Study "Music / Musicians / Instruments" Essays 166-218

X Filters 

Elvis and His Music Term Paper

… Elvis and His Music

It is probably safe to say that everyone around the world has heard of Elvis Presley. He is still admired by fans and peers, almost 30 years after his death. Elvis was and remains the undisputed King of music.

Former president Ronald Reagan clearly indicated how he felt about Elvis, saying, "Elvis epitomized America, and for that we shall be eternally grateful. There will never be anyone else like him" (O'Meara 2002). Although Frank Sinatra was respectfully referred to as the "chairman of the board," even he once said, "I'm just a singer...Elvis was the embodiment of the whole American culture" (O'Meara 2002). Paul McCartney recalled that "when we were kids growing up in Liverpool, all we ever wanted to be was Elvis Presley" (O'Meara 2002). Others have remarked that Elvis shaped the music world and continues to influence it to this day. He is timeless. He is everyone's generation. But, perhaps John Lennon sums up these sentiments best when he said, "Before Elvis there was nothing" (O'Meara 2002).

Elvis Aaron Presley was born January 08, 1935 to Gladys and Vernon Presley in a two-room house in Tupelo, Mississippi. His twin brother, Jessie Garon, was stillborn, thus Elvis grew up as an only child. In 1948, The Presley's moved to Memphis, Tennessee, there Elvis graduated in 1953 from Humes High School (All 2006). During this era, Memphis was a haven for various types of music, all of which had a tremendous influence on him. Pop and country music were the main marketable music at the time, however Elvis not only frequented all-night gospel revivals, but also absorbed the black rhythm and blues music on historic Beale Street. It is because he took to heart all the different styles of music that his own singing style became so unique (All 2006). In other words, what he heard became his own.

In 1954, when he strolled into Sun Studios, the office manager asked him "Who do you sound like," Elvis replied, "Nobody. I don't sound like nobody" (Simon 1995). That was true then, and it remains true today. No one sounds like Elvis!

In 1955, RCA Victor bought his recording contract from Sun Records and by 1956, Elvis had become an international household name. His sound and style were unique, and together with the myriad of musical influences, he challenged the social and racial barriers of the time, which resulted in an entirely new era of American music and pop culture (All 2006). Elvis was a white man who could sing like a African-American blues artist, and had the stage presence that captivated the world.

Elvis was only 23 years old when his mother, Gladys died. She had been the center of his world. According to biographer Peter Guralnick, "She made him feel as if he was something special, as if nothing he did could be wrong. And I think for Elvis the whole, not simply the center of his world disappeared, but the reason for his world"… [read more]

Classical Music Theme and Variations Term Paper

… Classical Music: Theme and Variations

Themes and variation in music is a technique in which repetition of tunes is being done but with the inclusion of several changes in tune or beat during the repetition. The purpose of which is to create shape to a musical piece despite of the fact that sets of tunes are being repeated. An online source has the following concept of a theme and variation.

Theme and variations form is the simplest. At the beginning of a movement, the theme is clearly stated. Each section thereafter in the movement is a variation on the theme. The variations may be as simple as a change in key or accompaniment, or a complicated restatement of the theme which may not be recognizable as the original theme. There may be any number of variations on the theme. The end of the movement will have a coda, an extended conclusion to the movement."

History of Themes and Variations

The history of themes and variations can be mostly found in the development and growth of the classical music where simple sets are changed into elaborate sets to develop a shape in the music.

The Renaissance period is among the era where the classical music was given with different styles through themes and variations. The trend then was to change and revise popular music to slightly different tune to form variations. Following are some of the variations in this period.


One of the most favorite types of variation in the Renaissance music was divisions wherein the rhythmic beat transforms from a slow one into faster ones.


ThinkQuest online describes this variation as follows.

A which used short themes of four to eight measures in the bass and had a changing counterpoint played above it"

Cantus Firmus

In this variation, a single melody is repeatedly used. Every repetition is accompanied by differing counterpoints and voice (ThinkQuest).

English Hexachord

Most virginal music used this variation in which the theme is the first six notes of a scale (ThinkQuest).

The Baroque Era, on the other hand, similarly has its share of theme and variations in the form of instrumental music where keyboard instruments are the main source of the variations. Following are the types of variations in this era.


This variation was used in England in which the theme in the bass line is repeated and the counterpoint is continuously changing (ThinkQuest).

Cantus Firmus

This variation is used in Germany. ThinkQuest…… [read more]

RIAA Internet Music Downloads Term Paper

… RIAA - Internet Music Downloads

In today's modern world, everything is almost easily accessible. With the advent of Internet, communication, business and information research are now easily done. Indeed, getting and 'owning' various information offered in the Internet is just an ordinary thing nowadays.

Music or songs is one of the best examples that can be easily downloaded in the Internet. A lot of people - young and old, males and females - benefit from this because they are prevented from using their money just to buy CDs, DVDs or tapes of the songs or albums they would want to hear.

How Music is Downloaded from the Internet

With the continuing improvements being done with the computer software and programs, playing music to and from the computer has really been made easy. The best example for this is the MP3s, which is a shortened term for MPEG 1 or Moving Picture Experts Group 1. This is used in compressing bulky files of digitized music which in turn make downloading and storing music and sounds easier (Spaulding, 2006).

It must be noted that using and listening to MP3s would require a computer and software, but the needed software is always available in the Internet and can be downloaded also for free. And there is a recent introduction of MP3 and iPod players - electronic devices that can be used to play sounds and music anywhere and anytime even without the presence of a computer while listening (Spaulding, 2006).

With MP3, anybody could quickly download music and sound recordings and to store this with consuming a minimal disk space and in a quality which is exactly like the CD recorded music or sounds. The MP3 files can also be easily attached and sent to any e-mail, even to a number of receivers or even be uploaded to other web sites (Spaulding, 2006).

The Threats of Music Downloading

Downloading music from the internet presents a very big threat to the singers or artists, the producers and to the music and recording industry itself.

The Producers and the Artists

Producers are the one financing the artists and the production of the music albums. Their expectation, of course, is to earn good sum of money after the album was released. Artists on the other hand use their talents and popularity as a means to earn. They are being paid initially for singing and creating the music album, but they will be paid more if the album started selling in the market. This advent of music downloading has extremely affected the income of both the producers and the artists. The number of people who will buy the original albums continuously decline resulting to a record of earning which is also going down. Thus the ultimate threat to the producers and the artists would be the considerable decline on demand for original music albums (tapes, CDs or DVDs). Why would anyone opt to buy these original materials - which cost a good amount of money - when… [read more]

Effect Music Has in Reducing Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease Term Paper

… ¶ … music has on Alzheimer's disease. The writer explores the reduction of Alzheimer's symptoms that have been shown with the use of music therapy and explores future use of the therapy. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

In recent years medical science has made advances that have provided a longer lifespan than ever before, however, with that lifespan increase comes a higher incidence of Alzheimer's disease. While Alzheimer's disease can strike at any age it is typically seen in the elderly and the symptoms can be devastating. People watch their parents lose their memories, forget who they are and become a danger to themselves with their forgetful actions.

Many avenues have been explored in the effort to slow the symptoms of the disease thereby providing the person with a better quality of life as they enjoy their golden years. One method that has shown some significant success has been the use of music therapy. While the medical science of music therapy for Alzheimer's is in its relative infancy, anecdotal stories have circulated for years (Tapping, 2005).

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame percussionist Mickey Hart remembered that his grandmother loved watching him perform as a drummer with the Grateful Dead. So when she was in the advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease, Hart decided to give her a "private concert" -- in his Porsche on the back roads of California. After he tapped his drums for about 15 minutes, the elderly woman, who had not spoken for more than six months, looked at him and said, "Mickey (Tapping, 2005)." study conducted in 2000 concluded that music therapy has a scientific base for succeeding in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The use of music raised melatonin levels in the brains of 20 Alzheimer's patients. In addition the patients showed significantly improved behavior and measurably reduced sleeping problems during the study.

The study used music therapy on the patients five days a week for 30-40 minutes each day. The study was conducted over a one month period. Blood samples were collected before during and following the study to determine what if any impact the music was having on the physiological make up of the study participants (Klotter, 2001 (

Dr. Ardash Kumar and colleagues at the University of Miami School of Medicine (Florida), who reported the study in Alternative Therapies, checked the levels of melatonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and prolactin. These brain chemicals are known to affect mental state. They found that melatonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine blood levels had risen significantly by the end of the 4-week therapy program. Moreover, melatonin levels remained high 6 weeks after the program had stopped (Klotter, 2001 ("

The researchers believe that the music also helps to relax the patients and that relaxing is conducive to self healing and strength building.

The research study concluded that music therapy may be one alternative method to strong medications in the treatment of Alzheimer's symptoms.

All of the participants were male (Klotter, 2001 ( studies should… [read more]

Genres of Worship Music in Christianity Term Paper

… ¶ … Worship Music in Christianity

Enter various churches around the country today and one is just as likely to hear non-traditional worship music, such as pop, punk, rap, hip-hop, and rock, as gospel and traditional praise music.

According to SoundScan, Christian music sold 49.9 million albums in 2001, up 12% from the previous year, and continues to climb while other music genres slack in sales (Green). Christian music today encompasses a broad category that includes black gospel, contemporary Christian, Christian rock, Christian rap, and traditional praise and worship music, all of which jumped in sales by more than 20% after the September 11th attacks (Green).

Jerry Phelps of Paradigm Management Group says, "Christian music is no longer a genre of its own," for there are so many types within it and people, especially young people, gravitate to music they relate to and that expresses their feelings (Fitzhugh-Craig). Christian music is a "billion dollar-plus business" due partly to the fact that the quality of music is increasing, and partly because so many young people are gravitating toward the soulful tunes (Fitzhugh-Craig).

