"Music / Musicians / Instruments" Essays

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Conservatory of Music Majoring Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This led me to my objective of someday becoming an expert in playing every instrument. I would love to become one because just listening to music, even when I am alone, makes me feel happy. The more happiness that I would feel if I'll be able to let others listen to my music even when I play alone.

Another example of my admiration in music that led me to my goals and objectives is my admiration to an orchestra playing a music. This may be the opposite of my admiration to acoustic music but a playing orchestra makes me feel alive and makes me feel the real mood of music. From this admiration, one of my goals is to become a member of an orchestra, or soon, to become an orchestra's conductor. I love the thought that orchestras give the moods of music to listeners, to the point that listeners sometimes almost cry because of the deep feelings of music that an orchestra plays.

I believe that my affection to music will never be lost. After majoring in piano performance at the Conservatory of Music, I aspire to apply for a Master's study both in Piano Performance and Collaborative Piano. I want to pursue studying music until I gain a Doctoral of Music Artist Degree in a school that specializes in music studies. My foremost goal is to become an expert in every musical instrument and in every skill in music. I am hoping to soon become a great performer, a great composer, and a great music teacher as well. I hope that through my music, I can touch peoples' heart and lives. I believe that music is my life and soul. If music touches the heart of the listeners, I hope that I can be a part of this. Through a music path of becoming a performer, a composer, and a teacher, I seek to achieve these goals and objectives that I have…… [read more]

Blacks in Blues Music Biographer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,189 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These female blues singers toured the black vaudeville circuits or performed in city nightclubs, basically in protected venues, "on stage, out of reach of their admirers ... And between performances, relaxed in backstage areas out of bounds to the public ... they did not sing in the street or play in jukes and barrooms" (Lomax 360).

What is distinctive about the blues lyrics of the 1920's and 1930's in relation to other forms of American popular music was its "intellectual independence and representational freedom," writes Angela Y. Davis in "Blues Legacies and Black Feminism" (Davis 3). Blues lyrics were filled with provocative and sexually pervasive imagery, openly addressing both male and female sexuality (Davis 3). Moreover, the birth of the blues was evidence of new realities within the black populations because the music was performed solo, therefore, it marked "the advent of a popular culture performance" (Davis 4).

The word "blue" has been associated with the idea of melancholia or depression since the Elizabethan era and American writer, Washington Irving, is credited with coining the term "the blues," as it is now defined, in 1807 (Baker pp). The beginning of the blues musical tradition can be traced through oral tradition as far back as the 1860's (Baker pp).

The focus of African music is rhythmic rather than tonal, therefore, traditional African musicians were more interested in the variety of possible shadings around it than in replicating the pure tone itself (Eastman pp). Moreover, the modal scales that Africans employed did not fit precisely into the standard European diatonic scale, so in order to "accommodate to the tuning of European instruments, black American musicians created the so-called 'blue notes' -- the flatted fifth and seventh notes of the eight note diatonic scale" (Eastman pp).

With stringed instruments, American players

purposely ran knife blades or annealed bottle neck "slides" along the metal strings of the fretboard to distort or extend the "pure" tones that instruments were designed to produce.

Often instead of, or in addition to, regular strumming, bluesmen slapped and pulled at guitar, fiddle or bass strings to increase this

"dissonant" effect (Eastman pp).

Charley Patton originated the Delta blues sound that is known today (They pp). Born sometime between 1881-1891 in Edwards, Mississippi, he lived and worked on Dockery's Plantation, where he mentored such legends as Willie Brown, Tommy Johnson, Pops Staples, and Howlin' Wolf (They pp). In 1929, he traveled to Richmond, Indiana, to record "Pony Blues" for the Paramount label, followed by many other sessions until his death in 1934 (They pp). Huddie Ledbetter, better known as Leadbelly, was born in Shiloh, Louisiana in 1888, and was among the first of the great American balladeers (They pp). Although he lived the life of a traditional Delta bluesman, he was also famous as a folk singer, "having originated such tunes as "Goodnight Irene," "Midnight Special," and "Rock Island Line" (They pp).

Although the "Blues" has been adopted by musicians around the world, it remains the indelible creation of the… [read more]

Music Appreciation My Personal Attraction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


I believe music can touch a chord in a person's core, and this is why many of these musicians are so important. They have the ability to feel what people are feeling, and transfer those feelings to their music. Music is woven into the very cloth of our lives. We walk down the aisle to particular music, are buried with… [read more]

Censorship in Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  36 pages (12,976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Spanish-born Pablo Casals (1876-1973), who enjoyed a spectacular international career as a violin and cello virtuoso and conductor, was considered to be one of the finest musicians of his day. However, he had a rather harsh assessment of rock and roll in the early 1960s, one that should be viewed through the filter of a person whose life was… [read more]

Jamaican Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (4,850 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(The same dynamic obtains today in the way in which hiphop is marketed. But reggae internationally succeeded because its listeners were eager to see themselves as radicals - and so were eager to buy a form of music that was marketed to them as the voice of the revolution.

Launched on the anniversary of Marley's death the Legend campaign was… [read more]

Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,523 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


African-American music is a widely visible type of music in many nations nowadays. The heritage of the African culture, as applied in the American music industry, has provided great contribution to the arts of music. The characteristics of the African-American music in various forms such as blues and jazz have presented life to the music of the past up to our modern times. Perhaps, we can say that African-American music is a brilliant art.


Christo. (2000). African History and Overview.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Acslink.

Web site: http://www.acslink.aone.net.au/christo/f_afrihi.htm

Clarke, D. Minstrelsy and the War Between States.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site: http://www.musicweb.uk.net/RiseandFall/two.htm

Heart and Soul: A Celebration of African-American Music.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Worldbook. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/intro.htm


Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Worldbook.

Web site: http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/spirituals.htm

Survey of American Popular Music.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site: http://www.music.eku.edu/faculty/nelson/mus273/minstrel.html

Archives of African-American Music and Culture.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~aaamc/

McElrath, J. African-American History.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site: http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/musicmusicians1… [read more]

English Language by Music Historian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,116 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Handel composed Messiah to the libretto (lyrics) of Charles Jennens, who also wrote libretto for Handel's Saul as well as works for other composers. Peter Jacobi describes Jennens' libretto as "a deft weaving of spiritual thoughts...that led Handel to a clarity of vocal and instrumental line," (1982, p. 33). Once the composer received Jennens' libretto, he completed Messiah in just over three weeks, between August and September of 1741. This "burst of energy" was supposedly typical for Handel (Barber, 1994, p. 45). However, the completely original composition was not; "Handel was a plagiarist," like many musicians in his time, and he frequently borrowed whole sections of music from other composers (Jacobi, 1982, p. 32). Messiah contains some sections stolen from Handel's own work, but the bulk of the masterpiece was original. Although the bulk of the work was written in those fateful three weeks, Handel continued to alter the composition. In fact, more than sixteen versions of Messiah exist in his own writing.

Following the immense success of Messiah in Ireland, Handel moved back to London in 1742. Hoping to revive his career, Handel launched productions of several oratorios, including Samson and Messiah. Audiences appeared pleased with Handel's oratorios based on Old Testament themes, like Samson. However, the groundbreaking Christian theme of Messiah proved to be a turn-off for Londoners. Handel's Messiah was first performed in the British capital on March 23, 1743 in Covent Garden at the Theatre Royal, but under a different name. Because of the negative reaction toward the oratorio's Christian theme, Handel advertised the production as A Sacred Oratorio. Still, the work was considered blasphemous and Handel was forced to halt production between the years 1746 and 1748.

England was still a hotbed of social and political transformation, however, and by 1749 audiences were ready to receive Handel's Messiah. By 1750 the oratorio grew large crowds, and Handel began producing it to make money for charity. Billing it as a fund-raiser also helped boost ticket sales, as the still puritanical middle and upper classes needed a philosophical excuse to see Messiah.

Handel had been active in philanthropy for a while, and was particularly interested in financially assisting London's Foundling Hospital, an orphanage. For eleven years beginning in 1750, Handel's Messiah was produced as an annual fundraiser for the Foundling Hospital. The composer had always been prone to giving his money away; in fact, when his first teacher Zachow passed away, Handel regularly sent his widow money. Luckily, Messiah drew in a substantial salary for the generous composer, who had twice declared bankruptcy during the course of his career. Messiah was performed continually until the time Handel died; it is still performed regularly centuries later.

George Frideric Handel grew plump in his later years, due no doubt to his increased financial success. Although his eyesight began to fail and he eventually grew blind, Handel continued to compose; he wrote oratorios, as well as psalms, anthems, and instrumental chamber music. Much of his work was successful, but none… [read more]

Shakespeare Used Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Shakespeare often used vocal music to evoke a particular kind of mood, as in "Come, thou monarch." He also uses the songs to provide ironic commentary on plot or character. The incantatory, magical, and ritual uses of song are particularly also central to the themes of plays such as A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Tempest and Macbeth. Shakespeare also used songs to establish the character or mental state of the singer. For example, in King Lear Edgar feigns madness by singing snatches of folk song, while Ophelia's singing of folk song in Hamlet demonstrate the regressive breakdown of her personality. (Springfels)


Shakespeare has used ballads extensively in his works. The ballads were usually cut short to three or four stanzas and used only in part. The reasons for this could be that most of the popular ballads of the time were too lengthy to be used in a play, and perhaps the lyric of a ballad as a whole might not have been complementary to the plotline of the play. (Lackey)

Instrumental Music

Instrumental music has been sparingly used in Shakespeare's plays, in part because of the lack of facilities for such music to be played in performances other than at the Court. Hence in plays performed at the court such as the Twelfth Night and The Tempest we find nearly three times the amount of music normally present in Shakespeare's plays. In these plays, Shakespeare may have had the services of court singers and instrumentalists. In public theater productions, instrumental music was normally provided by a trumpeter, a wind player who doubled on shawm, and a couple of string players who were competent at the violin, viol, and lute. (Springfels) Therefore, the use of instrumental music in most of Shakespeare's plays is sparse.


Shakespeare has used music in most of his plays as a dramatic device to effectively evoke certain moods and sometimes to reflect the state of minds of some characters. While doing so, he has mostly relied on traditional and popular English music of the time that was easily understood by his audience, rather than the sophisticated "art" music.

Works Cited

Lackey, Stephanie. "Shakespeare and his Music." October 12, 1998. Vanderbilt University's MusL 242 Gateway Page. April 25, 2003. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/Blair/Courses/MUSL242/f98/slackey.htm

Kastan, David Scott. "William Shakespeare." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Music in the plays." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003. http://web.uvic.ca/shakespeare/Library/SLTnoframes/stage/music.html

Music of the streets and fairs." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003. http://web.uvic.ca/shakespeare/Library/SLTnoframes/literature/streets.html

Springfels, Mary. "Music in Shakespeare's Plays." Shakespeare and the Globe: Then and now. Britannica online. N.d. April 25, 2003. http://www.britannica.com/shakespeare/esa/660007.html boy-singer, Jacke Wilson, became famous and his name is acknowledged in a 1623 production of Much Ado about Nothing (Springfels)

First performed at the Whitehall in 1601 as part of the traditional royal celebration of the holiday

The Tempest was given two court performances: the first in 1611 at Whitehall, and the second in 1613… [read more]

Music on Grocery Store Shopper Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Times will be recorded in the total number minutes per visit. It is expected that findings will indicate longer stays for the group that shops with music. Data will be cross-tabulated according to male vs. female. In addition it will be cross-tabulated according to the type of music being played. Sampling will be conducted over a period of two weeks.… [read more]

Rock 'N Roll Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,491 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Punk-rock was fast, loud rock and roll music, but it quickly became the angry music of the time. (Riznar)

In the 1980's, punk-rock evolved into hardcore music and fans became even more experimental with fashion, makeup and hair color. In addition, a mixture of pop and folk-rock was introduced, and wild children everywhere listened to bands such REM and the… [read more]

Film Instrument: Ten Years Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Music may be the most important part of the musician's lives, but the band members are also each unique human beings with fully rounded personalities.

The movie is generalist in the sense that it gives a portrait of some of the difficulties all bands suffer while on tour but it is quite particular in showing the dedication and the shaping of a band with a fairly uncorrupted perspective in the music industry. Furthermore it does so without overly criticizing more commercial punk bands -- the focus is on Fugazi, rather than Fugazi's relationship with other bands and contrasting and comparing its sounds with similar sounding artists.

Despite this stress upon Fugazi's resistance to standardizing its punk music for commercial distribution, and the fact that it enabled itself to remain true to its roots by owning its own record label, the film does contain commercial design elements. The documentary it must be admitted as has a very stylishly shot technique and style, and it a pleasure to listen to. The director does not adopt a self-consciously 'rough' style to narrate the tale of the band. The band, again perhaps because of the length of time the director spent with them, comes across as reflective and intelligent about the decisions they have made with their lives, yet also quite savvy about the music business that has shaped so much of their lives and existences.

