Study "Music / Musicians / Instruments" Essays 56-107

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Tori Amos in Music Research Paper

… This is accomplished through using syncopation. The tempo remains steady with slight variations. This is appropriate given the meaning of the song. The volume of the song is considered to be soft. There are very gradual changes in the sound… [read more]

Rhythm, Dynamics, Melody, Harmony and Texture Essay

… ¶ … rhythm, dynamics, melody, harmony and texture, and timbre into a composition to add interest and character. Remember to discuss what each of these elements does.

There are many elements to music, and composers of music must necessarily familiarize… [read more]

Elementary Music School Programs Essay

… Music programs are expensive, and so are easily judged as expendable by cash-strapped parents and school district administrators (Gestrich, 2009). Children may be expected to rent their own instruments, an option that will deny a goodly number of children from ever playing an instrument (Gestrich, 2009). If school staff manage to launch a music program in schools such as these, the program is basically boot-strapped -- which means that young aspiring musicians train their ears on inferior instruments, play in rooms without decent acoustics, and may learn to play instruments from instructors who have no experience with their particular instruments (Gestrich, 2009). A music program in a school with inadequate funding to purchase and maintain quality instruments may rely on choir, chorus, and voice programs as the staple offerings (Gestrich, 2009).

Yet a strong model for implementing a successful music program under challenging circumstances does exist (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). In La Rinconada -- the poorest and most dangerous barrio of Caracas, Venezuela -- a music enclave provides a haven for children to escape the barrio for more than half of every school day (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). The program, called El Sistema, transports children emotionally, physically, and artistically beyond their homes in the shanty towns to play classical music (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). The students enrolled in El Sistema are portrayed as both brave and lucky (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). Most are smart enough to recognize a good thing when they see it, and the nurturing that they receive in addition to learning to play music helps keep them in the program until they develop the skills to fully appreciate the gift of music (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). The power and effectiveness of El Sistema is largely its capacity to be a vehicle for social reform and increased inclusion of poor people (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). The program is so clearly making a difference that it is held up as a silver bullet to be implemented in other countries (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008). In fact, a number of projects, though launched from a more modest base, are being developed around the world (Edwards, 2010; "60 Minutes," 2008).


The benefits of offering music programs to young children are only just being plumbed. Important individual and social changes result from including music in school curricula. In fact, music programs like El Sistema provide a new lens for exploring the potential of music programs as platforms and mechanisms to increase the social inclusion of children. This is new territory -- taking shape on top of the academic and cognitive benefits derived from listening and playing music -- that offers new possibilities derived from music for individuals and for society.


18 benefits of playing music. Effective Music Teaching [Website] Retrieved

Alleyne, R. (2009, October 27). Playing a musical instrument makes you brainier. The Telegraph. Retrieved

Edwards, A. (2010, January). An inspiring and moving film exploring Venezuela's extraordinary musical revolution. Gramophone Editor's Choice.… [read more]

Brief Primer on the Current State of the Music Recording Industry Term Paper

… ¶ … Music Recording Industry:

Bruce Springsteen Scenario:

With the current state of the music recording industry being awkward and expected to continue changing at a furious speed, many artists are faced with several challenges when choosing appropriate business models for marketing and promotion of their music. For Bruce Springsteen, the various business models are renewing his contract with Columbia, signing a contract with Live Nation, and self-distributing his album like Radiohead. In choosing the most suitable business model, Springsteen should consider his age, his current state of successful tours, and desire to continue touring as long as he is able.

The option of choosing to extend his contract with Columbia would be categorized as a profit-sharing deal or manufacturing and distribution deal. As evident in his 35-year relationship with Columbia, the contract extension would mean that profits are shared between him and the company with a favorable environment for the artist's creativity. However, in the profit-sharing deal with Columbia, Springsteen will only get a minimal advance from his latest album. On the other hand, if the deal with Columbia is a manufacturing and distribution deal, the company will only have a limited incentive. While this kind of deal would make Springsteen to have absolute creative control and a great source of income, it would be a big gamble. Actually, the company may not agree to make a manufacturing and distribution deal because of the lesser incentives.

Bruce Springsteen has been largely advised to sign a 360 ten-year deal with Live Nation similar to Madonna's deal. With this kind of deal, every aspect of the Springsteen's career would be managed by the label since he will become a brand that is owned and operated by Live Nation. With a 360 deal, artists have a great chance of gaining wide saturation and sales because every aspect of their career is handled by the label (Byrne, 2008).

The ten-year 360 deal with Live Nation would basically include manufacturing, distributing, and marketing of Springsteen's album as… [read more]

European Art Music in Terms of Westernization Movement Term Paper

… Westernization -- European Art Music

How did the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire Begin?

What were the initial Western influences in the arts that made inroads into the Muslim culture during the Ottoman Empire and into the Turkish Republic? What… [read more]

Music of Civil Wars, Civil Rights Essay

… Music of Civil Wars, Civil Rights & Freedom Movements of Europe, Africa along with North and South America during the 20th Century

For millions of people, music is a way of being able to relate to different cultural traditions. As,… [read more]

Enjoyment of Music General Class Essay

… Enjoyment of Music

What false musical beliefs have change since you have taken this course.