Throughout the country, there are hundreds of Christian music concerts, festivals and tours taking place every year, as faithful fans turn out to hear new artists as well as seasoned favorites who play everything from rock and hip-hop to contemporary and more faith-based music (Fitzhugh-Craig). As one fan expressed, "It's like rock, but it's also praising God...a more fun way to praise God...the melodies I like, but it has lyrics that I can relate to as a Christian" (Fitzhugh-Craig). Many people appreciate the uplifting lyrics of Christian music which rather than focusing on the negative and misery of life, tends to focus on the positive things, thus it brings hope and meaning (Fitzhugh-Craig).

Not only are there more Christian festivals and concerts popping up around the country, but more and more churches are beginning to offer a menu of services in an effort to accommodate the various preferences of worshippers (Garza). Today, churchgoers can choose a service of their choice based on the type of music and atmosphere they prefer, from traditional to modern. Terry York, associate professor of Christian ministry and music at Baylor University, believes that part of this new trend is due to the so-called "worship wars," which have grown during the past few years over disagreements concerning music (Garza). York says, "Music has become a very divisive issue in some churches. Some people love the traditional music and don't like the contemporary stuff at all...Other people think the hymns are boring," thus churches are dealing with it by offering a menu of worship options (Garza). Arlene Steffen, adjunct professor of music at Fresno Pacific University, believes the reason that music has become such a divisive issue at some churches is because music has become very personal to many people, and because today it can be different, whereas in the past it was frowned upon (Garza). Moreover, while older churchgoers do not particularly fancy the contemporary… [read more]

Endanger Culture Term Paper

… Ethiopian Music

Ethiopia is one of the world's most ancient nations, located in Africa. It is a culture that is rich in traditions, customs and music. Between the years 1969 and 1978, Ethiopian music was unknown to the world because the nation was run by the communist dictatorship of Mengitsu. During this time, Mengitsu officially banned all vinyl recordings of music. So, Ethiopian music was lost and unknown to the world. However, during the 1990s, the world discovered Ethiopian music once again. Since then, Ethiopian music is a unique style that can be compared and contrasted to American music. This paper will outline these comparisons and contrasts between the two countries and their styles of music.

Ethiopia is a country located in Eastern Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, and Sudan to the west. It is a country that is rich in culture, traditions and music. Ethiopian music is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 tribes being associated with unique sounds. Some forms of tribal music are strongly influenced by Muslim and folk music from elsewhere in the Horn of Africa, especially Somalia. However, Ethiopian religious music also has an ancient Christian element, traced to Yared, who lived during the reign of Gabra Masqal. In northeastern Ethiopia, in Wollo, a Muslim musical form called manzuma developed. Sung in Amharic, manzuma has spread to Harar and Jimma, where it is now sung in the Oromo language.

Ethiopian Music 2

The last three decades of the 20th century saw Ethiopia wracked by famine and drought, and war. Since the end of the 1990s, however, the country has made steps towards recovery, and among other improvements, music has become more omnipresent and more easily accessible outside of Addis Ababa. Ethiopian music uses a unique modal system that is pentatonic, with characteristically long intervals between some notes. This creates a somewhat "unfinished" and anticipatory atmosphere to the music.

Traditional music is played by itinerant musicians called azmari, who are regarded with both suspicion and respect by Ethiopian society. Folk instruments include masenqo (fiddle), washint (flute), kebero (percussion), krar (lyre), and begena (large lyre).

Ethiopia is a musically traditional country. Of course, popular music is played, recorded and listened to, but most musicians also sing traditional songs, and most audiences choose to listen to both popular and traditional styles. A longstanding popular musical tradition in Ethiopia was that of brass bands, imported from Europe during the reign of Haile Selassie. By the end of World War 2, large orchestras accompanied singers; the most prominent orchestras were the Army Band, Police Band and Imperial Bodyguard Band. Most of these bands were trained by Europeans or Armenians.

Ethiopian Music 3

From the 1950s to the 1970s, Ethiopian popular musicians included Bezunesh Bekele, Mahmoud Ahmed, Alemayehu Eshete, Hirut Bekele, Ali Birra, Ayalew Mesfin, Muluken Mellesse and Tilahun Gessesse, while popular folk musicians included Alemu Aga, Kassa Tessema, Ketema Makonnen, Asnaketch Worku… [read more]

Music Therapy in the Reading of "Sound Term Paper

… Music Therapy

In the reading of "sound and symbol," the writer was extremely expressive in his opinions of the significance of tone and its quality. Zuckerkandl (1956) stated:

Melodies consist of tones. Tones are events in the external world, natural phenomena, and parts in the great whole of external nature, to investigate the general laws and connections of which is the task of natural science, especially of physics. Acoustics is the branch of physics that is concerned with tones as natural phenomena. Vibration and frequency, wave and waveforms, medium and manner of propagation, and the special and general natural laws that these phenomena obey these are the things concerning which acoustics formulates questions.

Here Zuckerkandl points out some valid points. When one considers music and its construction, one should understand the bigger picture. To actually see the science of it all, to consider the components in a scientific sense bring in all together. Zuckerkandl refers to tone and acoustics in the sense of physics and there expression consisting in natural law. I agree with the idea of the structure being science based, thinking in these terms allows one to give reasoning to its history and presence.

What our senses show us is a part of the outside world and, as such, belongs in the closed context of physical nature. The nonphysical- thoughts exist only in a consciousness, in an inner world, my own or that of some other living creature; it can never be the object of direct sensory perception (Zuckerkandl, 1956).

Not only is it significant to realize that perceptions differ from individual to individual as stated above it is important to try not to generalize perceptions from self to all individuals. To generalize these perceptions take way there underlying nature state of being. (Zuckerkandl, 1956) also state that nothing in the physical event corresponds to the tone as a musical event. I believe that this instills the importance of looking at them individually, to try to avoid the compulsion to group them together, they occur separate of each other but coexist in the same moment. Actually it could be likened to a partnership, they are not the same and my have different qualities but they work together to create something amazing.

When we hear a melody, we hear things that have no counterpart in physical nature" (Zuckerkandl, 1956). When one hears a melody, it is simply not a sound that can be duplicated in our natural surroundings. A melody is created by man not born of nature. There is an actual thought process behind it. One cannot stand among the trees listening to the breezes rustle through leaves and expect to hear a melody from one of Beethoven's works.

Music has often been interpreted as a language. Since it is of the essence of a language to say something, the question arose: What does music say? The usual answer was: As the words of language have factual meaning, the tones of music have emotional meaning; music is the… [read more]

Music Report Archaeological Finds Show Term Paper

… At the same time, protection was extended for works created before 1978. Pre-1978 works were eligible for protection for a period of 75 years from the date of first publication (Moser).

In 1998, President Clinton enacted the "Sonny Bono Copyright… [read more]

Music-Romantic Period 'Romanticism Term Paper

… Schubert started his career very early and at the age of thirteen, he created a four-hand piano fantasia and this triggered a series of other compositions. By 1815 his creativity and musical fertility had almost reached its peak. In March… [read more]

Music the Men Behind Term Paper

… Music

The Men behind the Music:

How Environment Shaped the Work of the Great Composers

No man is an island" - so goes the old saying. It is equally true of music as of so many other aspects of the… [read more]

Pop Is Tomorrow's Classical- Paul Term Paper

… " Although...removed from the music's more traditional folk music origins, it no less captures the contemporary music of our day - rock -- just as Bach and Beethoven did in their day (Ode To Joy from the ninth symphony, for… [read more]

Music in the Catholic Liturgy Term Paper

… Church Music, Etc.

Music in the Catholic Liturgy

In the seventeenth century, there was an ongoing debate in the Catholic Church between the forces that desired more variety -- not to say exuberance -- in the music played and sung during the Mass, and those who desired a less fulsome expression of the ideas of the Mass through music, particularly vocal music. The work of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina symbolized, at the time and since, the forces that desired liturgical music to embrace and even extend the conventions of secular music of the day.

The debate began early, arguably when Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli appeared in 1609. Two other composers, Francesco Soriano and Giovanni Francesco Anerio, were also successful arrangers of sacred music, and they were regarded as descendants of the Palestrina tradition, which was, moreover, a Roman tradition.

That fact, also, contributed to the discord regarding music for the liturgy. By that time, Rome -- which is to say the Pope and the prelates who surrounded him -- desired to be in control of all aspects of the Mass, determining what was sacred, and what was profane. While most of Rome lauded the Missa Papae Marcelli, some preferred a more rigid stylistic code.

The Sistine Chapel -- the Cappella Sistina -- was in favor of Palestrina's exuberance and polyphonic sound. St. Peter's Basilica, finished during the seventeenth century, was such a grand building that it called for a grand scale of voices to fill it.

Still, at times, Palestrina's work was set aside in favor of simpler works with fewer voices.

The debate was not, however, only about the music. At the same time, orthodoxy in the church was also under discussion. The Council of Trent was an attempt to solve doctrinal problems that coincided with the debate concerning the proper use and form of vocal music in the Mass.

The Holy Apostolic Visitation, a body that assumed the role of enforcing Papal bulls regarding the conduct of the Mass, issued a lengthy document demanding that the style of music must be "grave, ecclesiastical and devout." This would seem to argue for simpler forms than Palestrina created.

The same body mandated how many voices could sing psalms, hymns or motets; it decreed that singers must not be actually seen by the congregation; it decreed that anyone presuming to be a maestro di capella or otherwise charged with music for Mass must swear on the seventeenth century equivalent of a "stack of Bibles," -the hand of the Vicar Cardinal of Rome or his viceregent -- that he would not violate the nine other demands of the edict regarding music.

