"Music / Musicians / Instruments" Essays

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Popular Music and Identity Sound Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,546 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In the musical example 2, one can see and understand how the Tin Pan Alley songs have influenced popular music of today.


Musical experiences cannot be easily described as they differ between two people, but two different people can both identify with a specific song in different ways. This is why popular music is easy to identify with, and it speaks to ones emotions. The writers have tried to justify their different points in regards to music and identity, but Simon Frith has a more compelling argument as he looks at how different music is able to influence people. Having an analysis of popular music has allowed him to determine that music is special because it defines a space that has no boundaries. Popular music can cross borders and be appreciated by different cultures and social groups. This allows different people to identify with the music, and have different experiences based on the music. Simon has demonstrated that sounds do not have to represent or reflect people as it had been assumed. There is a wide spectrum of difference in popular music. Popular music has the potential to allow people to easily identify with it as it is easy to understand and the beats are appealing to majority of people.


Adorno, Theodor W, and George Simpson. On Popular Music. Institute of Social Research, 1942. Print.

Frith, Simon. "Music and Identity." Questions of cultural identity (1996): 108-27. Print.

Hill, S., and B. Fenner. Media…… [read more]

Film Instrument: Ten Years Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Music may be the most important part of the musician's lives, but the band members are also each unique human beings with fully rounded personalities.

The movie is generalist in the sense that it gives a portrait of some of the difficulties all bands suffer while on tour but it is quite particular in showing the dedication and the shaping of a band with a fairly uncorrupted perspective in the music industry. Furthermore it does so without overly criticizing more commercial punk bands -- the focus is on Fugazi, rather than Fugazi's relationship with other bands and contrasting and comparing its sounds with similar sounding artists.

Despite this stress upon Fugazi's resistance to standardizing its punk music for commercial distribution, and the fact that it enabled itself to remain true to its roots by owning its own record label, the film does contain commercial design elements. The documentary it must be admitted as has a very stylishly shot technique and style, and it a pleasure to listen to. The director does not adopt a self-consciously 'rough' style to narrate the tale of the band. The band, again perhaps because of the length of time the director spent with them, comes across as reflective and intelligent about the decisions they have made with their lives, yet also quite savvy about the music business that has shaped so much of their lives and existences.

One last bit of evidence to confirm the film's ability to have a clear if almost invisible 'spin' on the purity of the band's music is how the film strikes a balance between using concert footage and footage of the band itself throughout the documentary. Rather than relegating a particular concert or backstage discussion to be the 'climax' of the film, and the narrative of the band, the film is very equitable in the balance it strikes between the lives and personalities on and off stage. In this band, there is no conflict between music and self, between one's backstage morality and onstage persona. Instead, an image of an unusually balanced, healthy group of artistically gifted individuals emerges, out of which has come often dark, but always compelling punk…… [read more]

Rock 'N Roll Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,491 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Punk-rock was fast, loud rock and roll music, but it quickly became the angry music of the time. (Riznar)

In the 1980's, punk-rock evolved into hardcore music and fans became even more experimental with fashion, makeup and hair color. In addition, a mixture of pop and folk-rock was introduced, and wild children everywhere listened to bands such REM and the… [read more]

Music on Grocery Store Shopper Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Times will be recorded in the total number minutes per visit. It is expected that findings will indicate longer stays for the group that shops with music. Data will be cross-tabulated according to male vs. female. In addition it will be cross-tabulated according to the type of music being played. Sampling will be conducted over a period of two weeks.… [read more]

Shakespeare Used Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Shakespeare often used vocal music to evoke a particular kind of mood, as in "Come, thou monarch." He also uses the songs to provide ironic commentary on plot or character. The incantatory, magical, and ritual uses of song are particularly also central to the themes of plays such as A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Tempest and Macbeth. Shakespeare also used songs to establish the character or mental state of the singer. For example, in King Lear Edgar feigns madness by singing snatches of folk song, while Ophelia's singing of folk song in Hamlet demonstrate the regressive breakdown of her personality. (Springfels)


Shakespeare has used ballads extensively in his works. The ballads were usually cut short to three or four stanzas and used only in part. The reasons for this could be that most of the popular ballads of the time were too lengthy to be used in a play, and perhaps the lyric of a ballad as a whole might not have been complementary to the plotline of the play. (Lackey)

Instrumental Music

Instrumental music has been sparingly used in Shakespeare's plays, in part because of the lack of facilities for such music to be played in performances other than at the Court. Hence in plays performed at the court such as the Twelfth Night and The Tempest we find nearly three times the amount of music normally present in Shakespeare's plays. In these plays, Shakespeare may have had the services of court singers and instrumentalists. In public theater productions, instrumental music was normally provided by a trumpeter, a wind player who doubled on shawm, and a couple of string players who were competent at the violin, viol, and lute. (Springfels) Therefore, the use of instrumental music in most of Shakespeare's plays is sparse.


Shakespeare has used music in most of his plays as a dramatic device to effectively evoke certain moods and sometimes to reflect the state of minds of some characters. While doing so, he has mostly relied on traditional and popular English music of the time that was easily understood by his audience, rather than the sophisticated "art" music.

Works Cited

Lackey, Stephanie. "Shakespeare and his Music." October 12, 1998. Vanderbilt University's MusL 242 Gateway Page. April 25, 2003. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/Blair/Courses/MUSL242/f98/slackey.htm

Kastan, David Scott. "William Shakespeare." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Music in the plays." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003. http://web.uvic.ca/shakespeare/Library/SLTnoframes/stage/music.html

Music of the streets and fairs." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003. http://web.uvic.ca/shakespeare/Library/SLTnoframes/literature/streets.html

Springfels, Mary. "Music in Shakespeare's Plays." Shakespeare and the Globe: Then and now. Britannica online. N.d. April 25, 2003. http://www.britannica.com/shakespeare/esa/660007.html boy-singer, Jacke Wilson, became famous and his name is acknowledged in a 1623 production of Much Ado about Nothing (Springfels)

First performed at the Whitehall in 1601 as part of the traditional royal celebration of the holiday

The Tempest was given two court performances: the first in 1611 at Whitehall, and the second in 1613… [read more]

English Language by Music Historian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,116 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Handel composed Messiah to the libretto (lyrics) of Charles Jennens, who also wrote libretto for Handel's Saul as well as works for other composers. Peter Jacobi describes Jennens' libretto as "a deft weaving of spiritual thoughts...that led Handel to a clarity of vocal and instrumental line," (1982, p. 33). Once the composer received Jennens' libretto, he completed Messiah in just over three weeks, between August and September of 1741. This "burst of energy" was supposedly typical for Handel (Barber, 1994, p. 45). However, the completely original composition was not; "Handel was a plagiarist," like many musicians in his time, and he frequently borrowed whole sections of music from other composers (Jacobi, 1982, p. 32). Messiah contains some sections stolen from Handel's own work, but the bulk of the masterpiece was original. Although the bulk of the work was written in those fateful three weeks, Handel continued to alter the composition. In fact, more than sixteen versions of Messiah exist in his own writing.

Following the immense success of Messiah in Ireland, Handel moved back to London in 1742. Hoping to revive his career, Handel launched productions of several oratorios, including Samson and Messiah. Audiences appeared pleased with Handel's oratorios based on Old Testament themes, like Samson. However, the groundbreaking Christian theme of Messiah proved to be a turn-off for Londoners. Handel's Messiah was first performed in the British capital on March 23, 1743 in Covent Garden at the Theatre Royal, but under a different name. Because of the negative reaction toward the oratorio's Christian theme, Handel advertised the production as A Sacred Oratorio. Still, the work was considered blasphemous and Handel was forced to halt production between the years 1746 and 1748.

England was still a hotbed of social and political transformation, however, and by 1749 audiences were ready to receive Handel's Messiah. By 1750 the oratorio grew large crowds, and Handel began producing it to make money for charity. Billing it as a fund-raiser also helped boost ticket sales, as the still puritanical middle and upper classes needed a philosophical excuse to see Messiah.

Handel had been active in philanthropy for a while, and was particularly interested in financially assisting London's Foundling Hospital, an orphanage. For eleven years beginning in 1750, Handel's Messiah was produced as an annual fundraiser for the Foundling Hospital. The composer had always been prone to giving his money away; in fact, when his first teacher Zachow passed away, Handel regularly sent his widow money. Luckily, Messiah drew in a substantial salary for the generous composer, who had twice declared bankruptcy during the course of his career. Messiah was performed continually until the time Handel died; it is still performed regularly centuries later.

George Frideric Handel grew plump in his later years, due no doubt to his increased financial success. Although his eyesight began to fail and he eventually grew blind, Handel continued to compose; he wrote oratorios, as well as psalms, anthems, and instrumental chamber music. Much of his work was successful, but none… [read more]

Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,523 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


African-American music is a widely visible type of music in many nations nowadays. The heritage of the African culture, as applied in the American music industry, has provided great contribution to the arts of music. The characteristics of the African-American music in various forms such as blues and jazz have presented life to the music of the past up to our modern times. Perhaps, we can say that African-American music is a brilliant art.


Christo. (2000). African History and Overview.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Acslink.

Web site: http://www.acslink.aone.net.au/christo/f_afrihi.htm

Clarke, D. Minstrelsy and the War Between States.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site: http://www.musicweb.uk.net/RiseandFall/two.htm

Heart and Soul: A Celebration of African-American Music.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Worldbook. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/intro.htm


Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Worldbook.

Web site: http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/spirituals.htm

Survey of American Popular Music.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site: http://www.music.eku.edu/faculty/nelson/mus273/minstrel.html

Archives of African-American Music and Culture.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~aaamc/

McElrath, J. African-American History.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site: http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/musicmusicians1… [read more]

Jamaican Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (4,850 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(The same dynamic obtains today in the way in which hiphop is marketed. But reggae internationally succeeded because its listeners were eager to see themselves as radicals - and so were eager to buy a form of music that was marketed to them as the voice of the revolution.

Launched on the anniversary of Marley's death the Legend campaign was… [read more]

Censorship in Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  36 pages (12,976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Spanish-born Pablo Casals (1876-1973), who enjoyed a spectacular international career as a violin and cello virtuoso and conductor, was considered to be one of the finest musicians of his day. However, he had a rather harsh assessment of rock and roll in the early 1960s, one that should be viewed through the filter of a person whose life was… [read more]

Music Appreciation My Personal Attraction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


I believe music can touch a chord in a person's core, and this is why many of these musicians are so important. They have the ability to feel what people are feeling, and transfer those feelings to their music. Music is woven into the very cloth of our lives. We walk down the aisle to particular music, are buried with… [read more]

Music or Musical Theatre Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,248 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In fact, these two forms of music are the closet types of music that I can compare Forest Flower to -- which is interesting because jazz predates both of them.

The second song actually delivers on all of the magic and the mysticism to which the first song alludes to. It is quite revealing that the first of two songs on the second side is called sorcery. The piano work on this song, as well as on the other on this side, certainly has connotations that are suggestive of a frenzied spiritual encounter. The tempo is decidedly faster than the song on the first side, and continues at a breakneck pace for the duration of side two. Whereas there are a number of pianissimo passages on the first side -- especially during the song's finale, which first climaxes and then hangs on for a few more precious moments -- the second side is the exact opposite and provides a howling, whirling stamping of music that is unlike most modern jazz efforts.


As the second side of this album strongly implies, jazz music was developed out of a larger countercultural movement that took place in the early part of the 20th century. This fact explains the urgency of a number of the pieces on Forest Flower, which is demonstrative of this music as a whole. There were several social and political issues that were going on in the early part of the 20th century which jazz was influenced by. Its popularity increased after the Second World War during the baby boomer generation when segregation was still prevalent and racism and bigotry reigned freely over the country.

Jazz played a prominent role in the beatnik movement, and was certainly rebel music in the fact that it was the music of a younger generation which indulged in drugs, and a counterculture that was the opposite of the post war culture in which ideals of a picket fence, a dog, and 2.5 kids was everywhere in the country. This aspect of jazz is what actually made it revolutionary and dangerous during this time period and that during the Civil Right Movement (Forest Flower was recorded during the height of the latter movement, in the turbulent 60's). This energy explodes from the fingers of these live performers and almost transcends the music itself with a kind of abandonment which is joyous on the first side, and just shy of dangerous on the second.