One last bit of evidence to confirm the film's ability to have a clear if almost invisible 'spin' on the purity of the band's music is how the film strikes a balance between using concert footage and footage of the band itself throughout the documentary. Rather than relegating a particular concert or backstage discussion to be the 'climax' of the film, and the narrative of the band, the film is very equitable in the balance it strikes between the lives and personalities on and off stage. In this band, there is no conflict between music and self, between one's backstage morality and onstage persona. Instead, an image of an unusually balanced, healthy group of artistically gifted individuals emerges, out of which has come often dark, but always compelling punk…… [read more]

Works of John Coolidge Adams: Music Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,069 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


John Coolidge Adams is one of America's most successful living composers, with his popularity being attributed to personal approach to minimalism, and his ability to produce dramatic works that touch on highly topical subjects. Born in Worchester, Massachusetts on February 15, 1947, Adams took to music at a young age. He learnt to play the clarinet from his father and would often travel to Boston for more training from Felix Viscuglia of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (Kirzinger, 2). He would also join his father in playing in the community orchestra and in marching bands, where he learnt the art of conducting. By the time he was ten, he had already began compositions and when he was fourteen, one of his orchestral pieces received its premier, marking the onset of his journey to stardom.

In 1965, Adams went to Harvard University, where he received composition lessons from the likes of David Del Tredici, Leon Kirchner, Earl Kim, and Roger Sessions. According to Kirzinger, he had become a well-rounded musician and would often conduct the Bach Society Orchestra, as well as play the clarinet for the Opera Company of Boston and the Boston Symphony Orchestra (2). In fact, he was one of the first students at Harvard to hand in a musical composition as an undergraduate thesis and after he received his undergraduate degree, he advanced to a master of arts, which he was awarded in 1972. He later taught at the San Francisco Conservatory until 1982. This text takes a look at the works of John Coolidge Adams in detail and examines the significant place he occupies in the American musical life, and how eccentric he is for his time.

The works of John Coolidge Adams

Majority of Adams' works often touch on highly topical subjects. For example, one of his works 'On the Transmigration of Souls' in 2002 commemorated the victims of the September 11 attacks and won him a Pulitzer Prize in 2003. 'Nixon in China' in 1987 recounted Richard Nixon's visit to China back in 1972 and 'Doctor Atomic' in 2005 provided details about the building of the first atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project and Robert Oppenheimer (Kirzinger, 2). 'The Death of Klinghoffer' was also based on the events that took place when the Palestine Liberation Front kidnapped Achille Lauro, a passenger liner, and the brutal murder of Leon Klinghoffer. When working at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music, Adams managed to build his own synthesizer, and he often paired with young talented musicians to come up with unique pieces of music. Some of the pieces released during this time were: 'Shaker Loops' (1978), 'Harmonium' (1981),'The Chairman Dances' (1985), 'Grand Pianola Music' (1982), 'Harmoniolehre' (1985) and 'Light over Water' (1973) among many others. Each of the pieces was well composed with a minimalist mix of styles and instruments, which earned him the title of one of the most famous composers of all time.

John Coolidge Adams' eccentricity

In addition to Adam's dramatic works and preference for current and… [read more]

Music and Vibration Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … detecting emotion in music and movement. Specifically, the literature involved in this analysis will focus on children's decoding of emotion in expressive body movement and the modeling of cue attunement. The literature presented in this review will demonstrate that the ideas behind children's learning is significantly based on movement and musical vibration. The literature will also reveal that… [read more]

German Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,025 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Early in the 19th century, Richard Wagner was branded as a person for music of the future; he did not like the strict traditional style of German music. He developed leitmotivs that were simple recurring themes found in his operas. His course brought about changes in opera as well as German music in general. The late 19th century saw Vienna continues elevation of its position in European classical music (Joseph, 2012).

In the 20th century there was a split between German and Australian music. In Vienna, Arnold Schoenberg together with his pupils moved along an avant-garde path and pioneered atonal music in 1909 and also twelve tone music within 1923. Composers within Berlin on the other hand took a populist route from the cabaret-like socialist operas to Gebrauchsmusik.

In the second half of the 20th century, West Germany German and Australian music was dominated largely by avant-garde. On the other hand composers in East Germany had ben advised against avant-garde and compose music in keeping with tenets of socialist Realism.

Germany music has many regions that have their own folk music and dance. Most of the 20th century saw a large part of the German culture being appropriated for ruling powers. In East and West Germany, children were taught folk songs called volkslieder. These songs were sunny, popular and optimistic but had very little relation to authentic German folk traditions. Germany went through many changes inspired by American and English root rivals and this saw new songs that featured political activism and realistic sadness, joy and passion being written and performed within the burgeoning folk scene. Some of the popular folk songs in Germany include emigration songs, work songs, and democracy oriented folk songs. There are several types of folk songs in Germany these include Oom-pah which is a type of music played by brass bands and linked to beer halls. Bavaria is folk music that is well-known outside Germany.

German schlager is a form of German music that combines elements of the traditional German music and popular entertainment. These are jolly songs that are mostly apolitical and they address an older audience as opposed to youth oriented pop music. This type of music is common in carnival in cologne or the Oktoberfest in Munich.

Music fans in Germany also listen to English-speaking pop music just like other countries. The pop music scene undergoes frequent changes and only a few bands have been able to maintain their popularity over time. Among the most vibrant and prominent music styles in Germany today is hip hop. There are bands that have taken pride in coming up with German-speaking pop, jazz, hip hop and even reggae (InterNations, 2014).


Joseph, A. (2012). Ten Reasons to love German culture: German Giants of classical Music. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://theculturetrip.com/europe/germany/articles/ten-reasons-to-love-german-culture-german-giants-of-classical-music-/

InterNations.org. (2014). The German Music scene. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://www.internations.org/germany-expats/guide/16030-culture-shopping-recreation/the-german-music-scene-16028

Countriesquest. (2009). Culture, Music. Retrieved September 26, 2014 from http://www.countriesquest.com/europe/germany/culture/music.htm… [read more]

Role of Music in Shaping the Ages Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,345 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It was used to demonstrate the social and psychological conflicts at a time when the United States was struggling with racism. Fight the Power was used to encourage the African-American community to stand up for their rights amidst racial segregation. The encouragement is evident in its lyrics such as "Most of my heroes don't appear on no stamps." The song was primarily an attack on the personifications of the white American ideal and its discriminative culture.

Lil Wayne's Georgia Bush is a song the reflected the mood of the 2000s and rivals any anti-Vietnam song in the 1960s. Lil Wayne produced the song as a sarcastic critique and attack of President George W. Bush and his administration's handling of Hurricane Katrina. It was a representation of the disaster's victim who felt that their country deserted them at their point of need. The hit song was used by the media to represent the discontentment that some victims of Hurricane Katrina felt, especially the affected African-Americans. While the song did not necessarily change the minds of many people, it forced them to acknowledge the plight of millions of people undergoing difficult periods while the government ignored them (Suddath, 2011). With lyrics like "The white people smiling like everything's cool / but I know people who died in that pool / I know people who died in them schools," the media used the song to criticize President Bush's handling of the effects of Hurricane Katrina.


Mass media has become an important part of today's culture that not only entertains but also educates and informs the public to an extent that it is integrated into people's lives (Vivian, 2012). One of the major ways in which the media informs and educates the public is through music. This is primary because of the role of music in social movements and definitive events within a particular period. Generally, music is a medium that has shaped the ages by acting as a representation or reflection of social movements that have existed and evolved. The role of music in shaping the ages is evident in its use to speak for generations and exemplify the existing belief systems.

As evident in this analysis, music has been used to represent the social context in each decade and reflect the primary mood of the public during the specific decade. The lyrics in each of these songs are influenced by the events taking place during the decade. Musicians not only produce the songs to represent their beliefs but also use them as a tool for speaking on behalf of others who share their feelings. In addition, these songs were used as mediums for influencing other beliefs and speaking to the generations in each of the decades.

The other notable component in the analysis is the connections between the decades and commonalities of the social movements based on the people represented. As reflected in Bob Dylan's and Edwin Starr's songs, the connection between the 1960s and 1970s was the effects of war… [read more]

Use of Music Therapy Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  14 pages (4,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Blues through History of Slavery and the Clinical Applications of Blues Form in today's therapy

History of American Slavery -- Brief Overview

In the year 1619, first African slaves were transferred to the North American colony of Jamestown, Virginia. They were brought here to help in the production of crops like tobacco, which were considered to be lucrative.… [read more]

Concerts Across Time the Performer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The principle difference in the role of concerts between the Baroque era and the contemporary one is that in contemporary society, pop music concerts are an occasion for concert goers to release themselves -- to unwind and enjoy the music. Again, there was more formality associated with baroque concerts so, although there was some degree of pleasure involved on the part of concert goers, the occasion was altogether serious and considered highly valued art. In comparison, concerts are principally a venue for listeners to have fun, enjoy the music, as well as to intermingle and meet people.

The type of people who attended concerts during the baroque period included fairly serious individuals. These included royal personages and members of the government, as well as individuals who were considered high society or high class people. Attending concerts was definitely a privilege during this epoch. However, within contemporary times, concerts are attended by laymen or regular people. There are still some concerts (typically of classical or even Baroque music) in which the upper crust of society -- meaning the wealthy -- are more likely to attend than those who are not socially and monetarily elite. However, for the most part concerts are attended by the general population. The average attenders of a rap music concert, for example, are just regular teenagers and young adults from all walks of life including many different races, nationalities, and religious denomination.

As previously alluded to, people attend concerts within contemporary times as a means of having fun. Also, some go because they feel a really strong connection to particular performing artists. Others go because concerts are simply social events and ways of meeting new people. Some people even go to concerts (especially those which involve certain types of music which is considered subversive) to start trouble, pick fights, and commit crimes. In general, however, people perceive of concerts as a way to have fun for an afternoon and an evening. People frequently like to engage in mind expansion via chemical substances such as alcohol or recreational drugs like marijuana.

New technologies certainly change the way that people experience music. This fact is perhaps best demonstrated by the influence of the internet. The internet -- and other new technologies as well such as digital media, ear pods, and video possibilities -- makes for a much more individualized experience. People no longer have to wait for a radio station or even television station to play their favorite song -- they can instantly access it in a medium in which they are the only ones to hear it at that particular point in time.

Works Cited

AdeleAnne. "Little Baroque Suite." www.dailymotion.com. 2013. Web. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xz6v02_ohb-little-baroque-suite-ph-gordon_music

VIP Media. "PJ Morton -- In Concert." www.dailymotion.com. 2010. Web.


WarnerClassics. "Une Fete Baroque." www.dailymotion.com. 2012. Web. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xof2dn_une-fete-baroque-10eme-anniversaire-du-concert-d-astree_music… [read more]

Rap Music - A Soundtrack Essay

Essay  |  17 pages (5,566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 17


As a result, rap has been like a cultural virus, spreading its sounds, attitude, and images throughout all cultures (social and political bodies).

DJ Kool paved a leeway for hip hop culture across the entire world, for the new rap artists such as "Grandmaster Flash." DJ Grandmaster Flash together with his group of the "Furious Five" were great innovators of… [read more]

Hip Hop Culture in Saudi Arabia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,627 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Hip Hop Culture in Saudi Arabia

Culture and globalization

Culture which refers to the symbolic systems Williams 91()

through which human beings exist and coexist has been globalized by taking ideas, values and meanings across national borders through international travel and the Internet. These global shifts in culture are seen to be creating rapid social changes in the society with… [read more]

American Idol Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The author then continues to argue that the show has changed the public's musical tastes through its diverse song choices and its explorations of various genres. While it may be true that the show has the ability to make past songs popular again and provides an example of Whitney Houston and how a person may be exposed to her music because of the show, there is no evidence in the form of statistics given to support the author's claims, thus making these claims seem less credible.

Additionally, the author comments on how the show has made the industry more profitable because of its ability to profit from the contestants in addition to the original artists. However, the explanation given does not make sense, and that author fails to demonstrate how the music industry profits from the re-release of music beyond actual music sales.

Lastly, the author comments on the show's star power citing Carrie Underwood's success as well as David Archuleta, who was a runner up. David Archuleta is not a strong case for people that did not win because he was a runner-up meaning that it is implied he would have a successful career ahead of him. This paper would have been even more successful if the author had provided an example of an individual who was not in the top 5, but rather if the author had chosen someone like Jennifer Hudson, who placed 7th and went on to become a successful recording artist and Academy Award winner.

Overall, I believe too much praise is given to "American Idol" and the essay does not take into account the negative impact the show may have on the original artists, how it discounts the efforts of people that have been struggling to "make it" for years, and the strict regulations imposed by the show that prevent certain individuals from auditioning simply because they are too old, or too…… [read more]

Miles Davis and Modern Jazz Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,833 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


[...] Miles' performance tradition emphasized orality and the transmission of information and artistic insight from individual to individual. His position in that tradition, and his personality, talents, and artistic interests, impelled him to pursue a uniquely individual solution to the problems and the experiential possibilities of improvised performance (Nettl & Russel, 1998).