There were two realities in the church at the time. First, there was a "worrying degree of exploitation of the various compositional, vocal and instrumental resources as required by contemporary taste" which it was thought represented a "form of sensuous enticement" in contravention of the officially sanctioned Church codes of conduct. The reality was the secularization was creeping into the church,… [read more]

Wondrous Our Senses Are When We Focus Term Paper

… ¶ … wondrous our senses are when we focus on them....It had to be one of the most beautiful days of the year at Golden Gate Park. The lifting fog unveiled a bright blue sky, leaving just a slight chill in the air and a hint of dew glistening on the grass. A drop of rain remaining from the night's shower dropped on my cheek and rolled slowly down to my chin. The rich odors of flowers floated with the breeze, making a strange potpourri with the scents of popcorn, hotdogs and Belgian waffles. As I walked toward the band shell, the atmosphere charged with anticipation.

Although the band always struggled for survival from one year to the next, people of all ages thoroughly enjoyed the weekly musical performance. The young parents proudly watched their children, while chatting with friends about the latest news of their families. The boys and girls, glad to be out doors in the wide open spaces, ran back and forth, twirled, jumped and did cartwheels.…… [read more]

Can Popular Music Be Classical Term Paper

… ¶ … Popular Music Be Classical

In most North American cities, at least one radio station will be formatted to play a genre of music called "classic rock," a hodge-podge of blues-rock, psychedelic, and folk music mainly from the United States and Britain. A wide range of music recorded after the mid-1960s can be considered to be "classic" rock, but the term has come to represent a specific genre of music. Similarly, "classical" music refers to a disparate variety of musical styles, from Baroque to modern; classical music comes from an even wider variety of eras and regions than classic rock does. However, "classical music" is a genre. The terms "classic" and "classical" have been largely divested of their dictionary definitions, and the term "classical" is broad enough that it can conceivably be applied to pop music. However, to preserve the integrity of common classification systems, the term "classical" should continue to refer specifically to a specific style of music.

If the term "classical" were applied to any pop music then we would have to devise different terms for all the music that we currently lump under that rubric. Even if…… [read more]

Sony Corporation the Recorded Music Term Paper

… Computer technology combined with the Internet now takes 'music sharing' to a whole new level. Where once a person may have shared an album with a couple of friends or family members, now, thanks to the connectivity of the Internet,… [read more]

Ray Charles Term Paper

… Each time the choir sings, "I can't stop loving you" it seems such a contrast to Charles' simple-phrased vocals as he comes in with, "I've made up my mind ...."

"Hey, Good Lookin"

"Hey Good Lookin'" is a great arrangement of Williams' old honky tonk tune. Charles takes off on a piano solo that fuses into a jazz composition and transforms this early country song to a new level. It is a wonderful demonstration of Charles' versatility within the country music genre and is perhaps the highlight of the entire album.

Section 3

This album is pure gold and should be included on the list of anyone who is serious about music appreciation. It is country music as it has never been done before or since, except for Charles' Volume II. These country classics done in full-scale production, complete with strings and choir, make the album a landmark in modern music history. Once listening to these cuts, it's impossible to forget them. Concerning any Charles album, one would be hard pressed to recall any out and out flop. Some may be better than others, but they are all pure Ray Charles genius. Sadly, Ray Charles died June 10, 2004 at the age of seventy-four.

Work Cited

Inductees: Ray Charles

Ray Charles

Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music… [read more]

Music Culture: Congado Term Paper

… Repiques: Variations that are extreme in nature creating breaks from the original pattern of rhythm.

The repique temporarily transforms the basic pattern's nature. Generally the basic pattern is maintained by one drummer with another drummer or two playing the repique which results in a polyrhythmic structure. The "rhythmic behavior that is the functional complementaries of the groups in the ceremonies of Congado is evidenced on the musical level." The hierarchy determined that the Congo would be the initiator of the parades with Mocambique leading the royalty.

The drums each have a different pitch with the Marcacao being played by the drum of higher pitch while the Requesta is played by the other two lower pitched drums in the ceremony.

The Marcha Lenta, or "slow march" and Marcha Grave, or "grave march" have ritual functions quite different from one another which somewhat put limitations on the allowance of repiques. The more solemn part of the Congo ceremony as well as the mournful parts are both led by the Marcha Lenta and this is done without repiques in the rhythm. Performed in the parades and allowing repiques, the Marcha Grave is in tempo faster than the Marcha Lenta.

The basic patterns of rhythm are easily distinguished in the Mocambique due to the fact that at least one performer plays the base with other performing the repiques. However, in the Congo repiques are faster than those of the Mocambique are however the variation in the Mocambique are heavy with meaning and through their power the Candombe becomes emergent. In Lucas' account of the Congado Captain Joao Lopes from Jatoba states that:

Mocambique is a part of Candombe!"

This statement seems to serve as a reminder that the entirety of the ceremony is in relation to the creation story. The allowance of variation is noticeable in other group specifics especially instrumentation. The culture's music is undeniably connection to the music and is of a higher nature than the entertaining sector of music. The rhythm line of the Marcacao starts with a quarter rest and the rhythm line of the Requesta begins with a quarter note. Then follows two eighth notes played by the Marcacao, then two eighth notes played by the Requesta and finally two eighth notes by the Marcacao comprising one measure of the song.


The music is deeply expressive with the dance or choreography demonstrating passages of time. The music that is played in the Congado is sacred, belonging only to the rituals and is never played except for that purpose. The pageantry is of a nature that without having experienced it one can hardly give a deserving description and the essence of the music is not of the nature that words would do justice in the telling.


Glaura, Lucas (2002) "Music Rituals of Afro-Brazilian Religious Groups with the Ceremony of Congado." Yearbook for Traditional Music.

Glaura, Lucas (2002) "Music Rituals of Afro-Brazilian Religious Groups with the Ceremony of "Congado" Yearbook for Traditional Music

World…… [read more]

Jazz as a Musical Tradition Term Paper

… And there are jazz schools in Trondheim (Norway) and in Hanoi. The International Association of Jazz Educators conducts larger and more culturally inclusive conventions each year.

For these reasons I do not believe that Jazz can be monopolized by a single culture either inside or outside the United States. Whereas in American culture the musical form started with the African-American tradition, it has grown to become so much more. As mentioned above, it belongs to everyone to be used as a means of expression, like language. I also do not believe that jazz will ever be replaced on a wholesale basis. Instead it involves and is pliable to become integrated in the consciousness of whichever time it is serving. This is then also the reason why this musical genre is so timeless.

The reasons why jazz appears to be old-fashioned to some is because the evolution of this music is mistaken for replacement. The avant-garde form of jazz has not replaced traditional, classical jazz. They are simply different forms of the same music genre, speaking to different generations. I do not believe that the older forms of jazz will ever completely die. There will always be those playing or listening to such music, as there are those still reading Shakespeare centuries after his death. Older forms of jazz are becoming classic, whereas newer forms are continually springing up to inspire the enthusiastic up and coming jazz musician not only for the year 2004, but for many decades into the future.

I do not believe that jazz has ever lost its position among its fans. It should be recognized that, like all art, jazz needs to evolve in order to truly live. If, as purists would want, older forms of jazz were to be the only accepted jazz, it would certainly die and eventually be replaced by other forms of music. Jazz is however far too much a living genre for this to happen.

Nobody either writes or talks like Shakespeare anymore. This does not mean that great writers have not learned from him or that readers are not inspired. The same is true of jazz. The classical forms will remain timeless, while simultaneously guarding its message for the generation that created it. Avant-garde and other jazz musicians would therefore be foolish to deny being able to learn from it.

Jazz is a flexible, lively form of music that cannot help but evolve with the times and the needs expressed by the culture of the time. This is why I believe both the present and the future of jazz in all its forms is a resounding success. Indeed, jazz music can be compared to any evolving form of life. While the past is no longer directly relevant to the present, it remains a vital part of the organism as it exists in the present and will exist in the future. Jazz has not died; it is hardly at the beginning…… [read more]

New Orleans as a Focal Term Paper

… Morton was born in New Orleans to a French Creole family. His real name was Ferdinand Joseph Lamothe. Jazz experienced many changes during the 1930's and Morton faded into seclusion. In 1938, folklorist Alan Lomax recorded many interviews with Morton… [read more]

Cajun Music it Is Impossible Term Paper

… The most significant Creole contribution has been the Zydeco, "a distinctly black Creole music known for its blending of French songs and African-Caribbean rhythms," and heavily influenced the Deep South rhythm and blues (Louisiana Pp). Cajun and Creole music have contributed much to the state's culture, including Cajun dance music, with two-steps, waltzes, and haunting ballad; Creole Zydeco music, with its African influence; and beginning in the early 1950's, a unique cultural mix created a regional variation of rhythm and blues music called 'swamp pop' that has become common throughout South Louisiana (Louisiana Pp). Swamp pop is a combination of rhythm and blues with Cajun and black Creole music, and country and western, and is characterized by a strong horn section and honky-tonk piano (Louisiana Pp). Dance halls abound with Cajun and Creole music for tourists and locals alike (Louisiana Pp).

Lafayette, Louisiana, host to the Le Cajun Music Awards Festival and the Southwest Louisiana Zydeco Festival, is the heartbeat of Acadia and where one truly feels the pulse of Cajun Country with its cultural blends of unique heritage and contemporary sophistication (Lafayette Pp). "Born out of the enduring spirit of the Acadians and Creoles, Cajun and Zydeco music is as much a part of the landscape as meandering bayous and moss-draped oaks" (Lafayette Pp).