In conclusion, an examination of several different aspects of Forest Flower reveals that despite the reputation of so-called cool jazz as boring elevator music to play for senior citizens, real jazz is anything but boring or "vapid" (Baraka 179). In fact it is dynamic, riotous, and able to go from 0 to 60 miles per hour (musically) in a matter of seconds. Its socio-political roots were part of a countercultural movement that included both the Beatnik and the Civil Rights movement attests to the vibrancy and rebelliousness of this music.… [read more]

Music History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Wagner: His Time and Beyond

Composer, conductor, theatre director and essayist Richard Wagner lived during a vibrant time for German culture: the romantic era. Among his contemporaries were some of that country's greatest and most influential thinkers, like Nietsche, Marx, and even the twilight of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Wagner's ideas of "total artwork," (Gesamtkunstwerk) based in the Greek philosophy… [read more]

Documentary Filmmaking About the World of Popular Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Home

A Martin Scorsese Picture

Martin Scorsese captured the culture and times of the 1950's and 60's America in the documentary "No Direction Home." Similarly, Bob Dylan captured the times in his poetry and songwriting displayed in the film. He later came to the understanding of how timeless these songs really were and are. "Blowing in the Wind" and "Don't think twice its Alright" are as important today as they were when they were conceived. Bob, a modern day prophet, wrote songs about the changes to come in this world, "The Times they are a Changing" "Masters of War" and "Hard Rain" are examples of this pretense.

The Scorsese documentary tracks Dylan from his childhood home of Hibbling, Minnesota in 1950 where he was known by his birth name "Robert Zimmerman," to the streets of Greenwich Village in New York City in the 1960's. From his initial inspiration listening to the Grand Ole Opry and such acts as Hank Williams, and Johnny Ray on an old mahogany radio to the center of the artistic movement in America, where artists, sometimes referred to as Bohemians made themselves at home. At the center of this scene was Washington Square Park, where poets and musicians would spend their days writing and performing to the people in the park so they could get the word out through "word of mouth." It was here that people would come and see them play in the evening at one of The Village's many coffee houses which were also known as "Basket Houses." Beat Poets and Performers would pass around a basket during their set and this was how they would get paid enough to eat and might and on a good night, even be able to sleep under some clean sheets.

Dylan performed in those…… [read more]

American Popular Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



An American popular music classic, "Blue Moon" has been covered countless times. The most famous version is arguably the one performed by Elvis Presley but both older and newer recordings offer unique interpretations. The original "Blue Moon" was written by Richard Rogers and Lorenz Hart in 1934, when the songwriters were under contract to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM). The song underwent four incarnations before Rogers and Hart penned the version that would become a commercial success. The first incarnation of the song was entitled "Prayer," and was written for a film called Hollywood Party. According to the Lorenz Hart.org Website, "In its second life the "Prayer/Blue Moon" tune was given a new lyrics and became the title song of the 1934 M.G.M film Manhattan Melodrama which starred Clark Gable, William Powell and Myrna Loy…the song was also know as "It's Just That Kind of Play," but was cut from the film before it was ready for release ("Blue Moon: by Richard Rogers and Lorenz Hart" n.d.).

One of the earliest commercial recordings of "Blue Moon" that was not performed for the movie industry was by the Boswell Sisters. A New Orleans-based jazz trio, the Boswell Sisters recorded "Blue Moon" in 1935. During the famed 1954 Sun recording studio sessions, Elvis Presley recorded a haunting version of "Blue Moon" that remains an industry standard. Elvis's first "Blue Moon" recording was released in 1956. Since then, "Blue Moon" has been covered by numerous artists including Rod Stewart. In spite of Stewart's rock and roll background, his 2008 cover of the Rogers and Hart ballad comes across as a soft jazz tune. Each of these three versions testifies to the extraordinary versatility of the original song.

The Boswell Sisters version may be truer to the original than any other given it was recorded only a year after Rogers and Hart wrote the first version of "Prayer." In the Boswell Sisters 1935 recording, the phrasing is nicely relaxed, almost syncopated. The overall feel is languid, which evokes the theme of moonlight. Instrumentation is sparse, including strings, some upper register woodwinds, and soft piano in the background playing both rhythm and bass line. The Boswell Sisters is a pleasant and gentle version, yet without assuming a blues pattern. The Victor Young Orchestra plays accompanying instruments, making the feel of the song one of classic American lounge jazz. The jazzy tone is in keeping with the New Orleans base of the Boswell Sisters.

Tinged with a touch of melancholy, the sisters sing lines like "without a dream in my heart, without a love of my own" in a heartfelt way. Yet the sisters express the song's theme of hope and the fulfillment of prayer beautifully. Most notably, the sisters sing the line "when I looked, the moon had turned to gold." The emphasis on the word "gold" is offered in a slightly higher register than the rest of the line. This uplifting note parallels the implication that the narrator's prayers for finding a "love of my own"… [read more]

Ethics of Punk Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Punk/Punk?

Punk rock has had a very tumultuous and rebellious history, continuously being redefined by political and social issues. The genre, dating back to the 1970s, attained recognition among the disenfranchised youths of America, as well as, England. The two major punk rock meccas of the time were located in New York and London. Since it's inception, the definition of punk, and the distinction between "Punk" and "punk" has changed drastically, though some may contend that the message conveyed remains the same. The difference between "Punk" and "punk" may be analyzed through the composition of songs such as "Anarchy in the U.K." By the Sex Pistols and "American Idiot" by Green Day.

Notable differences between "Punk" and "punk" are evident in the lyrical message and musical genres represented in the music. "Punk" music has generally been considered to have anti-establishment undertones and convey a political and/or social message advocating rebellion. It has also been considered to defy convention, promote non-conformism, and calls for people to take action. "Punk" has also maintained a "do-it-yourself" attitude, and explores existing music genres and styles, and creates new genres in the process. Conversely, "punk" is self-indulgent, commercial, and conforms to existing and accepted music genres.

"Anarchy in the UK," is a rousing song by the Sex Pistols that comments on the country's social and political status. The raw intensity of the song, Rotten's maniacal laughter at the beginning, and the crunching sound of the guitars drive the song forward, angrily decrying the political state of the U.K. In the 1970s. The song calls for action, regardless of what the individual's wants. Rotten proclaims that he has the ability to exploit his message through various means, "How many ways to get what you want/I use the best, I use the rest/I use the NME/I use anarchy." Rotten embraces the media who is willing to give him a platform to speak out on and propagate his message. Furthermore, Rotten, and the Sex Pistols, are willing to sacrifice their reputations (as well as their record contract) in order to convey…… [read more]

Panpipes the Musical Instrument Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Child Care Facility

There are few instruments are as primal or ancient as the panpipes. Indeed, other than percussion instruments, the panpipes are perhaps the most ancient instrument in current use. Furthermore they are one of the best instruments for facilitating understanding how sound is made. For this reason, there is much research about the panpipes. This paper will focus on three aspects of panpipes, the history of the instrument, the cost and manufacture, and the physics.

As previously mentioned, the instrument currently known as the panpipes is ancient. Its origin is unknown, considering that it was first created well beyond the veil of written history. Acclaimed panpipes teacher and historian Mr. Costel Puscoiu argues that primitive man "probably accidentally discovered sound production by blowing a pipe, stems of plants (reed or bamboo) or animal bones" ("History of Panflutes"). Over time this single flute became multiple reeds bound together to create several different notes. The instrument has been found across Eurasia (and even in Meso-America), but an approximate estimation of where it was originally created cannot be made. Due to its vast spread, the panpipes more than likely were created at different times at different places. Regardless, the panpipes eventually fell out of use as more sophisticated instruments became available. The jaunty notes of panpipes were replaced by the haunting tones of the clarinet and other "modern" instruments. In modern times the panpipes have achieved a degree of popularity as niche musicians pick it up and make it their own.

Since there is very little demand for the instruments, panpipes are usually handmade. Indeed, the appeal to many musicians is the personal nature of the instruments. The simplistic nature of panpipes makes for ease of creation. This fact, combined with cheap materials, results in a relatively inexpensive instrument. A quick internet…… [read more]

Johann Sebastian Bach Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



J.S. Bach: Overview and Listening Experience Reflection

Most Important Compositions

Among Bach's most significant composition, Blanning (2008) argues that the Good Friday mass St. Matthews Passion is thusly considered for the complexity of its double choir and double orchestra requirements. (p. 84) Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D Minor is an exemplary piece of organ music that continues to be used in cinema and pop culture today. His Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor is also an organ work whose dexterity of interwoven passages is perhaps unrivaled for the instrument. The Goldberg Variations are a collection of harpsichord words that legend has it were composed to help soothe an insomniac king to sleep. (Wikidpedia, 1) A Fifth work is the collection known as The Well Tempered Clavier, which will be discussed in greater depth here below.

Most Significant Contributions:

Among Bach's most significant contributions, Classical Net (2010) cites the composers fluidity between national schools of music, therefore creating music with appeal to German, French, Italian and English audiences. This contribution would be supplemented by Bach's compositional precision, with a mathematical organization marking his work and that of those whom he would influence. Another compelling contribution would be rendered through Bach's instrumental familiarity with the organ, harpsichord, viola and violin, which allowed him to creation compositions with an intimate familiarity for each instrument. At yet another level, his specific prowess with the organ makes his compositions for this instrument among the most definitive. And importantly, Bach contributed an enormously prolific body of work to the ecclesiastical canon of classical music.

Significant Facts:

Among the details of his biography that might interest us, Bach was born in Eisenach in what is now Germany (Wikipedia, 1). Born in 1685, he would be educated in instrumental playing by his father.…… [read more]

What Are the Affects of Black Gospel Music on Worshipping in Today's Church? Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Black Gospel Music on worshipping in todays Church?

In this paper we present the various effects of Black Gospel Music on worshipping in the contemporary church scene. We analyze the role played by music in the church as well as the general society. The main reasons why songs are a good way of conveying messages are also explored.… [read more]

Role of Music in My Life Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,146 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Role of Music in My Life

Music is considered to be life for many. Music plays a crucial role in the life of several persons. Music modulates them and encourages them to be refined. Music is very crucial for humanity. With the assistance of music, people are able to forget their difficulties. Music also enables one to enjoy time and refine their intelligence. ("Music in my life.," n. d.) Music moves our hearts in most usual manner, fostering, reassuring, exhilarating, relaxing and encouraging us against the odds. It is quite impossible to think of a life without music, which would have been terribly frozen and calm. (Enotes, 2010)

Music has the strength that is so fundamental, so intensely embedded in the human soul, heart as well as mind that it would be not probable to live without. ("What role does music play in people's lives? What role should it play?," n. d.) Listening to music and playing a musical instrument functions brain's parts which is not encouraged by anything other than that. I have also came across a theorem that taking notes of music or playing a musical tool is the one action which places a brain under scanner, the entire thing shows that music encourages each portion of brain in certain manner. I cannot think of a more strengthened medium than music for development and growth in kids. (Enotes, 2010)

Music continues to be an encouragement all through my life, saying the way I felt at any particular time. Music personally depicting, is possibly one of the most crucial emotional form of support which I possess and it is further a type of my life's memoir. It appears that all of the most crucial events which happened in my life tend to have a musical linkage that once I come across it, takes me back to the event. This relates truly to all of the emotions, times wherein I was delighted, sorrowful, anxious, alone, in desolation, in happiness, uninterested, irritated and so on. ("What role does music play in people's lives? What role should it play?," n. d.) I hear and feel different types of music, the lyrics, the beats, and the manner they are being sung. Music has accorded me the liberty to open up myself to my friends and family whom I love. I can always find songs to narrate what I am responding in my head as well as in my heart. Music could assist me to cry, laugh, hide, scream, or any issue that I am facing. (Helium Entertainment, 2010)

Music is quite larger to me than being just plain, escapist enjoyment. Music has been an acquaintance, intimate, much like blood in my life to me ever since I was very young. (Helium Entertainment, 2010) The most crucial thing that music does is strike a chord in my life, irrespective of if they are thoughts or feelings or even instances and persons from my past. I actually get pleasure in listening to music that is… [read more]

John Coltrane Retrospective: Jazz Performance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


John Coltrane Retrospective: Jazz Performance

For my chosen performance, I listened to a local jazz band perform a reworking of some of John Coltrane's arrangements of American standards, like "My Favorite Things." At first the stated aim of the performance surprised me, given that I had always thought of jazz as improvisational. This performance was supposed to encapsulate the past, rather than showcase original works. However, there are many different ways of improvising in jazz. In this case, the band may have looked over the musical arrangement of Coltrane, and perhaps listened to his performance. The performance was a celebration of jazz styles from a different era, but still felt fresh and new. This is partially a testimony to Coltrane's genius and partially a tribute to the passion of the band to embody it.

The band tried to recreate Coltrane's approach, although there must have been some improvisation or reworking involved: I had heard most of the arrangements before and there were some slight variations in tone and cadence, versus what I hard heard on a recording. Clearly, the band still put a bit of its own 'spin' on the arrangement. The performance was relatively casual. The band was not made up of full-time professionals, but rather of people who played semi-professionally during their spare time. It took place during the day at a local community center, and most of the audience members were older. The main aim of the concert was to share music that the band members enjoyed. The music, however, did have a smoky and sensuous tone to it. I had rarely seen a soprano saxophone being played, but because this was Coltrane's signature instrument, it was very prominent in the music.