Musical References

"Miles Davis and Quincy Jones -- Live in Montroeux." http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yMqWHkvP_1s

"Miles Davis -- Kind of Blue." http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hB669XXjnUg

"Miles Davis -- Out of the Blue." www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5D6YX8jqN8&playnext=1&list=PLC185D2985024BC66&feature=results_main

"Miles Davis -- Milestones." http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PRfdlcQ_MZw


Remembering Miles. (1991, November 12). Retrieved March 2013, from The Rolling Stone Archieves: http:/www.rollingstone.com/Desktop?s=1991111428#/19911114/44

Miles Davis. (2006, June). Retrieved March 2013, from Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Indusction: http://www.rockhall.com/inductee/miles-davis

House Resolution 894 Honoring the 50th Anniversary of "Kind of Blue" and Reffirming Jazz as a National Treasure. (2009, December 15). Retrieved March 2013, from clerk.house.gov: http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll971.xml

Cook, M., et al. (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Jazz. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Davis, G., & Sussman, L. (2006). Dark Magus: The Jekyll and Hyde Life of Miles Davis. San Francisco, CA: Backbeat Books.

Gioia, T. (2006). The History of Jazz. new York: Oxford University Press.

Mandell, H. (2008). Miles, Ornett, Cecil: Jazz Beyond Jazz. New York: Routledge.

Mingus, C. (1955, November 30). An Open Letter to miles Davis. Retrieved March 2013, from Downbeat Magazine: http://www.mingusmingusmingus.com/Mingus/miles_davis.html

Nettl, B., & Russel, M. (Eds.). (1998). In the Course of Performance: Studies in the World of Musical Improvisation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Taylor, A. (1993). Notes and Tones. New York: Da Capo Press.

Common Abbreviation… [read more]

Discovering Statistics Music Valence Lab Report

Lab Report  |  8 pages (2,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Just by looking at the data it is apparent that there could be significant differences between different conditions. The arithmetic means are shown graphically in Figure 1 and the difference between genders is statistically significant [F (1, 24) = 140.8, p < .001). The interaction between gender and music groups was also significant [F (2, 24) = 11.8, p <… [read more]

Jazz Gillespie Live in '58: Analyzing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,121 words)
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Gillespie Live in '58: Analyzing and Appreciating a Historic Jazz Concert

The live performance given in Belgium in 1958 by Dizzy Gillespie and some notable band mates is both historically important, helping to solidify the spread of modern jazz to Europe, and aesthetically pleasing today. Despite being a half-century old, the sounds that this group produces still sound fresh, causing almost any listener to start toe-tapping and finger-snapping. Joining Gillespie on his ubiquitous trumpet are Sonny Stitt on saxophones (tenor and alto), Lou Levy at the piano, Ray Brown on bass and Gus Johnson on the drums, and this quintet puts modern jazz through its paces with a variety of songs and sounds. The varying roles that each player and instrument has in each song demonstrates the level of mastery that each of these musicians brings to the group and the performance.

Blues After Dark

A mute solidly in his upward-slanting trumpet, Gillespie is joined by Stitt on the tenor sax as they begin "Blues After Dark" by playing the simple melody in unison, with Lou Levy's piano breaking in only to fill the spaces between the sparse melodic spurts provided by the fronting duo. The song gives way relatively quickly to a solo by Gillespie, during which Gus Johnson's drums become slightly more noticeable if only for their almost non-presence under the lightly brushed strokes of the restrained percussionist. Neither Johnson nor Brown ever move out of the basic rhythm section on this piece, and Levy's piano also remains primarily in the background though without the strong rhythm of a stride piano or of the bass and drums. After Gillespie's solo, throughout which Stitt stands silently to the side, the saxophonist steps to center stage for his own solo, which Gillespie punctuates with short blasts on occasion before standing aside and letting Stitt take over. Johnson has moved from brushes (or a brush) to sticks at some point, and the song picks up intensity ever so slightly under his insistence.

His solo completed, Stitt steps off to join Gillespie on the sidelines while Levy enjoys a brief yet relatively tame solo, interesting becoming more predictable in its rhythm -- a heavier left hand more reliably hitting every downbeat -- before the horn players come back to the melody. Levy again fills the silences, though with les improvisation and much greater simplicity. Throughout these final repetitions of the melody, the bass and rums have become all but invisible, with Johnson again relying on his brushes to provide just a whisper of sound and with Brown's bass contributing an undercurrent to the subdued chords of Levy's piano. Gillespie's solo is the clear standout here, beginning with an ornamented version of the melody before breaking into a counterpoint melody and then indulging in loud blasts and fast chromatic trills and including melodic nods to other songs. This highly successful solo is reminiscent of Armstrong and points of things to come from Miles Davis. By returning the listener to earth with an… [read more]

Jazz "Blues After Dark," Feat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,029 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The saxophone is occasionally staccato, but mainly smooth, dancing around the bass notes. Brushes can be heard in the background, with the occasional cymbal. The saxophone solo is long, and nuanced, moving through various registers. Occasionally, Stitt packs in several notes into a bar, and sometimes fewer.

There is also a trumpet solo in "Sunny Side of the Street" that starts delicately with thin high notes. The bass responds with thin, high notes. This solo does not necessarily have a lot of structure. It allows the basic structure of the song to remain…while laying on top a curiously thin upper register melody, before Gillespie changes the height of the mike. Even then, the muted trumpet works and then suddenly, unexpectedly, the vocals kick in "sunny side of the street," and both Gillespie and Stitt are singing.

Performance: "Loverman," Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums). In Belgium 1958

Style = Ballad BeBop

Role of Piano = Comping

Role of the Bass = Comping

Role of the Drums = Brushing

Role of the Saxophone = Lead and Melody

"Loverman" is very slow and languid, but it leaves the listener with a deep emotional impact. The title, "Loverboy," does suggest that there is a love song written here.

Performance: "Blues Walk." Dizzy Gillespie Quintet Live in Belgium 1958 with Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet) Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums)

Style = BeBop

Role of Piano = Stride and Comping

Role of the Bass = Walking

Role of the Drums = Brushing and Riding; he uses mallets at the beginning in a more aggressive way

Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody

The first solo is the saxophone. Stitt plays a continuous flow of notes, barely stopping to breathe. The piano accompanies with some punctuation. A walking bass line also plays sixteenth notes. In fact, the title of the song could easily refer to the walking bass line. Toward the end of the saxophone solo, the phrasing changes briefly and it has an overall improvised feel.


This performance was enlightening in the sense that is shows the role of different instruments in the bebop jazz performance. I especially appreciated the way that in "Blues After Dark," the song begins and ends in much the same way. The effect like alpha and omega makes the listener feel a sense of wholeness and completion. I was able to listen to "Blues After Dark" over and over again for the assignment and not get tired of listening to it. It is a very well composed song that I hope to emulate as I develop my own skills as a composer.

Listening to bebop, I can see why people appreciate jazz. There are many types of jazz that I do not care for as much as this type. The arrangements are simple here. There is some improvisation, but not too much that the song does nowhere. Instead, the… [read more]

Jazz Styles Analysis "Blues After Dark" Dizzie Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 0


Jazz Styles Analysis

"Blues after Dark"

Dizzie Gillespie's "Blues after Dark" is a striking example of the concert takes place in Belgium in 1958. It was set in a dark venue, where the true highlight is on the musicians, with no distractions in terms of other stimulus present on stage. This is obviously a later performance from Dizzie Gillespie, as… [read more]

Listening "Blues After Dark." Belgium Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,214 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Role(s) of bass: The bass serves to provide a deep baseline, keeping the overall sound downbeat and somber.

Role(s) of drums (including sticks or brushes or mallets): Use of brushes at beginning creates a very light sound as the sax plays.

Role(s) of horn players: The alto saxophone is the primary instrument in this piece. Much of the time, the other players are not even touching their instruments in fact.

In Greater Detail:

For your selected solo within this song:

Identify the Solo: Saxophone played by Sonny Stitt

How did the solo progress from beginning to end?

The solo begins the song with a downbeat, torch song sound to it, picking up tempo to the point where it is a series of runs before the song ends.

Was the solo successful? Why or why not?

The solo was not successful because it took up the entirety of the song and did not allow for the real emotion to carry through, although it was successful at the start of the song.

What was your emotional response to it?

The beginning of the song was emotional in that it carried a deep, depressing sound to it. It seemed that the player was missing someone or lacking something but then when the sax player continued into his runs, that feeling of sadness disappeared into a complex series of notes which confused the emotion.

4. "Blues Walk"

Belgium 1958 ~ Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor and alto sax), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), and Gus Johnson (drums)

Style(s) of the piece: blues; upbeat jazz (Afro-Cuban Jazz)

Role(s) of piano: It is hard to make out the piano amid the other more powerful sounds, indicating that its function is to create a rainbow of musical textures until the point of his own solo.

Role(s) of bass: The bass keeps the upbeat tempo and serves to dovetail the prevailing drum.

Role(s) of drums (including sticks or brushes or mallets): The drum is very prevalent in this song, setting the tempo and elevating it to a jubilant song.

Role(s) of horn players: The horn and sax perform the function of the vocals of the piece, singing with their instruments.

In Greater Detail:

For your selected solo within this song:

Identify the Solo:

How did the solo progress from beginning to end?

Which soloist(s) heard in class did it remind you of?

Was the solo successful? Why or why not?

What was your emotional response to it?

Conclusion: Emotional Response to the overall performance: Was it pleasing to you? Why or why not?

In the overall performance of Dizzy Gillespie and his ensemble, the musicians play their instruments with real power and true emotion. Consequently, the person listening to the pieces has no choice but to feel what the musicians are experiencing. When the music is sad, the audience is sad. When the music is joyous, so is the audience. This is the case for any truly beautiful music.

Works Cited:

"Loverman." YouTube. YouTube, 15 Jan.… [read more]

Sonny's Outline James Baldwin Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (4,114 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Later, Sonny left Harlem in order to escape from the heroin use, but was unable to run from his dark feelings. He says, "The reason I wanted to leave Harlem so bad was to get away from the drugs. And then, when I ran away, that's what I was running from" (101). Upon his release from jail he is finally… [read more]

Listening to Music on Worker Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This study is also aimed at evaluating the impact of these emotional responses to music on the productivity and quality of work of employees with the personal stereos.

During this trial, the participants carried the personal stereos during their working hours and were paged randomly once after every four hours for the three-week period. During the paging process, the workers were expected to record their present activity in a response booklet. The main goal of recording their present activity was to identify the daily emotional experiences related to music and the impact of these experiences on the quality of work and productivity of the employees.

The study is based on the fact that people's minds tend to wander during which individuals focus on the imperfections of life. Music is used as a tool of recollecting a person's thoughts to the current moment because melodious sounds help in motivating the release of dopamine in the reward segment of the brain (Padnani par, 4). The biological effect of music is similar to the effects of eating a delicacy, smelling a pleasant aroma, and staring at something attractive or appealing. Therefore, music breaks the person out of thinking in one way or direction during wandering that is usually a product of unhappiness, boredom, and stress brought by life's issues.

According to the findings of the study as the large retail company, approximately 50% of the recorded episodes or pagings were associated with listening to music. The examination of these recorded emotional experiences indicated that listening to music enhanced an individual's psychological arousal. The resultant psychological arousal contributed to improved quality of work and productivity of the employee. This is primarily because the music experience enhanced the workers alertness, positivity, and ability to focus on the present moment. Furthermore, the study indicated that there was a 10% increase in productivity for the workers with personal stereos.


Based on the findings of the study, listening to music enhances worker productivity by promoting positivity, alertness, and focus on the current task. As a result, workers complete their tasks quickly as they become creative through developing better ideas while the music improves their moods. The positive mood originating from listening to music enables workers to examine the various options associated with their respective tasks and choose the most effective ones in accomplishing those tasks. However, there is need to be more careful and setting limits to listening to music during work hours since it can also contribute to decrease in productivity. Actually, the ability of music to enhance productivity is dependent on the type of work being done and the employees' working styles (Magloff par, 1). Furthermore, the ability of music to enhance productivity depends on whether employees are permitted to choose their own music since different kinds of music have varying effects on workplace productivity.

In conclusion, listen to music has proven to contribute to improved worker productivity, especially if it results in pleasant moods, improved alertness and focus and positivity. However, this practice can… [read more]

Concert Review: "Jazz Legends: Arturo Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,366 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Here, Sandoval's career flourished" (Gullard 2012). Without prior knowledge of this history, however, the viewer would not be cognizant of the tune's special meaning for Sandoval. There is little interaction with the audience in terms of wordplay, and the music is allowed to speak for itself. Except for Sandoval's bright shirt, the other musicians are not particularly dressed up for the concert.