Works Cited

Cajun & Zydeco Music

Cajun 1

Louisiana's Traditional Cultures

Lafayette The Heart of French Louisiana… [read more]

Charlie Parker Music Term Paper

… These houses also normally employed a solo piano player who was called "Professor" by the girls. Jelly Roll Morton had also taken up employment as a professor and that had resulted in his being kicked out from his family. The… [read more]

Latin American Music Industry Term Paper

… "Consumers increasingly are seeking the instant gratification of free downloads, and the ability to burn those downloads to blank CDs offers even more personalization and choice. The primary message of the CD burner is the consumer doesn't want to be… [read more]

Child Psychology Music and Brain Research Paper

… McDonnell foundation is upset that the motivation for music education is being hijacked. "If our intent is to use science and research to form policy, to guide educational practice and to give parents assistance, it's incumbent on people putting forth… [read more]

Rap Music and Society Term Paper

… Fields contrasts this paradigm with the one by Eminem and others. The latter choose the values of their childhood not only in their music, but also in their lifestyle and behavior. While this is valuable in terms of raising public awareness regarding the conditions breeding such values, it is also destructive in terms of cultivating and encouraging rebellion, substance abuse and prejudice in society. Teenagers and young adults, who make the largest base of fans for rap artists, are naturally rebellious and identify with the brutality in this music. Thus, the more brutal and more explicit the lyrics, the higher the number of fans is likely to be.

On the other hand, some artists have shown that, while the brutality, violence and depravity present in society can be acknowledged, this can also be used to create a more positive outlook. A Tribe Called Quest for example has devoted an album to love instead of sex or drugs. The members of the "Tribe" originate from Brooklyn and Queens, environments from which typical rappers could say to emerge. For their art, this group relies on exploratory rhythms and art that is honest while it is wholesome. Following in their footsteps are De La Soul, Monie Love, The Jungle Brothers, and others (Ehrlich).

What is striking about the new movement of rappers is their honesty relating to social shortcomings. They do not attempt to hide the realities of the above-mentioned childhood worlds that some are forced to grow up in. In this way they differ from Sinatra, who gave the illusion of sophistication while denying the paradigm of his childhood world. Instead A Tribe Called Quest and those following in their footsteps focus on healing rather than hardening and rebelling (Ehrlich). This is then a healing without the denial of brutality. Brutality is acknowledged for what it is: a defense mechanism against a society that has been unfair to a certain portion of humanity for lifetimes. Yet, this is then replaced by a more acceptable paradigm of healing and moving forward with a life that is profitable and sustainable.


Rap music has a huge body of fans. The age group of these fans is mostly teenager and young adult. Thus, to replace a paradigm of violence with one of acceptance and healing is vital for the future of peace in society. Internet statistics show that the portion of rap fans spending money on purchases of music far exceed that of other music genres (

A conducted by Nielsen/NetRatings revealed that rap music was most popular among Internet music purchasers. In fact, rap music held the top position of likelihood to be purchased by online music enthusiasts. Of all Internet users, music lovers were 111% more likely than the average surfer to purchase rap music. Dance and club music received 106% in this category, with alternative rock at 77. When translated to numbers, 31 million active Internet users purchased music during the 30 days preceding the survey ( It is therefore obvious that… [read more]

Negro Spirituals and the Development Term Paper

… The theories about the origin of jazz are many. The most commonly accepted theory is that it originated in New Orleans. This was a result of many influences including African polyrhythms, European classical and American Negro spirituals. This then spread… [read more]

Music of the Twentieth Century Term Paper

… One composer, Berlioz, did not use a piano like most romantic composers; he used other instruments, and helped move the music to a new level. One critic said of Berlioz, "He knew the instruments, their capabilities and limitations, and he opened new avenues of tonecolor, discovered the relation between different emotions and instrumental timbres, and created a new orchestral language" (Bauer and Peyser 47). This willingness to grow and change musically is a common thread throughout musical history, and shows how experimentation in one century can lead to change and growth in another. Creating more "modern" classical music in the Nineteenth Century led directly to more experimentation in the Twentieth. Berlioz's work opened up doors for other composers to explore and invent, including masters such as Liszt, Wagner, and Bizet.

Composers have always been revered by society, and the part they play in the social fabric of a time is incredibly significant. The music of Copland and Gershwin embodies an age in American culture, just as the music of Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman embodies another time and place. Good composers can "feel" the time and place, and create music that embodies the spirit of the country and the people. This was never more evident than after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, when people suddenly wanted to hear patriotic melodies, and several composers complied by writing touching tributes to America and the victims of the attacks. Composers have always created music that spoke of the people and the times, and as such, they are mirrors of society, and change in society. Jazz came about because the lifestyle of the people was changing, and they needed music that reflected these changes. Rap came about for the same reason, and so did rock and roll. All of these forms of music came about at the right time. Composers recognized the societal changes, and were not afraid to change with them.

Music can touch a place in a person's soul, and this is another reason composers who can feel what the people are feeling are so important. Music is woven into the fabric of our lives. We marry to special music, are buried with special music, and remember certain music of the past by the memories it evokes. Music, and the people who write it, are a vital part of society at every level, and at every stage in a person's life. We tend to look back at the music of our youth with fondness, which is one reason music of the past can sometimes resurge, such as the current cult popularity of swing bands, such as Big Bad Voo Doo Daddies, Manhattan Transfer, and the Brian Setzer Orchestra.

In conclusion, music has always evolved and changed how we listen to it. One critic said, "Reviewing the popular music of the twentieth century as a whole, most people would probably agree that some of it is excellent, some unbearable, and most of it very indifferent" (Van der Merwe…… [read more]

Classical and Popular Music Term Paper

… We hardly pay attention to the role of electronic media in music and thus fail to detach the real from the unreal. We accept things as they are presented to us without ever questioning their authenticity.

In short, the reality and unreality of music is just one way Pynchon chooses to comment on the invalidity of many theories, values, customs, beliefs and the reality that they all give birth to. In the case of music, he has chosen technology as the metaphor for everything that blurs the reality and replaces it with things insubstantial and less original. (Slade 1974)

Works Cited

Hans, James S., Emptiness and plenitude in "Bartleby the Scrivener" and 'The Crying of Lot 49.'. Vol. 22, Essays in Literature, 09-22-1995, pp 285(15).


Joel Stein, The Case For Thomas Pynchon., Time, 07-09-2001, pp 50.

Joseph Slade, Writers for the 70s: Thomas Pynchon, New York, 1974.

Larry Swindell, Pynchon's corpulent 'Gravity' may make readers sink, Minneapolis Star Tribune, 11-21-1996, pp 07E.

Matthew Eklund, Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49, The Explicator, 07-01-2001, pp 216

Pynchon, Thomas, Gravity's Rainbow, New York: Viking, 1973

Pynchon, Thomas. The Crying of Lot 49 New York: Penguin,…… [read more]

Ups and Downs of Russian Term Paper

… He defined how "social realism" should be applied to the music composed so there would be no misunderstanding. "Social realism' meant highly conventional premodernist forms and a banal, propagandistic content, avoiding any critical treatment of actuality (as in Western 'realist' arts) and instead depicting what Soviet life was supposed to be or would someday be" (Daniels 181-182).

In other words, "music was to follow the traditional (that is, nineteenth century) forms and the content was expected to be optimistic and hortatory. Pessimism, introspection, and serious social criticism -- not to mention religious subjects and political dissent -- were firmly repressed" (Daniels 311).

Stalin had squelched creativity and individuality and traded those things for the heroic classics.

Dmitry Shostakovitch lost favor with Stalin when he composed his opera Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk, which vividly portrayed the position of women in pre-revolutionary Russia. Women were regarded very highly back in those days, as were the three empresses who were mentioned in this paper. Shostakovitch's opera was banned in 1936 for its "jarring, irritating, and affected intonations" (Spector 518). Shostakovitch redeemed himself by composing the Fifth Symphony two years later. After that, he was in hot water again when he composed the Eighth Symphony because of its "subversive ideological content" (Gunther 412).

After the Stalin years, the strict guidelines relaxed and creative freedom was loosened. Leadership did continue to frown on foreign influences and did continue to encourage social realism, but they allowed outside musicians, such as the Boston Symphony Orchestra and American violinist Isaac Stern, to entertain the Russian masses.

Phonograph records were available and in demand, but the Russians wanted more music. They had an insatiable appetite for music. Black market prices for American jazz was extraordinary, an average of one hundred dollars for a single record. The black market recordings "were taken on tape from Voice of America or other broadcasts, and then reproduced on discs made of discarded X-ray plates salvaged from the hospital (Gunther 322).

Enter Mikhail Gorbachev and perestroika in March 1985. His idea was to toss out the old method of doing things and usher in a new way. The feeling of freedom spread everywhere and it spread into music as well.

Here is an example of a political song that used to be sung secretly, but with Gorbachev reforms, it could be sung out loud:

Grass is green there And Stalin's eagles

Eat shish kebab and fine chocolates

Behind seven fences.

Bodyguards and informants

Protect them from the people.

They make us watch films

About factories and collective farms

And at night, they watch imported films about whores,

And they like Marilyn Monroe" (Smith 108).

Here is another example of a political song that was created in the Gorbachev era and sung out loud:

Perestroika, perestroika

Our new GenSek [Party Leader],

Powerful or not,

Goes from one unfinished stroika [construction site] to another.

The dumbfounded foreigners are naive about him, my brothers.

The foreign serenaders sing and toast to Russia" (Smith 108).