Because the performance was a homage and not an original…… [read more]

Life and Music of One Composer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote many forms of music in his lifetime. Mozart composed most of his work with great ease and this is shown in the extensive amount of compositions he has written. He composed over 150 musical works between 1782 and 1785. The compositions Mozart composed was a wide range of varieties including: operas, church music, vocal and choral music, orchestral music, chamber music, piano music, and organ music. Hayden told Leopold Mozart, Mozart's father that his son was, "the greatest composer known to me in person or by name; he has taste and, what is more, the greatest knowledge of composition" (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 2010). Influenced by his father, who was a writer on violin-playing influential treatise, Mozart showed expertise at playing the violin and the keyboard at an early age and from there was writing composition.

Literature Review

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was part of the Classical period of classical music and was a major innovator of classical music and the achievements, it would undertake.

Mozart was born in 1756 in Salzburg and was the only living son of Leopold Mozart, a musician of his own merit. He was playing the keyboard and the violin by the age of four years old as well as composing by the age of five years old. The Archbishop of Salzburg provided the funding for the family to travel to Paris and London between 1763 and 1766. Mozart was commissioned in Italy from 1771 until 1773 to compose operas. In 1971, Mozart composed an opera, Idomeneo, for the Elector of Bavaria in Munich and lived the ten years in Munich enjoying his independence without any security or stability in his life living off the flow of his commissioned work.

Mozart married in 1782 to the younger sister of a previous love interest broken up by his father. Leopold Mozart was often criticized for exploiting his son for financial gain but there is no doubt to the guidance he had in Mozart's success. "While it is very common for great composers to come from musical backgrounds and receive encouragement and help in their young lives, Mozart's musical debt to his father is unmatched." Mozart died in 1797 from a serious illness.

Mozart's music is from the classic era which includes the composer, Joseph Hayden. Mozart' violin concertos were written when he was nineteen years old. They were most likely written to showcase his expertise as a violinist but Mozart stepped down from the position he held within the Salzburg court and was replaced by Antonio Brunetti, an even nore skilled violinist. Speculation has suggests that Violin Concerto No 4 and No5 were composed so physically demanding so that they could showcase the skill of Brunetti. It was written in allegro, followed by andante cantabile and ended with rondeau: andante grazioso. Allegro tempo is defined as a fast or brisk and lively. The definition for andante cantabile is flowing…… [read more]

Music Concert Review Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Music Concert Review

Orchestra: Houston Symphony, Hans Graf Conducting


Stravinsky -- Symphonies of Wind Instruments -- This is a concert work written in 1920 for a brass and woodwind ensemble. It is a short piece, one movement, and lasts about 10 minutes. It is dedicated to the memory of Claude Debussy, although uses a number of Russian folk themes. One can tell it is separated into three parts -- three different tempi, three slightly different styles.

Mozart -- Symphony #41 in C Major, K.551 (Jupiter) -- No one knows if the Jupiter Symphony was performed while Mozart was still alive, but it was composed as the last set of three during the summer of 1788. The nickname was not penned by Mozart, but by an impresario of the time in an early arrangement for piano. It is a traditional classical symphony; four movements, but is a bit more robust and complex than his earlier works.

Harbison -- Fanfare for Foley's -- John Harbison is an American composer with a few controversial issues in his past. The Princeton University faculty booed his M.A. performance piece and Walter Piston, famous teacher and composer, told the young Harbison that he should not even think of being a composer (Anthony, 2001). The Fanfare is similar to Aaron Copland's Fanfare for the Common Man, and was commissioned specifically for the Houston Symphony to honor an historic Houston monument, Foley's Department Store.

Poulenc -- Gloria- This work, a setting of the Roman Catholic Gloria in excelsis Deo was commissioned in 1961 to honor the conductor Sergei Koussevitzky of the Boston Symphony (and others). It is scored for large orchestra, chorus, and a significant soprano role in six parts. It is a grand piece, chromatic yet tonal, but still edgy and ethereal (Gutman, 2001).

Reviews- Stravinsky -- This piece is bright, with tons of coloration but, characteristic of Stravinsky, it is the unexpected rhythms and the pieces of tonal melody woven into the overall fabric of the piece that keeps the short piece exciting. It one listens carefully, you can hear the folk tunes traded off between the instruments but, just short of a classical cadence, go off into a completely different direction.

Mozart…… [read more]

How and Why Young People Listen to Music Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,732 words)
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Society and Culture -- Music Habits

Music is one of the most common human activities and is evident throughout human cultures everywhere on earth. It has a long history of cultural and religious significance and still plays a fundamental role in modern social life and religious worship as well. In the United States, music has played a significant role in… [read more]

African-American Influence in American Popular Music Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The influence of American Americans on American popular music has been evident for decades. The purpose of this discussion is to trace African-American influence within all styles of American popular music from swing to the present. The research will explore stylistic features: call and response, metric schemes (two-step and four-beat), instrumentation, features of rhythm, and delivery.

No discussion of African-American influence on popular music can began without discussing gospel music. Gospel music including encompassing Negro spirituals are the foundation of every type of music that has evolved in popular music. One of the most evident influences of gospel, have to do with the tradition of call and response. Remnants of call and response can actually be seen today in the sphere of hip hop. This can be seen when a rap artist is performing and sends out a call and demands a response back from the audience.

Swing music is a form of jazz that was developed in the 1930s. Musicologists seem to vary in the way they define swing music. According to Web (1937) "swing is individual improvisation against a formal rhythmic background." Blues writing has a distinctive pattern in which the first two lines of a stanza are similar but not identical and the last word in the third line of the stanza rhymes with the last word in the first stanza. For instance, the first stanza of "Rising High Water Blues" reads,

"Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time

I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time

And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine (Jefferson)."

A great deal of Blues music contains 10-12 beats or syllables per lyric line. However, some contains more or less. Blues influenced music such as R&B which combines some of the elements of the blues.

In addition the Gospel, Swing and Jazz, soul music has also greatly influenced American popular music and American culture in general. Soul music developed as a natural outgrowth of gospel. Although it is similar to R&B in that people who sing R&B tend to have soulful voices, there are some distinct differences in sound. Soul music relies heavily on the voice-that is the voice is emphasized and in some instances there is very little instrumentation. The music is often recorded acoustically with just a guitar or piano. In addition, it is important to note that this music also evolved out of the Black power movement and tended to be filled with message associated with Black pride and social and political consciousness. According to Scheurer, soul music provided a foundation for the evolution of various types of American popular music.

The influence of African-American Music of popular music has continued throughout the years. Rhythm and Blues is a prime example of the influence of Black Music on popular music. Rhythm and…… [read more]

Music Review of Christmas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Each song was played in a different chord providing for a rich, deep sound. It created a since of joy and excitement in the air. It made the listener not only hear the music, but feel it as well.

"Joy to the World," "Hark! The Harold Angels Sing," and "Hallelujah" were played several times with a mixture of balance and technique, making them very strong and powerful songs. The choir was also included in these selections which created a feeling of Christmas. Many members of the audience not only listened to these songs, they also sang with the choir. The beautiful sounds of each song penetrated the auditorium making the feeling of Christmas come to life. The voices mixed with the variation of instrumentation of the orchestra was enjoyed by each member of the audience.

In conclusion, it was the mixture of tone, balance, and technique that made the "Christmas on the Heights" concert at Boston College a huge success. The audience enjoyed all of the 18 song selections played and their behavior was that of pure appreciation. At the completion of the concert, a standing applause was given. A small reception was offered for the members of the choir, the orchestra, and the audience after the concert. During the reception, the audience commented on the orchestra and congratulated the members of the choir and orchestra on their grand performance.

It was a night filled with magical Christmas music that set the tone for the Christmas season for all in attendance. Overall, this concert was superior as it showcased the true talents of all of the…… [read more]

Music and the Counterculture Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (4,510 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Music and the Counterculture

Music has long been an expression of the society within which the particular kind or genre of music originated in. There is a distinct musical expression that can be identified with most cultures at any given time within the evolution of the cultural tradition and setting. There is a relationship between music and the identities of… [read more]

Popular Music Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Subdivisions of Popular Music: Country, R&B and Hard Rock

Popular music is a catch-all idiom for the general gamut of music which is neither folk nor classical, but which is instead composed, recorded and produced with the intention of being consumed by an audience. Naturally, audiences are widely segmented in term of taste, which will vary heavily across race, age, gender, ethnicity and region, to name just a few features that help to define genre.

It is thus that popular music is splintered into infinite subdivisions. Though these do not necessarily constitute hard and fast rules into which every example of popular music fits neatly and without deviation. However, some general subdivisions do help us to understand the way that the pop music market is segmented according to demographic interests. Some of the broadest popular music categories due for consideration are Country Music, R&B and Hard Rock.

Country Music, history known as Counter & Western (c&w) is a market that caters to the Southern and Midwestern regions of the United States in particular. Elements of this genre include a fashion which reflects a 'cowboy' aesthetic, which features singers in denim, cowboy hats, boots and pick-up trucks. These stylistic conceits are accompanied by a sound that is best characterized by its 'twang.' This is a quality both of vocal accent and guitar or pedal steel bending that reflects the rural traditions present in the music of such historical figures as Roy Acuff, Bob Wills and, thereafter, Hank Williams, Willie Nelson and Johnny Cash.

With figures such as Cash, the genre would take a step closer to the rock music that would increasingly come to define the dominant incarnation of popular music from the 1950s through to the 1990s. During this period, the most successful country music would retain the above-noted aesthetic and artistic elements, and would still contemplate themes specific to the genre concerning dysfunctional love, alcoholism, gambling, traditional American values and patriotism. In spite of this, the most successful country music would also sound as much like rock music (albeit distinctly mainstream in its conventions) as country music. Examples such as the wildly popular Garth Brooks and, consequently, Shania Twain, Toby Keith and Taylor Swift, would come to reflect the blurring of lines between the country genre and rock music. In the above-noted examples, it is increasingly clear that the notion of a 'country' subdivision is more a concept of marketing targets than artistic distinctions.

As noted in the discussion above, rock music would be the primary medium for popular music during the second half of the 20th century. This could be roughly (and admittedly unempirically) book-ended by the arrival of The Beatles in America in 1964 and the suicide of Kurt Cobain in 1994. In the periods before and after, a genre once called Rhythm &…… [read more]

Jazz CD Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Nostalgia in Times Square album is a grand tribute to one of jazz's finest bass players. The second track on the album is Mingus' "Moanin'," and is the most energetic of the collection. A veritable army of musicians receives credit on the track for their work in the multilayered, textural work of progressive-modern big band jazz. Of particular note on "Moanin'" is Ronnie Cuber, baritone saxophone player who opens, carries and punctuates the song. Trumpeters Randy Brecker, Ryan Kisor, and KAck Walrath also shine, as do the triple whammy of trombonists, Art Baron, Frank Lacy, and Dave Taylor. Chris Potter, Craig Handy, and John Stubblefield offer tenor saxophone interludes, and Steve Slagle slips in some alto. Honoring the great Mingus himself, the big band bass line is carried steadily by Andy McKee and Marvin "Smitty" Smith completes the rhythm section.

"Moanin'" is relatively a straightforward jazz piece with a 4/4 time signature. However, the walking bass line and especially the many layers of horns and woodwinds add depth and complexity. McKee plays a dedicated walking bass line throughout the song. Twice during the song, the band stops, proving how tight the rhythm section is together with the rest of the big band. The sheer number of horns might signal cacophony. Yet at no point do the collection of horns and saxophones sound like dead birds. The musicians are skillful, deft at what they do. The baritone sax carries the main melody almost throughout the whole tune, as if it were a vocalist. When the baritone takes a break, the much softer sounds of the alto sax come in at the middle for a delightful melody. All the while the rhythm section remains steady. The drummer keeps time on the cymbals, riding the high hat quite a bit. However, he uses the kick drum to open the song.

Repetitive elements link the song together, which enhances the listening experience.…… [read more]

Music Lacks Attention in United States Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,248 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Music Lacks Attention in United States

Consider the idea of "world music," which is defined by David Byrne (1993) as encompassing everything except "Western" music. Then, in Byrne's context, most Americans know very little about the sounds of world music. It is not because they necessary are of Byrne's mind, who claims to hate world music, but who nonetheless adamantly defends its place in the world and in U.S. music stores; but it is because world music is known to people only insofar as they know about, or have studied, or visited another culture. We cannot identify other than Western music by its cultural roots if we have no experience with the culture from which it comes from; it does not mean that we dislike the music, but that we have no experience with it.

Byrne makes a good point when he says that all other music, other than Western that is, sold in U.S. music stores tends to be lumped together in a single pick-through it bin. This means that there is no real marketing effort in the United States to introduce Americans to world music, or to perhaps take some obscure work of music and to help produce it in America into a phenomenon. Such an undertaking by an American music producer would not only be of great benefit to a world musician, but would introduce the American music listening public to the sounds of other cultures that could, for some, or even many, be music that they want to hear more of. Byrne acknowledges this in his article found in the New York Times, October 3, 1999 edition.