I never believed that music has any other value other than simple entertainment and to be used as a pass time. Hence those who extol the virtues of music- beginning from Socrates, who in detailing education was of the opinion that music is the medicine of the soul just as athletics is the cure for the body. The music and art brings about 'good' of the soul while athletics perfects the body and hence he advocated education on those lines. (Benardete, 1992)

In the modern world, we find such a faith as not credible. After a course in music I do find that there is something that uplifts, something that refines the mind and this is a personal opinion. There are many 'cures' for overweight to day, a sad reminder that the old philosopher was not very much of the mark when he said that a regimen of exercise looks after the body. Like wise there is now scope to believe that music does change the patterns of the mind, and has a soothing effect. I was to later discover that music does have a very positive effect on the human mind and character. It did alter some moods for me. I came to realize the value of music and why we like certain music over others by the arguments of Minsky (1981) who has detailed why I felt the change. There is no myth about the fact that music does influence the human personality and is not a 'fun' thing or mere time pass as I found out. This brought about a great change in the way I approach music now and the angle from which I approach it.

2. Should music and the arts in general be promoted stronger in schools?

There is already music being promoted among children by the TV and other media and albums which are drawing children. The problem is that though there is a great interest in art, there is no venue for understanding of the subtleties of the art or music. Thus, appreciating music or art and participation remains on the periphery. To create better audiences, musicians and artists there must be a method of kindling interest and the school is the best place. Education means acquiring a minimal knowledge and this can also be applied to music. As to what can be taught and promoted in schools and colleges may vary. For example popular music is universal, and so are films and other forms of art. (Walker, 2007)

It is however not possible to classify what is popular and what is perfect for the teaching - in the sense of acquiring knowledge. Since we are aware that humans have to have some basic understanding… [read more]

Salsa Music the Late 1950 Essay

… Salsa Music

The late 1950's is the starting point for the classification of a genre of music as salsa. The stylistic and rhythmic elements of the music have a wider history. There are elements of salsa music identified in popular… [read more]

Humanism and 16th Century Music Essay

… Humanism and 16th century music 'Humanism' is the term used to describe the philosophy that came to dominate Western culture in the 16th century. Humanism was a reaction to the single-minded focus on faith that characterized most of the intellectual… [read more]

Passing Music on From Generation to Generation in Different Societies Cultures Essay

… Passing Music on From Generation to Generation in Different Societies

The musical traditions of a culture are a major force in that culture's expression, or in some cases, lack thereof. Music is a defining element of culture, which develops steadily… [read more]

Rock and Roll Clearly Music Term Paper

… Rock and Roll

Clearly music is as an integral part of a society's history as a widespread phenomenon of everyday interactions and occurrences. It has existed as early as humans themselves. As Bennett Reimer (2000, p.25), music educator and philosopher,… [read more]

Relationship of Music and Culture Term Paper

… Author Asai notes, "The taiko is a cylindrical drum with two drumheads. Each drumhead has a wide rim with up to twelve holes, through which ropes (himo) are strung. D? is the term for the drum body and wa or… [read more]

Authorship and Attribution in Early Music Research Thesis

… Authorship and Attribution in Early Music Research

Scholars of early music face a problem that is one of an important nature and one that endures and that is the question of who is actually the composer of music surviving today… [read more]

Baroque Music the Life and Works Essay

… Baroque Music

The Life and Works of Johann Sebastian Bach

One of the most famous German Baroque composers and musicians was Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach came from a long legacy of musically inclined individuals, a family traditional which was epitomized… [read more]

Music and Psychology Thesis

… Music and Psychology

The power and importance of music from a psychological and philosophical standpoint has been discussed and explored in many studies and theses. The saying that music has the power to "calm the savage beast" refers to the… [read more]

Classical Music the Performance I Am Reporting Term Paper

… Classical Music

The performance I am reporting on took place in December, 1991. It was a professional performance of Mozart's Requiem Mass in D Minor. The mass was performed by the English Baroque Soloists and the Monteverdi Choir. There were four vocal soloists - two male and two female. The female soloists were Barbara Bonney (solo) and Anne Sofie van Otter (mezzo solo). The male soloists were Anthony Rolfe Johnson (tenor) and Alastair Miles (bass). There was also a trombone solo, and this was performed by Susan Addison.

The instruments featured in the ensemble included bassoons, violins, cello, viola, basset horns, trumpets, trombones, timpani and double bass. The Monteverdi Choir comprises both male and female vocalists, around twenty individuals in total.

The performance was held at the Palau de la Musica Catalana, in Barcelona, Spain. This particular viewing of the performance was from a BBC telecast, therefore the cost was free. The performance was around 45 minutes in length.

The Palau exudes an ambiance of opulence, well-suited to such a rich work. The facility is ornate, featuring many statues and exquisite glasswork on the ceiling. The setting is formal, but the spaciousness of the room allows it to retain a degree of warmth that suits the music well.

Acoustically, the room is strong, albeit imperfect. The spaciousness allows for the power of the work to reveal itself. The basic room design allows the sound to flow to the listeners, while some of the soft angles and statues deflect the sound. It appears that certain sections of the audience are situated in relatively enclosed spaces with a lower ceiling that will absorb some of the sound waves. This is less than ideal, since the reverberations are part of what lends the work its majesty and power. Some of the strongest parts of the piece involve an enormous amount of vocal texture and in these areas the effectiveness of such texture may be diminished.