However, even if a listener were unaware of the name of the song or Sandoval's personal relationship with Gillespie, he or she would be able to perceive some 'ghosts' of Dizzy's music. It is during this piece that Sandoval is at his most showy during the performance. He plays notes in rapid succession, some impossibly high, others impossibly low, and leads the band on a cacophonous roll. He puts down the trumpet at one point to engage in a bit of wordless 'patter' singing that is not characteristic with the rest of the concert, but embodies the type of 'big band' style that defined Dizzy Gillespie's career. Using his tongue and teeth as well as his voice, the audience breaks into gales of laughter and applause until finally Sandoval allows the band to take over again and the music returns. This shows an artist at the height of his confidence and powers, to allow for such 'out of the box' thinking in terms of how to present a song. Evoking another famous artist shows a great deal of confidence on the part of Sandoval as well as respect, and Sandoval rises to the challenge he has set for himself.

The main trumpet solo of "Nights in Tunisia" yields another striking example of allowing the trumpet to 'talk' to the audience. Sandoval's fingers fly; there is a crescendo of rapidly-escalating notes. Sandoval thanks the audience, generously and warmly, but briefly, as he begins to play the softer warmer sounds of the song's conclusion. The song does convey a sense of what a night out might be -- anticipation, excitement, followed by a quiet, peaceful end. The final notes ebb away as gently as a sunset. The mood is more restrained than "Blues for Dizzy" and the song is more elegant in its presentation. The contrasting songs show two sides of Sandoval's character -- one the consummate performer and entertainer (like Dizzy) the other the consummate musician.

Although less well-known for his jazz piano, Sandoval is an equal virtuoso at this instrument. "I Remember Clifford" features him beginning on the piano, caressing the keys in a solo. The tune is meditative rather than ostentatious. The audience is more restrained as this song plays, but is clearly listening attentively as Sandoval sways gently with the music as he plays.

"Rene's Tune" marks a complete change of pace. Sandoval introduces it with characteristic brevity -- suddenly the drums just begin. The beat is Latin in sound and makes the listener want to dance. Sandoval plays the drums seemingly without effort, and switches just as naturally and confidently to the trumpet. After the… [read more]

Music Therapy in the Classroom Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … music therapy in the classroom. This is accomplished through studying the lasting effects and comparing these findings with other sources. Once this occurs, is when we can see how this will help to improve student achievement scores.

Over the last several years, the issue of music therapy has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason… [read more]

Music and the Internet Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (3,319 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


All of this in a device the size of a pack of cards."[footnoteRef:5] This fact can only help move us, music, and the digitalized transfer of music forward, as many download more and more, faster and faster, and as more technology is created, humanity thus advances. [5: Shane Richmond, 2011. Happy 10th birthday to the iPod - the little machine… [read more]

Concert Unlv Chamber Orchestra Conductor(s): Tara Krysa Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Concert UNLV Chamber Orchestra

Conductor(s): Tara Krysa and Rachel Waddell

Location: Beam Music Center, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154

Cost: Free, open to the public

Haydn Symphony #104; I. Adagio-Allegro, II. Andante, III. Menutto and Trio, IV Spiritoso

Vivaldi Concerto for Guitar in D Major, Ricardo Cobo soloist; I. Allegro guisto, II. Largo, III. Allegro

Music- Perhaps the best way to describe this music is that it was easy to listen to and to understand. It was a small orchestra, apparently a Baroque orchestra, so the audience really had the opportunity to hear all the musicians. And the pieces chosen were presented in such a manner that the listener could understand the tune or theme, and follow it through the music. One thing really stood out during the production -- the musicians seemed to be having a musical dialog with one another, playing off the melody and harmony, trading it back and forth. Perhaps this is a characteristic of the type of music or the composer, but it was if the orchestra was having a conversation within itself, especially on the Haydn. The violins would "talk," the woodwinds answer, one of the flutes or oboes would whistle a small tune, and the cellos would comment. It was very entertaining and enjoyable, but I think it would be more so on the second or third hearing of the piece so that one would know a bit more about what was going to happen, or what to listen for.

The other general comment about the music that made it more real was that it was not "perfect." It was good, but even my relatively untrained ear could hear a few mishaps; hitting a not early, etc. However, this did not detract from the experience, but rather enhanced it because one could close their eyes and believe they were sitting in a Baroque Hall listening to men in wigs perform what was, for them, cutting edge music.

Concert Experience -- We found out from the conductors a few facts about the pieces, which I thought was great at a venue like this. Symphony…… [read more]

Music in the 21st Century Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" The song's lyrics tell of a bored woman, annoyed by pestering calls of a lover who will not leave her alone as she drinks and dances (presumably with someone else) in a club. The video is far more outrageous, portraying Gaga and Beyonce going on a killing spree, Thelma-and-Louise-style, after being angered by a leering man in a diner.… [read more]

Marketing Music on Social Media Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Users collect Swag Bucks and trade them in for "all sorts of prizes ranging from Kanye tee shirts and hoodies to big screen televisions and iPods" (Martell, p. 3).

On West's blog, he features music videos from bands he likes, his own new music, and furniture and fashion he recommends. As to his use of Twitter, the reason so many followers check out his many tweets is that he has occasional outbursts, he insults other celebrities that he doesn't like, and he gives "shout-outs" to friends and fans (Martell, p. 3).

As to the popular rap artist 50 Cent, he has built his own social network on his site, www.Thisis50.com; he emphasizes the links he offers so fans can "engage… in ongoing discussion of rap, 50 Cent…" and entertainment in general. As many other artists do, 50 Cent allows his visitors to exchange photos, create their own profiles, and post topics they feel are worthy of conversation (Martell, p. 5). Every week 50 Cent allows members of his social community to download a new free hip hop mix tape, and the artist may or may not be on the download. 50 Cent's Twitter account is known for presenting news of the world and current events, which sets him apart from other musical stars, who generally use their Twitter accounts to promote their own music and viewpoints. There is, after all, a world outside rap music and the trappings of stardom (Martell, p. 5).

Not all hip hop marketing efforts on social media is designed for young fans. In fact Ludacris has been using his Twitter account "mostly to promote his new brand of Cognac" called Conjure (Martell, p. 7). Ludacris posts photos of other hip hop stars -- and well-known personalities -- drinking Conjure. He hopes "…this will entice you to try the drink out," Martell explains on page 7. "Any hip hop fan who looks at enough of these pictures cannot help but feel very tempted to run to the liquor store and try a bottle at the next party," Martell continues. Perhaps Ludacris doesn't believe he has a lot of teen age fans, because by promoting alcohol he is asking young people to get involved with illegal substances, just so he can make money from the Cognac's sponsors. He does, however, promote benefit concerts and other charity events with his Twitter account. Typically, he holds contests for fans "…to contribute most to the cause in order to win autographed merchandise from him" (Martell, p. 7).


The opportunities for individuals musicians and bands to market their music and their products through social media has never been greater than right now. And indeed social media is absolutely a perfect format for promoting music, as this paper has shown through specific references and through examples of marketing by musicians and bands.


Associated Press, 2011, 'Coldplay to livestream Madrid concert on YouTube on Oct. 26, two days after release of 'Milo Xyloto'. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from http://www.nydailynews.com.

CMU, 2011,… [read more]

American Popular Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



An American popular music classic, "Blue Moon" has been covered countless times. The most famous version is arguably the one performed by Elvis Presley but both older and newer recordings offer unique interpretations. The original "Blue Moon" was written by Richard Rogers and Lorenz Hart in 1934, when the songwriters were under contract to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM). The song underwent four incarnations before Rogers and Hart penned the version that would become a commercial success. The first incarnation of the song was entitled "Prayer," and was written for a film called Hollywood Party. According to the Lorenz Hart.org Website, "In its second life the "Prayer/Blue Moon" tune was given a new lyrics and became the title song of the 1934 M.G.M film Manhattan Melodrama which starred Clark Gable, William Powell and Myrna Loy…the song was also know as "It's Just That Kind of Play," but was cut from the film before it was ready for release ("Blue Moon: by Richard Rogers and Lorenz Hart" n.d.).

One of the earliest commercial recordings of "Blue Moon" that was not performed for the movie industry was by the Boswell Sisters. A New Orleans-based jazz trio, the Boswell Sisters recorded "Blue Moon" in 1935. During the famed 1954 Sun recording studio sessions, Elvis Presley recorded a haunting version of "Blue Moon" that remains an industry standard. Elvis's first "Blue Moon" recording was released in 1956. Since then, "Blue Moon" has been covered by numerous artists including Rod Stewart. In spite of Stewart's rock and roll background, his 2008 cover of the Rogers and Hart ballad comes across as a soft jazz tune. Each of these three versions testifies to the extraordinary versatility of the original song.

The Boswell Sisters version may be truer to the original than any other given it was recorded only a year after Rogers and Hart wrote the first version of "Prayer." In the Boswell Sisters 1935 recording, the phrasing is nicely relaxed, almost syncopated. The overall feel is languid, which evokes the theme of moonlight. Instrumentation is sparse, including strings, some upper register woodwinds, and soft piano in the background playing both rhythm and bass line. The Boswell Sisters is a pleasant and gentle version, yet without assuming a blues pattern. The Victor Young Orchestra plays accompanying instruments, making the feel of the song one of classic American lounge jazz. The jazzy tone is in keeping with the New Orleans base of the Boswell Sisters.

Tinged with a touch of melancholy, the sisters sing lines like "without a dream in my heart, without a love of my own" in a heartfelt way. Yet the sisters express the song's theme of hope and the fulfillment of prayer beautifully. Most notably, the sisters sing the line "when I looked, the moon had turned to gold." The emphasis on the word "gold" is offered in a slightly higher register than the rest of the line. This uplifting note parallels the implication that the narrator's prayers for finding a "love of my own"… [read more]

Ethics of Punk Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Punk/Punk?

Punk rock has had a very tumultuous and rebellious history, continuously being redefined by political and social issues. The genre, dating back to the 1970s, attained recognition among the disenfranchised youths of America, as well as, England. The two major punk rock meccas of the time were located in New York and London. Since it's inception, the definition of punk, and the distinction between "Punk" and "punk" has changed drastically, though some may contend that the message conveyed remains the same. The difference between "Punk" and "punk" may be analyzed through the composition of songs such as "Anarchy in the U.K." By the Sex Pistols and "American Idiot" by Green Day.

Notable differences between "Punk" and "punk" are evident in the lyrical message and musical genres represented in the music. "Punk" music has generally been considered to have anti-establishment undertones and convey a political and/or social message advocating rebellion. It has also been considered to defy convention, promote non-conformism, and calls for people to take action. "Punk" has also maintained a "do-it-yourself" attitude, and explores existing music genres and styles, and creates new genres in the process. Conversely, "punk" is self-indulgent, commercial, and conforms to existing and accepted music genres.

"Anarchy in the UK," is a rousing song by the Sex Pistols that comments on the country's social and political status. The raw intensity of the song, Rotten's maniacal laughter at the beginning, and the crunching sound of the guitars drive the song forward, angrily decrying the political state of the U.K. In the 1970s. The song calls for action, regardless of what the individual's wants. Rotten proclaims that he has the ability to exploit his message through various means, "How many ways to get what you want/I use the best, I use the rest/I use the NME/I use anarchy." Rotten embraces the media who is willing to give him a platform to speak out on and propagate his message. Furthermore, Rotten, and the Sex Pistols, are willing to sacrifice their reputations (as well as their record contract) in order to convey…… [read more]

Panpipes the Musical Instrument Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Child Care Facility

There are few instruments are as primal or ancient as the panpipes. Indeed, other than percussion instruments, the panpipes are perhaps the most ancient instrument in current use. Furthermore they are one of the best instruments for facilitating understanding how sound is made. For this reason, there is much research about the panpipes. This paper will focus on three aspects of panpipes, the history of the instrument, the cost and manufacture, and the physics.

As previously mentioned, the instrument currently known as the panpipes is ancient. Its origin is unknown, considering that it was first created well beyond the veil of written history. Acclaimed panpipes teacher and historian Mr. Costel Puscoiu argues that primitive man "probably accidentally discovered sound production by blowing a pipe, stems of plants (reed or bamboo) or animal bones" ("History of Panflutes"). Over time this single flute became multiple reeds bound together to create several different notes. The instrument has been found across Eurasia (and even in Meso-America), but an approximate estimation of where it was originally created cannot be made. Due to its vast spread, the panpipes more than likely were created at different times at different places. Regardless, the panpipes eventually fell out of use as more sophisticated instruments became available. The jaunty notes of panpipes were replaced by the haunting tones of the clarinet and other "modern" instruments. In modern times the panpipes have achieved a degree of popularity as niche musicians pick it up and make it their own.