Bruno Nettl (2004) makes essentially the same argument, but points more succinctly to the classics of Mozart, using the opera the Marriage of Figaro as an example of a work that is rooted in a European heritage, but, unlike contemporary works, is embraced by the American mainstream. An appreciation for the works of Moazart, Beethoven, or other European composer of classical music; is a reflection of one's individual good taste. It reflects, too, a maturity that one has acquired a taste for the classical works, above perhaps and certainly beyond, the Western mainstream pop or rock.

Certainly Western music enthusiasts will remember the former Beatle, Sir Paul McCartney, whose own portfolio of rock-n-roll greatness is a testament to his talent and creative genius. Who nonetheless felt compelled to venture across the divide between Western pop, rock, and European classical when, some years ago, he conducted the London Symphony Orchestra in a classical work that Sir Paul wrote. While it drew media attention to the event, there did not appear any great demand for Sir Paul to pursue his classical creative side in any way that could be described as meeting a consumer market demand. For a brief moment in time, however, the world held its breath in anticipation of what they expected would be, like the Beatles other masterpieces; a classical masterpiece. Watching the news clips, it… [read more]

Tragedie De Carmen Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (666 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Tragedie De Carmen

La Tragedie de Carmen

La Tragedie de Carmen is a reworking of the French composer Georges Bizet's famous opera by the great, radical theater director Peter Brooks. The Chicago Opera Theater staged Brook's production at the Harris Theater in a modern-dress adaptation, set during the Spanish Civil War. The production was designed to be more accessible to modern audiences, and to replicate the intensity of the first staging of Carmen. The problem with staging Carmen is twofold -- on one hand, many audience members know the music very well, particularly the "Toreador Song." On the other hand, some people are so unfamiliar with the conventions of opera they may see the medium as irrelevant and be reluctant to come, see, and enjoy the work, even though it was originally meant to be a popular work of entertainment. La Tragedie de Carmen tries to make opera seem as gripping and vital as a suspense film, and takes the passions and the violence of the work seriously by stripping the opera to its bare bones. The chorus numbers are eliminated to bring the psychology and the relationships of the main characters to the forefront, and all but the most essential, plot or character-driven songs are cut or radically shortened.

For example, the love song of Jose, Carmen's lover, is punctuated by his murder of Zuniga, the military office who ordered Jose to take Carmen to prison. When Escamillo enters and sings his "Toreador Song" the music seems ironic and ghoulish at the same time, not simply a showpiece tune about the glories of boxing. Also, by emphasizing the violence of the soldiers, and the boxers, this production makes Carmen herself seem like less of an exotic gypsy and part of a generally violent world -- it takes her story seriously, in other words, instead of just making it seem like the story of a bad gypsy who seduces a 'good' man. No one is 'good' in this production -- even the virtuous…… [read more]

Karl Hass Was a Well-Known Musician Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Karl Hass was a well-known musician and author, and this book is famous in the music world. It describes classical music for the non-musician, so they can appreciate and understand the nuances of classical music and more fully enjoy it.

"Inside Music" looks at all aspects of classical music, from the composers to the orchestra and the instruments that make it up. His explanations are clear and easy to follow, and he writes with a lively style that makes the book enjoyable to read. For example, he writes, "Now we have gained the status of a gourmet, having access to a huge spice box of instrumental flavors, as well as to the spacious orchestral kitchen equipped with many tools to combine them" (Haas 197). The book is full of analogies and descriptions like these, showing the author's command of the language and understanding of his topic. In the early sections of the book, he introduces the instruments, and gives example drawings of them, along with musical notation so the reader can familiarize himself or herself with the "language" of music, and be familiar with the various orchestra instruments and what purpose they serve in the orchestra.

He also gives recommendations for the beginner to begin building their own music library, and he chronicles the history of music, and how it related to certain points in history. (Such as how it related to the impressionist artistic movement, and how it formed in America.) Thus, the book is really a history book and a commentary rolled into one. It literally covers every aspect of music from its early roots to its place in society today, as well as serves as an introduction on how to enjoy and collect classical music. Therefore, the book really serves two diverse markets, which is probably why it has remained popular for so long. It serves someone who wants to learn more about classical music so they can enjoy it more, but it serves the reader who wants to…… [read more]

Soloist: Lost Dream, an Unlikely Friendship Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Soloist: Lost Dream, an Unlikely Friendship, and the Redemptive Power of Music

For reporter Steve Lopez, helping a mentally ill musician is anything but a 'solo' effort

Reporter Steve Lopez's book the Soloist: A Lost Dream, an Unlikely Friendship, and the Redemptive Power of Music illustrates the complex relationship between a reporter and his subject, when a reporter decides he wants to get personally involved in a story he is covering. While a casual reader might want Lopez's book to suggest that salvation for the mentally ill comes easily, provided a reporter simply shows compassion to his fellow human beings, the Soloist demonstrates that taking on the responsibility for caring for others, and trying to change their lives, is not as simple as just trying to 'do something.' Every time anyone, whether a reporter, relative, friend, or acquaintance, gives aid, that aid has consequences, both good and bad.

The Soloist is a work of creative nonfiction, detailing Lopez's relationship with a schizophrenic, homeless former music prodigy whom he met on the streets one day. Nathanial Ayers was playing Beethoven on a violin "caked with grime and a white chalky substance that looks like a fungus" with shocking virtuosity (Lopez 7). Lopez was intrigued, and with his reporter's instincts and legwork he discovered that Ayers was a former Julliard student and classmate of Yo-Yo Ma. "You name it, they were there. I was in the same orchestra as Yo-Yo Ma. I couldn't understand what the constant attack from people was all about" said Ayers (Lopez 73). It might sound crazy for a homeless man to make such a statement, but class records and Ayer's playing skills were testimony to the truth of his words. Yet Ayers could not cope with the pressures to prove himself at music school, especially as he was one of the few African-American students in attendance, and he sank into despair, paranoia, delusional mental illness, and homelessness. "Does the illness come up in a person randomly and without warning" wonders Lopez, upon hearing Ayers' story (Lopez 15).

Lopez wrote a column on Ayers, and many readers sent in musical instruments, to help Ayers get back in touch with his music, including violins, a cello, even a stand-up bass and a piano. "Four readers offer to pack up and ship violins. A violin maker offers to build one from scratch" (Lopez 21). But soon Lopez began to wonder if he was doing Ayers more harm than good, leaving him prey to muggings and violence. "He's out there now with two violins and a cello, inviting a mugging" worries the reporter (Lopez 25). Trying to find Ayers shelter rendered the two men more dependent upon one another and further deepened Lopez's involvement in Ayers' life. Lopez persists because music seems to offer a way for Ayers to concentrate and silence the demons in his brain. "Music is an anchor...His head is filled with mixed signals, a frightening jumble of fractured meaning, but in music there is balance… [read more]

Music and History Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,500 words)
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Michael Tilson Thomas, the musical director of the San Francisco Symphony, describes Igor Stravinsky's 1913 "Rite of Spring" as a "burst of creative power that shook music to its foundations," (2006). Alsop (2007) similarly notes that "Rite of Spring" was a composition that "changed the course of music forever." Yet when Stravinsky's work is placed soberly within its historical… [read more]

Classical Musical Performance Review and Reflection Witnessed Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Musical Performance Review and Reflection witnessed a performance on August 29, 2008 of the musical group known as the "Cosmos Trio." The Cosmos Trio was founded in 2004 by Katherine Borst-Jones, Mary Harris and Jeanne Norton. These three performers have dedicated themselves, both in their work as members of the Pro-Musica Chamber of Columbus, Ohio and in the context of the Cosmos Trio to exposing a new generation of young people to classical and contemporary orchestral and chamber works. At the performance I witnessed, this orchestral grouping of a flute, viola and harp performed a series of contemporary classical works, most of which were designed for their unique combination of instruments. The performance consisted of a series of short pieces by American, mostly local or Midwestern composers of a variety of backgrounds. Most of the composers did not confine or even focus on the medium of chamber music in their usual framework of compositions, but rather specialized in larger, orchestral sounds. Over the course of the respectfully-received performance they played four works: the "Petite Suite" (2007), a work known as "Beautiful, Sweet, Delicate for Flute, Viola, and Harp" (2005), "Trio in Four Movements for Flute, Viola and Harp" (2006), and "A Columbus Triptych" (2006).

The first of the works, the "Petite Suite," was specifically composed for Cosmos Trio's unique blend of instruments and instrumentation by Stephen Paulus in 2007, one of the most noted composers of modern operas and choral works amongst young composers focusing on classical sounds today. Paulus is evidently proud of the work, as he features the "Petite Suite" played by the Trio on his webpage of accomplishments. The "Petite Suite" has dreamy, comforting tones with a less rigid and structured sense of composition than a classical or baroque work for an orchestral group, and has a kind of fantastic, otherworldly quality that is almost unearthly when heard in a concert hall. Paulus as a composer is most famous for his operatic version of the 1950s film "The Postman Always Rings Twice," and his fluency in the genre of orchestral composition as well as grand opera speak to his skill as a composer as well as a boundary-pushing operatic maestro ("Biography," Stephen Paulus, 2008).

The second work entitled "Beautiful, Sweet, Delicate," was first performed by the Cosmos Trio in 2006. It was commissioned from Andrew Boysen, Jr. Boysen is noted for his prodigal talent -- he began composing for piano at age nine and is especially noted for his works for high school concert bands and brass choirs and ensembles as well as full orchestras. "Beautiful, Sweet, Delicate" is thus something of a departure for Boysen, who usually specializes in works for large, brassy-sounding school bands. "Beautiful, Sweet, Delicate" is a delicate sounding piece, as befitting its name, standing in presumed contrast to Boysen's other works although not to the first "Petite Suite" that preceded it during the concert (Klein 2008).

Cosmos Trio is especially proud of "Trio in Four Movements for Flute, Viola and Harp"… [read more]

Elvis Presley: Leading the Music Industry Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,538 words)
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Elvis Presley: Leading the Music Industry of the 1950s and 1960s -- then going astray

When Elvis Presley came to the forefront of popular music, the type of music geared to teens was, in many ways, still relatively tame. There were two types of musical talent available: the 'doo-wop,' clean-cut stars and crooners like Pat Boone, approved of by parents… [read more]

People and Cultures of Africa Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (388 words)
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African Culture

Music is integral to both public and private lives. From ritual dances to evocative vocal harmonies, the traditional music of Africa continues to uplift listeners. In the public sphere, music has become a huge multinational business and yet at its street level music remains an essentially social event. Informal gatherings of young people singing, rapping, or playing instruments reflects the roots of African music. More formal bands, whether professional or amateur, are direct extensions of the way musicians practiced and performed a thousand years ago. Music is central to all aspects of American public life: from commercial jingles on television to church choirs. The integration of music into all features of public life also stems from the ancient traditions of Africa. As a commodity, though, music has raised serious questions about intellectual property and its ownership: issues that were not present in traditional African communities.

In our personal lives, music is crucial. The music industry depends on millions of consumers who value music as being essential to life: not as a luxury but as a necessity. Many people cannot dream of a day spent without hearing tunes. The iPod is a ubiquitous…… [read more]

Music History Contemporary Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
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¶ … Music History

John Cage (1912-1992)

John Cage was an American composer born in 1912 in Los Angeles and studied alongside Henry Cowell, Adolph Weiss, Arnold Schoenberg and Richard Buhlig. In 1938, the first prepared piano piece "Bacchanale" was composed by Cage. Cage and a group of musicians and engineers made the first music ever recorded on magnetic tape in 1951. Cage was the receiver of a Guggenheim Fellowship as well as an Aware from the National Academy of Arts and Letters for "having extended the boundaries of music through his work with percussion orchestra and his invention of the prepared piano." (Guttman, 1999) in 1978 and then again in 1988. Cage is the author of Silence (1961) a Year From Monday (1968) as well as many others writing throughout his life.