The requiem contains 8 movements. They are, in order: Introit, Kyrie, a Sequence, Offertory, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agnus Dei and Lux Aeterna. The Sequence is comprised of the following subsections: Dies Irae, Tuba Mirum, Rex Tremendae, Recordare, Confutatis, and Lacrimosa. The Offertory is comprised of two subsections: Domine Jesu Christe and Hostias.

The part I enjoyed most was Dies Irae. This section in particular I found a very powerful and energetic section. The pace and texture were both exceptional here, and carried a tremendous amount of majesty to the piece. Hostias was another section I particularly enjoyed. While I… [read more]

Benny Goodman's Style of Music Term Paper

… Benny Goodman's Style Of Music

Benny Goodman's Disciplined and Multi-Faceted Musical Style

Benny Goodman is one of the biggest names in not only jazz, but also American popular music as well. Born in 1909, he is most known for his… [read more]

Compare and Contrast American Music and Asian Term Paper

… American and Asian Music

As an Asian student taking a "History of American music" class, I have been learning many new things about American music. This is not a type of music that I usually listen to. I usually listen… [read more]

Music and Movement Early Childhood Education Term Paper

… Music Education

Over the past decade, researchers have paid increasing amount of interest to the impact of music on child development. For example, in 1993 Alfred a. Tomatis coined the term "The Mozart effect" for the alleged increase in brain… [read more]

Music Therapy Term Paper

… Music Therapy

It has long been said that "music soothes the soul." Since humans first walked on the earth, they have used music as a way of gaining inner peace, solitude and pleasure. With voice alone or musical instruments, with… [read more]

Dante's Divine Comedy and Mehta's River Sutra Term Paper

… Music: A Connection to the Divine

The written word can be thought of as the language that we use to describe our physical world, that which we see with our eyes and touch with our hands. However, music is the… [read more]

Benefits of Music and Therapeutic Influence on Alzheimer Patients Term Paper

… ¶ … Music and therapeutic influence on Alzheimer Patients

Types of therapies used through using music for Alzheimer Patients?

Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder mostly attributed to the lesions that slowly and gradually destroy cells in the brain. With… [read more]

Music the Evolution Musical Notation -- Classical Essay

… Music

The Evolution Musical Notation -- Classical vs. Jazz Styles

Musical notation is one way that musical compositions can be passed from one generation of performers to the next generation of performers. Without any written musical notation at all, music… [read more]

Music Education or Cross Platform Development Term Paper

… Music Education or Cross Platform Development

Pitch is commonly mistaken for being a term which is analogous to frequency; however, pitch is actually based on perception. Pitch is the human perception of the frequency of a musical note. (Heresiarch 2005)… [read more]

Music Violence Term Paper

… In response, they decided " to clamp down on the ringleaders of the Swing movement, recommending a few years in a concentration camp with beatings and forced labor. The crackdown soon followed: clubs were raided and participants were hauled off to camps." (Magnus) Meanwhile, music was responsible for another kind of violence in Germany. A significant factor in the anti-Jew propaganda of the time included state-sponsored music which taught the public to be violent and hateful towards minority groups. Swing music was called violent and immoral, and therefore it caused violent consequences for those who listened to it, but at the same time music was used to instill violence in other ways. This represents the horrible ambiguity of the music violence discussion. Is it more violent to listen to music that makes one move violently in the form of dancing? Or is it more violent to listen to music that teaches violence towards others? It is very much the same debate that rages on today. Music that is considered "violent" by many groups often expresses sentiments such as wanting to die, or considering killing someone. However, compare that to Christian songs which speak of God bringing fiery judgment down upon sinners.

The music violence debate is a way for people to displace their own guilt about human nature. Violence is bound to occur in any society. Music is an expression of human existence. Native cultures have spoken of violence in the form of musical expression, as well as telling stories about music being the cause of violence. From the beginning of civilized culture, this has been true as well, from the violent mythologies told in the form of song, to the mythologies which warned about the violent potential of music. In wartime music has been used on the battlefield and to portray the violence of the battle in performances of battle songs. Classical music and opera have always had gruesome and violent subject matter, and performances of such music has caused riots many associate today only with Rock n Roll incidents.


Antandrus, et al. "The Rite of Spring." Wikipedia. 26 November 2004.

The Kentish Guards. "History of Fife and Drum." The Regimental Drum Major Association

Hardy, Michael. "Sirens." Wikipedia. 14 November 2004.

Magnus, Johan. "The Swing Movement in Nazi Germany." Wikipedia. 17 October 2004.

Sumida, John. "Representation of War in Western Music." Reader's Companion to Music History. Houghton Mifflin College Division. [read more]

Conservatory of Music Majoring Term Paper

… This led me to my objective of someday becoming an expert in playing every instrument. I would love to become one because just listening to music, even when I am alone, makes me feel happy. The more happiness that I would feel if I'll be able to let others listen to my music even when I play alone.

Another example of my admiration in music that led me to my goals and objectives is my admiration to an orchestra playing a music. This may be the opposite of my admiration to acoustic music but a playing orchestra makes me feel alive and makes me feel the real mood of music. From this admiration, one of my goals is to become a member of an orchestra, or soon, to become an orchestra's conductor. I love the thought that orchestras give the moods of music to listeners, to the point that listeners sometimes almost cry because of the deep feelings of music that an orchestra plays.

