Study "Music / Musicians / Instruments" Essays 606-660

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Effect Hip Hop Has on Listeners Perceptions of Women African-American and Youths Term Paper

… America is the melting pot of the whole world, the New World, seen by the rest of the world as the land of opportunity, the land of the free, the green pastures, and the crossroads where virtually all nationalities and races meet. This problem would not have aroused studies and researches a few centuries ago. This study would not have been conducted in other countries because almost all the world's countries and their people possess unifying attributes that make them distinct and unmistakable for any other nationality, race, culture and language. Only America possesses the probability of encountering this problem because of countless causes - immigration, preservation of heritage of immigrants, racial and ethnic differences, and cultural differences to name a few. "If a person was born anywhere between the 1980's to the 1990's, he or she is considered a part of the "Hip Hop Generation." Music is a gift that has been given to us, but the question is, "where is hip hop music going?" Hip-hop is now one of the biggest and fastest growing businesses in the world. it's creativity in sound, and its lyrics have impressed and empowered many of today's youth. But is hip-hop music taking today's youths where they need to be? Lyrically, some of hip-hop's most popular songs and musicians have negatively influenced violence, drugs, alcohol, sex, disrespect for authority, and disrespect for woman. For many young children and teenagers, this type of music can create an environment that can become detrimental to their lives and education. Parents teach their children to say no to drugs but the rappers whom children look up to are rapping about using drugs and imply that it's okay to use them. Therefore, children will listen to the side that has the most influential power to them. Many who constantly rewind a song and memorize the lyrics, are equally influenced just as if they were placed directly in front of the violence and sex and observed them. Statistics has proven that many nightclubs that have had violence occur in them have been playing "violent" hip-hop music. Hip-hop is like a strong tornado that constantly sweeps us up and spits us back out. But whom it's sweeping up are the ones who cannot handle the fall once they are thrown back out. Hip-hop will become better once the artists not only think of their pockets but their listeners, who after all, are listening the most" (the Effects of Hip Hop Music on Today's Youth).

Along with fighting for civil rights and education, African-Americans did not receive a lot of credit in music until the twentieth century. For example, Scott Joplin, the father of ragtime music kept his music going even though the popularity of it was not as huge as he wanted to be, or as it should have been. It is believable that some people did not like it because it was different from a black man, which was not supposed to be recognized in society. Despite these beliefs,… [read more]

Hip Hop as a Co-Culture Term Paper

… Hip Hop Culture

The hip hop cultural movement began in the early 1970s, in the Bronx borough of New York City. Since this time, hip hop culture has spread to all four corners of the world, garnering fans beyond their… [read more]

Antonio Vivaldi Term Paper

… Antonio Vivaldi is one of the most notable Italian composers and violinist and his creations are known and played worldwide. During his lifetime, Vivaldi managed to create unforgivable operas and concertos that have greatly impacted the cultural world of the 18th century and continue to resist as genuine works of art today.

He was born in 1678, in Venice, and he discovered his musical talent with the help of his father, a violinist that played at St. Marco Cathedral in Venice. It was his father that encouraged and taught Antonio how to play the violin.

Antonio Vivaldi became a priest in 1703 but he did not fully embrace his mission as a priest and soon renounced performing any sermons. One of the possible explanations for the reason why Vivaldi became a priest could be that it represented the only way in which a child from a modest family could receive an education, as he clearly showed during his time as a priest that he had no special desire to become a member of the clergy. In the same year he began teaching at the Ospedale della Pieta, which was an orphanage for girls, although in fact the girls from Pieta were offspring of noblemen and they were well treated and very much looked after. In this conservatory, Vivaldi had the opportunity to work with talented and dedicated student and he managed to organize real concerts in which he played his works. He maintained a close collaboration with the conservatory until 1740 and he was at times a music director for the institution. During his years as a teacher at Pieta, he became greatly involved in the activities of the conservatory, not only training the students, but also composing concertos and oratorios for weekly concerts. His compositional talent was greatly developed during his teaching career, but his activities did not limit to working for Pieta.

During 1709 and 1711, Vivaldi did not work for Pieta, but this might be justified by the fact that he was already working for Teatro Sant' Angelo. During these years Vivaldi continuosly developed as a composer and twelve of his concertos were published in Amsterdam by the music publisher Estienne Roger under the title "Harmonic Inspiration." Vivaldi continued his collaboration ocassionaly with Teatro Sant' Angelo, but he also collaborated with several other opera theaters. In 1713 he managed to stage his first opera, Ottone in villa, in Vicenza. His collaboration with Pieta was also very rewarding as he managed to realize a successful first oratorio, Juditha Triumphans devicta Holofernis barbaric.

Vivaldi continued to develop as a music composer and he staged various personal creations that were well received by the public. He moved to Mantua for two years in 1717, which proved to…… [read more]

American Hippie Counterculture the Decade of THE1960S Term Paper

… American Hippie Counterculture

The decade of the1960s was one of the pivotal era in modern American history, defining American cultural norms, values, beliefs, and goals as much as, if not more, than any other popular movement since World War II.… [read more]

Johnny Cash Term Paper

… Johnny Cash

On a hot summer day in May, 1993, the haggard and exhausted shell of what was once a great man, and indeed an American icon, sat motionless in a church pew, in the midst of bidding goodbye to… [read more]

Dr. Dre Term Paper

… ¶ … Dr. Dre's first official release "Straight Outta Compton" was aired, it became an instant classic and sold over two million copies. However, its gangsta rap lyrics and negative themes instantly caused a controversy. Despite this disagreement, Dr. Dr., born Andre Romell Young, says on "My Space," "It's always been my desire to make music for the world." Is this true? Is Dr. Dre's music universal or just for a select crowd?

Rap is arguably the most dominant force in popular culture," and American teens rate it their favorite musical genre. It has attained global acceptance, with almost all countries worldwide featuring it in one form or another. Gangsta rap ranks as the music's dominant subgenre; artists offering other types of this music are categorized as either "alternative" or part of the "non-gangsta wing of hip-hop."

Yet, this does not mean that everyone accepts this form of music.

When hip-hop music gained popularity in the early '70s, most people just responded to the music. Over time, however, the term "hip-hop" has evolved into a specific culture typified by performers with sagging, low-hanging, pants, hats to the back, laceless sneakers, hoods, and loud radios. Rap is now a part of this culture. As Garofalo (1990) explains: "Rap music must be understood as one cultural element within a larger social movement known as hip-hop."

Also over time, the words have begun to be noticed as much, if not more, than the music. Hip-hop has become the "fundamental matrix of self-expression for this whole generation"

The lyrics frequently deal with the inner-city issues of poverty, drugs, violence, poor education, family problems and racial tension. Beyond the music, rap serves as a protest of American racism and discrimination.

Many people have problems accepting the messages within the music that go beyond the issues of racism. They state that gansta artists, including Dr. Dre, demean women and condone violence and drugs. As noted by Suazo, "Dr. Dre and Snoopy Dog's most popular song "Nuthin' but a 'G' Thang" is a misogynistic anthem."

Now you know I ain't with that *****, Lieutenant

Ain't no ***** good enough to get burnt while I'm up in it

(Yeah) and that's realer than Real-Deal Holyfield

And now you hooka's and ho's know how I feel

Well if it's good enough to get broke off a proper chunk

I'll take a small piece of some of that funky stuff.

Dr. Dre's gangsta rap and own variations of sound called G. Funk are hardcore but warning stories of the criminal mind that celebrate the hedonistic, amoral side of gang life.

Beyond the reaction to racism and discrimination, many critics feel that rappers have gone beyond society's limits to entertain America's youth. Clergy decry the satanic and obscene content. For example, Rabbi Eric H. Yoffie states that "the vehicle of dissemination (for youth) is 'gangsta rap,' a type of music that is so filthy and vile that it far exceeds what even the most tolerant parent might accept as an inevitable… [read more]

Business: Public Relations E-Mail to PR Director Case Study

… Business: Public Relations

E-mail to PR Director:

Don't worry


Hope you're feeling a little better. To be completely honest with you, I really think I have this fiasco saved…or at the very least, salvaged with the best of all possible outcomes under the circumstances. I'll spare you the details, but they're attached as a file for whenever you feel up to it. I'll be monitoring e-mail all night in case you want to type before you can talk…or text me as usual.

Attached File to PR Director:

File: NewlyManager-11-17-07.doc

Basically, David knows he really screwed up…very apologetic. Turns out we're in better shape because of it because Newly has no idea David never told us about it. I actually suggested that it would be much better for him if you never found out that it was his fault and not Newly's, because you would never even consider "pursuing remedies" against Newly, given our relationship with HIM. He's going to pull out all the stops to make it right…he says Newly is hands-off enough that he doesn't really make a fuss about meet and greets…pretty much carte blanche for David to work us in when we need.

