis on outside appearances and the outrageous routes they must take to get there. These people are acting in a crazy fashion. However, their craziness can best be defined as insanity, as they've allowed their entire lives to be dictated by what society or the media has deemed "hip." And that's a bad crazy.

A person has to strive to get the level where he or she doesn't really care what "John Q. Public" has to say about them. Learn to enjoy the type of craziness that allows you to live your life the way you want to live it. Because that's…… [read more]

Cultural Sociology What Defines Us Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (410 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Without religion, many of the world's cultures, which exist in Europe and the Middle East, would not have been born. Without countries, Man would not be able to celebrate our differences and skills in activities such as the Olympic Games or the Commonwealth Games. Without personal possessions and ambition, we as a species apart from the animals would have difficulty in moving forward. Technological innovations would not exist and we would not have the capacity to make plans for the future if we could only live in today, e.g. only have food for today and total uncertainty for the future. While greed and hunger are negative aspects of human existence, many countries and world organisations have mobilised to eradicate as much of this as possible. People have exercised compassion and love for each other in order to help the less fortunate.

The song "Imagine" by John Lennon isolates many of the reasons for human conflict and asserts the theory that without Man's differences, Man has no reason to be divided. However, in removing these differences from human existence, one also removes many factors which brings us together and defines us.


Lennon, John. (1995) Imagine. www.plumbingsupply.com/greatsong.html… [read more]

Knights in the Canterbury Tales Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,112 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


He is correct when he states that "after grief there should be bliss/And praise to Jupiter for all his grace" (101). He tells Emily that Palamon truly does love her "heart and soul and might" and urges her to show her "womanly compassion" and take his hand in marriage. (101)

In response to this, the couple is married, which is indeed a happy and positive ending for the tale. This action in the plot also serves as a decent ending for the tale because it provides a sense of closure for the tragedy.

In comparing the Miller's Tale and the Reeve's Tale, the Miller's Tale is much funnier. For instance, in the Miller's Tale, there are two funny stories happening. The first funny story is Nicholas convincing John that through his astrology, he has discovered that "Rain is to fall in torrents, such a scud,/It will be twice as bad as Noah's Flood" (113). Nicholas has an answer, however, and it consists of getting tubs, attaching them to the roof of his house. This idea is hilarious because Nicholas is playing on John's fear by recounting the story of Noah. To make it even funnier, John simply accepts what Nicholas has to say and immediately begins to make preparations.

The second part to this funny story is the persistent Absalon, who will not give up on pursuing Alison. Part of the humor is how much he lavishes her. We are told that he takes his guitar and begins singing under Alison's window, "Now dearest lady, if they pleasure be/In thoughts of love, think tenderly of me" (109). John asks her if she hears him and her only reply is, "Yes, John, Go knows I hear all" (109). His attempts to attract her go beyond the limits of reason, as he sent her sweet wine and mead and spicy ale,/And wafers piping hot and jars of honey, / And, as she lived in town, he offered her money" (110). Absalon simply cannot take a hint.

In fact, we are told:

However Absalon blew his horn

His labour won him nothing but her scorn.

She looked upon him as her private ape

And held his earnest wooing all a jape. (110)

Clearly, we can see how unimpressed she is. Not only is she unimpressed, but extremely agitated to the point that when he comes to the window begging for a kiss, "out she put her hole" and Absalon "put up his mouth and kissed her naked arse/Most savorously" (119). When he returns with the hot coulter, he barely has a moment to think before Nicholas "at once let fly a fart/As loud as if it were a thunder-clap./He [Absalon] was near blinded by the blast" (121). In addition, when Nicholas gets burned, his cries for water alarm John, who immediately cuts the ropes and falls into the house and faints. The entire town is awakened and "all started laughing at this lunacy" (122).

In conclusion, the scenes in the Miller's Tale are… [read more]

Theatre of Dionysus: Athens Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,277 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Bema of Phaedrus depicts stories from the life of Dionysus. One shows the depiction of the god's enthronement in the theater. The Bema reaffirms this Dionysus' centrality in spirit to the drama as a religious ritual.