I believe that my affection to music will never be lost. After majoring in piano performance at the Conservatory of Music, I aspire to apply for a Master's study both in Piano Performance and Collaborative Piano. I want to pursue studying music until I gain a Doctoral of Music Artist Degree in a school that specializes in music studies. My foremost goal is to become an expert in every musical instrument and in every skill in music. I am hoping to soon become a great performer, a great composer, and a great music teacher as well. I hope that through my music, I can touch peoples' heart and lives. I believe that music is my life and soul. If music touches the heart of the listeners, I hope that I can be a part of this. Through a music path of becoming a performer, a composer, and a teacher, I seek to achieve these goals and objectives that I have… [read more]

Blacks in Blues Music Biographer Term Paper

… These female blues singers toured the black vaudeville circuits or performed in city nightclubs, basically in protected venues, "on stage, out of reach of their admirers ... And between performances, relaxed in backstage areas out of bounds to the public… [read more]

Music Appreciation My Personal Attraction Term Paper

… I believe music can touch a chord in a person's core, and this is why many of these musicians are so important. They have the ability to feel what people are feeling, and transfer those feelings to their music. Music… [read more]

Censorship in Music Term Paper

… The Spanish-born Pablo Casals (1876-1973), who enjoyed a spectacular international career as a violin and cello virtuoso and conductor, was considered to be one of the finest musicians of his day. However, he had a rather harsh assessment of rock… [read more]

Jamaican Music Term Paper

… (The same dynamic obtains today in the way in which hiphop is marketed. But reggae internationally succeeded because its listeners were eager to see themselves as radicals - and so were eager to buy a form of music that was… [read more]

Music Term Paper

… African-American music is a widely visible type of music in many nations nowadays. The heritage of the African culture, as applied in the American music industry, has provided great contribution to the arts of music. The characteristics of the African-American music in various forms such as blues and jazz have presented life to the music of the past up to our modern times. Perhaps, we can say that African-American music is a brilliant art.


Christo. (2000). African History and Overview.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Acslink.

Web site:

Clarke, D. Minstrelsy and the War Between States.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site:

Heart and Soul: A Celebration of African-American Music.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Worldbook.


Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Worldbook.

Web site:

Survey of American Popular Music.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site:

Archives of African-American Music and Culture.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site:

McElrath, J. African-American History.

Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Music Web.

Web site: [read more]

English Language by Music Historian Term Paper

… Handel composed Messiah to the libretto (lyrics) of Charles Jennens, who also wrote libretto for Handel's Saul as well as works for other composers. Peter Jacobi describes Jennens' libretto as "a deft weaving of spiritual thoughts...that led Handel to a clarity of vocal and instrumental line," (1982, p. 33). Once the composer received Jennens' libretto, he completed Messiah in just over three weeks, between August and September of 1741. This "burst of energy" was supposedly typical for Handel (Barber, 1994, p. 45). However, the completely original composition was not; "Handel was a plagiarist," like many musicians in his time, and he frequently borrowed whole sections of music from other composers (Jacobi, 1982, p. 32). Messiah contains some sections stolen from Handel's own work, but the bulk of the masterpiece was original. Although the bulk of the work was written in those fateful three weeks, Handel continued to alter the composition. In fact, more than sixteen versions of Messiah exist in his own writing.

Following the immense success of Messiah in Ireland, Handel moved back to London in 1742. Hoping to revive his career, Handel launched productions of several oratorios, including Samson and Messiah. Audiences appeared pleased with Handel's oratorios based on Old Testament themes, like Samson. However, the groundbreaking Christian theme of Messiah proved to be a turn-off for Londoners. Handel's Messiah was first performed in the British capital on March 23, 1743 in Covent Garden at the Theatre Royal, but under a different name. Because of the negative reaction toward the oratorio's Christian theme, Handel advertised the production as A Sacred Oratorio. Still, the work was considered blasphemous and Handel was forced to halt production between the years 1746 and 1748.

England was still a hotbed of social and political transformation, however, and by 1749 audiences were ready to receive Handel's Messiah. By 1750 the oratorio grew large crowds, and Handel began producing it to make money for charity. Billing it as a fund-raiser also helped boost ticket sales, as the still puritanical middle and upper classes needed a philosophical excuse to see Messiah.

Handel had been active in philanthropy for a while, and was particularly interested in financially assisting London's Foundling Hospital, an orphanage. For eleven years beginning in 1750, Handel's Messiah was produced as an annual fundraiser for the Foundling Hospital. The composer had always been prone to giving his money away; in fact, when his first teacher Zachow passed away, Handel regularly sent his widow money. Luckily, Messiah drew in a substantial salary for the generous composer, who had twice declared bankruptcy during the course of his career. Messiah was performed continually until the time Handel died; it is still performed regularly centuries later.