I'm also attaching the releases if you want to review…again, not worth dragging yourself up for, but let me know if you need any changes before they go to Brad. Obviously, I took a little license with the phrase "appearing with" but, technically, it's true, so Feel better,


Attached File to PR Director:

File: SterlingPR (1)-11-17-07.doc

Press Release 11/18/07 City Symphony

It is with very mixed feelings with which the City Symphony must announce an unavoidable change in it's schedule for this week's anticipated performances by the City Symphony's own Josh Newly. However, Mr. Newly has very graciously offered to host a private cocktail hour in conjunction with his rescheduled appearance for any of his fans disappointed by this last minute change. Mr. Newly was offered the unique opportunity to participate in a European project where he will be…… [read more]

Scott Joplin the Entertainer Term Paper

… Scott Joplin's The Entertainer

Scott Joplin was born in Linden, Texas in approximately 1868 and died at about 50 years of age, after a wild and illustrious musical career that began as a child. He was born of poor parents, but was considered gifted in music, so received an education in classical music. Even though he was trained classically, Scott loved Ragtime music and began playing and composing music of that genre. Eventually, just before Jazz became popular, Scott was considered the best known composer of Ragtime. Even though he did not make much money from the publication of his music, his Maple Leaf Rag was one of the best-selling pieces published at the turn of the century and remained popular for many years. He also published waltzes, marches and popular songs. Considered to be guided by and competitive with classical composers in the perfection of his music, Scott Joplin "lifted ragtime from its low estate and lined it up with Beethoven and Bach," said John Stark in Ragtime Review (Stark p. 83).

His piece entirled the Entertainer was written along with other tunes destined to become famous, during 1901-1902. In 1973 it became the theme song for a contemporary movie the Sting and won an Oscor for Best Film Scoring. It was played by Martin Hamlisch on the soundtrack of the movie the Sting and is so well-known because of this, that the piece is even sometimes call the Sting (Waterman, p. 232).

The tune itself is a lively, synchopated, upbeat ragtime tune, called a two-step. Described as a "rag" with a decided sense of humor, the Entertainer is a light and likeable composition that combines straight major chords with minors to effect a happy sound with plaintive backbeats. Since it has a brisk beat with a slow interior sound, it is suitable to be used for foxtrot and quickstep dancing, as well as enjoyable listening (Tichenor, p. 23).

Joplin, it was said by Jasen and Tichenor, was looking for black Midwestern Folk rag ideas to utilize in his music. He combined pentatonic rhythms with blues timing and notes and created a synthesis of the past. In melody and harmony he utilized black folk music, creating a new format. He also synthesized march music, which he loved and had been composing,…… [read more]

Itunes the Downloadable, Digital Content Market Barely Term Paper

… iTunes

The downloadable, digital content market barely existed a decade ago, but it has since grown remarkably into a billion-dollar business, with millions of people each day going online to download audio and video files. In that market, Apple Inc.'s… [read more]

Billie Holiday Term Paper

… Billie Holiday was an icon of the jazz music scene in the 1950s and her musical talent is still admired today. As one commentator states;

Billie Holiday was a true artist of her day and rose as a social phenomenon… [read more]

Steel Drum Band Term Paper

… Steel drum band was born in the southern Caribbean nation Trinidad and Tobago. A syncretic musical tradition of Afro-Caribbean roots, steel drum bands are emblematic of the history of the region in general. The slave trade populated Trinidad and Tobago with Africans who, in the absence of traditional membrane drums adopted local materials for instruments. Drums were in fact banned from the streets of Trinidad under British rule. In search of alternative forms of musical expression, the African population turned to bamboo sticks as a percussive instrument. Known as Tamboo Bamboo, the sticks essentially became the ancestor of the steel drum.

The steel drum, more properly known as steelpan, is a pitched percussion instrument played with sticks instead of hands and fingers. Grooves on the surface of the pan create notes, offering the steel drum its uniquely melodic yet percussive sound. Moreover, the notes on the steelpans are arranged in fourths or fifths to allow for specific intervals like fourths and fifths.

Whereas early steelpans were makeshift and often accidentally tuned, modern steelpans are carefully crafted to produce specific tonal ranges. Steel drum bands have subsequently matured, and modern steelpan music is sophisticated and popular worldwide. Original steelpans were…… [read more]

Academic Autobiography Term Paper

… Academic Autobiography

There are events that have the capacity to alter one's life course. I have learned that most of the time, these events are concretized in split seconds that result in life-changing choices. And these are not empty words,… [read more]

Ray Film Analysis Term Paper

… Ray

The film Ray (Taylor Hackford, 2004) would be categorized in the parlance of the film business as a biopic, which often means more pic than bio as filmmakers go for the more sensational aspects and delve less deeply into the life of the subject. In this particular case, though, the filmmakers do a better than average job of bringing the man to life and of suggesting how he fit into his era, how he thought and lived, and especially how he developed as a musician and as one who was able to excel in spite of his blindness. In the story of Ray Charles, the filmmakers necessarily reflect much about the time in which he lived which means developing the background of the Civil Rights era and the changes it brought about, as seen here in a changing relationship between the performer and his audience.

The main portion of the film covers the life of Ray Charles from his birth in 1930 through the 1960s, with an additional section at the end set in the late 1970s. This era also includes much of the change in race relations in the United States, from the era of lynching in the South (the film starts in Georgia) to the height of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s and the beginning of a major shift in race relations, including the more militant period of Black Nationalism and the reaction to that among some in the white community. Charles experienced racial discrimination as a child and continued to experience it as he grew into adulthood. The major challenge for Charles was not discrimination, though, but his own demons and the drug addition that developed because of them.

Racism is evident in the society of the time, but it has more cogency in Charles's life when it is encountered in the music business. Charles overcomes this racism by outlasting it and by taking more and more control of his own work. a.O. Scott in the New York Times notes how the film follows Charles from his working in segregated clubs to a different era, referring to the way the film gives the viewer a sense of "African-American popular culture in the era of segregation, and of the hustling, nickel-and-diming and endless negotiating that permeated all levels of the music business" (E01).

Indeed, the way the film shows this life, it is difficult to sort out racism from the normal backstabbing, chicanery, and thievery that marks the music business of the time. Michael Atkinson in the Village Voice also notes how the film's "period context is also engrossing; we haven't been here -- the meticulously re-created urban mid-century America -- in quite a while, and the stew of lovable retro design and archival establishing shots is comfortable and sweet" (42).

Ray Charles is not depicted as a saint but as a sometimes very difficult man, even without the drug problem that afflicted him for some time. The racism of the 1950s did not stop… [read more]

Beethoven and His Symphonies Term Paper

… Beethoven and His Symphonies

Beethoven (1770-1827) is considered by many as the greatest composer in the Western music tradition. His stature among music composers is such that his name is familiar even to people who do not listen to classical… [read more]

Edgard Varese's Poeme Electronique Term Paper

… Varese's Poeme Electronique

Before attempting to analyze Edgard Varese's "Poem Electronique," it is necessary to understand that when the composer exhibited the piece at the 1958 World's Fair it was delivered live inside an acoustically rich pavilion with 400 speakers. Listening to a digital version of the "Poeme Electronique" with headphones cannot begin to approximate the three-dimensionality that Varese built into the composition. The "Poeme Electronique" is absolutely classifiable as "music" for several reasons, not the least of which is its historical importance as the harbinger of electronic and abstract music. The piece is abstract in the same way visual arts can be. Although the listener does not sense the familiar structures and forms of music, the composition as a whole possesses rich tonality and a variety of sounds layered upon each other.

Granted, the "Poeme Electronique" stretches the average person's definition of what music is. The piece has no melody and although it is rather percussive at times it lacks a rhythm. Yet…… [read more]

Composer Igor Stravinsky Term Paper

… Stravinsky

Igor Stravinsky: Comments on his autobiographical excerpt

How has the situation that Stravinsky describes above altered in the years since his autobiography was published? Would he likely be more or less concerned by the current situation of music and the media? Do you agree or disagree with Stravinsky's concerns? Why or why not?

The truth of Stravinsky's comments and their even greater applicability to our own era is demonstrated every time someone enters a shopping mall and hears muzak, as opposed to music, piped through the store. This background noise reinforces the idea that music is not something worthy of attention, merely something to numb the human ear. Turn on the engine of the car to ride home, and hear the car radio blast -- sound is taken for granted even more than it was in Stravinsky's day. The more technologically accessible music has become, the fewer people really listen or care about musical quality. Even the types of music people are passionate about are no longer collective events that must be anticipated, much less walked to, as in Bach's era. The cultural significance of concerts pale in comparison with the importance of downloadable singles and home stereos.

Ironically, the collective musical experience that has brought America together more than…… [read more]

Sting Starring Robert Redford and Paul Newman Term Paper

… ¶ … Sting

There is something satisfying about seeing a mob boss get his comeuppance. When it happens at the hands of two slick con artists, one of whom is driven by revenge, the sting is that much sweeter.