The work of Gutmann (1999) states that he personally knew John Cage, although be it briefly, when he was an undergrad at Wesleyan University, and that the music department at the university "lauded him as a guiding genius while others disparaged him as a negligible buffoon." (Guttman, 1999) in fact, it is stated that his performances "were more 'happenings' than concerts, and could range from seemingly random events to a lecture about his beloved wild mushrooms." (Guttman, 1999) Cage was "always happy and gentle, alive with awestruck wonder of the world, and especially fascinated by its sounds." (Guttman, 1999) the work which Cage entitled 4'33" was an interesting piece in which the musician played only very little music and which was "inspired by Cage's visit to Harvard's anechoic chamber, designed to eliminate all sound; but instead of promised silence Cage was amazed and delighted to hear the pulsing of his blood and the whistling of his nerves." (Guttman, 1999)

II. WILLIAM ALWYN (1905-1985)

William Alwyn was born in 1905 in Northampton to a grocer and into a family that had no musicians however, all in the family "shared a passion for literature and the visual arts." (Culot, 1985) Culot (1985) shares that Alwyn wrote in his autobiography: "We all shared father's literary enthusiasm and his less-knowledgeable interest in art...but neither he nor the others had much feeling for music. In this I was alone." (Winged Chariot: William Alwyn autobiography, 1983) Alwyn additionally states that he "was not cut out to be a provincial grocer" and that instead his time was divided "between music, poetry and painting." (Culot, 1985) Upon his father's death Alwyn states: "The need for money was urgent so I took the first reasonably paid job that came my way, the position of music master at a residential private school…… [read more]

Beethoven Moonlight Sonata and Vivaldi Spring From the Four Seasons Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Beethoven, Moonlight Sonata and Vivaldi, Spring From the Four Seasons

The Moonlight of a Young Dancer's Life: A Short Story Inspired by Vivaldi's "Spring" and Beethoven's "Moonlight Sonata"


Ludwig Van Beethoven's "Moonlight Sonata" and Antonio Vivaldi's "Spring" movement from "The Four Seasons"

Ludwig Van Beethoven's "Moonlight Sonata" is one of the most famous, and familiar pieces of music ever… [read more]

Music and Religion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,228 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Sacred Music in Religion

In the words of one prominent scholar, sacred music "appeals to the inner self" and connects oneself "with a deeper source of existence. The repetitive chants and rhythms in sacred music creates a positive attraction" while also "unifying the body and soul" via the singing of sacred hymns which have been passed down through the centuries, especially within the Catholic Church ("Gregorian Sacred," Internet). Basically speaking, sacred music is part of a very large collection of music written over the last eight hundred years in Western culture by some of the greatest composers of all time, mainly for use "in the sung liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church" and related denominations, beginning with "the Gregorian melodies and continuing through the polyphonic pieces of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance" and up to our modern age (Schuler, "What Is Sacred Music?" Internet).

In the overall history of Western religion, music has been utilized in three specific ways -- emotive, conceptual and aesthetic. The transition from hunting and gathering cultures to settled agrarian cultures witnessed the development of sacred music from a spontaneous to a more integral part of religious ritual. One prime example is the use of sacred music in the temples of the ancient Greeks which were considered as the dwelling places of various gods and goddesses and when writing became a permanent part of society, hymns and prayers were composed as dedications to the gods. In Mesopotamia and Egypt, temples were built for the sole purpose of musicians and dancers whose function was to "enrich and accompany the cycles of worship on a daily and seasonal basis" (Blackwell, 156).

In the Old Testament of the Holy Bible, there is evidence of music being performed in connection with temple worship, such as in the Book of Psalms and the Book of Samuel as part of the cultic prophets. The same type of development can be found in ancient India, where the sacred Vedas were chanted along with the melodic form known as the raga which was closely linked to cultic rituals and the social basis of the caste system (Swain, 456). Thus, in these cultures, music was primarily melodic and rhythmic and was expressed emotively, such as with dance or as a vehicle for the expression of a specific religious text. For the development of polyphony, being "the simultaneous performance of independent melodic lines" (Swain, 457), and harmony, either through various instruments or the human voice, we must look to the modern Western traditions linked to the Roman Catholic Church.

In the history of the Western church, the main line of musical development has been in the melodic treatment of liturgical texts. From its earliest beginnings in worship in which antiphonal techniques had already been applied, the line can be followed through the works of several important composers of sacred music. The works of Ambrose and Gregory the Great, circa 570 C.E. And related to what is known as the plainsong, came about during the Middle… [read more]

American Indian Music Being Influenced by the European Model Has Sadly Lost Its Originality Term Paper

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Native Music

Native American music made in European forms is missing many of the elements that made it unique. The vocalizations and instrument sounds represented the world around them. Complex rhythmic structures spoke to the rhythms of life. Costume and dance were vital part of musical performance. These aspects are missing from today's native American music. Further, the pan-tribalism found… [read more]

Rock Music and Drugs and the Influence They Had on the Baby Boomer Generation Term Paper

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Rock Music and Drugs

Rock Music, Drugs, and the Baby Boom Generation

The "Baby Boom" generation is known as those individuals born in the years immediately following the Second World War. After the men returned home from the front to their homes in the United States, the general feeling of optimism and security that prevailed on the homeland encouraged people to begin starting families. Babies were born in huge numbers, giving rise to what social scientists would refer to as a "baby boom"; hence the name Baby Boom generation.

The baby boomers came of age at a time of economic prosperity and a general sense of optimism. All of that began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, however, with America's increasing involvement in the war in Vietnam. At this point, many of the baby boomers were still in their teens or just beginning to enter adulthood. In 1963, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, much of that optimism that the baby boomers had grown up with was beginning to dissipate as the succeeding president, Lyndon B. Johnson, increased America's involvement with the Vietnam War. Popular music also began to change with the arrival of the British Invasion - namely, the English rock groups the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, whose sexual lyrics and outlandish behavior shocked the older generation of Americans. Popular culture would never be the same again.

As the 1960s wore on, there was a shift from traditional rock n' roll to art rock. This was brought about largely owing to experimentation with drugs in the music scene of those years. This experimentation would forever alter the landscape of rock n' roll as we know it today. Whereas in the first half of the 1960s, the Beach Boys were releasing singles like the poppy "I Get Around" and the Beatles were unleashing hits like "A Hard Day's Night," by the middle of the decade a shift was already under way in both bands' sound; in 1965, the former would release "Pet Sounds," while the latter would put out such strange melodies as "Michelle" and "Norwegian Wood." Rock n' roll was no longer merely "fun"; it now had a serious message to transmit to the masses.

The more experimental side of rock n' roll in the late 1960s was abetted no doubt by the widespread usage of drugs like marijuana and LSD among both musicians and fans. The 1960s gave birth to a drug counterculture, the sheer scale of which has never been seen…… [read more]

Aboriginal Music Term Paper

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Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Aboriginal Music

The Aboriginal cultures of people groups around the world are both fascinating and intriguing. The aboriginal culture of Australia is no exception to this rule. This is particularly true of the music of Aboriginal Australians. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the music of the Aboriginal people of Australia.

History of Aboriginal Music

According to a… [read more]

Music Therapy Term Paper

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Music therapy has become more accepted in recent years as a form of dealing with stress, illness and facilitating better overall health in all age groups. A working definition of music therapy is, "...a branch of health care designed to aid physical and emotional health through the use of music, either with listening, song writing, performing, exploring lyrics or other… [read more]

Music Industry Reflects American Popular Culture Term Paper

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Music industry reflects American popular culture with more than just sound waves. Using the tools of television and movie media, the music industry delivers a comprehensive package designed to sell records and concert tickets. More than that, the music industry's marketing tactics reflect and also shape American cultural values. For example, gender, female sexuality, and sexual relationships are all depicted explicitly in music videos. The overt display of sex in music videos is accompanied by explicit lyrics and together the messages inform the psycho-social development of young people in America. However, the music industry delivers more than just messages reflecting human sexuality and interpersonal relationships in America. The industry reflects cultural values related to work, money, ethics, customs, etiquette, and gender roles.

Even before the television became a common household item, the music industry reflected popular culture. For example, the early blues artists were often signed by big record labels in the early 20th century. Those blues artists reflected life in the Deep South, life as an African-American living in poverty only a generation or two after the Civil War. The music industry therefore helped preserve an important part of American history by helping blues musicians record their music. As blues evolved into rock and roll and other types of sounds like rhythm and blues (R&B), different types of jazz, soul, and funk, the recording industry also captured those sounds on vinyl and later onto magnetic tape. Reflecting the burgeoning youth culture in America, the music industry gave a voice to rebellious teens.

The cultural revolutions taking place during the 1960s were undoubtedly aided by the recording industry. The music industry presented American folk musicians like Bob Dylan who blended beatnik sensibilities with the roots of American rock. Music started…… [read more]

Concert Report the Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra Performed Term Paper

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Concert Report

The Dresden Philharmonic orchestra performed at the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts (Knight Concert Hall) on February 20, 2008 at 8 PM. In celebration of the 200th anniversary of Ludwig van Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, the orchestra performed both it and the composer's Piano Concerto No. 5. The opening piece was Ouverture "Freischuetz" by Carl Maria von… [read more]

Role That Patronage (Royal, Ecclesiastical, Private) Played Case Study

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¶ … role that patronage (royal, ecclesiastical, private) played in the lives of musicians and the repertoire that was composed / performed. At least three different types of case studies should be examined in terms of their most significant musicians-in-residence, its socio-cultural environment, opportunities for performance and composition, and locally preferred musical styles. One case study should be taken from… [read more]

Samba Music Term Paper

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Samba Music

The Samba originated as a folk dance in Brazil, where it is called the folk Samba or the Batuque. It has become the national dance of Brazil, and it is danced during Carnival as a festival dance. One writer notes, "The Samba is danced as a festival dance during the street festivals and parades. When one sees pictures of people dancing at Carnival in Rio, it is the Samba. A Samba dancer is known in Brazil as a Sambista" (Baker, 2007). The music for the Samba is very quick, with about 100 beats or 50 measures per minute, and the rhythm is always "joyful and contagious" (Baker, 2007). It is the format of many top 40 songs such as "La Isla Bonita" by Madonna. Another author notes, "Samba is basically a musical construction made with a binary time and a syncopated rhythm. On the top of this basic form all types of samba are formulated" (Yami, 2002). It is very important to note that there are numerous variations on the basic Samba rhythm, from rock to many local variations.

The basic Samba is usually played on a variety…… [read more]

Baroque Piece Chosen: Pachelbel's Cannon Term Paper

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Piece Chosen: Pachelbel's Cannon in D Major

Genre: Canon

Composer: Johann Pachelbel

Era: Baroque -- composed around 1680

Composer's dates (born-died): 1653-1706

What country is the composer/piece from? Austria

Tell something interesting about this composer's life or compositional style

This piece is well-known for its chord progressions. Pachelbel was a very popular composer during his day, perhaps because his music was clearer and less complicated than other Baroque composers who have since eclipsed him in his fame after his death, like Bach ("Canon in D," Answers.com, 2007). A canon "is when a piece of music is imitated and repeated. First one instrument or vocal starts with a piece of the melody," and the other instruments take up this melody and repeat the musical sequence throughout the work (Helander, 2007).

Was this piece composed for a particular event? For a particular person? Other reason?

This piece is often played at weddings today, although it was not composed for this purpose. Also, "the progression chords of Pachelbel's Canon can be found in many modern songs" including "Let it Be" by the Beatles and "We're not gonna take it," by Twisted Sister (Helander, 2007).

Musical Description

Description of musical elements from your chosen piece/movement:

Melody: Stately, repetitive

Rhythm, Meter: The same sequences are repeated rhythmically.

Harmony: The same two-bar bass line and harmonic sequences are repeated over and over throughout the piece, with variations.

Texture: The canon makes use of no counterpoint like inversion, diminution, and augmentation ("Canon in D," Answers.com, 2007).

Tempo: Fairly consistent

Dynamics: Little marked dynamics

Instruments: Composed for three violins and a basso continuo and an instrument known as a gigue, now no longer used.

Mood: Calming, restful.

Sources of information, stated in complete citation form

Canon in D." Answers.com. 11 May 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/canon-in-d

Helander, Stefan. www.last.fm11 May 2007. http://www.helander.se/stefan/pachelbel/

The Concert Experience

What was your overall reaction…… [read more]

Music Dance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,780 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Reggae Music

In 1968, a new form of music, blended from a religious movement, Rastafarian, and numerous musical influences such as rhythm and blues, rocksteady, African, and ska, emerged in Jamaica and spread quickly throughout the world. This music, known as reggae, defined a nation of people for centuries and helped develop various musical movements worldwide. This paper will discuss… [read more]

Music Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 0



Were it not for the title of the song, it would not be difficult to envision what Aaron Copeland had in mind when he wrote "Fanfare for the Common Man." With medieval trumpet calls and grand gongs permeating the composition, it is certainly a "fanfare." However, most fanfares culminate in the arrival of some dignitary like a king or queen. The pace of the music would change upon that individual's arrival, signifying his or her superiority over the rest of humanity. When listening to "Fanfare for the Common Man," I expect that dignitary to arrive. When the three minutes are over and the nobility hasn't shown up, the title of Copeland's piece becomes outstandingly clear and makes "Fanfare for the Common Man" a masterpiece. Copeland managed to take a fanfare and make it subtle and subdued, bringing out the dignity in the common person without falling into either a sense of inferiority or superiority. The piece becomes surprisingly emotional as a result, as if it actually is a celebration of all that is dignified in the human spirit.

The title of the piece therefore illuminates one of the composition's noticeable features: the lack of a traditional crescendo. While the piece does intensify, it does not reach a specific point of climax. This is not to say the "Fanfare" doesn't go anywhere because it does progress through several stages including key changes. Moreover, Copeland adds layer upon layer to the basic structure of the song until ends. If this piece were a fanfare for an uncommon man, Copeland would have had the piece progress through stages that offered a more distinct climax and denouement. The piece might have changed in character or tone entirely: perhaps shifting away from the core set of triplets and involving an entire orchestra's input.