George Frideric Handel grew plump in his later years, due no doubt to his increased financial success. Although his eyesight began to fail and he eventually grew blind, Handel continued to compose; he wrote oratorios, as well as psalms, anthems, and instrumental chamber music. Much of his work was successful, but none… [read more]

Shakespeare Used Music Term Paper

… Shakespeare often used vocal music to evoke a particular kind of mood, as in "Come, thou monarch." He also uses the songs to provide ironic commentary on plot or character. The incantatory, magical, and ritual uses of song are particularly also central to the themes of plays such as A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Tempest and Macbeth. Shakespeare also used songs to establish the character or mental state of the singer. For example, in King Lear Edgar feigns madness by singing snatches of folk song, while Ophelia's singing of folk song in Hamlet demonstrate the regressive breakdown of her personality. (Springfels)


Shakespeare has used ballads extensively in his works. The ballads were usually cut short to three or four stanzas and used only in part. The reasons for this could be that most of the popular ballads of the time were too lengthy to be used in a play, and perhaps the lyric of a ballad as a whole might not have been complementary to the plotline of the play. (Lackey)

Instrumental Music

Instrumental music has been sparingly used in Shakespeare's plays, in part because of the lack of facilities for such music to be played in performances other than at the Court. Hence in plays performed at the court such as the Twelfth Night and The Tempest we find nearly three times the amount of music normally present in Shakespeare's plays. In these plays, Shakespeare may have had the services of court singers and instrumentalists. In public theater productions, instrumental music was normally provided by a trumpeter, a wind player who doubled on shawm, and a couple of string players who were competent at the violin, viol, and lute. (Springfels) Therefore, the use of instrumental music in most of Shakespeare's plays is sparse.


Shakespeare has used music in most of his plays as a dramatic device to effectively evoke certain moods and sometimes to reflect the state of minds of some characters. While doing so, he has mostly relied on traditional and popular English music of the time that was easily understood by his audience, rather than the sophisticated "art" music.

Works Cited

Lackey, Stephanie. "Shakespeare and his Music." October 12, 1998. Vanderbilt University's MusL 242 Gateway Page. April 25, 2003.

Kastan, David Scott. "William Shakespeare." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Music in the plays." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003.

Music of the streets and fairs." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003.

Springfels, Mary. "Music in Shakespeare's Plays." Shakespeare and the Globe: Then and now. Britannica online. N.d. April 25, 2003. boy-singer, Jacke Wilson, became famous and his name is acknowledged in a 1623 production of Much Ado about Nothing (Springfels)

First performed at the Whitehall in 1601 as part of the traditional royal celebration of the holiday

The Tempest was given two court performances: the first in 1611 at Whitehall, and the second in 1613… [read more]

Music on Grocery Store Shopper Term Paper

… Times will be recorded in the total number minutes per visit. It is expected that findings will indicate longer stays for the group that shops with music. Data will be cross-tabulated according to male vs. female. In addition it will… [read more]

Rock 'N Roll Music Term Paper

… Punk-rock was fast, loud rock and roll music, but it quickly became the angry music of the time. (Riznar)

In the 1980's, punk-rock evolved into hardcore music and fans became even more experimental with fashion, makeup and hair color. In… [read more]

Film Instrument: Ten Years Term Paper

… Music may be the most important part of the musician's lives, but the band members are also each unique human beings with fully rounded personalities.

The movie is generalist in the sense that it gives a portrait of some of the difficulties all bands suffer while on tour but it is quite particular in showing the dedication and the shaping of a band with a fairly uncorrupted perspective in the music industry. Furthermore it does so without overly criticizing more commercial punk bands -- the focus is on Fugazi, rather than Fugazi's relationship with other bands and contrasting and comparing its sounds with similar sounding artists.

Despite this stress upon Fugazi's resistance to standardizing its punk music for commercial distribution, and the fact that it enabled itself to remain true to its roots by owning its own record label, the film does contain commercial design elements. The documentary it must be admitted as has a very stylishly shot technique and style, and it a pleasure to listen to. The director does not adopt a self-consciously 'rough' style to narrate the tale of the band. The band, again perhaps because of the length of time the director spent with them, comes across as reflective and intelligent about the decisions they have made with their lives, yet also quite savvy about the music business that has shaped so much of their lives and existences.

One last bit of evidence to confirm the film's ability to have a clear if almost invisible 'spin' on the purity of the band's music is how the film strikes a balance between using concert footage and footage of the band itself throughout the documentary. Rather than relegating a particular concert or backstage discussion to be the 'climax' of the film, and the narrative of the band, the film is very equitable in the balance it strikes between the lives and personalities on and off stage. In this band, there is no conflict between music and self, between one's backstage morality and onstage persona. Instead, an image of an unusually balanced, healthy group of artistically gifted individuals emerges, out of which has come often dark, but always compelling punk… [read more]

Works of John Coolidge Adams: Music Research Paper

… John Coolidge Adams is one of America's most successful living composers, with his popularity being attributed to personal approach to minimalism, and his ability to produce dramatic works that touch on highly topical subjects. Born in Worchester, Massachusetts on February… [read more]

Music and Vibration Essay

… ¶ … detecting emotion in music and movement. Specifically, the literature involved in this analysis will focus on children's decoding of emotion in expressive body movement and the modeling of cue attunement. The literature presented in this review will demonstrate… [read more]

German Culture Research Paper

… Early in the 19th century, Richard Wagner was branded as a person for music of the future; he did not like the strict traditional style of German music. He developed leitmotivs that were simple recurring themes found in his operas. His course brought about changes in opera as well as German music in general. The late 19th century saw Vienna continues elevation of its position in European classical music (Joseph, 2012).

In the 20th century there was a split between German and Australian music. In Vienna, Arnold Schoenberg together with his pupils moved along an avant-garde path and pioneered atonal music in 1909 and also twelve tone music within 1923. Composers within Berlin on the other hand took a populist route from the cabaret-like socialist operas to Gebrauchsmusik.