Since there is very little demand for the instruments, panpipes are usually handmade. Indeed, the appeal to many musicians is the personal nature of the instruments. The simplistic nature of panpipes makes for ease of creation. This fact, combined with cheap materials, results in a relatively inexpensive instrument. A quick internet…… [read more]

Johann Sebastian Bach Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



J.S. Bach: Overview and Listening Experience Reflection

Most Important Compositions

Among Bach's most significant composition, Blanning (2008) argues that the Good Friday mass St. Matthews Passion is thusly considered for the complexity of its double choir and double orchestra requirements. (p. 84) Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D Minor is an exemplary piece of organ music that continues to be used in cinema and pop culture today. His Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor is also an organ work whose dexterity of interwoven passages is perhaps unrivaled for the instrument. The Goldberg Variations are a collection of harpsichord words that legend has it were composed to help soothe an insomniac king to sleep. (Wikidpedia, 1) A Fifth work is the collection known as The Well Tempered Clavier, which will be discussed in greater depth here below.

Most Significant Contributions:

Among Bach's most significant contributions, Classical Net (2010) cites the composers fluidity between national schools of music, therefore creating music with appeal to German, French, Italian and English audiences. This contribution would be supplemented by Bach's compositional precision, with a mathematical organization marking his work and that of those whom he would influence. Another compelling contribution would be rendered through Bach's instrumental familiarity with the organ, harpsichord, viola and violin, which allowed him to creation compositions with an intimate familiarity for each instrument. At yet another level, his specific prowess with the organ makes his compositions for this instrument among the most definitive. And importantly, Bach contributed an enormously prolific body of work to the ecclesiastical canon of classical music.

Significant Facts:

Among the details of his biography that might interest us, Bach was born in Eisenach in what is now Germany (Wikipedia, 1). Born in 1685, he would be educated in instrumental playing by his father.…… [read more]

What Are the Affects of Black Gospel Music on Worshipping in Today's Church? Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Black Gospel Music on worshipping in todays Church?

In this paper we present the various effects of Black Gospel Music on worshipping in the contemporary church scene. We analyze the role played by music in the church as well as the general society. The main reasons why songs are a good way of conveying messages are also explored.… [read more]

Role of Music in My Life Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,146 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Role of Music in My Life

Music is considered to be life for many. Music plays a crucial role in the life of several persons. Music modulates them and encourages them to be refined. Music is very crucial for humanity. With the assistance of music, people are able to forget their difficulties. Music also enables one to enjoy time and refine their intelligence. ("Music in my life.," n. d.) Music moves our hearts in most usual manner, fostering, reassuring, exhilarating, relaxing and encouraging us against the odds. It is quite impossible to think of a life without music, which would have been terribly frozen and calm. (Enotes, 2010)

Music has the strength that is so fundamental, so intensely embedded in the human soul, heart as well as mind that it would be not probable to live without. ("What role does music play in people's lives? What role should it play?," n. d.) Listening to music and playing a musical instrument functions brain's parts which is not encouraged by anything other than that. I have also came across a theorem that taking notes of music or playing a musical tool is the one action which places a brain under scanner, the entire thing shows that music encourages each portion of brain in certain manner. I cannot think of a more strengthened medium than music for development and growth in kids. (Enotes, 2010)

Music continues to be an encouragement all through my life, saying the way I felt at any particular time. Music personally depicting, is possibly one of the most crucial emotional form of support which I possess and it is further a type of my life's memoir. It appears that all of the most crucial events which happened in my life tend to have a musical linkage that once I come across it, takes me back to the event. This relates truly to all of the emotions, times wherein I was delighted, sorrowful, anxious, alone, in desolation, in happiness, uninterested, irritated and so on. ("What role does music play in people's lives? What role should it play?," n. d.) I hear and feel different types of music, the lyrics, the beats, and the manner they are being sung. Music has accorded me the liberty to open up myself to my friends and family whom I love. I can always find songs to narrate what I am responding in my head as well as in my heart. Music could assist me to cry, laugh, hide, scream, or any issue that I am facing. (Helium Entertainment, 2010)

Music is quite larger to me than being just plain, escapist enjoyment. Music has been an acquaintance, intimate, much like blood in my life to me ever since I was very young. (Helium Entertainment, 2010) The most crucial thing that music does is strike a chord in my life, irrespective of if they are thoughts or feelings or even instances and persons from my past. I actually get pleasure in listening to music that is… [read more]

Violin Stringed Instruments of Some Sort Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Violin

Stringed instruments of some sort or another have been around for millennia. There is evidence that the ancient Egyptians knew how to achieve a range of pitches using strings of varying lengths on the same instrument. For the most part, stringed instruments were plucked until the development of the bow by the Islamic and Byzantine cultures in… [read more]

Life and Music of One Composer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote many forms of music in his lifetime. Mozart composed most of his work with great ease and this is shown in the extensive amount of compositions he has written. He composed over 150 musical works between 1782 and 1785. The compositions Mozart composed was a wide range of varieties including: operas, church music, vocal and choral music, orchestral music, chamber music, piano music, and organ music. Hayden told Leopold Mozart, Mozart's father that his son was, "the greatest composer known to me in person or by name; he has taste and, what is more, the greatest knowledge of composition" (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 2010). Influenced by his father, who was a writer on violin-playing influential treatise, Mozart showed expertise at playing the violin and the keyboard at an early age and from there was writing composition.

Literature Review

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was part of the Classical period of classical music and was a major innovator of classical music and the achievements, it would undertake.

Mozart was born in 1756 in Salzburg and was the only living son of Leopold Mozart, a musician of his own merit. He was playing the keyboard and the violin by the age of four years old as well as composing by the age of five years old. The Archbishop of Salzburg provided the funding for the family to travel to Paris and London between 1763 and 1766. Mozart was commissioned in Italy from 1771 until 1773 to compose operas. In 1971, Mozart composed an opera, Idomeneo, for the Elector of Bavaria in Munich and lived the ten years in Munich enjoying his independence without any security or stability in his life living off the flow of his commissioned work.

Mozart married in 1782 to the younger sister of a previous love interest broken up by his father. Leopold Mozart was often criticized for exploiting his son for financial gain but there is no doubt to the guidance he had in Mozart's success. "While it is very common for great composers to come from musical backgrounds and receive encouragement and help in their young lives, Mozart's musical debt to his father is unmatched." Mozart died in 1797 from a serious illness.

Mozart's music is from the classic era which includes the composer, Joseph Hayden. Mozart' violin concertos were written when he was nineteen years old. They were most likely written to showcase his expertise as a violinist but Mozart stepped down from the position he held within the Salzburg court and was replaced by Antonio Brunetti, an even nore skilled violinist. Speculation has suggests that Violin Concerto No 4 and No5 were composed so physically demanding so that they could showcase the skill of Brunetti. It was written in allegro, followed by andante cantabile and ended with rondeau: andante grazioso. Allegro tempo is defined as a fast or brisk and lively. The definition for andante cantabile is flowing…… [read more]

Music Concert Review Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Music Concert Review

Orchestra: Houston Symphony, Hans Graf Conducting


Stravinsky -- Symphonies of Wind Instruments -- This is a concert work written in 1920 for a brass and woodwind ensemble. It is a short piece, one movement, and lasts about 10 minutes. It is dedicated to the memory of Claude Debussy, although uses a number of Russian folk themes. One can tell it is separated into three parts -- three different tempi, three slightly different styles.

Mozart -- Symphony #41 in C Major, K.551 (Jupiter) -- No one knows if the Jupiter Symphony was performed while Mozart was still alive, but it was composed as the last set of three during the summer of 1788. The nickname was not penned by Mozart, but by an impresario of the time in an early arrangement for piano. It is a traditional classical symphony; four movements, but is a bit more robust and complex than his earlier works.

Harbison -- Fanfare for Foley's -- John Harbison is an American composer with a few controversial issues in his past. The Princeton University faculty booed his M.A. performance piece and Walter Piston, famous teacher and composer, told the young Harbison that he should not even think of being a composer (Anthony, 2001). The Fanfare is similar to Aaron Copland's Fanfare for the Common Man, and was commissioned specifically for the Houston Symphony to honor an historic Houston monument, Foley's Department Store.

Poulenc -- Gloria- This work, a setting of the Roman Catholic Gloria in excelsis Deo was commissioned in 1961 to honor the conductor Sergei Koussevitzky of the Boston Symphony (and others). It is scored for large orchestra, chorus, and a significant soprano role in six parts. It is a grand piece, chromatic yet tonal, but still edgy and ethereal (Gutman, 2001).

Reviews- Stravinsky -- This piece is bright, with tons of coloration but, characteristic of Stravinsky, it is the unexpected rhythms and the pieces of tonal melody woven into the overall fabric of the piece that keeps the short piece exciting. It one listens carefully, you can hear the folk tunes traded off between the instruments but, just short of a classical cadence, go off into a completely different direction.

Mozart…… [read more]

Documentary Filmmaking About the World of Popular Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Home

A Martin Scorsese Picture

Martin Scorsese captured the culture and times of the 1950's and 60's America in the documentary "No Direction Home." Similarly, Bob Dylan captured the times in his poetry and songwriting displayed in the film. He later came to the understanding of how timeless these songs really were and are. "Blowing in the Wind" and "Don't think twice its Alright" are as important today as they were when they were conceived. Bob, a modern day prophet, wrote songs about the changes to come in this world, "The Times they are a Changing" "Masters of War" and "Hard Rain" are examples of this pretense.

The Scorsese documentary tracks Dylan from his childhood home of Hibbling, Minnesota in 1950 where he was known by his birth name "Robert Zimmerman," to the streets of Greenwich Village in New York City in the 1960's. From his initial inspiration listening to the Grand Ole Opry and such acts as Hank Williams, and Johnny Ray on an old mahogany radio to the center of the artistic movement in America, where artists, sometimes referred to as Bohemians made themselves at home. At the center of this scene was Washington Square Park, where poets and musicians would spend their days writing and performing to the people in the park so they could get the word out through "word of mouth." It was here that people would come and see them play in the evening at one of The Village's many coffee houses which were also known as "Basket Houses." Beat Poets and Performers would pass around a basket during their set and this was how they would get paid enough to eat and might and on a good night, even be able to sleep under some clean sheets.

Dylan performed in those…… [read more]

Music History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Wagner: His Time and Beyond

Composer, conductor, theatre director and essayist Richard Wagner lived during a vibrant time for German culture: the romantic era. Among his contemporaries were some of that country's greatest and most influential thinkers, like Nietsche, Marx, and even the twilight of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Wagner's ideas of "total artwork," (Gesamtkunstwerk) based in the Greek philosophy… [read more]

John Coltrane Retrospective: Jazz Performance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


John Coltrane Retrospective: Jazz Performance

For my chosen performance, I listened to a local jazz band perform a reworking of some of John Coltrane's arrangements of American standards, like "My Favorite Things." At first the stated aim of the performance surprised me, given that I had always thought of jazz as improvisational. This performance was supposed to encapsulate the past, rather than showcase original works. However, there are many different ways of improvising in jazz. In this case, the band may have looked over the musical arrangement of Coltrane, and perhaps listened to his performance. The performance was a celebration of jazz styles from a different era, but still felt fresh and new. This is partially a testimony to Coltrane's genius and partially a tribute to the passion of the band to embody it.

The band tried to recreate Coltrane's approach, although there must have been some improvisation or reworking involved: I had heard most of the arrangements before and there were some slight variations in tone and cadence, versus what I hard heard on a recording. Clearly, the band still put a bit of its own 'spin' on the arrangement. The performance was relatively casual. The band was not made up of full-time professionals, but rather of people who played semi-professionally during their spare time. It took place during the day at a local community center, and most of the audience members were older. The main aim of the concert was to share music that the band members enjoyed. The music, however, did have a smoky and sensuous tone to it. I had rarely seen a soprano saxophone being played, but because this was Coltrane's signature instrument, it was very prominent in the music.

Because the performance was a homage and not an original…… [read more]

How and Why Young People Listen to Music Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,732 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Society and Culture -- Music Habits

Music is one of the most common human activities and is evident throughout human cultures everywhere on earth. It has a long history of cultural and religious significance and still plays a fundamental role in modern social life and religious worship as well. In the United States, music has played a significant role in… [read more]

African-American Influence in American Popular Music Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The influence of American Americans on American popular music has been evident for decades. The purpose of this discussion is to trace African-American influence within all styles of American popular music from swing to the present. The research will explore stylistic features: call and response, metric schemes (two-step and four-beat), instrumentation, features of rhythm, and delivery.

No discussion of African-American influence on popular music can began without discussing gospel music. Gospel music including encompassing Negro spirituals are the foundation of every type of music that has evolved in popular music. One of the most evident influences of gospel, have to do with the tradition of call and response. Remnants of call and response can actually be seen today in the sphere of hip hop. This can be seen when a rap artist is performing and sends out a call and demands a response back from the audience.

Swing music is a form of jazz that was developed in the 1930s. Musicologists seem to vary in the way they define swing music. According to Web (1937) "swing is individual improvisation against a formal rhythmic background." Blues writing has a distinctive pattern in which the first two lines of a stanza are similar but not identical and the last word in the third line of the stanza rhymes with the last word in the first stanza. For instance, the first stanza of "Rising High Water Blues" reads,

"Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time

I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time

And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine (Jefferson)."