Winner of best picture at the 1973 Academy Awards, the Sting stars stellar actors Robert Redford and Paul Newman. George Roy Hill directed Redford and Newman in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid and the team repeats the success of their prior film here only better: with a fun crime-caper plot and the infectious Scott Joplin tune "The Entertainer" to tie it all together. The Oscar-winning screenplay was written by David S. Ward.

Two talented grifters team up to trick a mob boss in George Roy Hill's masterpiece the Sting. Johnny Hooker (Robert Redford) and Henry Gondorff (Paul Newman) partner up after Hooker's sidekicks Luther Coleman (Robert Earl Jones) and Joe Erie (Jack Kehoe) leave the scene. When Coleman is killed by a mob boss who they took together in their last scam. Hooker is motivated not only by the rush of the con but also by revenge. Gathering a clever team of assistants and some romance…… [read more]

Internet and Society Term Paper

… Internet and Society

The Internet has greatly altered the culture in which we live, from creating global communication to exponentially increasing the quantity and availability of information. The challenge to the culture has been phenomenal, as the positive and negative changes are as diverse as the content of the web itself. To some degree it has changed the face of the culture so greatly that future shock is inevitable, possibly even in one generation of individuals living today. These changes include positive ones and negative ones and have even expanded the nature of crime, especially with regard to entertainment. (Nicholson, Shebar & Weinberg, 2000, p. 207) One particular area that has changed drastically within the context of the Internet is the entertainment industry.

In the pros list there is a significant increase in the availability of entertainment resources, as the industry can link information to consumers in mass quantity and also quickly reach the consumer with media advertisement and image and media representations of new products. Over the last 20 or so years the positive potential of the internet has proliferated the expansions of the services.

Yet, there is also a huge potential for cons, in the question. The music industry and the movie industry are forever changed by a completely new manner of piracy of materials that can significantly reduce revenue. Online gambling has created a situation of potential danger for those with dangerous gambling habits and video sharing of independent videos can open many web users up to exposure to illicit information they might otherwise have not been exposed to. Danger for unwanted exposure as well as a reduction in traditional means of revenue for the entertainment industries is only two of the most basic and serious potential negative changes to the entertainment industry that are a direct result of the Internet.

As the furor over Napster suggests, the opportunity to share music quickly and without charge has been greeted with more enthusiasm by listeners than by the music industry. Although the company's music- swapping software has only just been officially released, the service already has about 20 million regular users, and the tally is rising every day. Countless other people use Napster's brethren; the company is but the most prominent of many free-music services on the Internet. The result, in Metallica's opinion, is an outrageous pirate's bacchanalia-millions of pieces of music shuttling around the Net uncontrolled. The group filed suit, according to its drummer, Lars Ulrich, "to put Napster out of business." (Mann, 2000, p. 39)

As, is stated above music as well as video pirating has changed the manner in which people get music and therefore pay for the services of the industry. Though the initial bad reaction to the trend by the music industry, and other industries has been significant the overall effects have been less alarming. According to most experts people are exposing themselves to music via the…… [read more]

Sonny's Blues Term Paper

… Social Customs in "Sonny's Blues"

James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" indicates how different social customs can be for different races, and Baldwin illustrates this by creating two vastly different brothers who exist in two different worlds. The narrator, Sonny's brother, has assimilated into white society as much as possible so he can better himself and become successful. He is a high school teacher, while is brother Sonny is a musician and heroin addict. He does not understand Sonny's life any more than Sonny understands his brother's life. Sonny cannot assimilate into the white culture, and turns to jazz music as a way to escape and survive. His brother never approves of him, which shows just how far apart they are and how social customs are so very different in the two different worlds they travel.

The two brothers also share the common social custom of hoping to escape their past. They lived in poverty like so many black families, and they want to leave the old neighborhood behind and make better lives. The narrator…… [read more]

Mary Catherine Bateson's Life Term Paper

… Mary Catherine Bateson's Life

Mary Catherine Bateson is an educator and a cultural anthropologist, so it is no surprise that she places great value on learning. I am struck, however, by her emphasis not on the formal learning inside schools and universities, but also on "lifelong learning." She makes clear demarcations between learning, education, and schooling, concepts that most of us lump together. Bateson argues that most of learning takes place outside formal education settings, a fact that many educators and policymakers overlook. In fact, she boldly asserts that many educational practices work against instilling the concept of "lifelong learning" in students.

During summers off in elementary school, I went through a right of passage familiar to many -- the dreaded piano lessons. Summer was supposed to be for fun and relaxation, so I did not relish being chained to the piano for half an hour everyday. The weekly trips to the piano teacher's house did not help.

My piano teacher employed a traditional method towards my "music education." I was taught how to read notes on a staff, E-G-B-D-F. My fingers were made to practice scales, and these drills were repeated over and over. The goal, said my teacher, was to develop my "finger memory and technique." When we got the basics down, she promised that I could move on to the "fun stuff" of actually playing musical pieces.

But I never did get much beyond the piano exercises in the book. I could not really fault my piano teacher, as this was the dominant way of teaching musical instruments to pre-teens everywhere. When I got old enough, I declared that I would never study the piano ever again.

In hindsight, I regret not working harder on my lessons. Bateson's regret would center on how the pedagogical methods of piano instruction failed to install a lifelong…… [read more]

Red Violin Term Paper

… ¶ … Red Violin

This film is episodic, because it does follow the life of the violin, but it begins in an auction house in Montreal, and ends there, with flashbacks to the auction house throughout the film. The actual "acts" of the film follow the violin from its creation to the auction house in modern times is linear, except for the flashbacks that occur. Therefore, the film is linear in a sense, but also episodic. It is an usual film, and that can be seen by the way it can be both episodic and linear at once.

The lineal inciting incident is the creation of the violin in Italy. The focal points of the episodic elements are the death of the violinmaker's wife and son, which causes him to create the violin to honor them. Then, the monks in Austria teach orphans to play the violin, and the best is groomed to solo for royalty. The next incident is the love affair between its English owner and the writer. Then, it is the Chinese woman who gives up the instrument to her teacher for safekeeping. Finally, it is the auction…… [read more]

Song Imagine by John Lennon Imagery, Metaphor Term Paper

… ¶ … Song "Imagine" by John Lennon [...] imagery, metaphor, sound, tone, and words of the song. John Lennon's song about world peace has become an anthem for many. It discusses a perfect world without war and with understanding. It is a simple song, but it has deep meaning inside its simple structure. Lennon captured the essence of the peace movement in the 1960s and 1970s in the song, and it remains one of his most enduring and best-loved songs.

Imagine" is full of vivid imagery. Lennon wants the listener to imagine a better world, and the words bring out that image in the mind. He writes, "Imagine there's no countries / It isn't hard to do / Nothing to kill or die for / And no religion too / Imagine all the people / Living life in peace..." (Lennon). The imagery of the poem is in its ability to allow the listener to imagine and visualize these things, and what they would mean for the world. If all the people could "live life in peace," life would be much different for a majority of people in the world. Imagine what that would be like, to have true peace around the globe. It is a tantalizing picture, and a vivid image that the song brings to mind.

Lennon also uses imagery in the chorus, which refers to him as a "dreamer," and that image seems to fit his character, at least his public character. The song is a direct reference to his own beliefs and desires, and so, the imagery of the dreamer refers to himself and to his hope for the future. When the song plays, it is easy to conjure up an image of Lennon, singing the song and hoping for the future. In fact, the very image of the dreamer continues through the song, and is a clue to the listener that dreams are important, and they can influence life.

There is not a lot of metaphorical use in the poem, because Lennon's images are more concrete, rather than comparisons to something else. However, in the chorus, Lennon writes "And the world will be as one," which is a metaphor for a new world filled with understanding and "one" people. Thus, the world changes and becomes something else, and this is a metaphor for change and the uniting of the world. The image of the dreamer throughout the poem could be considered a metaphor, as well. The dreamer represents Lennon himself, and so, throughout the song, the dreamer represents Lennon and his own thoughts.

The sound of this song is quite simple - as simple as its words. Lennon sings the opening of the song accompanying himself on the piano. It is not until the second verse that some uncomplicated orchestration joins him, including a drum and guitar. The melody is very plain, which helps bring all the attention to the words of the song, because they are the true center of the work. Beginning with the… [read more]

Cultural Forms of Expression African-American Term Paper

… Cultural Forms of Expression African-American

Many cultural forms of expression have been utilized within the social science construct, to demonstrate ways in which such expressions reflect the culture as a whole, and in many cases the broader culture, or the… [read more]

Effect of Online Piracy on Legal Distribution on Universal Music Group Term Paper

… ¶ … online piracy on legal distribution on Universal Music Group

The effects of online piracy on the legal distribution of Universal Music Group

Lower prices

In order to prevent the theft of music from the Internet, Universal Music Group ought to make more appealing offers to music consumers. They should offer the products at more accessible prices. However, in doing so, the company might have to accept a decrease of their own incomes and also a decrease in the artists' revenues.