In the second half of the 20th century, West Germany German and Australian music was dominated largely by avant-garde. On the other hand composers in East Germany had ben advised against avant-garde and compose music in keeping with tenets of socialist Realism.

Germany music has many regions that have their own folk music and dance. Most of the 20th century saw a large part of the German culture being appropriated for ruling powers. In East and West Germany, children were taught folk songs called volkslieder. These songs were sunny, popular and optimistic but had very little relation to authentic German folk traditions. Germany went through many changes inspired by American and English root rivals and this saw new songs that featured political activism and realistic sadness, joy and passion being written and performed within the burgeoning folk scene. Some of the popular folk songs in Germany include emigration songs, work songs, and democracy oriented folk songs. There are several types of folk songs in Germany these include Oom-pah which is a type of music played by brass bands and linked to beer halls. Bavaria is folk music that is well-known outside Germany.

German schlager is a form of German music that combines elements of the traditional German music and popular entertainment. These are jolly songs that are mostly apolitical and they address an older audience as opposed to youth oriented pop music. This type of music is common in carnival in cologne or the Oktoberfest in Munich.

Music fans in Germany also listen to English-speaking pop music just like other countries. The pop music scene undergoes frequent changes and only a few bands have been able to maintain their popularity over time. Among the most vibrant and prominent music styles in Germany today is hip hop. There are bands that have taken pride in coming up with German-speaking pop, jazz, hip hop and even reggae (InterNations, 2014).


Joseph, A. (2012). Ten Reasons to love German culture: German Giants of classical Music. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from (2014). The German Music scene. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from

Countriesquest. (2009). Culture, Music. Retrieved September 26, 2014 from [read more]

Role of Music in Shaping the Ages Research Paper

… It was used to demonstrate the social and psychological conflicts at a time when the United States was struggling with racism. Fight the Power was used to encourage the African-American community to stand up for their rights amidst racial segregation. The encouragement is evident in its lyrics such as "Most of my heroes don't appear on no stamps." The song was primarily an attack on the personifications of the white American ideal and its discriminative culture.

Lil Wayne's Georgia Bush is a song the reflected the mood of the 2000s and rivals any anti-Vietnam song in the 1960s. Lil Wayne produced the song as a sarcastic critique and attack of President George W. Bush and his administration's handling of Hurricane Katrina. It was a representation of the disaster's victim who felt that their country deserted them at their point of need. The hit song was used by the media to represent the discontentment that some victims of Hurricane Katrina felt, especially the affected African-Americans. While the song did not necessarily change the minds of many people, it forced them to acknowledge the plight of millions of people undergoing difficult periods while the government ignored them (Suddath, 2011). With lyrics like "The white people smiling like everything's cool / but I know people who died in that pool / I know people who died in them schools," the media used the song to criticize President Bush's handling of the effects of Hurricane Katrina.


Mass media has become an important part of today's culture that not only entertains but also educates and informs the public to an extent that it is integrated into people's lives (Vivian, 2012). One of the major ways in which the media informs and educates the public is through music. This is primary because of the role of music in social movements and definitive events within a particular period. Generally, music is a medium that has shaped the ages by acting as a representation or reflection of social movements that have existed and evolved. The role of music in shaping the ages is evident in its use to speak for generations and exemplify the existing belief systems.

As evident in this analysis, music has been used to represent the social context in each decade and reflect the primary mood of the public during the specific decade. The lyrics in each of these songs are influenced by the events taking place during the decade. Musicians not only produce the songs to represent their beliefs but also use them as a tool for speaking on behalf of others who share their feelings. In addition, these songs were used as mediums for influencing other beliefs and speaking to the generations in each of the decades.

The other notable component in the analysis is the connections between the decades and commonalities of the social movements based on the people represented. As reflected in Bob Dylan's and Edwin Starr's songs, the connection between the 1960s and 1970s was the effects of war… [read more]

Use of Music Therapy Seminar Paper

… ¶ … Blues through History of Slavery and the Clinical Applications of Blues Form in today's therapy

History of American Slavery -- Brief Overview

In the year 1619, first African slaves were transferred to the North American colony of Jamestown,… [read more]

Concerts Across Time the Performer Term Paper

… The principle difference in the role of concerts between the Baroque era and the contemporary one is that in contemporary society, pop music concerts are an occasion for concert goers to release themselves -- to unwind and enjoy the music. Again, there was more formality associated with baroque concerts so, although there was some degree of pleasure involved on the part of concert goers, the occasion was altogether serious and considered highly valued art. In comparison, concerts are principally a venue for listeners to have fun, enjoy the music, as well as to intermingle and meet people.

The type of people who attended concerts during the baroque period included fairly serious individuals. These included royal personages and members of the government, as well as individuals who were considered high society or high class people. Attending concerts was definitely a privilege during this epoch. However, within contemporary times, concerts are attended by laymen or regular people. There are still some concerts (typically of classical or even Baroque music) in which the upper crust of society -- meaning the wealthy -- are more likely to attend than those who are not socially and monetarily elite. However, for the most part concerts are attended by the general population. The average attenders of a rap music concert, for example, are just regular teenagers and young adults from all walks of life including many different races, nationalities, and religious denomination.