A great deal of Blues music contains 10-12 beats or syllables per lyric line. However, some contains more or less. Blues influenced music such as R&B which combines some of the elements of the blues.

In addition the Gospel, Swing and Jazz, soul music has also greatly influenced American popular music and American culture in general. Soul music developed as a natural outgrowth of gospel. Although it is similar to R&B in that people who sing R&B tend to have soulful voices, there are some distinct differences in sound. Soul music relies heavily on the voice-that is the voice is emphasized and in some instances there is very little instrumentation. The music is often recorded acoustically with just a guitar or piano. In addition, it is important to note that this music also evolved out of the Black power movement and tended to be filled with message associated with Black pride and social and political consciousness. According to Scheurer, soul music provided a foundation for the evolution of various types of American popular music.

The influence of African-American Music of popular music has continued throughout the years. Rhythm and Blues is a prime example of the influence of Black Music on popular music. Rhythm and…… [read more]

Music Review of Christmas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Each song was played in a different chord providing for a rich, deep sound. It created a since of joy and excitement in the air. It made the listener not only hear the music, but feel it as well.

"Joy to the World," "Hark! The Harold Angels Sing," and "Hallelujah" were played several times with a mixture of balance and technique, making them very strong and powerful songs. The choir was also included in these selections which created a feeling of Christmas. Many members of the audience not only listened to these songs, they also sang with the choir. The beautiful sounds of each song penetrated the auditorium making the feeling of Christmas come to life. The voices mixed with the variation of instrumentation of the orchestra was enjoyed by each member of the audience.

In conclusion, it was the mixture of tone, balance, and technique that made the "Christmas on the Heights" concert at Boston College a huge success. The audience enjoyed all of the 18 song selections played and their behavior was that of pure appreciation. At the completion of the concert, a standing applause was given. A small reception was offered for the members of the choir, the orchestra, and the audience after the concert. During the reception, the audience commented on the orchestra and congratulated the members of the choir and orchestra on their grand performance.

It was a night filled with magical Christmas music that set the tone for the Christmas season for all in attendance. Overall, this concert was superior as it showcased the true talents of all of the…… [read more]

Music and the Counterculture Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (4,510 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Music and the Counterculture

Music has long been an expression of the society within which the particular kind or genre of music originated in. There is a distinct musical expression that can be identified with most cultures at any given time within the evolution of the cultural tradition and setting. There is a relationship between music and the identities of… [read more]

Popular Music Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Subdivisions of Popular Music: Country, R&B and Hard Rock

Popular music is a catch-all idiom for the general gamut of music which is neither folk nor classical, but which is instead composed, recorded and produced with the intention of being consumed by an audience. Naturally, audiences are widely segmented in term of taste, which will vary heavily across race, age, gender, ethnicity and region, to name just a few features that help to define genre.

It is thus that popular music is splintered into infinite subdivisions. Though these do not necessarily constitute hard and fast rules into which every example of popular music fits neatly and without deviation. However, some general subdivisions do help us to understand the way that the pop music market is segmented according to demographic interests. Some of the broadest popular music categories due for consideration are Country Music, R&B and Hard Rock.

Country Music, history known as Counter & Western (c&w) is a market that caters to the Southern and Midwestern regions of the United States in particular. Elements of this genre include a fashion which reflects a 'cowboy' aesthetic, which features singers in denim, cowboy hats, boots and pick-up trucks. These stylistic conceits are accompanied by a sound that is best characterized by its 'twang.' This is a quality both of vocal accent and guitar or pedal steel bending that reflects the rural traditions present in the music of such historical figures as Roy Acuff, Bob Wills and, thereafter, Hank Williams, Willie Nelson and Johnny Cash.

With figures such as Cash, the genre would take a step closer to the rock music that would increasingly come to define the dominant incarnation of popular music from the 1950s through to the 1990s. During this period, the most successful country music would retain the above-noted aesthetic and artistic elements, and would still contemplate themes specific to the genre concerning dysfunctional love, alcoholism, gambling, traditional American values and patriotism. In spite of this, the most successful country music would also sound as much like rock music (albeit distinctly mainstream in its conventions) as country music. Examples such as the wildly popular Garth Brooks and, consequently, Shania Twain, Toby Keith and Taylor Swift, would come to reflect the blurring of lines between the country genre and rock music. In the above-noted examples, it is increasingly clear that the notion of a 'country' subdivision is more a concept of marketing targets than artistic distinctions.

As noted in the discussion above, rock music would be the primary medium for popular music during the second half of the 20th century. This could be roughly (and admittedly unempirically) book-ended by the arrival of The Beatles in America in 1964 and the suicide of Kurt Cobain in 1994. In the periods before and after, a genre once called Rhythm &…… [read more]

Jazz CD Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Nostalgia in Times Square album is a grand tribute to one of jazz's finest bass players. The second track on the album is Mingus' "Moanin'," and is the most energetic of the collection. A veritable army of musicians receives credit on the track for their work in the multilayered, textural work of progressive-modern big band jazz. Of particular note on "Moanin'" is Ronnie Cuber, baritone saxophone player who opens, carries and punctuates the song. Trumpeters Randy Brecker, Ryan Kisor, and KAck Walrath also shine, as do the triple whammy of trombonists, Art Baron, Frank Lacy, and Dave Taylor. Chris Potter, Craig Handy, and John Stubblefield offer tenor saxophone interludes, and Steve Slagle slips in some alto. Honoring the great Mingus himself, the big band bass line is carried steadily by Andy McKee and Marvin "Smitty" Smith completes the rhythm section.

"Moanin'" is relatively a straightforward jazz piece with a 4/4 time signature. However, the walking bass line and especially the many layers of horns and woodwinds add depth and complexity. McKee plays a dedicated walking bass line throughout the song. Twice during the song, the band stops, proving how tight the rhythm section is together with the rest of the big band. The sheer number of horns might signal cacophony. Yet at no point do the collection of horns and saxophones sound like dead birds. The musicians are skillful, deft at what they do. The baritone sax carries the main melody almost throughout the whole tune, as if it were a vocalist. When the baritone takes a break, the much softer sounds of the alto sax come in at the middle for a delightful melody. All the while the rhythm section remains steady. The drummer keeps time on the cymbals, riding the high hat quite a bit. However, he uses the kick drum to open the song.

Repetitive elements link the song together, which enhances the listening experience.…… [read more]

Music Lacks Attention in United States Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,248 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Music Lacks Attention in United States

Consider the idea of "world music," which is defined by David Byrne (1993) as encompassing everything except "Western" music. Then, in Byrne's context, most Americans know very little about the sounds of world music. It is not because they necessary are of Byrne's mind, who claims to hate world music, but who nonetheless adamantly defends its place in the world and in U.S. music stores; but it is because world music is known to people only insofar as they know about, or have studied, or visited another culture. We cannot identify other than Western music by its cultural roots if we have no experience with the culture from which it comes from; it does not mean that we dislike the music, but that we have no experience with it.

Byrne makes a good point when he says that all other music, other than Western that is, sold in U.S. music stores tends to be lumped together in a single pick-through it bin. This means that there is no real marketing effort in the United States to introduce Americans to world music, or to perhaps take some obscure work of music and to help produce it in America into a phenomenon. Such an undertaking by an American music producer would not only be of great benefit to a world musician, but would introduce the American music listening public to the sounds of other cultures that could, for some, or even many, be music that they want to hear more of. Byrne acknowledges this in his article found in the New York Times, October 3, 1999 edition.

Bruno Nettl (2004) makes essentially the same argument, but points more succinctly to the classics of Mozart, using the opera the Marriage of Figaro as an example of a work that is rooted in a European heritage, but, unlike contemporary works, is embraced by the American mainstream. An appreciation for the works of Moazart, Beethoven, or other European composer of classical music; is a reflection of one's individual good taste. It reflects, too, a maturity that one has acquired a taste for the classical works, above perhaps and certainly beyond, the Western mainstream pop or rock.

Certainly Western music enthusiasts will remember the former Beatle, Sir Paul McCartney, whose own portfolio of rock-n-roll greatness is a testament to his talent and creative genius. Who nonetheless felt compelled to venture across the divide between Western pop, rock, and European classical when, some years ago, he conducted the London Symphony Orchestra in a classical work that Sir Paul wrote. While it drew media attention to the event, there did not appear any great demand for Sir Paul to pursue his classical creative side in any way that could be described as meeting a consumer market demand. For a brief moment in time, however, the world held its breath in anticipation of what they expected would be, like the Beatles other masterpieces; a classical masterpiece. Watching the news clips, it… [read more]

Tragedie De Carmen Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (666 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Tragedie De Carmen

La Tragedie de Carmen

La Tragedie de Carmen is a reworking of the French composer Georges Bizet's famous opera by the great, radical theater director Peter Brooks. The Chicago Opera Theater staged Brook's production at the Harris Theater in a modern-dress adaptation, set during the Spanish Civil War. The production was designed to be more accessible to modern audiences, and to replicate the intensity of the first staging of Carmen. The problem with staging Carmen is twofold -- on one hand, many audience members know the music very well, particularly the "Toreador Song." On the other hand, some people are so unfamiliar with the conventions of opera they may see the medium as irrelevant and be reluctant to come, see, and enjoy the work, even though it was originally meant to be a popular work of entertainment. La Tragedie de Carmen tries to make opera seem as gripping and vital as a suspense film, and takes the passions and the violence of the work seriously by stripping the opera to its bare bones. The chorus numbers are eliminated to bring the psychology and the relationships of the main characters to the forefront, and all but the most essential, plot or character-driven songs are cut or radically shortened.

For example, the love song of Jose, Carmen's lover, is punctuated by his murder of Zuniga, the military office who ordered Jose to take Carmen to prison. When Escamillo enters and sings his "Toreador Song" the music seems ironic and ghoulish at the same time, not simply a showpiece tune about the glories of boxing. Also, by emphasizing the violence of the soldiers, and the boxers, this production makes Carmen herself seem like less of an exotic gypsy and part of a generally violent world -- it takes her story seriously, in other words, instead of just making it seem like the story of a bad gypsy who seduces a 'good' man. No one is 'good' in this production -- even the virtuous…… [read more]

Karl Hass Was a Well-Known Musician Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Karl Hass was a well-known musician and author, and this book is famous in the music world. It describes classical music for the non-musician, so they can appreciate and understand the nuances of classical music and more fully enjoy it.

"Inside Music" looks at all aspects of classical music, from the composers to the orchestra and the instruments that make it up. His explanations are clear and easy to follow, and he writes with a lively style that makes the book enjoyable to read. For example, he writes, "Now we have gained the status of a gourmet, having access to a huge spice box of instrumental flavors, as well as to the spacious orchestral kitchen equipped with many tools to combine them" (Haas 197). The book is full of analogies and descriptions like these, showing the author's command of the language and understanding of his topic. In the early sections of the book, he introduces the instruments, and gives example drawings of them, along with musical notation so the reader can familiarize himself or herself with the "language" of music, and be familiar with the various orchestra instruments and what purpose they serve in the orchestra.

He also gives recommendations for the beginner to begin building their own music library, and he chronicles the history of music, and how it related to certain points in history. (Such as how it related to the impressionist artistic movement, and how it formed in America.) Thus, the book is really a history book and a commentary rolled into one. It literally covers every aspect of music from its early roots to its place in society today, as well as serves as an introduction on how to enjoy and collect classical music. Therefore, the book really serves two diverse markets, which is probably why it has remained popular for so long. It serves someone who wants to learn more about classical music so they can enjoy it more, but it serves the reader who wants to…… [read more]

Soloist: Lost Dream, an Unlikely Friendship Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Soloist: Lost Dream, an Unlikely Friendship, and the Redemptive Power of Music

For reporter Steve Lopez, helping a mentally ill musician is anything but a 'solo' effort

Reporter Steve Lopez's book the Soloist: A Lost Dream, an Unlikely Friendship, and the Redemptive Power of Music illustrates the complex relationship between a reporter and his subject, when a reporter decides he wants to get personally involved in a story he is covering. While a casual reader might want Lopez's book to suggest that salvation for the mentally ill comes easily, provided a reporter simply shows compassion to his fellow human beings, the Soloist demonstrates that taking on the responsibility for caring for others, and trying to change their lives, is not as simple as just trying to 'do something.' Every time anyone, whether a reporter, relative, friend, or acquaintance, gives aid, that aid has consequences, both good and bad.

The Soloist is a work of creative nonfiction, detailing Lopez's relationship with a schizophrenic, homeless former music prodigy whom he met on the streets one day. Nathanial Ayers was playing Beethoven on a violin "caked with grime and a white chalky substance that looks like a fungus" with shocking virtuosity (Lopez 7). Lopez was intrigued, and with his reporter's instincts and legwork he discovered that Ayers was a former Julliard student and classmate of Yo-Yo Ma. "You name it, they were there. I was in the same orchestra as Yo-Yo Ma. I couldn't understand what the constant attack from people was all about" said Ayers (Lopez 73). It might sound crazy for a homeless man to make such a statement, but class records and Ayer's playing skills were testimony to the truth of his words. Yet Ayers could not cope with the pressures to prove himself at music school, especially as he was one of the few African-American students in attendance, and he sank into despair, paranoia, delusional mental illness, and homelessness. "Does the illness come up in a person randomly and without warning" wonders Lopez, upon hearing Ayers' story (Lopez 15).