In this order of ideas, given the proved fact that most artists register high incomes from their live concerts, televised appearances and by becoming the face of a certain product (e.g. Beyonce and Christina Aguilera for Pepsi), they would not suffer severe consequences due to CD or DVD price reductions. Most artists have already taken a firm position regarding Internet piracy and stated that they would not be severely affected by a small reduction in the retail price. Furthermore, what now seems like a decrease in their revenues, for both artists and distributing companies, could in the future become a new source of incomes, as music consumers would feel tempted to buy an original product at a decent price, instead of illegally downloading it from the Internet. Therefore, in their constant battle against Internet piracy, artists, distributors and the adherent authorities should emphasize on the quality offered by an original product and several other benefits, such as numerous promotions.

2. Promotions

To make a product more appealing to the large public, Universal Music Group should distribute CDs and DVDs containing the autographs of the artists. Moreover, they could organize special meetings between singers and their fans in which…… [read more]

Negotiating the Manager as Negotiator -- Creating Term Paper

… Negotiating

The Manager as Negotiator -- creating artistic and financial value in commercial arts negotiations

According to the guidebook The Manager as Negotiator, the very essence of negotiation is creating and claiming value. Every person in a negotiation strives to advance his or her interests and maximize his or her advantages. The goal of the process is ultimately to attempt to bridge the gap, ideally, between two different points-of-view by creating a more equitable solution that improves upon either party's narrowly advanced interests.

David Lax's and James Sebenius' illustration of this principle is that of bartering. For example, two persons with different material goods, such as bananas and pears, are able to come to an better agreement if they can arrive at a fair price, than they would be had they refused to trade at all, as both will have more variety of foodstuffs in the long run. However, this example can prove difficult when one party attempts to transpose this assumption onto the field of the arts. In business negotiations, finances tend to dominate. No matter how divided the two parties are in terms of how they see an issue, usually the crucial matter involves dollars and cents. Likewise, in a divorce settlement, emotions and the welfare of the children often dominate the proceedings, even though finances are also an issue. Regardless, both parties tend to view the proceeding from the same paradigm -- either primarily from a professional or a personal standpoint.

However, when negotiating between artists and management, quite often the issues of professionalism and personal integrity become intermixed. Also, the two parties involved, labor and management, often come from very different worlds. While 'the money' or the producers may look first and foremost at the bottom line, artists frequently view their work's artistic integrity as the main issue at stake in any negotiation.

For example, in 2003 Broadway musicians went on strike when the League of Broadway producers deemed that it was financially necessary to do away with requiring that a minimum number of musicians be mandated to staff most Broadway shows. Musicians regarded this as an example of a lack of consideration for the value the musicians brought to the shows, as well as a threat to their livelihood. They saw this as example of how producers undervalued their contribution to the quality of Broadway theater. The producers not only saw this as a cost-saving measure, given Broadway's declining financial health. The producers believed it was necessary for this venue of employment to continue to exist at all for musicians. Some productions, the producers argued, should be allowed to use taped music, if it…… [read more]

Amadeus When Antonio Salieri Is First Seen Term Paper

… Amadeus

When Antonio Salieri is first seen in the film Amadeus, he is being wheeled through a filthy and dreary asylum where he is evidently spending his aging years. He is screaming out to the long dead Mozart to be forgiven for his part in his death, confessing that he was Mozart's murder. He seems alternately proud and ashamed by his sin. He dares the listener to believe him, to hear his tale. This outburst immediately precedes Salieri's attempt to kill himself by slashing his own throat.

Throughout the course of the rest of the film, Salieri tells the story of how he had been acquainted with Mozart from very early in is life, when he (Salieri) was the court composer to Emperor Joseph II of Austria, and Mozart had been presented to the court as a child prodigy. It is not until Mozart's wife comes to Salieri looking for help for her husband with piles and piles of manuscripts, evidently done in a short period of time and with very little effort on the part of Mozart, does Salieri truly realize that Mozart is more than just a "flash in the pan" but instead is a gifted musician as well as a very dangerous rival to Salieri's tenuous position as court composer. It is at this time that Salieri first understands the extent to which his work, while fleeting popular with the court and the country, is not immortal in the way that Mozart's work is likely to be. In addition, Salieri realizes that Mozart may not even understand the gift he has, and if he does, he wastes it but spending much of his time drinking, partying with friends, and generally squandering a gift that Salieri so dearly desires but knows that in his lifetime he will never possess. It is in this moment that Salieri clearly understands that for posterity Salieri will be only considered mediocre and Mozart to be considered a genius. To this point, Salieri turns his face away from God and begins to concoct his plot to take advantage of Mozart's anxieties and weaknesses, and instead work to bring him to an early death.

Salieri is not an entirely evil character, just as Mozart is not an entirely sympathetic character. After watching a performance of "The Magic Flute," Salieri finds that he cannot help but be overcome by his admiration of Mozart's talent, and sympathy for the fact that his genius is not automatically understood by the populace. It is Salieri who in fact rescues Mozart from theatre and returns him to his home. It is at this point that Salieri begins his transcription of the Requiem Mass, a Mass he himself has ordered from Mozart and the effort of which he knows will eventually bring Mozart to the brink of exhaustion and possibly death. Salieri is left behind to live in a world where he will never be remembered as long and as importantly as Mozart and at the end of the movie… [read more]

Black Leaders Influence on the Social Climate Term Paper

… ¶ … lives of several critical African-American leaders in history. These leaders have not only revolutionized their own professions, but have rendered it much easier for future black leaders to forge paths in their own fields of interest and specialties.… [read more]

Hip Hop Dance Term Paper

… Hip Hop Dance History

There are many changes that take place in societies and most of the changes take place due to the natures of the societies. Some of the changes are viewed to be new, but they are often… [read more]

Minimalist Musical Culture, Techniques Term Paper

… Young introduced extremely long sustained sounds in his Octet for Brass. Riley collaborated with Young and used long, sustained sounds in All-Night-Concerts.

Minimalist composers' styles vary. Works by Philip Glass and Steve Reich are characteristically simple, focusing on just one theme and containing few, if any, embellishments of that theme. Both compose for small ensembles. However, Glass uses "organs, winds -- particularly saxophones -- and vocalists" ("Minimalist Music"), while Reich uses "mallet and percussion instruments" ("Minimalist Music"). Terry Riley, on the other hand, typically uses "repetitive patterns" with "improvisational elements" ("Minimalism"). An example is his In C, "which can be performed by any combination of instruments along with an instrument that provides a steady pulse of 16th notes" ("Minimalism").

Minimalism is a key 20th compositional development, effectively blending styles and aspects of several types of music, including classical music; popular music, and world music. Minimalist composers like Young; Reich; Glass; Riley, Cage, and others have erased many traditional barriers, between those types of music, by blending them with (and often pointedly juxtaposing them against) one other.

Works Cited.

'Minimalism." S21 New Music Wiki. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from:


'Minimalism in Music and Painting." Making Music. Retrieved October 7, 2005,


"Minimalist Music." Wikipedia. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from:>.… [read more]

Feste in "Twelfth Night Term Paper

… "What's to come is still unsure," suggests the plot twists to come before people find their true loves. Finally, Feste urges those who are young to act on their love because youth is fleeting.

In the next scene, Feste sends the message with more subtlety, singing of a man who dies without anyone to mourn for him, because he does not love anyone. This was a song he sang at the need to love when young before death takes us.

Feste does not sing again until the end of the play -- Act V, which has only one scene. In this song he summarizes the wisdom he has offered as well as makes references to events in the play. He boasts of his wisdom as an adult, saying that as a child he truly was a "foolish thing." However, when he "came to man's estate," or achieved adulthood, he matched wits with all kinds of men and held his own. He also suggests that people will be what they will. In the middle of talking about how he came to maturity and the nature of other men he met, he says, "For the rain it raineth every day." To suddenly sing about the weather would be a non-sequitor. He is suggesting that people's behavior and actions are predictable.

In the song he rejects Malvolio's approach to moving through the world, saying, "By swaggering could I never thrive," a reference to Malvolio's maladaptive approach to life. He refers to Sir Toby Belch and Sir Andrew Augecheck, who enjoy a good drink perhaps a little more than he should, as he sings, "With toss-pots still had drunken heads," and then mentions the rain again, suggesting that this is what Sir Toby and Sir Andrew will continue to do. He also sings "A great while ago the world begun," suggesting that there's nothing new in what he has said in this song.

In the final two lines of the song, he finally acknowledges his role in the play as he sings, "But that's all one, our play is done,

And we'll strive to please you every day." With those lyrics he has stepped in front of the proscenium, as it were, to address the audience directly.