As previously alluded to, people attend concerts within contemporary times as a means of having fun. Also, some go because they feel a really strong connection to particular performing artists. Others go because concerts are simply social events and ways of meeting new people. Some people even go to concerts (especially those which involve certain types of music which is considered subversive) to start trouble, pick fights, and commit crimes. In general, however, people perceive of concerts as a way to have fun for an afternoon and an evening. People frequently like to engage in mind expansion via chemical substances such as alcohol or recreational drugs like marijuana.

New technologies certainly change the way that people experience music. This fact is perhaps best demonstrated by the influence of the internet. The internet -- and other new technologies as well such as digital media, ear pods, and video possibilities -- makes for a much more individualized experience. People no longer have to wait for a radio station or even television station to play their favorite song -- they can instantly access it in a medium in which they are the only ones to hear it at that particular point in time.

Works Cited

AdeleAnne. "Little Baroque Suite." 2013. Web.

VIP Media. "PJ Morton -- In Concert." 2010. Web.

WarnerClassics. "Une Fete Baroque." 2012. Web. [read more]

Rap Music - A Soundtrack Essay

… As a result, rap has been like a cultural virus, spreading its sounds, attitude, and images throughout all cultures (social and political bodies).

DJ Kool paved a leeway for hip hop culture across the entire world, for the new rap… [read more]

Hip Hop Culture in Saudi Arabia Research Paper

… Hip Hop Culture in Saudi Arabia

Culture and globalization

Culture which refers to the symbolic systems Williams 91()

through which human beings exist and coexist has been globalized by taking ideas, values and meanings across national borders through international travel… [read more]

American Idol Essay

… The author then continues to argue that the show has changed the public's musical tastes through its diverse song choices and its explorations of various genres. While it may be true that the show has the ability to make past songs popular again and provides an example of Whitney Houston and how a person may be exposed to her music because of the show, there is no evidence in the form of statistics given to support the author's claims, thus making these claims seem less credible.

Additionally, the author comments on how the show has made the industry more profitable because of its ability to profit from the contestants in addition to the original artists. However, the explanation given does not make sense, and that author fails to demonstrate how the music industry profits from the re-release of music beyond actual music sales.

Lastly, the author comments on the show's star power citing Carrie Underwood's success as well as David Archuleta, who was a runner up. David Archuleta is not a strong case for people that did not win because he was a runner-up meaning that it is implied he would have a successful career ahead of him. This paper would have been even more successful if the author had provided an example of an individual who was not in the top 5, but rather if the author had chosen someone like Jennifer Hudson, who placed 7th and went on to become a successful recording artist and Academy Award winner.

Overall, I believe too much praise is given to "American Idol" and the essay does not take into account the negative impact the show may have on the original artists, how it discounts the efforts of people that have been struggling to "make it" for years, and the strict regulations imposed by the show that prevent certain individuals from auditioning simply because they are too old, or too… [read more]

Miles Davis and Modern Jazz Research Paper

… [...] Miles' performance tradition emphasized orality and the transmission of information and artistic insight from individual to individual. His position in that tradition, and his personality, talents, and artistic interests, impelled him to pursue a uniquely individual solution to the problems and the experiential possibilities of improvised performance (Nettl & Russel, 1998).

Musical References

"Miles Davis and Quincy Jones -- Live in Montroeux."

"Miles Davis -- Kind of Blue."

"Miles Davis -- Out of the Blue."

"Miles Davis -- Milestones."


Remembering Miles. (1991, November 12). Retrieved March 2013, from The Rolling Stone Archieves: http:/

Miles Davis. (2006, June). Retrieved March 2013, from Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Indusction:

House Resolution 894 Honoring the 50th Anniversary of "Kind of Blue" and Reffirming Jazz as a National Treasure. (2009, December 15). Retrieved March 2013, from

Cook, M., et al. (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Jazz. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Davis, G., & Sussman, L. (2006). Dark Magus: The Jekyll and Hyde Life of Miles Davis. San Francisco, CA: Backbeat Books.

Gioia, T. (2006). The History of Jazz. new York: Oxford University Press.

Mandell, H. (2008). Miles, Ornett, Cecil: Jazz Beyond Jazz. New York: Routledge.

Mingus, C. (1955, November 30). An Open Letter to miles Davis. Retrieved March 2013, from Downbeat Magazine:

Nettl, B., & Russel, M. (Eds.). (1998). In the Course of Performance: Studies in the World of Musical Improvisation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Taylor, A. (1993). Notes and Tones. New York: Da Capo Press.

Common Abbreviation [read more]

Discovering Statistics Music Valence Lab Report

… Just by looking at the data it is apparent that there could be significant differences between different conditions. The arithmetic means are shown graphically in Figure 1 and the difference between genders is statistically significant [F (1, 24) = 140.8,… [read more]

Jazz Gillespie Live in '58: Analyzing Term Paper

… Jazz

Gillespie Live in '58: Analyzing and Appreciating a Historic Jazz Concert

The live performance given in Belgium in 1958 by Dizzy Gillespie and some notable band mates is both historically important, helping to solidify the spread of modern jazz… [read more]

Jazz "Blues After Dark," Feat Term Paper

… The saxophone is occasionally staccato, but mainly smooth, dancing around the bass notes. Brushes can be heard in the background, with the occasional cymbal. The saxophone solo is long, and nuanced, moving through various registers. Occasionally, Stitt packs in several notes into a bar, and sometimes fewer.