As it is, "Fanfare for the Common Man" can be divided into several stages, becoming…… [read more]

Beethoven's Ode to Joy &amp Mozart's Symphony Number 25 Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1



What Makes Music Great

Roger Ebert said "great film is one that, every time you go back to it, you always find something new, something you missed before," and that certainly applies to a good piece of music as well. Why? Because classical music, as this class has shown, is complex, with many different themes, instruments, and melodies weaving together throughout a piece to create a complex whole. For example, even in a relatively simple piece such as Beethoven's "Ode to Joy," there are still several different melodies or rhythms in the piece, and it is written for several different instruments to explore different harmonies and effects. Thus, every time a person listens to a piece like this, they have the opportunity to discover new "joys" about the "Ode to Joy." Picking out a different instrument's part, and a countermelody here and there, is just one of the ways composers add diversity to their music, and with so many different instruments and musical parts, there is always something new to see. Just as if Ebert sees depth and meaning in films, there is depth and meaning to music that cannot be fully appreciated in just one or two listenings.

Ebert's criteria applies to great music because great music is more than one simple melody and chord progression. Even the "Ode to Joy" proves this, but other works indicate the complexity of the music as well as the skill of the composer. Mozart's works illustrate this quite well, and is one of the reasons they have remained so popular today. For example, in the Symphony Number 25, the piece can be light and bouncy, and then turn complicated and gloomy. Just when you think you know where it is heading, it seems to turn in another direction. There are strings, horns and other instruments blended together, and each listening gives a different view of these many different instruments and the notes they play. Mozart's works have wonderful melodies that are "pleasant and tuneful" ("Features"), and this is one of them. It is a great piece of music because it has depth and variety, and because it can sound different each time a person listens to it, if they listen for different things. It is complex, and that is the most important element…… [read more]

Music History Baroque vs. Classical Style Melody Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Music History

Baroque vs. Classical style

Melody: In contrast to Classical music, Baroque music primarily tries to create a feeling of continuity rather than tell a story through a developing, evolving, or shifting use of melody. In Baroque pieces, the opening melody will be heard over and over again in the course of the piece. Many Baroque melodies are quite ornamental and elaborate while Classical melodies are much less adorned, and much easier to play and to remember ("Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007; "Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007). This greater simplicity allowed Classical composers to play with the use melody more within the different movements of the piece.

Rhythm: Baroque works are characterized by continuity of rhythm. Rhythmic patterns heard at the beginning of the piece are reiterated many times throughout the piece. The music sounds like it is pushing forward in an uninterrupted fashion, in contrast to the more flexible use of rhythm in Classical music ("Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007; "Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007).

Harmony: Because of the frequent use of polyphonic texture, the use of two different melodic lines that imitate one another, harmony is an important characteristic of Baroque pieces. The more continuous and similar uses of melody and rhythm in Baroque music means that Baroque harmonies are less varied than in Classical pieces ("Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007; "Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007).

Texture: Baroque music makes frequent use of polyphonic texture, where two or more melodic lines compete for the listener's attention, while Classical music is basically homophonic or singular in texture and melody.

Form: Classical works tend to favor forms that allow for many different movements, such as the sonata. Classical forms usually reach a kind of dramatic climax followed by a resolution. Classical works also have a more articulated internal structure. Baroque forms tend to have clear breaks and a single mood within pieces, with contrasts established only through different works ("Musopen: Music History Baroque," Musopen, 2007)

Dynamics: Dynamics are very clear in Baroque music, almost jarring to the listener. Baroque dynamics are called terraced dynamics, because they often have a slight pause, almost like stepping up or down a step and gradual changes are almost nonexistent in Baroque music. Classical music makes a much wider use of in-between dynamic changes ("Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007; "Characteristics of Baroque Music," Thinkquest.org, 2007).

Discuss the Sonata Allegro Form

When and how it is used: The Sonata Allegro form developed during the Classical era. It is a three part form, known as an ABA structure. The first part is called the exposition, the second section, the development of material from the exposition, where the melody…… [read more]

Amadeus Mozart Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 2


Mozart and Salieri

Throughout the film "Amadeus," the two characters are consistently shown in opposition to each other - from their music to their demeanor. It is clear to see that culturally and ideally, the men were far different from each other. The scene where Mozart is introduced is classic in that it clearly illustrates the basic social and cultural differences between the two at once. For example, Salieri is refined to the point of austerity, even in his dress, while Mozart is opulent and flamboyant (even vulgar) in every way. Salieri says to himself, "Why would God choose an obscene child to be his instrument?" ("Amadeus"), and that sums up the cultural differences between the two men. Salieri has dedicated his early life to God's work, which was common during the time, while Mozart seems to have anything but God on his mind. To Mozart, his gods were his music and his father. This indicates the importance of religion in society was changing. Music was showing that, as well. Both of these men compose religiously inspired music, but other, classical music as well. Religion is not the only reason Mozart composed, it simply came to him with the melody, while for Salieri, he was always hoping for God's approval (until he became a disbeliever, at least).

Salieri is an excellent of the logic and reason of the time. No emotions move him, while Mozart is nothing but emotions running out of control. Their music indicates this difference as well. Salieri follows the rules, and creates works that are popular, but not everlasting. Mozart, on the other hand, cannot follow the rules, but creates masterpieces that are classics in every sense of the word. The two men indicate how important it was to "fit in" in classical society. Mozart did not, and was not considered successful during the time, and Salieri did everything he thought was correct, but he has been forgotten while Mozart lives on.

Another important aspect of the culture of the time was the changing emphasis on language.…… [read more]

Use Ideology Consumption and Globalization Three Theories to Discuss Pop Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,521 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


POPULAR MUSIC is the obvious link to the mass consumer culture. It represents a challenge for any claims as to its transformative potential and capacity for resistance. The revolutionary forces must follow the lead of various cultural theorists, who support something of aesthetics of the popular, beyond, above, but also what we witness in contemporary pop and commercial artifacts, not… [read more]

Elvis Presley Term Paper

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Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Elvis and Black Music

The Influence of Black Music and Culture on Elvis Presley

Ongoing celebration of the music and (still ever-expanding) musical legacy of larger-than-life American rock' n roll icon Elvis Presley (January 8, 1935-August 16, 1977) even a full three decades and counting after the pop idol's death on August 16, 1977, clearly underscores the quality and timeless… [read more]

Music of the 1960s Term Paper

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Music of the 1960s

Whenever the decade of 1960s is discussed or analyzed, it is almost impossible to ignore the popular music of the period and the profound impact it had on Western society -- an effect that continues to be felt to date. In this essay, I shall discuss how the popular music evolved in the sixties and the ways in which it influenced the society.

The 1960s was a time of change; it was a period when the baby boomers came of age, and challenged the conventional "wisdom" of the older generation by embracing free-sex, drugs and outlandish fashions, confronted racial injustice, and opposed the unjust war in Vietnam. All of these changes and pressing concerns of a disgruntled youth and a counter-culture lifestyle were reflected in the popular music of the time. Some people have even gone as far as to suggest that the music of the sixties did not just reflect the changes but was in fact responsible for the youth culture and societal behavior of the time. In any case, there is little doubt that music was in the forefront of a number of influential movements in the sixties. Martin Luther King's Civil Rights movement for example, was in the words of one writer, "clearly a sing-in as well as a sit-in campaign" (Rodnitzky, 105) and it is difficult to imagine that the civil rights marches would have been as emotionally stirring without the singing of anthems such as "We Shall Overcome."

Even before the use of music by the civil right movement for change, American folk music had a tradition of "protest" and socially relevant songs. Woody Guthrie, for instance, roamed the American landscape during the Great Depression in the 1930s and sang about the poor, the plight of migrant workers and America's natural beauty. Before the start of the 1960s, however, protest folk music had been pushed into the background due the anti-Communist hysteria and the purported links of folk music with the political left. Western popular music at the time consisted of little more than catchy melodies and lightweight "boy meets girl" themes.

At that point in time, young folk singers such as Bob Dylan entered the arena and filled the vacuum by providing socially relevant music that the Western youth was yearning for. In songs such as "Oxford Town," "Masters of War," "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall" and "Blowing in the Wind," released in 1963, he commented on issues that were close to…… [read more]

Propaganda in Pop Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,867 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Communications - Pop Music

Propaganda in Popular Music

Propaganda exists in more than government publications and specific public relations pieces. Propaganda and mass persuasion are present in all forms of media, including "pop" music. Though most people are not aware of it, propaganda in pop music reaches us, most often without our own awareness of it. By looking at the… [read more]

Elvis and His Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Elvis and His Music

It is probably safe to say that everyone around the world has heard of Elvis Presley. He is still admired by fans and peers, almost 30 years after his death. Elvis was and remains the undisputed King of music.

Former president Ronald Reagan clearly indicated how he felt about Elvis, saying, "Elvis epitomized America, and for that we shall be eternally grateful. There will never be anyone else like him" (O'Meara 2002). Although Frank Sinatra was respectfully referred to as the "chairman of the board," even he once said, "I'm just a singer...Elvis was the embodiment of the whole American culture" (O'Meara 2002). Paul McCartney recalled that "when we were kids growing up in Liverpool, all we ever wanted to be was Elvis Presley" (O'Meara 2002). Others have remarked that Elvis shaped the music world and continues to influence it to this day. He is timeless. He is everyone's generation. But, perhaps John Lennon sums up these sentiments best when he said, "Before Elvis there was nothing" (O'Meara 2002).

Elvis Aaron Presley was born January 08, 1935 to Gladys and Vernon Presley in a two-room house in Tupelo, Mississippi. His twin brother, Jessie Garon, was stillborn, thus Elvis grew up as an only child. In 1948, The Presley's moved to Memphis, Tennessee, there Elvis graduated in 1953 from Humes High School (All 2006). During this era, Memphis was a haven for various types of music, all of which had a tremendous influence on him. Pop and country music were the main marketable music at the time, however Elvis not only frequented all-night gospel revivals, but also absorbed the black rhythm and blues music on historic Beale Street. It is because he took to heart all the different styles of music that his own singing style became so unique (All 2006). In other words, what he heard became his own.

In 1954, when he strolled into Sun Studios, the office manager asked him "Who do you sound like," Elvis replied, "Nobody. I don't sound like nobody" (Simon 1995). That was true then, and it remains true today. No one sounds like Elvis!

In 1955, RCA Victor bought his recording contract from Sun Records and by 1956, Elvis had become an international household name. His sound and style were unique, and together with the myriad of musical influences, he challenged the social and racial barriers of the time, which resulted in an entirely new era of American music and pop culture (All 2006). Elvis was a white man who could sing like a African-American blues artist, and had the stage presence that captivated the world.

Elvis was only 23 years old when his mother, Gladys died. She had been the center of his world. According to biographer Peter Guralnick, "She made him feel as if he was something special, as if nothing he did could be wrong. And I think for Elvis the whole, not simply the center of his world disappeared, but the reason for his world"… [read more]

Marketing Music on Social Media Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Users collect Swag Bucks and trade them in for "all sorts of prizes ranging from Kanye tee shirts and hoodies to big screen televisions and iPods" (Martell, p. 3).

On West's blog, he features music videos from bands he likes, his own new music, and furniture and fashion he recommends. As to his use of Twitter, the reason so many followers check out his many tweets is that he has occasional outbursts, he insults other celebrities that he doesn't like, and he gives "shout-outs" to friends and fans (Martell, p. 3).

As to the popular rap artist 50 Cent, he has built his own social network on his site, www.Thisis50.com; he emphasizes the links he offers so fans can "engage… in ongoing discussion of rap, 50 Cent…" and entertainment in general. As many other artists do, 50 Cent allows his visitors to exchange photos, create their own profiles, and post topics they feel are worthy of conversation (Martell, p. 5). Every week 50 Cent allows members of his social community to download a new free hip hop mix tape, and the artist may or may not be on the download. 50 Cent's Twitter account is known for presenting news of the world and current events, which sets him apart from other musical stars, who generally use their Twitter accounts to promote their own music and viewpoints. There is, after all, a world outside rap music and the trappings of stardom (Martell, p. 5).

Not all hip hop marketing efforts on social media is designed for young fans. In fact Ludacris has been using his Twitter account "mostly to promote his new brand of Cognac" called Conjure (Martell, p. 7). Ludacris posts photos of other hip hop stars -- and well-known personalities -- drinking Conjure. He hopes "…this will entice you to try the drink out," Martell explains on page 7. "Any hip hop fan who looks at enough of these pictures cannot help but feel very tempted to run to the liquor store and try a bottle at the next party," Martell continues. Perhaps Ludacris doesn't believe he has a lot of teen age fans, because by promoting alcohol he is asking young people to get involved with illegal substances, just so he can make money from the Cognac's sponsors. He does, however, promote benefit concerts and other charity events with his Twitter account. Typically, he holds contests for fans "…to contribute most to the cause in order to win autographed merchandise from him" (Martell, p. 7).


The opportunities for individuals musicians and bands to market their music and their products through social media has never been greater than right now. And indeed social media is absolutely a perfect format for promoting music, as this paper has shown through specific references and through examples of marketing by musicians and bands.