Through most of the play, Feste does not address the audience directly, but as a person in limbo, straddling the line between servant and aristocrat, he is in a position to see the other characters of the play clearly. Because of his role as a clown, he is not only allowed to but encouraged to comment on what he observes. He is not only an observer. Like Puck in "A Midsummer Night's Dream," he both comments on events and gets involved with them.

I found Feste to be an enjoyable character. He seemed to me to be a more complete person than may of the other characters. He was able to have great fun, showed real insight into the nature of other people, and showed the human… [read more]

Commitments by Roddy Doyle Term Paper

… ¶ … Commitments by Roddy Doyle. Specifically it will contain a character study of Joey "The Lips" Fagan. What are the different roles he portrays?

What does he bring to the band as a teacher, musical advisor, and spiritual advisor?… [read more]

Film When Hate Goes Pop Term Paper

… ¶ … Hate Goes Pop

MTV launched a campaign against discrimination and hatred seen on television and in the music industry under the name of Fight for your Rights. This series contained many features that focused on the rising trend towards discriminatory practices and values which had permeated the media in the last decade. One of the features was titled When Hate Goes Pop aired on April 12, 2001 and gained recognition for bringing the issue out of the shadows.

Discrimination, sexual innuendoes, sexism, slurs and racism are common themes in music of people like Marilyn Manson, Eminem and Lenny Kravitz and others. It is believed that talking about things you dislike in most crude and rude terms makes you look 'cool' and 'hip'. While the media would be reluctant to discuss racism and hatred in open and clear terms, people in the music industry are less inhibited. They have become increasingly outspoken in the last few years since there is no censorship in music industry as what these people say is equated with freedom of speech and hence any need for regulation is quickly shrugged off.

MTV's When Hate Goes Pop was meant to increase awareness in the public regarding use of racist and sexist themes in music and questions were raised as to whether it needs to be regulated and monitored or not. The program contained interviews of musicians who are accused of using such violent themes and it was very surprising to notice that while the all spoke for tolerance in music, they did not appear ashamed of their violent compositions. Most musicians appeared to believe that slurs used in music had a different meaning than it would have in the public. For example the use of word 'fag' by Eminem in his songs was defended by the artists who claimed that it no longer had the negative connotations that it once used to have. But is that really true? Who is to decide what is politically correct and morally upright? Certainly not these artists!

We must understand that the judge of what music should or should not contain should be decided by the target audience. If certain lyrics offend a whole community, they must be censored regardless of how the artist chooses to defend his songs and himself. This is because he is not the one being attacked. And in any case of physical or verbal abuse, we do not ask the attacker if he is satisfied with his behavior. Instead it is…… [read more]

Expressions of Protest Term Paper

… Although his style was slightly different that that of early "roots" reggae, with less heavy emphasis on strictly Jamaican conditions, such as the deplorable living conditions in the Jamaican slums, Marley still used the art form to protest the conditions… [read more]

Changing Musical Style of Bob Dylan Term Paper

… ¶ … Changing Musical Style of Bob Dylan

He not busy being born / is busy dying" is one of the immortal lines from an old Bob Dylan song. Dylan has lived this line all his life; constantly changing his… [read more]

Rock: A Genre Term Paper

… The band is noted for its use of reverb and complex lyrics such as found in its 1972 hit "Reelin' In The Years."

Chicago: This band was one of the first 1960's bands founded with English Progressive Rock as an inspiration, although it drew upon many notable American influences. It remains a ballad-based rock band. It primarily makes extensive use of classical horns and other non-rock sounds in its instrumentation. This is particularly notable in such hits as the 1976 "If you leave me now."

Ramones: A Queens-based punk rock band, one of the first punk bands -- some even call the band the founder of the genre, although many British bands would dispute this distinction. What is not in dispute is that the Ramones had many hits, including the song that inspired the film "Rock n' Roll High School."

Sex Pistols: One of the British founders of the punk sound, a band headed by Sid Vicious and Johnny Rotten. The band is most famous for "God Save the Queen" and other angry, youthful send-ups of British values. The "Sex Pistols" were also famed for their hard-edged dyed hair, skin jewelry, and losing their lead singer Sid Vicious to his heroin abuse, a drama later chronicled in the film "Sid and Nancy."

Allman Brothers Band: Another cross-genre band, in this case a pioneering Southern rock band from Georgia, formed in 1969. This band is unique in its combination of jazz, blues, classical, and rock sounds, in defiance of most generalizations about different rock classifications, as is particularly notable in the band's most famous album "Win Lose or Draw."

Lynard Skynard: In the tradition of the Allman Brothers, Lynard Skynard is a bluesy southern rock band of the 1960's and…… [read more]

History of Dance History of Hula Term Paper

… History Of Dance

History of Hula Dance

Dance refers to movement used as a form of expression and is generally presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting, and as a method of non-verbal communication between species, such as the mating dance of birds and as part of ceremony, rituals, and celebrations of humans (Dance pp). Dancing figures can be found depicted on cave paintings of prehistoric era, dating back to the stone age, such as those found on some five hundred caves at Bhimbetka, in India (Bhimbetka pp). Although dance and music can be traced to prehistoric times, it is not clear which art-form came first, however, because rhythm and sound are the result of movement, and music inspires movement, "the relationship between the two forms has always been symbiotic (Dance pp). Many dance forms of today can be traced back to historical, traditional, ceremonial, and ethnic dances (Dance pp).

The hula maiden with hips swaying the breeze has become a legendary symbol of Hawaii, however, the hula of Old Hawaii, known as "kahiko" was a ritual of religion and communication (Hawaii's pp). In ancient times, dancers were selected for hula training in childhood and often even before birth, and spent their formative years under the care of a kumu hula, or hula master, separated from the outside world and dedicated to the goddess Laka, patron of the hula (Hawaii's pp).

The history of births, deaths, loves, and battles of the people were preserved in chants and dance (Hawaii's pp). Since Hawaii's history was recorded as dance, "hula dancers were expected to remember and repeat every dance step perfectly and under punishment of death," for "to change the dance was to change history" (Kaleikini pp). Hula was the written word for ancient Hawaiians, told through the movements of the dancers' feet, hands, and body movements (Kaleikini pp). Through dance, stories were told, genealogies were kept, and beliefs were shared and imposed, thus to change the steps would be to change the message (Kaleikini pp).

Not only was hula used to preserve the history of births, deaths, loves, and battles, it was danced for religious purposes and entertainment, such as to celebrate human fertility, or for the hope of successful crops (Hawaii's pp).

Certain hulas were considered very sacred and were done only at certain times, for example, for a certain deity on certain moons, at certain ceremonies, while others were performed for certain events such as the birth of a child, for which a song would be composed and the hula performed…… [read more]

Fight the Power by Public Enemy Term Paper

… Fight the Power by Public Enemy

When "Fight the Power" was released as a part of the Do the Right Thing soundtrack in 1989, it was radical not only for its lyrics, but for the context in which it appeared. Do the Right Thing was Spike Lee's third commercial movie and tackled taboo subjects such as race, economics and violence in an unapologetically confrontational manner. The movie takes place during a hot summer in Brooklyn, New York, where racial tensions are exacerbated by limited opportunities, short tempers and the heat. As the lynchpin in the Do the Right Thing soundtrack, "Fight the Power" was nothing short of an anthem, giving voice to ideas and emotions that many African-Americans had only thought or expressed to each other. As Adam Haupt writes in "Notions of Rupture (or Noise) in Subculture," the music in Do the Right Thing is key to an understanding of the movie's radical message:

clear demonstration of the claim that rap, with the concept of noise as one of its strategies, involves a contest for public space and self-representation can be found in Spike Lee's Do the Right Thing (1989), a film about racial tensions in the New York suburb Bedford-Stuyvesant during a particularly hot summer."

Finally, here was an opportunity for African-Americans to sign along to the sound of their own discontent, and it had a good beat, too. Public Enemy not only embraced radical thought with "Fight the Power," but they also tread new musical ground, as they did for the decade between the mid=80's and the mid-90's. As Goran M. put it in "Public Enemy: Power to the People and the Beats:" "[Public Enemy] politicized a whole layer of youth all over the world. If it weren't for them, there wouldn't have been any politically engaged bands in the second half of the nineties such as Rage Against the Machine or the Manic Street Preachers."


Chuck D's opening verse begins with traditional hip hop lyrics designed to the get crowd moving and excited, which matches nicely with the opening musical sequence, which is loud and forceful. There is no build up, musically, which is one of the first hints that "fight the Power" is more than just another rap song about partying or showing off. However, by the end of the first verse it becomes clear that "Fight the Power" has a more significant, radical agenda:

Got to give us what we want

Gotta give us what we need

Our freedom of speech is freedom or death

We got to fight the powers that be Lemme hear you say

Fight the power

Here, Chuck D. is making a demand on behalf of himself, Public Enemy and the black community at large. The reference to "what we want/need" can be read as a demand for equality, justice and economic opportunity. The lyrics indicate an unwillingness to be silent about American racism and injustice any longer; the people will fight, according to Chuck D, with speech being… [read more]

Ink Spots "An All-Negro Show Term Paper

… Their Web site shares the information that this venerable group has made motion pictures with Abbott and Costello ("The Great American Broadcast" and "Pardon My Sarong"); they appeared often on the Jack Benny Program; they have toured with Ella Fitzgerald and Cab Calloway; they have been "guest artists" with the Houston Pops, the South Florida Symphony, Gold Coast Symphony, the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra, among many other honors.

The Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music (Du Noyer, 2003) counts the Ink Spots as among the first generation of Doo-Wop (page 20), but gives the Ink Spots pretty short shrift considering their huge impact on the music scene, and their impact on the cross-over phenomenon when white teenagers began digging music that originated from black roots, and music made by African-American musicians like the Ink Spots, and a bit later The Dells, the Coasters, and many more.

In 1939 (Goldberg, 1998), the world was changing, some changes for the good, some not, according to page 49 of Goldberg's book on the Ink Spots: Adolf Hitler invaded and basically took over Poland, the beginning of his attempt (nearly successful) to conquer all of Europe; Albert Einstein advised President Franklin Delano Roosevelt that the atomic bomb is a virtual certainty as a future weapon; ten million Americans are still unemployed, due to a sagging economy left over from the Great Depression; "sit-down" protest strikes are declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court; The Grapes of Wrath is written; Gone With The Wind is filmed; and the Ink Spots record their biggest hit, "If I Didn't Care."

In fact, it was January 12, 1939, according to Goldberg's book, that the Ink Spots went into Decca's recording studio in New York City, intending to record "Knock Kneed Sal"; but "aspiring song writer Jack Lawrence showed up with a ballad he had just penned," hoping the already well-established Ink Spots would record it. They decided to put "If I Didn't Care" on the "flip side" of "Knock Kneed Sal" -- and in recording it, they departed for the first time from their jazzy genre into a melodic, heart-soaring ballad. It was "a radical departure" from their previous successes. The Ink Spots didn't like the song, Goldberg, and only ran through the copy "a couple times" prior to recording it. Luckily for them, the world did like the song, and still likes the song -- in fact, the music world and the audiences everywhere loved, and still love, that song.


Du Noyer, Paul. The Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music. New York: Billboard

Books, 2003.

Goldberg, Marv. More Than Words Can Say: The Ink Spots and Their Music. Lanham,

MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1998.

Rock & Roll Hall of Fame (2004). "The Ink Spots." Accessed March 2, 2005

The Ink Spots. (2003). "The History of the Ink Spots." Accessed March 3, 2005

Watson, Deek. The Story of the 'Ink…… [read more]

Constructing the Jazz Tradition: Jazz Historiography Term Paper

… ¶ … Constructing the Jazz Tradition: Jazz Historiography," author Scott Devaux argues that "the accepted historical narrative for jazz" confers on the music a type of "pedigree," making it acceptable and palatable by the public (526). Academic acceptance of jazz portrays it as the classical music of America. Conferring a pedigree onto jazz also glorifies its specifically African and African-American roots, and therefore jazz has "an important political dimension," (526). Devaux contends that this academic historical narrative of jazz is unfair and overly simplistic in its scope, defining the genre, style, history, and social phenomena of jazz too narrowly. As evidence for his claim, the author shows that classifying jazz into a myriad of sub-genres that emerged in a chronological or geographic manner can be problematic especially since so many styles coexisted in the same place and time. Moreover, these styles often shared very little in common. Devaux urges music historians to create different and alternate historiographies of jazz.

Devaux proposes in part a revision of jazz historical narrative that presents the music not as a series of fragmented and isolated genres but rather as…… [read more]

Arsenic and Old Lace Term Paper

… For instance, the sisters are talking, and as the camera cuts to "Teddy Roosevelt," we still hear the women talking, so we know the location of the scene has not changed.

Music and sound effects are used sparingly but to great effect. Sweet, light music is played while Mortimer and Elaine playfully chase each other around a tree; menacing music is used at times when Jonathan plans to kill or torture someone. As "Teddy Roosevelt" thunders up the stairs, he imagines he's riding up San Juan Hill. His exaggerated footstep sounds emphasize the image that he is supposed to be on a horse. Other sounds are tied to specific individuals: the bugle to Teddy Roosevelt, and the doorbell to the neighborhood policeman. Later, lighting in the form of shadows on the wall, along with sound effects, are used to reveal a huge brawl in the living room, although most of the fight itself is not seen. Later, with Mortimer outside, we hear the aunts singing hymns in the basement over their latest "charity" murder victim. while we know Jonathan waits just inside the front door to murder Mortimer. The music emphasizes the juxtaposition of two absurd events.

When Mortimer and his fiance' are outside after being married, the lighting is gentle and natural. However, when Jonathan and his assistant are carrying a body downstairs, the only light comes from the basement and provides full silhouette of a body over someone's shoulders. The dark lighting is realistic. When they only have a match for light, it only illuminates their heads, and flickers. However, there's no indication that they have turned out the basement light, which moments before was so bright it silhouetted them completely. Another time silhouette is used is when Elaine comes over to try to find Mortimer. She is silhouetted, emphasizing the danger she is in. In the basement, dramatic lighting is used to make Jonathan's shadow huge. We see only Jonathan's menacing giant shadow talking to the much smaller Dr. Einstein.… [read more]

Tammy Wynette Was Born Virginia Term Paper

… In 1978, she married her longtime friend, George Richey, a record producer who became her manager and the stable husband she was looking for (Stodder).

Tammy went through many personal problems, from drinking and violent husbands to a kidnapping and beating in 1978. She also had many health problems, and had 35 surgeries during her life (McNett). She became addicted to painkillers, and had money problems, too. She died in her sleep on April 6, 1998, of an embolism on the lung (Editors, "About Tammy"). She was only 55.

Tammy Wynette was a legend in country music. Her song "Stand by Your Man" is one of the most famous and everlasting in country music, and her life is still an inspiration to women and country singers everywhere.


Author not Available. "Tammy Wynette Memorial." Personal Web Site. 2003. 3 Dec. 2004.


Editors. "About Tammy." 2004. 3 Dec. 2004.


Editors. "Tammy Wynette." Country Music Hall of Fame. 2003. 3 Dec. 2004.


Editors. "Tammy Wynette." 2004. 3 Dec, 2004.


Editors. "Tammy Wynette." Wikipedia. 1 Nov. 2004. 3 Dec. 2004.


McNett, Gavin. "Tammy Wynette, 1942-1998." 4 April 1998. 3 Dec. 2004.


Penman, Eric W. "Tammy Wynette Links." Personal Web Site. 2000. 3 Dec. 2004.


Strodder, Chris. "Tammy Wynette." 2004. 3 Dec. 2004.

< >… [read more]

James Baldwin and "Sonny's Blues Term Paper

… In that sense, the narrator is both a winner and a loser: he "wins back" a relationship with his younger brother, and in the process, a renewed sense of his own cultural identity. To do so however, he must relinquish (or "lose") his illusions about his own way of life being better or more worthwhile than Sonny's simply because it is safer and more conventional. Sonny, on the other hand, wins his brother's acceptance and finally loses his anger at his brother once his older brother accepts him. For Sonny, the trembling glass of scotch his brother offers at the end of the story signals his older brother's acceptance, and even admiration. For the narrator himself, though, it represents acceptance mixed (just as the milk is mixed with scotch) with both danger and fear.

Essentially, Baldwin conveys three key ideas in this story. First, one can only live for oneself, not for others. Second, one must seek to understand but not judge others. Third, love can bridge the gap between misunderstanding and acceptance.

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Literature: A Portable Anthology. Eds. Gardner et al. 220-

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama.

Eds. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 4th Compact ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005.


Thorell, Tsomondo, "No Other Tale to Tell: 'Sonny's Blues' and 'Waiting for the Rain'."

Studies in Contemporary Fiction. Mar. 1, 1995. Transcript. Electric Library. Community Coll. Of S. Nevada Lib., Las Vegas. 25 Nov. 2004.

Tracey, Sherard. "Sonny's Bebop: Baldwin's 'Blues Text' as Intracultural Critique."

African-American Review. Jan. 1, 1998. Transcript. Electric Library. Community Coll. Of S. Nevada Lib., Las Vegas. 25…… [read more]

Louis Armstrong Term Paper

… ¶ … Satchmo: The Genius of Louis Armstrong by Gary Giddins. Specifically, it will contain a book report on the book, including Louis Armstrong's musical thoughts. Louis Armstrong is a musical legend, and this book celebrates the man, his legacy, and his incredible talent.