Lopez wrote a column on Ayers, and many readers sent in musical instruments, to help Ayers get back in touch with his music, including violins, a cello, even a stand-up bass and a piano. "Four readers offer to pack up and ship violins. A violin maker offers to build one from scratch" (Lopez 21). But soon Lopez began to wonder if he was doing Ayers more harm than good, leaving him prey to muggings and violence. "He's out there now with two violins and a cello, inviting a mugging" worries the reporter (Lopez 25). Trying to find Ayers shelter rendered the two men more dependent upon one another and further deepened Lopez's involvement in Ayers' life. Lopez persists because music seems to offer a way for Ayers to concentrate and silence the demons in his brain. "Music is an anchor...His head is filled with mixed signals, a frightening jumble of fractured meaning, but in music there is balance… [read more]

Music and History Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,500 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Michael Tilson Thomas, the musical director of the San Francisco Symphony, describes Igor Stravinsky's 1913 "Rite of Spring" as a "burst of creative power that shook music to its foundations," (2006). Alsop (2007) similarly notes that "Rite of Spring" was a composition that "changed the course of music forever." Yet when Stravinsky's work is placed soberly within its historical… [read more]

Classical Musical Performance Review and Reflection Witnessed Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Musical Performance Review and Reflection witnessed a performance on August 29, 2008 of the musical group known as the "Cosmos Trio." The Cosmos Trio was founded in 2004 by Katherine Borst-Jones, Mary Harris and Jeanne Norton. These three performers have dedicated themselves, both in their work as members of the Pro-Musica Chamber of Columbus, Ohio and in the context of the Cosmos Trio to exposing a new generation of young people to classical and contemporary orchestral and chamber works. At the performance I witnessed, this orchestral grouping of a flute, viola and harp performed a series of contemporary classical works, most of which were designed for their unique combination of instruments. The performance consisted of a series of short pieces by American, mostly local or Midwestern composers of a variety of backgrounds. Most of the composers did not confine or even focus on the medium of chamber music in their usual framework of compositions, but rather specialized in larger, orchestral sounds. Over the course of the respectfully-received performance they played four works: the "Petite Suite" (2007), a work known as "Beautiful, Sweet, Delicate for Flute, Viola, and Harp" (2005), "Trio in Four Movements for Flute, Viola and Harp" (2006), and "A Columbus Triptych" (2006).

The first of the works, the "Petite Suite," was specifically composed for Cosmos Trio's unique blend of instruments and instrumentation by Stephen Paulus in 2007, one of the most noted composers of modern operas and choral works amongst young composers focusing on classical sounds today. Paulus is evidently proud of the work, as he features the "Petite Suite" played by the Trio on his webpage of accomplishments. The "Petite Suite" has dreamy, comforting tones with a less rigid and structured sense of composition than a classical or baroque work for an orchestral group, and has a kind of fantastic, otherworldly quality that is almost unearthly when heard in a concert hall. Paulus as a composer is most famous for his operatic version of the 1950s film "The Postman Always Rings Twice," and his fluency in the genre of orchestral composition as well as grand opera speak to his skill as a composer as well as a boundary-pushing operatic maestro ("Biography," Stephen Paulus, 2008).

The second work entitled "Beautiful, Sweet, Delicate," was first performed by the Cosmos Trio in 2006. It was commissioned from Andrew Boysen, Jr. Boysen is noted for his prodigal talent -- he began composing for piano at age nine and is especially noted for his works for high school concert bands and brass choirs and ensembles as well as full orchestras. "Beautiful, Sweet, Delicate" is thus something of a departure for Boysen, who usually specializes in works for large, brassy-sounding school bands. "Beautiful, Sweet, Delicate" is a delicate sounding piece, as befitting its name, standing in presumed contrast to Boysen's other works although not to the first "Petite Suite" that preceded it during the concert (Klein 2008).

Cosmos Trio is especially proud of "Trio in Four Movements for Flute, Viola and Harp"… [read more]

Elvis Presley: Leading the Music Industry Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,538 words)
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Elvis Presley: Leading the Music Industry of the 1950s and 1960s -- then going astray

When Elvis Presley came to the forefront of popular music, the type of music geared to teens was, in many ways, still relatively tame. There were two types of musical talent available: the 'doo-wop,' clean-cut stars and crooners like Pat Boone, approved of by parents… [read more]

People and Cultures of Africa Essay

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African Culture

Music is integral to both public and private lives. From ritual dances to evocative vocal harmonies, the traditional music of Africa continues to uplift listeners. In the public sphere, music has become a huge multinational business and yet at its street level music remains an essentially social event. Informal gatherings of young people singing, rapping, or playing instruments reflects the roots of African music. More formal bands, whether professional or amateur, are direct extensions of the way musicians practiced and performed a thousand years ago. Music is central to all aspects of American public life: from commercial jingles on television to church choirs. The integration of music into all features of public life also stems from the ancient traditions of Africa. As a commodity, though, music has raised serious questions about intellectual property and its ownership: issues that were not present in traditional African communities.

In our personal lives, music is crucial. The music industry depends on millions of consumers who value music as being essential to life: not as a luxury but as a necessity. Many people cannot dream of a day spent without hearing tunes. The iPod is a ubiquitous…… [read more]

Music History Contemporary Essay

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¶ … Music History

John Cage (1912-1992)

John Cage was an American composer born in 1912 in Los Angeles and studied alongside Henry Cowell, Adolph Weiss, Arnold Schoenberg and Richard Buhlig. In 1938, the first prepared piano piece "Bacchanale" was composed by Cage. Cage and a group of musicians and engineers made the first music ever recorded on magnetic tape in 1951. Cage was the receiver of a Guggenheim Fellowship as well as an Aware from the National Academy of Arts and Letters for "having extended the boundaries of music through his work with percussion orchestra and his invention of the prepared piano." (Guttman, 1999) in 1978 and then again in 1988. Cage is the author of Silence (1961) a Year From Monday (1968) as well as many others writing throughout his life.

The work of Gutmann (1999) states that he personally knew John Cage, although be it briefly, when he was an undergrad at Wesleyan University, and that the music department at the university "lauded him as a guiding genius while others disparaged him as a negligible buffoon." (Guttman, 1999) in fact, it is stated that his performances "were more 'happenings' than concerts, and could range from seemingly random events to a lecture about his beloved wild mushrooms." (Guttman, 1999) Cage was "always happy and gentle, alive with awestruck wonder of the world, and especially fascinated by its sounds." (Guttman, 1999) the work which Cage entitled 4'33" was an interesting piece in which the musician played only very little music and which was "inspired by Cage's visit to Harvard's anechoic chamber, designed to eliminate all sound; but instead of promised silence Cage was amazed and delighted to hear the pulsing of his blood and the whistling of his nerves." (Guttman, 1999)

II. WILLIAM ALWYN (1905-1985)

William Alwyn was born in 1905 in Northampton to a grocer and into a family that had no musicians however, all in the family "shared a passion for literature and the visual arts." (Culot, 1985) Culot (1985) shares that Alwyn wrote in his autobiography: "We all shared father's literary enthusiasm and his less-knowledgeable interest in art...but neither he nor the others had much feeling for music. In this I was alone." (Winged Chariot: William Alwyn autobiography, 1983) Alwyn additionally states that he "was not cut out to be a provincial grocer" and that instead his time was divided "between music, poetry and painting." (Culot, 1985) Upon his father's death Alwyn states: "The need for money was urgent so I took the first reasonably paid job that came my way, the position of music master at a residential private school…… [read more]

Beethoven Moonlight Sonata and Vivaldi Spring From the Four Seasons Thesis

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Beethoven, Moonlight Sonata and Vivaldi, Spring From the Four Seasons

The Moonlight of a Young Dancer's Life: A Short Story Inspired by Vivaldi's "Spring" and Beethoven's "Moonlight Sonata"


Ludwig Van Beethoven's "Moonlight Sonata" and Antonio Vivaldi's "Spring" movement from "The Four Seasons"

Ludwig Van Beethoven's "Moonlight Sonata" is one of the most famous, and familiar pieces of music ever… [read more]

Music and Religion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,228 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Sacred Music in Religion

In the words of one prominent scholar, sacred music "appeals to the inner self" and connects oneself "with a deeper source of existence. The repetitive chants and rhythms in sacred music creates a positive attraction" while also "unifying the body and soul" via the singing of sacred hymns which have been passed down through the centuries, especially within the Catholic Church ("Gregorian Sacred," Internet). Basically speaking, sacred music is part of a very large collection of music written over the last eight hundred years in Western culture by some of the greatest composers of all time, mainly for use "in the sung liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church" and related denominations, beginning with "the Gregorian melodies and continuing through the polyphonic pieces of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance" and up to our modern age (Schuler, "What Is Sacred Music?" Internet).

In the overall history of Western religion, music has been utilized in three specific ways -- emotive, conceptual and aesthetic. The transition from hunting and gathering cultures to settled agrarian cultures witnessed the development of sacred music from a spontaneous to a more integral part of religious ritual. One prime example is the use of sacred music in the temples of the ancient Greeks which were considered as the dwelling places of various gods and goddesses and when writing became a permanent part of society, hymns and prayers were composed as dedications to the gods. In Mesopotamia and Egypt, temples were built for the sole purpose of musicians and dancers whose function was to "enrich and accompany the cycles of worship on a daily and seasonal basis" (Blackwell, 156).

In the Old Testament of the Holy Bible, there is evidence of music being performed in connection with temple worship, such as in the Book of Psalms and the Book of Samuel as part of the cultic prophets. The same type of development can be found in ancient India, where the sacred Vedas were chanted along with the melodic form known as the raga which was closely linked to cultic rituals and the social basis of the caste system (Swain, 456). Thus, in these cultures, music was primarily melodic and rhythmic and was expressed emotively, such as with dance or as a vehicle for the expression of a specific religious text. For the development of polyphony, being "the simultaneous performance of independent melodic lines" (Swain, 457), and harmony, either through various instruments or the human voice, we must look to the modern Western traditions linked to the Roman Catholic Church.

In the history of the Western church, the main line of musical development has been in the melodic treatment of liturgical texts. From its earliest beginnings in worship in which antiphonal techniques had already been applied, the line can be followed through the works of several important composers of sacred music. The works of Ambrose and Gregory the Great, circa 570 C.E. And related to what is known as the plainsong, came about during the Middle… [read more]

American Indian Music Being Influenced by the European Model Has Sadly Lost Its Originality Term Paper

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Native Music

Native American music made in European forms is missing many of the elements that made it unique. The vocalizations and instrument sounds represented the world around them. Complex rhythmic structures spoke to the rhythms of life. Costume and dance were vital part of musical performance. These aspects are missing from today's native American music. Further, the pan-tribalism found… [read more]

Rock Music and Drugs and the Influence They Had on the Baby Boomer Generation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (838 words)
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Rock Music and Drugs

Rock Music, Drugs, and the Baby Boom Generation

The "Baby Boom" generation is known as those individuals born in the years immediately following the Second World War. After the men returned home from the front to their homes in the United States, the general feeling of optimism and security that prevailed on the homeland encouraged people to begin starting families. Babies were born in huge numbers, giving rise to what social scientists would refer to as a "baby boom"; hence the name Baby Boom generation.

The baby boomers came of age at a time of economic prosperity and a general sense of optimism. All of that began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, however, with America's increasing involvement in the war in Vietnam. At this point, many of the baby boomers were still in their teens or just beginning to enter adulthood. In 1963, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, much of that optimism that the baby boomers had grown up with was beginning to dissipate as the succeeding president, Lyndon B. Johnson, increased America's involvement with the Vietnam War. Popular music also began to change with the arrival of the British Invasion - namely, the English rock groups the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, whose sexual lyrics and outlandish behavior shocked the older generation of Americans. Popular culture would never be the same again.

As the 1960s wore on, there was a shift from traditional rock n' roll to art rock. This was brought about largely owing to experimentation with drugs in the music scene of those years. This experimentation would forever alter the landscape of rock n' roll as we know it today. Whereas in the first half of the 1960s, the Beach Boys were releasing singles like the poppy "I Get Around" and the Beatles were unleashing hits like "A Hard Day's Night," by the middle of the decade a shift was already under way in both bands' sound; in 1965, the former would release "Pet Sounds," while the latter would put out such strange melodies as "Michelle" and "Norwegian Wood." Rock n' roll was no longer merely "fun"; it now had a serious message to transmit to the masses.