The Russians had… [read more]

Music There Is an Old Term Paper

… In fact, contemporary music can be a way of bringing a subculture to society's awareness, a way of legitimizing a subculture. Music is an essential thread in the fabric of every culture and subculture. It memorializes the culture, distills its essence, and offers it a path to the future.

How does one judge the cultural strength of any particular style of contemporary music? One can look to anthropology, which evaluates customs according to their ability to foster the emotional involvement of participants. It should communicate clearly the message and meaning of the music -- which should have relevance to that particular culture. It should foster group identity and social cohesion, a sense of belonging, and it should have integrity. If it has true integrity, it will inspire new compositions and further strengthen the culture.

A good example of contemporary music that served our culture well were the anthems and songs sung on 9/11/2001. A few songs were chosen again and again at ceremonies, gatherings, commemorations and fundraisers, and these songs had an even greater impact than the American flags that were waved in so many towns, in so many homes across the country. Although we have a national anthem, and a beautiful one, simpler songs often won the day. "God Bless America" could not be more homespun in its words and simple melody. Like a poem of the people, it inspires and reverberates through the cultural fabric. Another song that was almost always performed was "America the Beautiful." The melody is simple and memorable, the words evoke the majesty and myth that is America -- her spacious skies, her amber waves of grain -- and the song inspires emotions that very few Americans can resist. High-minded classicists may say these are not truly great pieces of composition, but they satisfy all the requirements of true folk music, of music that has meaning.

One of the most interesting aspects of contemporary music is that it is so inventive. It is not bound by strict forms -- as sonatas or symphonies, ballads or hymns once were. Contemporary music can use any instrument from around the world, as well as invented instruments created by computers and digital synthesizers. For instance, the genre called 'new classical music' tries to infuse classical music with the energy of contemporary culture. New classicists may compose for traditional instruments like violins and flutes, but they compose for the spirit of today. One such band, NEO, which contains classically trained instrumentalists, advertises itself this way: "Fusing pop culture with classical technique, NEO-grabs your attention with infectious melody, driving rhythm, and a dynamic performance style which rivets from beginning to end." New classicists often play with a dynamic performance style - standing up, and at times using multi-media technology and collaborating with art forms like dance. If surprise is the essence of artistic pleasure, then contemporary music has the greatest license to constantly surprise us, and it often does so. There is more good contemporary music than any of us… [read more]

Classical Music Concert Evaluation Essay

… ¶ … attended a summer concert series staged in an outdoor arena in a public park in St. Louis, Missouri. This was a special event concert called The Music of Russian Composers, featuring music of Tchaikovsky, Shostakovich, and Prokofiev. I was looking forward to this concert in particular because I have come to appreciate the music of the Russian composers. The outdoor arena created a relaxed and casual environment to experience the music of the symphony orchestra, which uses the town park as its temporary summer home. One of the primary draws to this concert in particular, other than its featuring Russian composers, was the pianist Kirill Gerstein and guest conductor Oliver Knussen.

From the moment the music started, the audience was enraptured by the skillful playing and rendition of the pieces. The concert opened with Shostakovich's Piano Concerto Number 2, then Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture-Fantasy, followed by Prokofiev's Piano Concerto Number 1. The pieces were chosen with attention to the skills of the pianist, but also with awareness of the need for variety and nuance. While there were some common musical threads between the three pieces, each had its own internal dynamics which blended with one another to create a cohesive concert whole. The entire symphony participated in each of the pieces, offering a full and rich instrumentation that complemented the addition of the lead pianist.

The most dynamic of all the pieces was the Tchaikovsky Romeo and Juliet Overture-Fantasy, which started off as being a subtle and peaceful piece using clarinet, oboe and other reed instruments before bursting into a rich and lively textured intensity engaging the entire orchestra. The opening movement of the Romeo and Juliet Overture-Fantasy had a melancholy tone, due to the reliance of the lower registers and bass tones, but also in part to the soporific opening using cellos and double-bases. Harps were also engaged in the first movement of this interesting piece, which seemed to suddenly switch moods, just as the nature of the Shakespearean drama itself. The piece did seem to recall the tragic tale of the two lovers who believed in each other and in their romance, but who were thwarted and eventually died due to the unfortunate circumstances of their families and an unwelcoming community. The Russian composer's sensitivity to the emotionality of the Romeo and Juliet story certainly permeated the piece. Movements that were languid and somber alternated with those that were poignant and punctuated by the use of strong percussive instruments like the bass drum.

In contrast, the Prokofiev Piano Concerto Number 1 remained intense throughout. The percussion section was more engaged during this piece than any other during the Russian Composers concert. In fact, the pianist's skills really shone through here,…… [read more]

Symbiotic Relationship Between Musicians and Fans Chapter

… Evidence

The recorded music industry, after more than a decade of hardships and decline, is now slowly making profits and recovering. For the first time in more than a decade, the global music industry managed to make a positive annual… [read more]

Bmg Music Case Study

… As a result, this has been declining based upon a small percentage of revenues from sites such as: I Tunes and (Standard and Poor's) (Rivkin)

To make these adjustments, the organization must become more flexible. This is because customers are demanding specific songs they can download and play for one low fee. The technology partners they should be working with include: online retailers, independent labels, web masters, entrepreneurs and anyone who can help to make these songs readily available. This can be accomplished for a fee when someone buys it such as: $.80 cents per song. (Standard and Poor's) (Rivkin)

The biggest internally consistent choices are to encourage the management to become more flexible. This is because changes will occur rapidly inside the industry. To keep up with them, requires executives having the ability to quickly adjust. Moreover, various divisions are embracing particular attitudes and mindsets. This is troubling, as any kind of integration will make it difficult for them to work together. In the future, this has the ability to fail to understand the root causes of the problem and it makes it challenging for the company to adjust with these changes. Until managers become more flexible, there is the realistic possibility they could have trouble adapting with these shifts from embracing this culture (Standard and Poor's) (Rivkin)

BMG' leaders also face an organizational choice: they can (a) integrate their digital distribution into existing distribution operations or (b) establish a separate organization to serve digital customers. In making the choice, they must balance the static benefits of intra-organizational linkages against the inflexibility that such linkages often entail. Does the integration of digital and conventional distribution provide a benefit? Would it slow down digital efforts? Is there a tension between organizational coordination and speed of implementation?

The integration of digital and existing distribution segments does not make any sense. This is because it is combining two rival divisions of the firm and forcing them work together. In many organizations, one of the biggest problems is effectively merging them with each other. As each one, have specific practices, customs and traditions employees / managers are embracing. This makes any kind of transformations difficult, by failing to understand these transformations and the impact they are having on stakeholders. When this happens, the firm will continue to lose market share from not thinking proactively and failing to address how these variables will influence the operating environment.

This means that it will offer no benefits. Instead, it is slowing down efforts to make digital properties more profitable. This is from the tensions between the coordination and speed of implementing these transformations. To effectively deal with them, requires spinning off the most productive divisions and maintaining a certain amount of ownership in the new company. They have the ability to be run independently and the funds raised during the process can be used to consolidate BMG. This will occur through laying off managers and employees who are embracing the old mindset of them firm.… [read more]

John Coltrane's Version Essay

… ¶ … John Coltrane

Coltrane's version is in 6/8. This makes it sound quite fast because it halves the number of measures of the regular form. Even with the halving, the measure groupings do not sound in sync. They feel like they are competing with each other, the snare drum and the soprano saxophone are racing with the snare keeping steady and then stepping full throttle for just a few seconds to catch up to the saxophone which then does a little medley of its own, loud, triumphant, zooming past the snare drum and not looking back.

The ten bar long verse with a two-measure reversal added at the finish adds an exhilaration. It feels like such a long race with the steady, soft melodies that get only a little broken up by the piano. Did the saxophone win? Who knows but 5 minutes in the 13:47 minute long song, the saxophone is not heard.

The interlude, used throughout the song is in e-minor set to vamp up the measure that trails it. When listening to it, it feels like it is going to introduce the other parts of the song. It could also mean a quick break between verses, another race starting. At times it also feel improvised, like as if it just felt like it was supposed to happen in the moment, planning had no need to exist for those seconds, minutes.

The piano harmonies do a great job of setting the tone, e-minor to be exact. The bridge instead of being the regular A major is in the E major, leaving the original melody. Another spot for improvisation makes the corresponding sounds seem disjointed but at the same time recognizable. The harmonies are than extended, much like the improvisation gets extended from the first measure.

The other nine measures are left to bring forth the A section though Coltrane's version of the song also modifies the B. section, again modifying the existing harmonies. This part of the song is the ending, acting as a Coda. That is why this version of the song is so powerful. The variety offered within and even when Coltrane performs it makes it a new experience each time. The extended solos, another added extension is in the improvisation, coupled with a return to A, then topped off with an altered B. section and closing with a frees movement section really stretches how to listen to the song. There is so many things to hear and point out. It all appears mixed and muddled together, but at the same time unique and isolated. The song can be done in 13 minutes, 26 minutes, it all depends on how Coltrane felt at the time of the performance.

Listening to it for a second time, it feels like the introduction to a play where a bunch of actors come in all at once. They all come together holding hands, dancing, waving. Then the interlude comes and they all peacefully line up, smiling. That high pitched… [read more]

Billie Holiday's Strange Fruit Music Research Paper

… 1. A musician comes to acknowledge his or her involvement in social change as he or she sees individuals being directly affected as a consequence of his or her lyrics and music in general. Tendency to avoid topics discussing social change

III. Part 3: Music as a part of the artistic tradition

A. Music is a form of art.

1. Music has a series of artistic aspects and it is important to consider each and every one of them in order to be able to understand it properly.

2. Things that are as apparently simple as sound and silence are effective artistic concepts and have been responsible for triggering a great deal of historic (one can go as far as to say that they have contributed to some of history's greatest artistic movements).