Gary Giddins book is more than a biography of Louis Armstrong, a legend in American jazz music; it is really an anthem to a great musician and man. It is clear from Giddins style of writing that he admires, even idolizes Armstrong, and he gives some very compelling reasons for his adulation. Bing Crosby called Armstrong "the beginning and end of music in America" (Giddins 6), and author Giddins clearly agrees. His book looks at the life of Armstrong, from his early interest in music, throughout his career to his death, when many Americans still did not recognize his talent and his great contribution to American music. Giddins shows the reader a man who loved music, loved people, and loved performing, and never got over those loves. Music was his life, and he spent his life sharing his love with millions of people all around the world. He later said that by the age of eleven he "had music in my soul" (Giddins 38). Armstrong was a great improviser, that may have been one of his greatest musical talents, and many bandleaders who appreciated his talent would allow him free reign during his solos. Giddins writes, "Interpreting a phrase in a way that makes it personal is the mark of a master" (Giddins 52). Louis was a master, and it is quite clear that Giddins thinks so too in this book.

Music remained the main motivator in Louis' life, and as he became more comfortable with the cornet and in the band, be began to sing. Many bandleaders did not enjoy his gravely, rough and grating voice, but there was something about it the people liked, and Louis recognized that. He was always a showman and entertainer, and enjoyed giving the people what they wanted. Musically, he was a perfectionist who rarely lost his temper, but wanted the best out of his band members. Giddins notes, "When the lights went down for the musical interludes,…… [read more]

Monty at Fisher on October Term Paper

… I also enjoyed the ballads of the show, especially "Breeze off the River" and "You Walk With Me." These two songs helped make the characters more real, and showed that they were more than just dumb, out of work guys, they had feelings, needs, and wants, and they were desperate enough to do just about anything to make their dreams come true. These songs were a nice opposite to the jazzier and more raucous numbers, like "Michael Jordan's Ball," and they made the show more interesting and thought-provoking.

This is definitely a blue-collar show, but it is funny, poignant, and the dancing was really well choreographed. You knew these people were professionals, yet they made it look like they were not, and I know that is not easy to do. I really enjoyed this show, and I was skeptical about this film being made into a musical, I thought it would ruin it. As it was, I walked out of Fisher humming a tune or two, and glad I had taken…… [read more]

Stephanie Queenie Term Paper

… Stephanie "Queenie" St. Clair

Stephanie St. Clair went by many names, "Queenie St. Clair," "The Queen of Policy" and even "Madame Queen." She is one of the most well-known African-American women of the Harlem Renaissance, yet she was not a… [read more]

Play the Real Thing Term Paper

… ¶ … Real Thing


The playwright Henry is a sophisticated, intelligent, and cultured man -- or so the man would like to seem to his general, listening public when he appears, as himself, on air. But a literary ear does not mean one has a correspondingly sophisticated ear for music. In the second scene of Tom Stoppard's "The Real Thing" the main male protagonist is sorting through his record collection. He has been asked to appear on a BBC radio program entitled "Desert Island Disks." On the program people of note explain which musical songs they would bring with them if stranded upon a desert island and why they have chosen these selections. All guests, Henry seems to think, are faced with a quandary -- do they say what they 'really' like or do they say what they think they should like, in an attempt to create as desired persona through serious music? Music may be the deepest and truest of the arts, the art that give the listener his or her most access to his or her soul. Henry's soul is so out of touch with his emotions, however impressive his intellect, what he 'really' likes is quite popular and pedestrian, like the Monkees. Henry uses the techniques of posturing, quotation, and irony to avoid touching such real emotions when he is talking -- yet clearly such falseness of emotions affect him as an artist, as the first scene from one of his plays shows a brittle, witty interplay between a man and a woman that has no real emotional resonance between the two characters. Although Henry is confident about what people 'really' like in art -- "I'm a Believer" versus the arias of Maria Callas, his own 'real' emotional life is so stunted he cannot produce 'real' art, he can only posture, as he does assembling his listening list for "Desert Island Disks."

Section II Brodie

Music is used in ironic fashion throughout the production of "The Real Thing," but nowhere nearly with as much deft and skill as the deployment of "I'm a Believer," a pop confection by the manufactured faux Beatles American musical group 'The…… [read more]

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Life, His Compositions Term Paper

… ¶ … Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart [...] Mozart's life, his compositions, and his importance to the world, and the world of music. Mozart's music is still some of the most popular classical music played today, and his life is still studied because his music is so well-known and liked. Films such as Amadeus have been made about him that just make his legend even bigger. Mozart was a genius, and one of the greatest classical composers who ever lived. He created grand musical material during his life, and had he lived longer, it is clear he would have created even more monumental and memorable pieces.

Most experts, musicians, and biographers agree that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a true genius. He was born in 1756, his father taught him to play the harpsichord, organ, and violin at a very young age, and he was composing his first music before he was five. When he was six, his father sent him on a musical tour of European cities with his older sister. He was extremely prolific in music at a very young age. This article notes, "His progress as a composer was amazing; by the age of 13 he had written concertos, sonatas, symphonies, a German operetta, Bastien und Bastienne, and an Italian opera buffa, La finta semplice" ("Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus"). This is one of the things that has added to his fame and popularity, and has made him such a legend. He was a great composer, and began at a very young age.

He was a court composer in Vienna for several years, but ultimately chafed at how many constraints his position placed on him. He loved the freedom of working for himself, but had financial difficulties his entire life because it was difficult to support himself with his music. He traveled around Europe, and found the music of other areas influenced his own music, especially the music of Italy. In 1782, he married Constanze Weber, and he had to support her by teaching music and giving public concerts. In 1787, he became the chamber musician and court composer of Joseph III, but he still did not earn enough for a comfortable life, and money troubles plagued him until he died. He often had to beg money from friends and relations, and had to move to smaller quarters several times with his family. Mozart died in 1791, at the age of thirty-five. It is hard to imagine just what he could have accomplished musically, and what innovations he would have conceived if he had lived a longer life.

Mozart's work spanned just about every musical genre. He wrote operas, symphonies, string quartets, requiems, librettos, concertos, and just about every form of music popular at the time. He was extremely prolific and extremely talented. Some of his works were exceptional at the time, and some were not really appreciated until after his death. Some of his most important works were six string quartets (1782-85), "The Abduction from the Seraglio," 1782, "The Violet," 1785,… [read more]

Motzart "Forgive Me, Majesty Term Paper

… Mozart was in fact very ill (and broke) when he was commissioned by an unknown source to compose a requiem mass, and he is reported to have imagined the work was for himself as implied in the film. His death is actually most likely due to kidney failure, though at the time rumors did circulate that he had been poisoned by Salieri. Salieri has never been proven to be completely removed from Mozart's death, but neither the evidence against him nor the level of mediocrity in his work merit the pop-culture title he has received as the jealous murderer of a great composer, instead of being recognized as a composer in his own right. Mozart's character, additionally, is portrayed as a very vulgar and disrespectful to authority in the film. While his music was in all certainty extremely revolutionary for the time, his manner of addressing the royal family would most likely have been less openly disrespectful. Despite -- or perhaps due to -- this use of artistic license, the film is a beautiful piece of historical fiction that is true to the sublime artistic tone of both featured composers' work thematically, visually, and as a whole. The superb incorporation of the classical music into the soundtrack, not just as background or mood-setting music, but also as an interactive and living part of the action, is the strongest point of the movie. (Still, the play is…… [read more]

Sergei Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerti Term Paper

… ¶ … Sergei Rachmaninoff [...] Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerti. Rachmaninoff is one of the world's best-known composers, and he wrote numerous pieces for concert and stage. Some of most famous are the four piano concerti, which all highlight his talent and his high opinion of the piano as a concert instrument.

Rachmaninoff is known for his romantic style of music, and these concertos are no exception. The first composition, "Concerto in F-Sharp Minor (Op. 1) for Piano and Orchestra" was originally written somewhere between 1880 and 1881, but it was completely redone in 1917, which altered it dramatically from the original score. Rachmaninoff dedicated this concerto to the distinguished pianist and teacher, Alexander Siloti. This concerto opens with an enthusiastic fanfare using two clarinets, two bassoons, and four horns, and while it does contain orchestra parts, the piano is the main instrument of the concerto, and has many solos during the performance that highlight the technical expertise of the pianist. Rachmaninoff actually uses a limited orchestra in this piece to highlight the piano, and to help add to the overall effect of the piano solos, which are the soul of the piece. The ending is quite dramatic, with the orchestra and the piano playing counter rhythms that are interesting and complex. Many people feel that other romantic composers, such as Schumann and Grieg influenced this particular work. Melody and harmony were important to Rachmaninoff, and this piece helps illustrate how he could use these both effectively in the orchestra and for the piano. This blending is what helps Rachmaninoff's music be romantic and dramatic at the same time.