Associated Press, 2011, 'Coldplay to livestream Madrid concert on YouTube on Oct. 26, two days after release of 'Milo Xyloto'. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from http://www.nydailynews.com.

CMU, 2011,… [read more]

Music in the 21st Century Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" The song's lyrics tell of a bored woman, annoyed by pestering calls of a lover who will not leave her alone as she drinks and dances (presumably with someone else) in a club. The video is far more outrageous, portraying Gaga and Beyonce going on a killing spree, Thelma-and-Louise-style, after being angered by a leering man in a diner.… [read more]

Concert Unlv Chamber Orchestra Conductor(s): Tara Krysa Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Concert UNLV Chamber Orchestra

Conductor(s): Tara Krysa and Rachel Waddell

Location: Beam Music Center, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154

Cost: Free, open to the public

Haydn Symphony #104; I. Adagio-Allegro, II. Andante, III. Menutto and Trio, IV Spiritoso

Vivaldi Concerto for Guitar in D Major, Ricardo Cobo soloist; I. Allegro guisto, II. Largo, III. Allegro

Music- Perhaps the best way to describe this music is that it was easy to listen to and to understand. It was a small orchestra, apparently a Baroque orchestra, so the audience really had the opportunity to hear all the musicians. And the pieces chosen were presented in such a manner that the listener could understand the tune or theme, and follow it through the music. One thing really stood out during the production -- the musicians seemed to be having a musical dialog with one another, playing off the melody and harmony, trading it back and forth. Perhaps this is a characteristic of the type of music or the composer, but it was if the orchestra was having a conversation within itself, especially on the Haydn. The violins would "talk," the woodwinds answer, one of the flutes or oboes would whistle a small tune, and the cellos would comment. It was very entertaining and enjoyable, but I think it would be more so on the second or third hearing of the piece so that one would know a bit more about what was going to happen, or what to listen for.

The other general comment about the music that made it more real was that it was not "perfect." It was good, but even my relatively untrained ear could hear a few mishaps; hitting a not early, etc. However, this did not detract from the experience, but rather enhanced it because one could close their eyes and believe they were sitting in a Baroque Hall listening to men in wigs perform what was, for them, cutting edge music.

Concert Experience -- We found out from the conductors a few facts about the pieces, which I thought was great at a venue like this. Symphony…… [read more]

Music Therapy in the Classroom Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … music therapy in the classroom. This is accomplished through studying the lasting effects and comparing these findings with other sources. Once this occurs, is when we can see how this will help to improve student achievement scores.

Over the last several years, the issue of music therapy has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason… [read more]

Ray Charles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,745 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Each time the choir sings, "I can't stop loving you" it seems such a contrast to Charles' simple-phrased vocals as he comes in with, "I've made up my mind ...."

"Hey, Good Lookin"

"Hey Good Lookin'" is a great arrangement of Williams' old honky tonk tune. Charles takes off on a piano solo that fuses into a jazz composition and transforms this early country song to a new level. It is a wonderful demonstration of Charles' versatility within the country music genre and is perhaps the highlight of the entire album.

Section 3

This album is pure gold and should be included on the list of anyone who is serious about music appreciation. It is country music as it has never been done before or since, except for Charles' Volume II. These country classics done in full-scale production, complete with strings and choir, make the album a landmark in modern music history. Once listening to these cuts, it's impossible to forget them. Concerning any Charles album, one would be hard pressed to recall any out and out flop. Some may be better than others, but they are all pure Ray Charles genius. Sadly, Ray Charles died June 10, 2004 at the age of seventy-four.

Work Cited

Inductees: Ray Charles


Ray Charles


Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music

http://www.spun.com/music/product-detail.jsp?id=957740… [read more]

Sony Corporation the Recorded Music Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Computer technology combined with the Internet now takes 'music sharing' to a whole new level. Where once a person may have shared an album with a couple of friends or family members, now, thanks to the connectivity of the Internet, one person can literally share their album with millions of people worldwide. These illegal music downloads are the most significant… [read more]

Can Popular Music Be Classical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (382 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Popular Music Be Classical

In most North American cities, at least one radio station will be formatted to play a genre of music called "classic rock," a hodge-podge of blues-rock, psychedelic, and folk music mainly from the United States and Britain. A wide range of music recorded after the mid-1960s can be considered to be "classic" rock, but the term has come to represent a specific genre of music. Similarly, "classical" music refers to a disparate variety of musical styles, from Baroque to modern; classical music comes from an even wider variety of eras and regions than classic rock does. However, "classical music" is a genre. The terms "classic" and "classical" have been largely divested of their dictionary definitions, and the term "classical" is broad enough that it can conceivably be applied to pop music. However, to preserve the integrity of common classification systems, the term "classical" should continue to refer specifically to a specific style of music.

If the term "classical" were applied to any pop music then we would have to devise different terms for all the music that we currently lump under that rubric. Even if…… [read more]

Wondrous Our Senses Are When We Focus Term Paper

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¶ … wondrous our senses are when we focus on them....It had to be one of the most beautiful days of the year at Golden Gate Park. The lifting fog unveiled a bright blue sky, leaving just a slight chill in the air and a hint of dew glistening on the grass. A drop of rain remaining from the night's shower dropped on my cheek and rolled slowly down to my chin. The rich odors of flowers floated with the breeze, making a strange potpourri with the scents of popcorn, hotdogs and Belgian waffles. As I walked toward the band shell, the atmosphere charged with anticipation.

Although the band always struggled for survival from one year to the next, people of all ages thoroughly enjoyed the weekly musical performance. The young parents proudly watched their children, while chatting with friends about the latest news of their families. The boys and girls, glad to be out doors in the wide open spaces, ran back and forth, twirled, jumped and did cartwheels.…… [read more]

Music in the Catholic Liturgy Term Paper

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Church Music, Etc.

Music in the Catholic Liturgy

In the seventeenth century, there was an ongoing debate in the Catholic Church between the forces that desired more variety -- not to say exuberance -- in the music played and sung during the Mass, and those who desired a less fulsome expression of the ideas of the Mass through music, particularly vocal music. The work of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina symbolized, at the time and since, the forces that desired liturgical music to embrace and even extend the conventions of secular music of the day.

The debate began early, arguably when Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli appeared in 1609. Two other composers, Francesco Soriano and Giovanni Francesco Anerio, were also successful arrangers of sacred music, and they were regarded as descendants of the Palestrina tradition, which was, moreover, a Roman tradition.

That fact, also, contributed to the discord regarding music for the liturgy. By that time, Rome -- which is to say the Pope and the prelates who surrounded him -- desired to be in control of all aspects of the Mass, determining what was sacred, and what was profane. While most of Rome lauded the Missa Papae Marcelli, some preferred a more rigid stylistic code.

The Sistine Chapel -- the Cappella Sistina -- was in favor of Palestrina's exuberance and polyphonic sound. St. Peter's Basilica, finished during the seventeenth century, was such a grand building that it called for a grand scale of voices to fill it.

Still, at times, Palestrina's work was set aside in favor of simpler works with fewer voices.

The debate was not, however, only about the music. At the same time, orthodoxy in the church was also under discussion. The Council of Trent was an attempt to solve doctrinal problems that coincided with the debate concerning the proper use and form of vocal music in the Mass.

The Holy Apostolic Visitation, a body that assumed the role of enforcing Papal bulls regarding the conduct of the Mass, issued a lengthy document demanding that the style of music must be "grave, ecclesiastical and devout." This would seem to argue for simpler forms than Palestrina created.

The same body mandated how many voices could sing psalms, hymns or motets; it decreed that singers must not be actually seen by the congregation; it decreed that anyone presuming to be a maestro di capella or otherwise charged with music for Mass must swear on the seventeenth century equivalent of a "stack of Bibles," -the hand of the Vicar Cardinal of Rome or his viceregent -- that he would not violate the nine other demands of the edict regarding music.

There were two realities in the church at the time. First, there was a "worrying degree of exploitation of the various compositional, vocal and instrumental resources as required by contemporary taste" which it was thought represented a "form of sensuous enticement" in contravention of the officially sanctioned Church codes of conduct. The reality was the secularization was creeping into the church,… [read more]

Pop Is Tomorrow's Classical- Paul Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,141 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" Although...removed from the music's more traditional folk music origins, it no less captures the contemporary music of our day - rock -- just as Bach and Beethoven did in their day (Ode To Joy from the ninth symphony, for example)." (Reed)

In the early years of true Rock and Roll, circa 1950s, modernized versions of Classical pieces were already… [read more]

Music the Men Behind Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Men behind the Music:

How Environment Shaped the Work of the Great Composers

No man is an island" - so goes the old saying. It is equally true of music as of so many other aspects of the human experience. Just turn on the radio and listen. What you hear today is not likely to have been the… [read more]

Music Report Archaeological Finds Show Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


At the same time, protection was extended for works created before 1978. Pre-1978 works were eligible for protection for a period of 75 years from the date of first publication (Moser).

In 1998, President Clinton enacted the "Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act," which effectively extends the term of copyright protection in the United States for an additional 20 years… [read more]

Music-Romantic Period 'Romanticism Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Schubert started his career very early and at the age of thirteen, he created a four-hand piano fantasia and this triggered a series of other compositions. By 1815 his creativity and musical fertility had almost reached its peak. In March that year, 'he wrote the Mass in G; between March 25 and April 1 a string quartet in G-minor; in… [read more]

Music Therapy in the Reading of "Sound Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


Music Therapy

In the reading of "sound and symbol," the writer was extremely expressive in his opinions of the significance of tone and its quality. Zuckerkandl (1956) stated:

Melodies consist of tones. Tones are events in the external world, natural phenomena, and parts in the great whole of external nature, to investigate the general laws and connections of which is the task of natural science, especially of physics. Acoustics is the branch of physics that is concerned with tones as natural phenomena. Vibration and frequency, wave and waveforms, medium and manner of propagation, and the special and general natural laws that these phenomena obey these are the things concerning which acoustics formulates questions.

Here Zuckerkandl points out some valid points. When one considers music and its construction, one should understand the bigger picture. To actually see the science of it all, to consider the components in a scientific sense bring in all together. Zuckerkandl refers to tone and acoustics in the sense of physics and there expression consisting in natural law. I agree with the idea of the structure being science based, thinking in these terms allows one to give reasoning to its history and presence.

What our senses show us is a part of the outside world and, as such, belongs in the closed context of physical nature. The nonphysical- thoughts exist only in a consciousness, in an inner world, my own or that of some other living creature; it can never be the object of direct sensory perception (Zuckerkandl, 1956).

Not only is it significant to realize that perceptions differ from individual to individual as stated above it is important to try not to generalize perceptions from self to all individuals. To generalize these perceptions take way there underlying nature state of being. (Zuckerkandl, 1956) also state that nothing in the physical event corresponds to the tone as a musical event. I believe that this instills the importance of looking at them individually, to try to avoid the compulsion to group them together, they occur separate of each other but coexist in the same moment. Actually it could be likened to a partnership, they are not the same and my have different qualities but they work together to create something amazing.

When we hear a melody, we hear things that have no counterpart in physical nature" (Zuckerkandl, 1956). When one hears a melody, it is simply not a sound that can be duplicated in our natural surroundings. A melody is created by man not born of nature. There is an actual thought process behind it. One cannot stand among the trees listening to the breezes rustle through leaves and expect to hear a melody from one of Beethoven's works.

Music has often been interpreted as a language. Since it is of the essence of a language to say something, the question arose: What does music say? The usual answer was: As the words of language have factual meaning, the tones of music have emotional meaning; music is the… [read more]

Endanger Culture Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethiopian Music

Ethiopia is one of the world's most ancient nations, located in Africa. It is a culture that is rich in traditions, customs and music. Between the years 1969 and 1978, Ethiopian music was unknown to the world because the nation was run by the communist dictatorship of Mengitsu. During this time, Mengitsu officially banned all vinyl recordings of music. So, Ethiopian music was lost and unknown to the world. However, during the 1990s, the world discovered Ethiopian music once again. Since then, Ethiopian music is a unique style that can be compared and contrasted to American music. This paper will outline these comparisons and contrasts between the two countries and their styles of music.

Ethiopia is a country located in Eastern Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, and Sudan to the west. It is a country that is rich in culture, traditions and music. Ethiopian music is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 tribes being associated with unique sounds. Some forms of tribal music are strongly influenced by Muslim and folk music from elsewhere in the Horn of Africa, especially Somalia. However, Ethiopian religious music also has an ancient Christian element, traced to Yared, who lived during the reign of Gabra Masqal. In northeastern Ethiopia, in Wollo, a Muslim musical form called manzuma developed. Sung in Amharic, manzuma has spread to Harar and Jimma, where it is now sung in the Oromo language.

Ethiopian Music 2

The last three decades of the 20th century saw Ethiopia wracked by famine and drought, and war. Since the end of the 1990s, however, the country has made steps towards recovery, and among other improvements, music has become more omnipresent and more easily accessible outside of Addis Ababa. Ethiopian music uses a unique modal system that is pentatonic, with characteristically long intervals between some notes. This creates a somewhat "unfinished" and anticipatory atmosphere to the music.