The more experimental side of rock n' roll in the late 1960s was abetted no doubt by the widespread usage of drugs like marijuana and LSD among both musicians and fans. The 1960s gave birth to a drug counterculture, the sheer scale of which has never been seen…… [read more]

Aboriginal Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,990 words)
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Aboriginal Music

The Aboriginal cultures of people groups around the world are both fascinating and intriguing. The aboriginal culture of Australia is no exception to this rule. This is particularly true of the music of Aboriginal Australians. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the music of the Aboriginal people of Australia.

History of Aboriginal Music

According to a… [read more]

Music Therapy Term Paper

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Music therapy has become more accepted in recent years as a form of dealing with stress, illness and facilitating better overall health in all age groups. A working definition of music therapy is, "...a branch of health care designed to aid physical and emotional health through the use of music, either with listening, song writing, performing, exploring lyrics or other… [read more]

Music Industry Reflects American Popular Culture Term Paper

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Music industry reflects American popular culture with more than just sound waves. Using the tools of television and movie media, the music industry delivers a comprehensive package designed to sell records and concert tickets. More than that, the music industry's marketing tactics reflect and also shape American cultural values. For example, gender, female sexuality, and sexual relationships are all depicted explicitly in music videos. The overt display of sex in music videos is accompanied by explicit lyrics and together the messages inform the psycho-social development of young people in America. However, the music industry delivers more than just messages reflecting human sexuality and interpersonal relationships in America. The industry reflects cultural values related to work, money, ethics, customs, etiquette, and gender roles.

Even before the television became a common household item, the music industry reflected popular culture. For example, the early blues artists were often signed by big record labels in the early 20th century. Those blues artists reflected life in the Deep South, life as an African-American living in poverty only a generation or two after the Civil War. The music industry therefore helped preserve an important part of American history by helping blues musicians record their music. As blues evolved into rock and roll and other types of sounds like rhythm and blues (R&B), different types of jazz, soul, and funk, the recording industry also captured those sounds on vinyl and later onto magnetic tape. Reflecting the burgeoning youth culture in America, the music industry gave a voice to rebellious teens.

The cultural revolutions taking place during the 1960s were undoubtedly aided by the recording industry. The music industry presented American folk musicians like Bob Dylan who blended beatnik sensibilities with the roots of American rock. Music started…… [read more]

Concert Report the Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra Performed Term Paper

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Concert Report

The Dresden Philharmonic orchestra performed at the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts (Knight Concert Hall) on February 20, 2008 at 8 PM. In celebration of the 200th anniversary of Ludwig van Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, the orchestra performed both it and the composer's Piano Concerto No. 5. The opening piece was Ouverture "Freischuetz" by Carl Maria von… [read more]

Role That Patronage (Royal, Ecclesiastical, Private) Played Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,085 words)
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¶ … role that patronage (royal, ecclesiastical, private) played in the lives of musicians and the repertoire that was composed / performed. At least three different types of case studies should be examined in terms of their most significant musicians-in-residence, its socio-cultural environment, opportunities for performance and composition, and locally preferred musical styles. One case study should be taken from… [read more]

Samba Music Term Paper

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Samba Music

The Samba originated as a folk dance in Brazil, where it is called the folk Samba or the Batuque. It has become the national dance of Brazil, and it is danced during Carnival as a festival dance. One writer notes, "The Samba is danced as a festival dance during the street festivals and parades. When one sees pictures of people dancing at Carnival in Rio, it is the Samba. A Samba dancer is known in Brazil as a Sambista" (Baker, 2007). The music for the Samba is very quick, with about 100 beats or 50 measures per minute, and the rhythm is always "joyful and contagious" (Baker, 2007). It is the format of many top 40 songs such as "La Isla Bonita" by Madonna. Another author notes, "Samba is basically a musical construction made with a binary time and a syncopated rhythm. On the top of this basic form all types of samba are formulated" (Yami, 2002). It is very important to note that there are numerous variations on the basic Samba rhythm, from rock to many local variations.

The basic Samba is usually played on a variety…… [read more]

Baroque Piece Chosen: Pachelbel's Cannon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (620 words)
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Piece Chosen: Pachelbel's Cannon in D Major

Genre: Canon

Composer: Johann Pachelbel

Era: Baroque -- composed around 1680

Composer's dates (born-died): 1653-1706

What country is the composer/piece from? Austria

Tell something interesting about this composer's life or compositional style

This piece is well-known for its chord progressions. Pachelbel was a very popular composer during his day, perhaps because his music was clearer and less complicated than other Baroque composers who have since eclipsed him in his fame after his death, like Bach ("Canon in D," Answers.com, 2007). A canon "is when a piece of music is imitated and repeated. First one instrument or vocal starts with a piece of the melody," and the other instruments take up this melody and repeat the musical sequence throughout the work (Helander, 2007).

Was this piece composed for a particular event? For a particular person? Other reason?

This piece is often played at weddings today, although it was not composed for this purpose. Also, "the progression chords of Pachelbel's Canon can be found in many modern songs" including "Let it Be" by the Beatles and "We're not gonna take it," by Twisted Sister (Helander, 2007).

Musical Description

Description of musical elements from your chosen piece/movement:

Melody: Stately, repetitive

Rhythm, Meter: The same sequences are repeated rhythmically.

Harmony: The same two-bar bass line and harmonic sequences are repeated over and over throughout the piece, with variations.

Texture: The canon makes use of no counterpoint like inversion, diminution, and augmentation ("Canon in D," Answers.com, 2007).

Tempo: Fairly consistent

Dynamics: Little marked dynamics

Instruments: Composed for three violins and a basso continuo and an instrument known as a gigue, now no longer used.

Mood: Calming, restful.

Sources of information, stated in complete citation form

Canon in D." Answers.com. 11 May 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/canon-in-d

Helander, Stefan. www.last.fm11 May 2007. http://www.helander.se/stefan/pachelbel/

The Concert Experience

What was your overall reaction…… [read more]

Music Dance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,780 words)
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Reggae Music

In 1968, a new form of music, blended from a religious movement, Rastafarian, and numerous musical influences such as rhythm and blues, rocksteady, African, and ska, emerged in Jamaica and spread quickly throughout the world. This music, known as reggae, defined a nation of people for centuries and helped develop various musical movements worldwide. This paper will discuss… [read more]

Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (629 words)
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Were it not for the title of the song, it would not be difficult to envision what Aaron Copeland had in mind when he wrote "Fanfare for the Common Man." With medieval trumpet calls and grand gongs permeating the composition, it is certainly a "fanfare." However, most fanfares culminate in the arrival of some dignitary like a king or queen. The pace of the music would change upon that individual's arrival, signifying his or her superiority over the rest of humanity. When listening to "Fanfare for the Common Man," I expect that dignitary to arrive. When the three minutes are over and the nobility hasn't shown up, the title of Copeland's piece becomes outstandingly clear and makes "Fanfare for the Common Man" a masterpiece. Copeland managed to take a fanfare and make it subtle and subdued, bringing out the dignity in the common person without falling into either a sense of inferiority or superiority. The piece becomes surprisingly emotional as a result, as if it actually is a celebration of all that is dignified in the human spirit.

The title of the piece therefore illuminates one of the composition's noticeable features: the lack of a traditional crescendo. While the piece does intensify, it does not reach a specific point of climax. This is not to say the "Fanfare" doesn't go anywhere because it does progress through several stages including key changes. Moreover, Copeland adds layer upon layer to the basic structure of the song until ends. If this piece were a fanfare for an uncommon man, Copeland would have had the piece progress through stages that offered a more distinct climax and denouement. The piece might have changed in character or tone entirely: perhaps shifting away from the core set of triplets and involving an entire orchestra's input.

As it is, "Fanfare for the Common Man" can be divided into several stages, becoming…… [read more]

Beethoven's Ode to Joy &amp Mozart's Symphony Number 25 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (765 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



What Makes Music Great

Roger Ebert said "great film is one that, every time you go back to it, you always find something new, something you missed before," and that certainly applies to a good piece of music as well. Why? Because classical music, as this class has shown, is complex, with many different themes, instruments, and melodies weaving together throughout a piece to create a complex whole. For example, even in a relatively simple piece such as Beethoven's "Ode to Joy," there are still several different melodies or rhythms in the piece, and it is written for several different instruments to explore different harmonies and effects. Thus, every time a person listens to a piece like this, they have the opportunity to discover new "joys" about the "Ode to Joy." Picking out a different instrument's part, and a countermelody here and there, is just one of the ways composers add diversity to their music, and with so many different instruments and musical parts, there is always something new to see. Just as if Ebert sees depth and meaning in films, there is depth and meaning to music that cannot be fully appreciated in just one or two listenings.

Ebert's criteria applies to great music because great music is more than one simple melody and chord progression. Even the "Ode to Joy" proves this, but other works indicate the complexity of the music as well as the skill of the composer. Mozart's works illustrate this quite well, and is one of the reasons they have remained so popular today. For example, in the Symphony Number 25, the piece can be light and bouncy, and then turn complicated and gloomy. Just when you think you know where it is heading, it seems to turn in another direction. There are strings, horns and other instruments blended together, and each listening gives a different view of these many different instruments and the notes they play. Mozart's works have wonderful melodies that are "pleasant and tuneful" ("Features"), and this is one of them. It is a great piece of music because it has depth and variety, and because it can sound different each time a person listens to it, if they listen for different things. It is complex, and that is the most important element…… [read more]

Music History Baroque vs. Classical Style Melody Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (898 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Music History

Baroque vs. Classical style

Melody: In contrast to Classical music, Baroque music primarily tries to create a feeling of continuity rather than tell a story through a developing, evolving, or shifting use of melody. In Baroque pieces, the opening melody will be heard over and over again in the course of the piece. Many Baroque melodies are quite ornamental and elaborate while Classical melodies are much less adorned, and much easier to play and to remember ("Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007; "Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007). This greater simplicity allowed Classical composers to play with the use melody more within the different movements of the piece.

Rhythm: Baroque works are characterized by continuity of rhythm. Rhythmic patterns heard at the beginning of the piece are reiterated many times throughout the piece. The music sounds like it is pushing forward in an uninterrupted fashion, in contrast to the more flexible use of rhythm in Classical music ("Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007; "Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007).

Harmony: Because of the frequent use of polyphonic texture, the use of two different melodic lines that imitate one another, harmony is an important characteristic of Baroque pieces. The more continuous and similar uses of melody and rhythm in Baroque music means that Baroque harmonies are less varied than in Classical pieces ("Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007; "Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007).

Texture: Baroque music makes frequent use of polyphonic texture, where two or more melodic lines compete for the listener's attention, while Classical music is basically homophonic or singular in texture and melody.

Form: Classical works tend to favor forms that allow for many different movements, such as the sonata. Classical forms usually reach a kind of dramatic climax followed by a resolution. Classical works also have a more articulated internal structure. Baroque forms tend to have clear breaks and a single mood within pieces, with contrasts established only through different works ("Musopen: Music History Baroque," Musopen, 2007)

Dynamics: Dynamics are very clear in Baroque music, almost jarring to the listener. Baroque dynamics are called terraced dynamics, because they often have a slight pause, almost like stepping up or down a step and gradual changes are almost nonexistent in Baroque music. Classical music makes a much wider use of in-between dynamic changes ("Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007; "Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007).

Discuss the Sonata Allegro Form

When and how it is used: The Sonata Allegro form developed during the Classical era. It is a three part form, known as an ABA structure. The first part is called the exposition, the second section, the development of material from the exposition, where the melody…… [read more]

Amadeus Mozart Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Mozart and Salieri

Throughout the film "Amadeus," the two characters are consistently shown in opposition to each other - from their music to their demeanor. It is clear to see that culturally and ideally, the men were far different from each other. The scene where Mozart is introduced is classic in that it clearly illustrates the basic social and cultural differences between the two at once. For example, Salieri is refined to the point of austerity, even in his dress, while Mozart is opulent and flamboyant (even vulgar) in every way. Salieri says to himself, "Why would God choose an obscene child to be his instrument?" ("Amadeus"), and that sums up the cultural differences between the two men. Salieri has dedicated his early life to God's work, which was common during the time, while Mozart seems to have anything but God on his mind. To Mozart, his gods were his music and his father. This indicates the importance of religion in society was changing. Music was showing that, as well. Both of these men compose religiously inspired music, but other, classical music as well. Religion is not the only reason Mozart composed, it simply came to him with the melody, while for Salieri, he was always hoping for God's approval (until he became a disbeliever, at least).

Salieri is an excellent of the logic and reason of the time. No emotions move him, while Mozart is nothing but emotions running out of control. Their music indicates this difference as well. Salieri follows the rules, and creates works that are popular, but not everlasting. Mozart, on the other hand, cannot follow the rules, but creates masterpieces that are classics in every sense of the word. The two men indicate how important it was to "fit in" in classical society. Mozart did not, and was not considered successful during the time, and Salieri did everything he thought was correct, but he has been forgotten while Mozart lives on.

Another important aspect of the culture of the time was the changing emphasis on language.…… [read more]

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