Second in the quartet is Concerto No. 2 in C minor, op. 18. This second concerto is probably the most famous of Rachmaninoff's concertos because the melody seems somehow more familiar. It was written in 1901, and Rachmaninoff himself was the first public performer of this piece, which many feel is his best (Veinus 345). It is a quite expressive piece that uses the piano and strings most expressively. The piano and the orchestra blend perfectly, even though the piano is dominate. This is a passionate and emotional piece that conveys sentiment and feeling through the piano to the audience. The composer dedicated this piece to his doctor, Doctor Dahl, who helped his conquer depression over a poor composition, and return to composing, and this may be one reason the piece is so passionate. Rachmaninoff was passionate about his work, and it clearly shows in this piece, especially in the climatic ending that engages the orchestra, the piano, and the listener in a grand finale that is loud and memorable. Again, Rachmaninoff uses melody and harmony, but the dissonance of the orchestra and the percussion to create a stunning, memorable piece.

Third in these four works is the Piano Concerto No. 3 in D Minor, which was written in 1909, and written specifically for Rachmaninoff's first concert tour in the United States. Many people believe this is "probably the composer's best unified longer… [read more]

Beatles There Is Little Doubt Term Paper

… ¶ … Beatles

There is little doubt that the four musicians known as The Beatles had a profound and lasting effect not only on modern music but on contemporary culture as well. In terms of record sales there have been few artists or groups that have come close to their worldwide popularity.

The Beatles have become part of world culture and their name conjures up different ideas and images for everyone. Not only were they musical innovators but they also have become icons and symbols of creativity, rebellion against established order and innovation. They became in many senses the voice of a generation searching for a new and better society.

A great rock group is the voice of a generation. What sets a great rock group apart from all the others is that they go beyond the music and produce music that is more than just a catchy tune. Great rock bands influence society, are role models, and are never forgotten. They become gods of their time, and legends forever. The Beatles are the only rock band that has achieved this. (Duer, B. 2003)

One of the most amazing aspects of their influence is that they succeeded in appealing to a wide range of ages, cultures and tastes. It is as if their music tapped into a universal appeal or a need within society. "Beatlemania was once called a phenomenon transcending social classes, age groups, intellectual levels and geographical areas" (The Beatles) They also broke down barriers between people and affected tastes and styles. Their influence on culture and ideas was far-reaching and went beyond popular music and even had an effect on politics, speech and other media like film. Their music revolutionized the music industry and their lyrics spoke to an entire generation.

There are many reasons for the influence of The Beatles on culture. They created their particular brand of music in a period when the youth of Britain and the world were searching for new ways of experiencing life and reacting against the established and conventional thinking of their elders. The Beatles, though their music and lyrics, articulated the needs and frustrations of the youth and became an integral part of a new cultural movement. Their music reflected the rebellion of the youth of the 1960's against the governments and leaders and the type of thinking that had plunged the world into two world wars. The titles and lyrics of their songs reflected the desire for change and for peace in the world. Songs such as the ironic and grim Helter Skelter reflects this view of society; while compositions like Imagine envisaged a world without…… [read more]

African-American Duality of Identity: Literary Term Paper

… (enotes, 2004)

Sonny's Blues" was first published in 1957 and was collected in Baldwin's 1965 book, Going to Meet the Man. It is noteworthy that in addition to his considerable literary education, Baldwin became a street preacher early in his… [read more]

Leaving the Bleak Post- Communistic Term Paper

… You can have an excellent physical condition by dancing disco, but your spirit will certainly enjoy tango more.

It is time to leave music and dance and head for architecture. You have not seen anything if you have not seen at least a few of the most representative churches of Europe. Here, the stylistic variety is enormous. Romanesque and Gothic, Renaissance churches or Baroque, you will be enchanted by what you see, from the tall, Gothic spires to the beauty of Renaissance churches and the lavishness of Baroque.

These are all classical forms, however, modern architecture finds its best representation in the Sydney opera house. All of us have seen it in books or magazines or on TV. What can we make of its incredible roof? In my opinion, it is one of the best expressions of the human spirit that has ever been built. There are no rules, no proportions here. Only a terrible architectural enthusiasm, very much like Picasso's paintings.

A lot of colors and plenty of unusual geometrical shapes may best characterize Picasso's works. He benefits from the fact that he has lived 90 years and has painted for around 70. He was able to experiment in every possible way until finally reaching his final forms.

The impressionists, on the other hand, were themselves innovators. They were the first to think of using small dots to portray something. Of course, at that time, this was revolutionary, but now we have begun to better understand their works and to appreciate them for their real value. This was the moment they began to be seen as popular art rather than high art.

I have left poetry in the end because it is the hardest to include in any category. We may sometimes see it as high art. However, if we think of the fact that poetry generally reaches all classes and that almost anybody can write poems, we might be tempted to picture it as popular art or even folk art. A child can write a poem, congratulating his mother on her birthday. This is not high art. The French Symbolists, on the other hand, were true representative of high art. The truth is perhaps…… [read more]

Michigan the 2003 Detroit International Term Paper

… " Overall, the music of the Caribbean Jazz Project, although not one of the festival's headliners, was one of the highlights of the weekend for me.

The Waterfront Stage was a fantastic venue for this group.

It was large enough to accommodate the crowd, and yet small enough to create a feeling of intimacy. The Stage is located alongside Lake Michigan, creating a fantastic view and ambiance. At the same time, the Waterfront Stage has seen several important renovations in recent years, and provides a shade from the sun. Seating was comfortable, although the infectious rhythm of the Caribbean Jazz Project made it difficult to sit still. At the same time, the choice to place the group at 6:45 P.M. On Saturday night (The Detroit was effective, as it helped to create a party atmosphere that would have likely been missing had the group played in the afternoon or morning.

While the Caribbean Jazz Project was likely the highlight of the Festival for me, a number of other groups stood out. Chaka Khan, who appeared at 9:30 PM on the Ford Motor Company Amphitheatre Stage (The Detroit was a surprising choice for the Festival. I was familiar with Chaka Khan's music from the 1980s, and was not sure what to expect. While her music seemed to be a lot less jazz-inspired than many of the performers, I have to admit that her presence was a bit of a draw for me. I am not a Chaka Khan fan, but I was curious to see her perform. As such, her inclusion in the Festival was likely a success, as I would expect that she was included as a headliner in order to take advantage of her name recognition, and to increase attendance.

Overall, I would highly recommend the Detroit International Jazz Festival. I found the energy of the Festival to be contagious, and enjoyed the great 'vive' and excitement about the music to be uplifting. Further, the Festival is a fantastic introduction to the variety and scope of jazz music. Prior to seeing the Caribbean Jazz Project I would never have thought that jazz and Latin music could be so effectively combined.

In conclusion, the Detroit International Jazz Festival is a fantastic opportunity for both those new to jazz and jazz aficionados to enjoy a great variety of jazz acts. Personally, the Festival was an enjoyable introduction to jazz music, with the Caribbean Jazz Project acting as the highlight of my experience at the festival. Overall, I would recommend the Festival for anyone with even a passing interest in jazz.

Works Cited

Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival. 23 July 2004.

Hovan, C. Andrew. 2003 Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival. All about Jazz. 23 July 2004.

The Detroit Friday, August 29, 2003: Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival schedule. 23 July 2004.…… [read more]

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Term Paper

… Further, the presence of Mozart's precocious talent as the son of a composer in the 1800s is less impressive than it would be today. At the time, children were less entertained with distractions, and the young Mozart would likely have… [read more]

James Baldwin's Sonny's Blues Moments Term Paper

… " For this reason, the narrator cannot understand Sonny and his seemingly careless attitude.

In addition, Sonny is driven by a passion to which his brother cannot relate. Sonny displays his passion when he tells his brother that there are many ways to keep from "drowning" in suffering. He says:

"It's terrible sometimes, inside . . . that's what's the trouble. You walk these streets, black and funky and cold, and there's really not a living ass to talk to, and there's nothing shaking, and there's no way of getting it out -- that storm inside. You can't talk it and you can't make love with it, and when you finally try to get with it and play it, you realize nobody's listening. So you've got to listen. You got to find a way to listen . . . Sometimes you'll do anything to play, even cut your mother's throat. (43)

This statement reveals how Sonny chooses to deal with life. Sonny seems to have an understanding that goes beyond what words can describe. Sonny certainly has no desire to life his life by anyone else's standards, including his brother's. We can also see how Sonny does not want to be restricted by anything and therefore lives by his own rules. This includes playing the piano. The narrator does not come to understand this until he watches him play. He then realizes the unique relationship the musician has with his instrument. As he watches Sonny play, he realizes "Freedom lurked around us and I understood, at last, that he could help us to be free if we would listen, that he would never be free until we did" (47). This statement captures the narrator's moment of understanding. He is also able to come to terms with Sonny's choices in life even though they are different than his own.

To conclude, "Sonny's Blues" is the story of the narrator's coming to understand and accept his brother for whom he is. Only when he sees him play can he appreciate Sonny's world. From a different perspective, he realizes Sonny's passions and creative urges -- something a carefully sought-after career cannot give the narrator.

Work Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues."…… [read more]

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