B. All artists have a social responsibility.

1. Being able to discover one's role as an artist in society represents an essential step in a musician's life.

2. Proceeding with using this role to achieve social progress only happens in a number of cases when individuals are actually able control the effects of their artwork.

C. Art serves a specific function in society.

1. Art is generally seen as a means to entertain people.

2. When considering an in-depth analysis, the social and psychological roles of art in society are astonishing.

D. The scale of the influence of 21st century celebrities is nothing like the modern world has seen before.

1. Being a celebrity today is practically similar to being a god, considering the way that the masses respond to the idea of celebrity in general.

2. Difficulty associated with failing to complexly understand one's influence can have negative consequences both on the artist and on the masses.

E. The various impacts of music: on learning, on education, the relationship between music and education, the existence and affirmation of musical intelligence, etc. To make the point that a song such as "Strange Fruit" can and has tangible, measurable effects.

1. The depth to which music can shape cultural values is certainly impressive, considering the numerous positive effects that it has had on the world through time.

2. Understanding how "Strange Fruit" reaches out to people is essential in order to observe its ability to address the idea of social change.

F. Discuss the relationships between music and language, music & memory, music & wellness, and music & healing trauma -- such as the brutal killing of a black boy whose crime was being black and offering a greeting to a white woman publically.

1. Music's relationship to some of the most important concepts in the contemporary society is responsible for the social progress the world has experienced up to this point.

2. Being oppressed can sometimes only be understood by linking popular feelings to the art that discusses this idea, as music in particular often has the ability to soothe.

G. Music is one of humankind's greatest and most powerful inventions, especially within the context of the… [read more]

Art Comparison Pablo Picasso's "Guitar Essay

… Some are very clearly defined and painted in more realistic tones and shades than the other figures. Indeed, some are closer to caricatures of human faces with some shade to indicate skin and then black or red lines to create facial features. Three instruments can be seen; one is a piano which is only clearly indicated by the delineated black and white keys, another is a yellow trumpet which is rendered more geometrically, and then a square black and colored grid which may or may not be some sort of percussive instrument. The color palette of the painting is limited to red, white, black, yellow, brown, and blue. The lack of perspective or a singular style in the creation of the characters seems to echo the nature of jazz as a musical form. Often it is not restricted to notes on a page, but rather the musicians instinctually play their notes and form a cohesive sound. Even if they are not starting out with the same vision, they come together through the music. This is what is happening in this painting. With a few lines, the artist indicates human beings from all walks and avenues coming together to create something more valuable as a whole than they could produce as individuals.

Both paintings deal with music and musical imagery. Although the pieces were created three decades apart, there are definitive similarities between the two works. The materials are different and the colors are different, but the basic principles of the works are similar. Pablo Picasso's work is highly abstract with geometrical concepts. Normal Lewis's painting is not Cubist but it does show abstract images of musical iconography. In both works, the instruments are not created in ways that are real to life, but the essence of the instruments and the emotions that such music conveys are still palatable through the works. Additionally, neither artist confines himself to real world colors to show the effects of music or the emotions it creates, using the glaring color schemes to directly contrast the emotive vs. The actual.

Works Cited

Lewis, Norman. "Harlem Jazz Jamboree." 1943.

Picasso, Pablo. "Guitar, Sheet Music,…… [read more]

Intereview to Famous Artists, Sculptors Research Paper

… What do you think about how people feel about you?

"Hey, people are mean sometimes, but that does not mean that you have to be influenced by them. I'm not saying I don't appreciate my fans. I'm only saying that I can't spend my time worrying about what some people might think about me. I'm a singer and I transpose my feelings through the way I sing. Having to act in accordance with social mores would practically mean that I would be left with nothing to sing about."

Date of interview: August 18, 1973

I'm happy to meet you guys, I really appreciate your music and I wanted to ask you about how you came to consider this genre.

"I don't think it's something we've suddenly considered. We got together as we realized we had similar preferences. We were inspired by the blues rock movement from the late 1960s and we realized that we could personalize it by introducing country elements and we practically created a whole new genre."

I'm sure that many of your fans have trouble understanding your band's name. How did you come up with this name?

"We've gone through several names during the last years and this one kind of stuck. The initial version of this name was 'Leonard Skinner', a physical education teacher, from the Robert E. Lee High School. This teacher was crazy with following rules and he penalized boys who wore their hair long. I guess we felt that this was out chance to show our sarcasm and we took advantage of it."

I noticed you've changed a series of band members over the years? Is it difficult to be a part of Lynyrd Skynyrd?

"I wouldn't say it's really difficult. The thing is that the band is constantly changing while its genre stays the same and while the flow of ideas needs to be constant. Some people feel that this is in disagreement with their thinking and either prefer to emphasize their ideas or to leave the band in order to follow other projects."

Some people would categorize you as being conceited and as not really caring about your public. Is this true?

"Man, I'm a lot of things, but I'm no liar. I would agree that I and my mates have been arrogant in some situations. We've also shown that we don't care about what the public thinks in other cases. However, we really love our fans and we feel that there's a special bond between us. We don't want people to love us…we want them to love…… [read more]

Music Female Artists Have Been Receiving Essay

… Music

Female artists have been receiving more public recognition and support, especially since the Queen of Soul, Aretha Franklin. The "Queen" designation in popular music began with Aretha Franklin, who was born March 25, 1942 and who started making records by the time she was just 14 years old (Morgan, 2013). She therefore reigned supreme from a very young age. Her title "Queen of Soul" was earned because Aretha Franklin represents the pinnacle of soul music, combining the best of African-American artistic expressions such as gospel, blues, jazz, and R&B. Atlantic Records, which was her recording label for decades, released a greatest hits compilation called the "Queen of Soul," further solidifying Franklin's title.

According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (2013), Aretha Franklin was officially "anointed" the Queen of Soul when "Legendary Deejay Pervis Spann the Blues Man…ceremoniously placed a crown atop her head during a performance at the Chicago Regal Theater." No one has disputed her title (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, 2013). However, other sources trace the origin of the title of Queen of Soul to Aretha having won eight consecutive Grammy Awards for Best R&B Female Vocal Performance ("Aretha Franklin, n.d.).

It may be uncertain exactly how Aretha got the title "Queen of Soul," but it is apparent why on the merits of her musical talents alone. She was the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, 2013). However, Aretha was Queen long before she needed such high-profile recognition from the recording industries. She started making gospel recordings, due in part to her father's church connections. After she had her first child at age 15, her career was put on hold only temporarily until she worked with recording artists Dinah Washington. Franklin moved to New York City to strengthen her opportunities and career in 1960, but she was soon courted back to the Midwest by several record labels including Motown and Columbia, with which she signed a major contract ("Aretha Franklin" n.d.). She…… [read more]

Pain and Therapy Research Paper

… There will be a call for volunteers to participate in the study. The volunteers will be selected in a completely randomized manner, after those under 18 and those who are not mentally competent have been excluded. While all participants will be self-selected, they will otherwise be drawn from the community at random.

Fair treatment of human subjects will be conducted in line with the guidelines standard to the industry. Matters of confidentiality will be guided by the Institutional Review Board Guidebook and each participant will be asked to sign that they understand their role in the project. All personal, confidential information will be secured. The principle of informed consent will be adhered to in the conduct of this study. We do not anticipate any significant ethical issues with the human subjects in this study, as we are already aware that music does not have adverse side effects.

Collection and Analysis of Data

The surveyor will ask questions of the participants. These questions will utilize a variety of answering techniques -- anecdotal, Likert scale and ordinal scale. The results will be tabulated. Those that can be subject to statistical analysis will be subjected to statistical analysis. Interviews will be the only data collection techniques, and the instruments will be pen and paper. Without a device to measure physical pain, we need to rely on the subject relaying his or her experiences in the interview.

Scope & Limitations

The study will be limited strictly to the seven research questions. Other issues will not be addressed. There are limitations with respect to the sampling, as the use of volunteers inherently means that the subjects are self-selected. While the pool will be narrowed down using randomized selection, the use of volunteers does create a limitation. It is possible that the self-selection process will not result in a fully randomized sample, which would restrict the ability of the researcher to apply the results to the broader population. In addition, the study is limited in the ability to record accurate pain data. The use of subject experience is inherently faulty and subject to both error and bias. In addition, if too few volunteers emerge, the study will be hampered in its statistical significance -- the sample size needs to be sufficiently large and diverse in order to be applied across the entire population.

Additionally, this study will be limited in its specificity. There may be key information to be gained from learning about specific types of pain or specific types of music, but the scope of this study will focus more on finding general conclusions that can hopefully be narrowed down with future research. It is possible to design the study to incorporate only a particular musical selection, but this would then only test the hypothesis with respect to that piece of music. The researcher has chosen instead to test music in general, even though there are also benefits to testing individual types of music that will be unexplored.

There are also limitations regarding the use… [read more]

Music Handel's Messiah Essay

… The texture is warmer and less bright than the "hallelujah" section, but very energetic nonetheless.

7. There is an impressive amount of momentum in the Hallelujah chorus. This piece is a fine example of movement and momentum in music. This is a piece that is famous for its momentum. The overall momentum is prominent with very clear direction.

8. It is an up tempo and moderately fast piece. The tempo varies in the presentation of the lyrics. Overall, the orchestral or instrumental aspect to the piece is quick and moves in bursts of energy.

9. Handel uses rhythm with great intent and as a means to reinforce theme or emotion. He had a rich sense of timbre. He understood how timbre fit within the greater context of an entire work. Handel was a highly dynamic composer. This goes back to his understanding of thought and emotion. He used musical elements to evoke the emotions as well as take them for a ride with the music. He, like other great composers, showed a diverse repertoire of skill and use of melody to ground his music.