There is also a trumpet solo in "Sunny Side of the Street" that starts delicately with thin high notes. The bass responds with thin, high notes. This solo does not necessarily have a lot of structure. It allows the basic structure of the song to remain…while laying on top a curiously thin upper register melody, before Gillespie changes the height of the mike. Even then, the muted trumpet works and then suddenly, unexpectedly, the vocals kick in "sunny side of the street," and both Gillespie and Stitt are singing.

Performance: "Loverman," Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums). In Belgium 1958

Style = Ballad BeBop

Role of Piano = Comping

Role of the Bass = Comping

Role of the Drums = Brushing

Role of the Saxophone = Lead and Melody

"Loverman" is very slow and languid, but it leaves the listener with a deep emotional impact. The title, "Loverboy," does suggest that there is a love song written here.

Performance: "Blues Walk." Dizzy Gillespie Quintet Live in Belgium 1958 with Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet) Sonny Stitt (tenor saxophone), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), Gus Johnson (drums)

Style = BeBop

Role of Piano = Stride and Comping

Role of the Bass = Walking

Role of the Drums = Brushing and Riding; he uses mallets at the beginning in a more aggressive way

Role of the Trumpet and Saxophone = Lead and Melody

The first solo is the saxophone. Stitt plays a continuous flow of notes, barely stopping to breathe. The piano accompanies with some punctuation. A walking bass line also plays sixteenth notes. In fact, the title of the song could easily refer to the walking bass line. Toward the end of the saxophone solo, the phrasing changes briefly and it has an overall improvised feel.


This performance was enlightening in the sense that is shows the role of different instruments in the bebop jazz performance. I especially appreciated the way that in "Blues After Dark," the song begins and ends in much the same way. The effect like alpha and omega makes the listener feel a sense of wholeness and completion. I was able to listen to "Blues After Dark" over and over again for the assignment and not get tired of listening to it. It is a very well composed song that I hope to emulate as I develop my own skills as a composer.

Listening to bebop, I can see why people appreciate jazz. There are many types of jazz that I do not care for as much as this type. The arrangements are simple here. There is some improvisation, but not too much that the song does nowhere. Instead, the… [read more]

Jazz Styles Analysis "Blues After Dark" Dizzie Essay

… Jazz Styles Analysis

"Blues after Dark"

Dizzie Gillespie's "Blues after Dark" is a striking example of the concert takes place in Belgium in 1958. It was set in a dark venue, where the true highlight is on the musicians, with… [read more]

Listening "Blues After Dark." Belgium Term Paper

… Role(s) of bass: The bass serves to provide a deep baseline, keeping the overall sound downbeat and somber.

Role(s) of drums (including sticks or brushes or mallets): Use of brushes at beginning creates a very light sound as the sax plays.

Role(s) of horn players: The alto saxophone is the primary instrument in this piece. Much of the time, the other players are not even touching their instruments in fact.

In Greater Detail:

For your selected solo within this song:

Identify the Solo: Saxophone played by Sonny Stitt

How did the solo progress from beginning to end?

The solo begins the song with a downbeat, torch song sound to it, picking up tempo to the point where it is a series of runs before the song ends.

Was the solo successful? Why or why not?

The solo was not successful because it took up the entirety of the song and did not allow for the real emotion to carry through, although it was successful at the start of the song.

What was your emotional response to it?

The beginning of the song was emotional in that it carried a deep, depressing sound to it. It seemed that the player was missing someone or lacking something but then when the sax player continued into his runs, that feeling of sadness disappeared into a complex series of notes which confused the emotion.

4. "Blues Walk"

Belgium 1958 ~ Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), Sonny Stitt (tenor and alto sax), Lou Levy (piano), Ray Brown (bass), and Gus Johnson (drums)

Style(s) of the piece: blues; upbeat jazz (Afro-Cuban Jazz)

Role(s) of piano: It is hard to make out the piano amid the other more powerful sounds, indicating that its function is to create a rainbow of musical textures until the point of his own solo.

Role(s) of bass: The bass keeps the upbeat tempo and serves to dovetail the prevailing drum.

Role(s) of drums (including sticks or brushes or mallets): The drum is very prevalent in this song, setting the tempo and elevating it to a jubilant song.

Role(s) of horn players: The horn and sax perform the function of the vocals of the piece, singing with their instruments.

In Greater Detail:

For your selected solo within this song:

Identify the Solo:

How did the solo progress from beginning to end?

Which soloist(s) heard in class did it remind you of?

Was the solo successful? Why or why not?

What was your emotional response to it?

Conclusion: Emotional Response to the overall performance: Was it pleasing to you? Why or why not?

In the overall performance of Dizzy Gillespie and his ensemble, the musicians play their instruments with real power and true emotion. Consequently, the person listening to the pieces has no choice but to feel what the musicians are experiencing. When the music is sad, the audience is sad. When the music is joyous, so is the audience. This is the case for any truly beautiful music.

Works Cited:

"Loverman." YouTube. YouTube, 15 Jan.… [read more]

Sonny's Outline James Baldwin Research Paper

… Later, Sonny left Harlem in order to escape from the heroin use, but was unable to run from his dark feelings. He says, "The reason I wanted to leave Harlem so bad was to get away from the drugs. And… [read more]

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