Traditional music is played by itinerant musicians called azmari, who are regarded with both suspicion and respect by Ethiopian society. Folk instruments include masenqo (fiddle), washint (flute), kebero (percussion), krar (lyre), and begena (large lyre).

Ethiopia is a musically traditional country. Of course, popular music is played, recorded and listened to, but most musicians also sing traditional songs, and most audiences choose to listen to both popular and traditional styles. A longstanding popular musical tradition in Ethiopia was that of brass bands, imported from Europe during the reign of Haile Selassie. By the end of World War 2, large orchestras accompanied singers; the most prominent orchestras were the Army Band, Police Band and Imperial Bodyguard Band. Most of these bands were trained by Europeans or Armenians.

Ethiopian Music 3

From the 1950s to the 1970s, Ethiopian popular musicians included Bezunesh Bekele, Mahmoud Ahmed, Alemayehu Eshete, Hirut Bekele, Ali Birra, Ayalew Mesfin, Muluken Mellesse and Tilahun Gessesse, while popular folk musicians included Alemu Aga, Kassa Tessema, Ketema Makonnen, Asnaketch Worku… [read more]

Genres of Worship Music in Christianity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Worship Music in Christianity

Enter various churches around the country today and one is just as likely to hear non-traditional worship music, such as pop, punk, rap, hip-hop, and rock, as gospel and traditional praise music.

According to SoundScan, Christian music sold 49.9 million albums in 2001, up 12% from the previous year, and continues to climb while other music genres slack in sales (Green). Christian music today encompasses a broad category that includes black gospel, contemporary Christian, Christian rock, Christian rap, and traditional praise and worship music, all of which jumped in sales by more than 20% after the September 11th attacks (Green).

Jerry Phelps of Paradigm Management Group says, "Christian music is no longer a genre of its own," for there are so many types within it and people, especially young people, gravitate to music they relate to and that expresses their feelings (Fitzhugh-Craig). Christian music is a "billion dollar-plus business" due partly to the fact that the quality of music is increasing, and partly because so many young people are gravitating toward the soulful tunes (Fitzhugh-Craig).

Throughout the country, there are hundreds of Christian music concerts, festivals and tours taking place every year, as faithful fans turn out to hear new artists as well as seasoned favorites who play everything from rock and hip-hop to contemporary and more faith-based music (Fitzhugh-Craig). As one fan expressed, "It's like rock, but it's also praising God...a more fun way to praise God...the melodies I like, but it has lyrics that I can relate to as a Christian" (Fitzhugh-Craig). Many people appreciate the uplifting lyrics of Christian music which rather than focusing on the negative and misery of life, tends to focus on the positive things, thus it brings hope and meaning (Fitzhugh-Craig).

Not only are there more Christian festivals and concerts popping up around the country, but more and more churches are beginning to offer a menu of services in an effort to accommodate the various preferences of worshippers (Garza). Today, churchgoers can choose a service of their choice based on the type of music and atmosphere they prefer, from traditional to modern. Terry York, associate professor of Christian ministry and music at Baylor University, believes that part of this new trend is due to the so-called "worship wars," which have grown during the past few years over disagreements concerning music (Garza). York says, "Music has become a very divisive issue in some churches. Some people love the traditional music and don't like the contemporary stuff at all...Other people think the hymns are boring," thus churches are dealing with it by offering a menu of worship options (Garza). Arlene Steffen, adjunct professor of music at Fresno Pacific University, believes the reason that music has become such a divisive issue at some churches is because music has become very personal to many people, and because today it can be different, whereas in the past it was frowned upon (Garza). Moreover, while older churchgoers do not particularly fancy the contemporary… [read more]

Effect Music Has in Reducing Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,261 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … music has on Alzheimer's disease. The writer explores the reduction of Alzheimer's symptoms that have been shown with the use of music therapy and explores future use of the therapy. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

In recent years medical science has made advances that have provided a longer lifespan than ever before, however, with that lifespan increase comes a higher incidence of Alzheimer's disease. While Alzheimer's disease can strike at any age it is typically seen in the elderly and the symptoms can be devastating. People watch their parents lose their memories, forget who they are and become a danger to themselves with their forgetful actions.

Many avenues have been explored in the effort to slow the symptoms of the disease thereby providing the person with a better quality of life as they enjoy their golden years. One method that has shown some significant success has been the use of music therapy. While the medical science of music therapy for Alzheimer's is in its relative infancy, anecdotal stories have circulated for years (Tapping, 2005).

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame percussionist Mickey Hart remembered that his grandmother loved watching him perform as a drummer with the Grateful Dead. So when she was in the advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease, Hart decided to give her a "private concert" -- in his Porsche on the back roads of California. After he tapped his drums for about 15 minutes, the elderly woman, who had not spoken for more than six months, looked at him and said, "Mickey (Tapping, 2005)." study conducted in 2000 concluded that music therapy has a scientific base for succeeding in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The use of music raised melatonin levels in the brains of 20 Alzheimer's patients. In addition the patients showed significantly improved behavior and measurably reduced sleeping problems during the study.

The study used music therapy on the patients five days a week for 30-40 minutes each day. The study was conducted over a one month period. Blood samples were collected before during and following the study to determine what if any impact the music was having on the physiological make up of the study participants (Klotter, 2001 (http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_2001_April/ai_72297149).

Dr. Ardash Kumar and colleagues at the University of Miami School of Medicine (Florida), who reported the study in Alternative Therapies, checked the levels of melatonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and prolactin. These brain chemicals are known to affect mental state. They found that melatonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine blood levels had risen significantly by the end of the 4-week therapy program. Moreover, melatonin levels remained high 6 weeks after the program had stopped (Klotter, 2001 (http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_2001_April/ai_72297149)."

The researchers believe that the music also helps to relax the patients and that relaxing is conducive to self healing and strength building.

The research study concluded that music therapy may be one alternative method to strong medications in the treatment of Alzheimer's symptoms.

All of the participants were male (Klotter, 2001 (http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_2001_April/ai_72297149).Further studies should… [read more]

RIAA Internet Music Downloads Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,389 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


RIAA - Internet Music Downloads

In today's modern world, everything is almost easily accessible. With the advent of Internet, communication, business and information research are now easily done. Indeed, getting and 'owning' various information offered in the Internet is just an ordinary thing nowadays.

Music or songs is one of the best examples that can be easily downloaded in the Internet. A lot of people - young and old, males and females - benefit from this because they are prevented from using their money just to buy CDs, DVDs or tapes of the songs or albums they would want to hear.

How Music is Downloaded from the Internet

With the continuing improvements being done with the computer software and programs, playing music to and from the computer has really been made easy. The best example for this is the MP3s, which is a shortened term for MPEG 1 or Moving Picture Experts Group 1. This is used in compressing bulky files of digitized music which in turn make downloading and storing music and sounds easier (Spaulding, 2006).

It must be noted that using and listening to MP3s would require a computer and software, but the needed software is always available in the Internet and can be downloaded also for free. And there is a recent introduction of MP3 and iPod players - electronic devices that can be used to play sounds and music anywhere and anytime even without the presence of a computer while listening (Spaulding, 2006).

With MP3, anybody could quickly download music and sound recordings and to store this with consuming a minimal disk space and in a quality which is exactly like the CD recorded music or sounds. The MP3 files can also be easily attached and sent to any e-mail, even to a number of receivers or even be uploaded to other web sites (Spaulding, 2006).

The Threats of Music Downloading

Downloading music from the internet presents a very big threat to the singers or artists, the producers and to the music and recording industry itself.

The Producers and the Artists

Producers are the one financing the artists and the production of the music albums. Their expectation, of course, is to earn good sum of money after the album was released. Artists on the other hand use their talents and popularity as a means to earn. They are being paid initially for singing and creating the music album, but they will be paid more if the album started selling in the market. This advent of music downloading has extremely affected the income of both the producers and the artists. The number of people who will buy the original albums continuously decline resulting to a record of earning which is also going down. Thus the ultimate threat to the producers and the artists would be the considerable decline on demand for original music albums (tapes, CDs or DVDs). Why would anyone opt to buy these original materials - which cost a good amount of money - when… [read more]

Classical Music Theme and Variations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (821 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Classical Music: Theme and Variations

Themes and variation in music is a technique in which repetition of tunes is being done but with the inclusion of several changes in tune or beat during the repetition. The purpose of which is to create shape to a musical piece despite of the fact that sets of tunes are being repeated. An online source has the following concept of a theme and variation.

Theme and variations form is the simplest. At the beginning of a movement, the theme is clearly stated. Each section thereafter in the movement is a variation on the theme. The variations may be as simple as a change in key or accompaniment, or a complicated restatement of the theme which may not be recognizable as the original theme. There may be any number of variations on the theme. The end of the movement will have a coda, an extended conclusion to the movement."

History of Themes and Variations

The history of themes and variations can be mostly found in the development and growth of the classical music where simple sets are changed into elaborate sets to develop a shape in the music.

The Renaissance period is among the era where the classical music was given with different styles through themes and variations. The trend then was to change and revise popular music to slightly different tune to form variations. Following are some of the variations in this period.


One of the most favorite types of variation in the Renaissance music was divisions wherein the rhythmic beat transforms from a slow one into faster ones.


ThinkQuest online describes this variation as follows.

A which used short themes of four to eight measures in the bass and had a changing counterpoint played above it"

Cantus Firmus

In this variation, a single melody is repeatedly used. Every repetition is accompanied by differing counterpoints and voice (ThinkQuest).

English Hexachord

Most virginal music used this variation in which the theme is the first six notes of a scale (ThinkQuest).

The Baroque Era, on the other hand, similarly has its share of theme and variations in the form of instrumental music where keyboard instruments are the main source of the variations. Following are the types of variations in this era.


This variation was used in England in which the theme in the bass line is repeated and the counterpoint is continuously changing (ThinkQuest).

Cantus Firmus

This variation is used in Germany. ThinkQuest…… [read more]

Music Education the Benefits of Music in Schools Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,478 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Music in the coming years have increased manifold. The Scientific Research has proven Music as a strong medium, which can incorporate mathematical skills and personal attributes into an individual. Music has generated positive impact on the learning capabilities of the human, all this has been proven scientifically, biological changes results in the human subjected to musical activities. Furthermore… [read more]

Listening to Music on Worker Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This study is also aimed at evaluating the impact of these emotional responses to music on the productivity and quality of work of employees with the personal stereos.

During this trial, the participants carried the personal stereos during their working hours and were paged randomly once after every four hours for the three-week period. During the paging process, the workers were expected to record their present activity in a response booklet. The main goal of recording their present activity was to identify the daily emotional experiences related to music and the impact of these experiences on the quality of work and productivity of the employees.

The study is based on the fact that people's minds tend to wander during which individuals focus on the imperfections of life. Music is used as a tool of recollecting a person's thoughts to the current moment because melodious sounds help in motivating the release of dopamine in the reward segment of the brain (Padnani par, 4). The biological effect of music is similar to the effects of eating a delicacy, smelling a pleasant aroma, and staring at something attractive or appealing. Therefore, music breaks the person out of thinking in one way or direction during wandering that is usually a product of unhappiness, boredom, and stress brought by life's issues.

According to the findings of the study as the large retail company, approximately 50% of the recorded episodes or pagings were associated with listening to music. The examination of these recorded emotional experiences indicated that listening to music enhanced an individual's psychological arousal. The resultant psychological arousal contributed to improved quality of work and productivity of the employee. This is primarily because the music experience enhanced the workers alertness, positivity, and ability to focus on the present moment. Furthermore, the study indicated that there was a 10% increase in productivity for the workers with personal stereos.


Based on the findings of the study, listening to music enhances worker productivity by promoting positivity, alertness, and focus on the current task. As a result, workers complete their tasks quickly as they become creative through developing better ideas while the music improves their moods. The positive mood originating from listening to music enables workers to examine the various options associated with their respective tasks and choose the most effective ones in accomplishing those tasks. However, there is need to be more careful and setting limits to listening to music during work hours since it can also contribute to decrease in productivity. Actually, the ability of music to enhance productivity is dependent on the type of work being done and the employees' working styles (Magloff par, 1). Furthermore, the ability of music to enhance productivity depends on whether employees are permitted to choose their own music since different kinds of music have varying effects on workplace productivity.

In conclusion, listen to music has proven to contribute to improved worker productivity, especially if it results in pleasant moods, improved alertness and focus and positivity. However, this practice can… [read more]

Jazz Styles Analysis "Blues After Dark" Dizzie Essay

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Jazz Styles Analysis

"Blues after Dark"

Dizzie Gillespie's "Blues after Dark" is a striking example of the concert takes place in Belgium in 1958. It was set in a dark venue, where the true highlight is on the musicians, with no distractions in terms of other stimulus present on stage. This is obviously a later performance from Dizzie Gillespie, as… [read more]

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