No listed author. (2013). Ludwig van Beethoven. Web, Available from: 2013 March 17.

Vickers, D. (2012). George Frideric Handel. Web, Available from:…… [read more]

Richter and Gardiner in Bach Research Paper

… Richter's powerful and lively interpretation is just that- powerfully spiritual and religious -- it is an emotional performance that most definitely shouts from the roof tops. Gardiner's is more intimate, more personal, and perhaps more uniquely spiritual in terms of being more evocative of prayer. Richter shows the Baroque in its entire splendor by allowing the musician's modern interpretations of volume and timbre; while Gardiner asks the performers to harken back 300 years to a time when instrumental expectations were quite different.


Cantata BWV4. (2008). Bach Cantatas Website. Retrieved from: http://www.bach-

Buelow, G., ed. (2004). A History of Baroque Music. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana


Friedell, E.A. (2009). A Cultural History of the Modern Age: Baroque, Rococo and Enlightenment. New York: Transaction Press.

Gardiner, J. (2007). Cantatas for Easter Sunday. Retrieved from:

Taylor, B. (2012). John Eliot Gardiner Biography. Retrieved from:

Unger, C. (2009). Discover Music of the Baroque Era. London: Naxos Books.

Worner, R. (1996). Karl Richter in Munich. Retrieved from:

Fig. 2 -- Bach, Kyrie from Mass in BMinor

Fig. 1 - Palestrina, Kyrie from Missa Aeterna Christos

Fig. 4 -- Opening passage with modified tune

Fig. 3 - Original 12th c. tune

See the performances at: (Richter); (Gardiner).… [read more]

Capsule From the 1960's Peers Term Paper

… Other items such as handheld calculators, ATMs, bar code scanners, and artificial hearts also were invented in the 1960s.

The 60s were a decade that presented us with many lessons to learn. There is a lot of evidence of creative expression. This period was also a time of great change and transition. We must also not forget that this era was very violent. Many people suffered injuries and lost their lives as part of their struggle for various forms of human rights or protection. The 60s showed us how much we can achieve when we are united and focused about social causes. The 60s showed us how we are not alone when we stand up for ourselves and others. The 60s opened our eyes to each other and to the world. We began considering ourselves as players on a larger stage, the galactic stage, as we began manned missions into space.

The 60s, more than anything, I think, showed humanity its potential for greatness and for tragedy. It was a decade of great achievements, and great failures & losses. There many lost heroes of this era that went on to live on in the memories of the future generations. In short, the 1960s were epic in magnitude. A lesson we can learn from this time is that humanity is powerful and there is a persistent tension between our positive and negative potentials, both of which are infinite.

It was a decade of extremes, of transformational change and bizarre contrasts: flower children and assassins, idealism and alienation, rebellion and backlash. For many in the massive post-World War II baby boom generation, it was both the best of times and the worst of times. (Walsh, 2010)


BBC News. (2013). The 1960s -- World Events. BBC, Web, Available from: 2013 February 12.

Dikkers, S. (1999). The Onion Presents: Our Dumb Century -- 100 Years of Headlines from America's Finest News Source. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.

Kurlansky, M. (2005). 1968: The Year that Rocked the World. New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks.

Walsh, K.T. (2010). The 1960s: Polarization, Cynicism, and the Youth Rebellion. U.S. News & World Report, Web, Available from: 2013 February 05.… [read more]

Audio Engineer Essay

… Chris Lord-Alge

Include a brief historical context for your subject:

The sound mixing engineer is a sin qua non-so far as music and musical production and even theatre and films are concerned. Sound engineering is a very sophisticated thing for which the engineer is not only qualified as a physicist, acoustics specialist, but also must be a great musician. The advent of the digital age has brought forth many electronic innovations of which the engineer must have a deep understanding. In Chris Lord-Alge we find one such person. Digitization and sound sampling has brought forth challenges and headaches in the form of copying, plagiary and open theft which is the current concern of these artists. So can the digitized work of Chris Lord-Alge and others like him be copyrighted and saved? That is the major question in the industry today. (Molly, 147)

Born when/where? Early training happened when/where?

As per the statement of Chris, "he was born and brought up at New Jersey, and his parents were musical. His mother seems to have been the inspiration for him because she found him an apprenticeship at H&L Studio. This was the turning point in his life." (Waves. com (a)) Chris Lord-Alge is an American mixer and his brother Tom Lord-Alge, is another audio engineer. He began producing and mixing an according to him he then stuck to mixing because "there's definitely less grief with mixing than with producing." (Waves. com (a))

3) Who were the engineer's early influences?

His mother influenced his talent and also found him an apprenticeship at H&L Studio. According to Chris, the moment he stepped in the studio, he found his career. He is known now for use of dynamic range compression in both hardware and software plug-in versions. He is also mentored by with Howard Benson, whose work was composed by Lord-Alge. Lord-Alge engineered mixing since 1990s, concentrating on production of discography. (BBC, Chris Lord-Alge Biography) Other influences were Joe Cocker, and Peter Frampton, and the modern producers. (Waves. com (a))

4) Where is he now?

As detected from the website he owns, the place of residence as shown in the site is Los Angeles, CA and no other authentic address is available. The contact is expected to be made only by this website at

5) What is the working style? Producer too? Works fast?

He is also a producer but has a most methodical style in engineering. The track goes through an analog device. Thereafter the tracks come as "Pro Tools Sessions (D). The procedure is then to transfer to 3348 (D)I mix through an SSL 72 G+ (a)I use a lot of outboard gear tube and solid state (a) Mixdown is both (a) & (D), even 1/4" @ 71/2 ips" (Waves. com (b)) According…… [read more]

Humanities Related Library Internet Resources Annotated Bibliography

… Besides this, he extended his landscape design by realigning roads and developing water features in Wisconsin home, Taliesen

According to Wright, every American had the right to engage the services of an architect no matter what the price of the house was, instead of living in a cookie-cutter house. Lloyd helped in designing a wide variety of other buildings, including churches, factories, skyscrapers, resorts, museums, government offices, gas stations as well as bridges. One of Wright's famous buildings is the Guggenheim Museum in New York City, with its round shell-like design though he never saw its completion due to death caused by intestinal blockage.

Frank Lloyd had several tags to his name; architect, interior designer, writer and educator, and during his lifetime he designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. He had a notion that buildings were to be designed in harmony with humanity and the environment; famously known as organic architecture. He proved this theory in his design for Fallingwater; a building which was built across a waterfall and is also considered as the best all-time work of American architecture.

Lloyd Wright is the pioneer American architect to design and supply custom-made furniture and house fittings that functioned as integrated parts of the whole design. The homes he designed were made of building materials such as precast concrete blocks, glass bricks and zinc cames as opposed to lead for leadlight windows. Besides, Wright incorporated the use of glass in his designs; he deduced that glass walls fitted well with the philosophy of organic architecture. He outlined that the use of glass allowed for the interaction and viewing of the outdoors while still protecting from the elements. This lit the house and allowed the natural environment to be felt by the house owners.

Works Cited

Erich, Duetsch Otto. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965.

Pierce, James Smith and HW Janson. From Abacus to Zeus: A Handbook of Art History, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

Saint, Andrew. "Frank Lloyd Wright and Paul Mueller: The Architect and his Builder of Choice." Architectural Research Quarterly (2004): 157-167.

Vlastos, Gregory. Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Wright, George…… [read more]

Music Review the Miami Big Essay

… The compositions and arrangements are simple and are too laid back. I think that the music could be improved if there were more complex rhythmic patterns utilized.

The Miami Big Sound Orchestra also plays jazz music, which I found interesting not because of their versatility, but because the music that they play sounds to be two separate styles. It is interesting to see how the Miami Big Sound Orchestra integrates an electric guitar into the jazz ensemble, however, I think that the two styles are too disjointed. I think that the Miami Big Sound Orchestra should work to fuse the Latin jazz music that they play with the more bluesy jazz music that they also play. Or, I think that the Miami Big Sound Orchestra could use the guitar more in their more Latin influenced music. I think that by integrating the guitar more, the ensemble would be able to create a unique style that would help to differentiate them from other horn ensembles. I think it would interesting to see how featuring the guitar as a solo instrument would change the dynamic of the ensemble. I imagine that the ensemble could create a more distinctive sound with the guitar as a major solo instrument because of the different effects that can be created by a guitarist, even if they do not use any special effects pedals.

Overall, the Miami Big Sound Orchestra is good at what they do. They entertain people by playing good music that they can dance to. I do think that there are some things that they could do to improve their sound, but these things have more to do with instrument choices and the music that they play, not necessarily the instruments that they play nor how they play them. One of the things that always stands out for me is the crisp sound of brass instruments, which may be why I am more drawn to the brass instruments than the woodwinds that are used.… [read more]

Music and Pain Research Paper

… S. mandated legislation protecting human subjects); the HHS Policy for Projection of Human subjects (1981, HHS and FDA regulations); and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects -- Also known as the Belmont Report (1979) is the cornerstone document for the protection of human research and includes beneficence, justice, and respect for persons as guiding principles (Goodwin, 2010).

However, it is not always necessary to withhold pain control from patients because there is enough data available regarding pre- and post-operative anxiety and pain issues, that one can use a literature basis to buttress initial arguments. One study, for instance, used patient's elf-reported ratings to evaluate their relaxation, anxiety, pain level, and nausea before and after music therapy sessions. This study was entirely ethical in its approach to the patients -- all were given the same opportunities to use music therapy, and then to rate its efficacy. Using a protocol of music, there was a clear reduction in pain perception, relaxation, and a quicker healing rate than national averages. Although some of this data is qualitative in measure, it was designed to be as includive as possible and used to help make decisions in evidence-based practice using an ethical approach to the patient's overall state of mind and health (Madson and Silverman, 2010).