The central section

The central section of the theater was usually used, particularly as personal drama came to the forefront, to portray ordinary characters or the main characters of the drama, in contrast to the Gods on high and the choral infusion of voices and bodies that often intertwined its presence amid the ordinary members of the audience. (Greek Theater Page, 2004)

Marble throne of the priest of Dionysus Eleutherios and other priests' seats

The presence of this marble throne indicates that even as drama retained more civic functions, its religious function in ritual, in appearance and name remained intact, with the centrality of this throne and the existence of the temple of the God near the theatre. (Greek Theater Page, 2004) In all, the early ruler Lycurgus added 67 chairs in marble for judges and dignitaries. Each seat is inscribed with the name of the individual for whom it was reserved. The elaborately carved throne in the center of the first row belonged to the Priest of Dionysus who officiated over the event as a judge of the best author. The throne was designed to that it was direct line with the thymele, or altar of the god, in the center of the orchestra. (Greek Theater Page, 2004)


Thus the center of the theater was the ornate throne of the priest of Dionysus with seats for other religious officers on either side. Actors were moved up to the top of a platform, where they performed their roles on a skena, protected by this tent-like structure. The introduction of a skene indicates that there was no longer easy communication between actors and chorus typical of earlier drama. By this time, the role of the chorus in drama had been drastically reduced, reflecting the changed relationship of Greek drama between chorus and actors. (Brown, 1983)

The stoa on the south side of skene

The skene or 'tent' was first wooden construction with a flat roof in front of which actors acted out their roles. The skene usually represented a palace, reflecting the usual setting of later Greek tragedy when the structure was introduced. However, the occasional play that required a natural setting could be accommodated with an alternative set representing rocks. The skene when the theater was not in use also came to be used as a dressing room and storage area for props for the actors, as they grew more numerous as the history of drama in Greece expanded and evolved to include more characters. (Bongie, 1977)

The actors performed on a shallow apron in front of the skene that was connected with the orchestra by stairs only a few feet high. These stairs allowed the actors to join the chorus in the orchestra when necessary. Lycurgus replaced the original wood with… [read more]

Gap Digs Out Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


com's article reports.

Ideas for Improving the Competitive Advantage of GAP

One thing GAP should give consideration to and that is, to enter the outdoor clothing and gear genre, and couple that visionary marketing launch with a series of mega-benefit concerts and slick promotional pitches to fundraise for the environment.

The market for outdoor gear and clothing of course is jammed with successful companies now, but with a creative, sincere and aggressive marketing campaign, GAP could take a substantial bite out of that market. GAP could either buy some small but successful company, or go into co-promotional campaign with existing, high-visibility outdoor gear firms, to accomplish this task.

By reaching out to the extraordinarily large outdoor and recreational-related market, GAP could steer millions of people into their stores to buy cool gear, while at the same time steering them into activism to preserve what wilderness and wetlands and open space there is left on the planet. Every item for sale would have a little tag that reads: "A portion of the proceeds from this item go to preserving wilderness, habitat, animals."

The market is already in place: there are multiple-millions of youthful outdoor / nature (backpacking, hiking, camping enthusiasts) aficionados, mountain bikers, surfers, skateboarders, canoeists and sailing buffs, runners and cyclists, triathletes, walkers, workout / exercise buffs, hunters and anglers. What is proposed here is a series of live broadcasts of concerts featuring groups like U-2, Paul McCartney, the Rolling Stones, and younger acts to reach into the teens. The funds from the pay-per-view concerts - featuring the hottest rock, hip-hop, jazz and pop stars - would go to an umbrella group, and be divided up among such organizations as the World Wildlife Fund, Greenpeace, the Natural Resources Defense Council, among others. GAP would regularly report to their customers where the money has been spent, to add credibility to the campaign.


Just-style.com (2004). "JAPAN: GAP Focuses On New Sales Initiatives."

Molin, David; & Young, Kristin. (2004). "GAP taking aim at…… [read more]