Most results indicate that there are six different characteristics most associated with positive emotional effect when using music as a pain or stress reduction agent: 1) The music should be slow and flowing, between 60 and 80 beats per minute (the body tries to emulate heart rate with rhythm); 2) Non-lyrical music has more effect (there is less cognitive analysis in non-lyrical music); 3) Maximum volume should be 60 dB; 4) If possible, the patient should choose the genre of music; 5) Appropriate equipment (headphones, etc.) should provide a clear, coherent, sound quality; and, 6) 30 minimutes of music is the minimum duration of the therapy session (Lavitin, 2006).

Finally, the literature in organ transplantation emphasizes the need for intervention when patients are anxious or gloomy about or because of their proceedures. The use of music therapy had clear qualitative results -- all patients showed some improvement in self-reported measures of pain, anxiety, relation and nausea. This suggests the need for more longitudinal and quantitative research to validate the assumptions made, as well as try to recruit and maintain a larger demographic contingent.


Ghetti, C. (2011). Active music engagement with emotional-approach coping to improve well being in liver and kidney translplant recipients. Journal of Music Therapy. 48 (4): 463-85.

Good, M., (2010). Supplementing Relaxation and Music for Pain After Surgery. Nursing Research. 59 (4): 259-69.

Goodwin C.J. (2010). Research in Psychology: Methods and Design. New York: John

Lavitin, D. (2006). This is Your Brain on Music. New York: Penguin.

Madson, A. And Silverman, M. (2010). The Effect of Music Therapy on Relaxation, Anxiety Pain Perception, and Nausea in Adult Solid Organ Transplant Patients. Journal of Music Therapy. 47 (3): 220-36.

Nillson, U.… [read more]

New Technologies and Globalisation Essay

… In terms of pure reach, these three dominant business models and their many variations have generated over $50M in sales for Apple in the last half of 2011 alumni with the latest estimate being 68 total nations joining the $40M… [read more]

Music Discussion Forum Term Paper

… Section 2:

An example of the cognitive effects of music is evident in the following You Tube video clip showing the Australian band Radio Birdman performing in a small club:

Johnny Kannis begins by rousing up the crowd in a call-and-response exercise using the simple "Yeah ho!" This call-and-response session is before the band starts playing any music. It shows how the crowd can come together, joining in a common focal point. All attention is on the stage, and there is even a sense of conformity and obedience as the audience pumps the fists. Of course, as the band breaks into the song, the crowd remains cognitively engaged.

Section 3: Response to group feedback (in REVISED DOCUMENT ONLY) max 100 words

Example: I agree, it is fascinating that psychological research is actually able to show what specific effects music has on human perception and cognition. It is one thing to say, "I concentrate better when I am listening to music," but it is another thing to say that research proves this effect. Also, it would be interesting to see if listening with and without headphones has the same effect. Headphones block out the rest of the environment, which is an added effect that might make music more conducive to studying. Also, some research has shown that classical music is the best for studying. It would be interesting to find out why, or even if this is actually true. Finally, it might be interesting to learn about the specific neurological pathways created by music that make it have an effect on concentration and alertness.


North, A.C., Hargreaves, D.J. & Hargreaves, J.J. (2004). Uses of music in everyday life. Music Perception 22(1): 41-77.

Sloboda, J.A., O'Neill, S.A. & Ivaldi, A. (2001). Functions of music in everyday life: An exploratory study using the Experience Sampling Method. Musicae Scientae 5(1): 9-29.

Thompson (n.d.). Chapter 2: Origins of music.… [read more]

Sermon Every Youthful Generation Term Paper

… He said, "I know the right way, I was raised a good Christian. But I couldn't make it" (Amazing Discoveries). He couldn't make it he says. Well, whether I approve of rock and roll or not -- and you can come to your own conclusions about that -- my job as a Christian is not to condemn Jerry Lee Lewis, but to pray for him, to forgive him if he is a sinner.

Peter came to Jesus and asked, "Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother when he sins against me? Up to 7 times?" And Jesus answered, "I tell you, not seven times, but seventy-seven times" ( We know Jesus was capable of forgiving those who had taken the wrong path. As for Mr. Jerry Lee Lewis, I say we should even follow some of his advice, and do "a whole lot of shakin'" for the brokenhearted boy whose father was killed in the war; we should do a "whole lot of shakin'" for the homeless and the poor of spirit; and a "whole lot of shakin'" for those hungry children in Africa caught up in Ethiopia's famine.

As for Little Richard, how many in our congregation know that he received a spiritual vision while flying over Australia in 1958? He thus became a preacher. And today he says he uses music to "…teach love, because music is the universal language" (Amazing Discoveries). I cannot condone some of the lyrics to Little Richard's songs, but even though I disagree with him, I am not perfect, no one is perfect, so none of us should cast the first stone. So I say to our young people planning to attend the concert, keep Jesus in your heart, dance to the music, let your hearts be joyful that life has offered you so many choices, but never, never forget to honor your parents and to live the kind of Christian life that Jesus Christ wants you to live. Go, make a joyful noise, and my God be with you and protect you, now and forevermore.

Works Cited

Amazing Discoveries. "Elvis, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Christianity." Retrieved April 1, 2012, from

Fairchild, Mary. "What Does the bible Say About Forgiveness?" Retrieved April 1,

2012, from 2008.… [read more]

Debussy's Pelleas and Melisande Music Essay

… The dissolves to and from the sheet music of the opera refocus the audience to make viewers just as keenly observant of the music as they are of the costumes, actors, and sets.

The marriage between Golaud and Melisande was ominous from their very first meeting. She was crying, alone, and had no possessions. Melisande had dropped her crown, a gift. Thus, she is irresponsible with her possessions. Her loss of the crown is a foreshadowing of losing her wedding ring later. Melisande is also quite high strung when she meets Golaud. She is adamant about her desire to not be touched and she threatens to commit suicide over the demonstration of the smallest gestures by Golaud. Instability, excessive emotions, and hysteria are often traits associated with women, and as this is a symbolist opera, Melisande represents of womankind and femininity. She is duplicitous in that she commits infidelity on her husband with his brother. Melisande charms Arkel, Golaud, and Pelleas as she has a trance or hypnotic power over men.

It is most disturbing how Golaud used their son, Ynoid, to discover concrete evidence of Melisande's affair. Golaud goes out of his way to push Ynoid into the drama of the situation. It is really rather disgusting. Maeterlinck should have written that Golaud murdered Pelleas and Melisande. His rage, jealousy, and ego made him kill Pelleas, while his desire to cause Melisande pain although he loves her deeply causes him to wound her. She is already dead on the inside because Pelleas is dead. Melisande dies while giving birth. The baby is very small, as is the love within Melisande and the love between Golaud and Melisande.


Antokoletz, E. (2004) Musical Symbolism in Operas of Debussy and Bartok: Trauma, Gender, and the Unfolding of the Unconscious. Oxford University Press, Inc.: Oxford.

Tretize, S. (ed.) (2003) The Cambridge Companion to Debussy. Cambridge University Press:…… [read more]

Rock History -- Analyzing Songs Essay

… Hound Dog -- Big Mama Thornton & Elvis Presley

The difference between these two versions of the same song is as dramatic as the difference between hot chocolate and lemonade. Both taste good, but are very different for reasons of culture, musical genre, and production styles. Big Mama Thornton's version is raw and loud. Her voice is shrill and she hits the listener with a club. She isn't just angry, and she is raging at a lover who turned out to be phony. The old-time rhythm and blues arrangement is a lot like very early B.B. King instrumental. In the bridge, which features bluesy guitar picking and a rumbling sound that might be a drum, Big Mama speaks in rebellious tones, saying things like "Ahhhh… now wag your tail" in early blues style. The tempo of Big Mama's version is medium fast but the tension is powerful. Certainly her version influenced Elvis Presley, but he up-graded it into an early rock genre with his unique rock style and commercially viable instrumentation.

The Elvis version is slick, well-produced rock and roll compared with Big Mama's rather rowdy, rough style. The tempo of Elvis' version is quick and powerful, far more technically perfect that Big Mama's version. The Jordanaires (Elvis' long-time back up singers) add a harmonically appealing depth to Elvis' version. Elvis sounds hurt more than angry, while Mama Thornton is raging mad. The rhythmic hand clapping in the Elvis version makes the listener want to get up and dance, and wiggle hips like The King used to do.

Masters of War -- Bob Dylan

Legendary singer-songwriter Bob Dylan delivered this belligerent, angry and forceful denunciation of war -- and specifically in protest of the terrible threats to human existence created during the Cold War, including the massive build-up of nuclear weapons -- in 1963. Never before had Dylan included in his lyrics the wish that someone would die or be killed. The instrumentation in this song is as bare bones basic as the theme. Dylan plays his acoustic 12-string guitar and sings with that raspy, unique voice of his. The guitar accompaniment creates a dark theme, giving off a haunting, mournful tone, pounding relentlessly as though it were mocking the millions of young men who march off to war every year. "You play with my world," Dylan sings, "Like it's your little toy," and that is part of the theme of this song is that civilians felt helpless during the build-up of nuclear weapons by the Soviets and the Americans. While this was not a "hit" record, it was never intended as such.

We Gotta Get Out of This Place -- The Animals

This song's arrangement starts out with the lyrics "…In this dirty old part of the city" with a mildly tuned drumstick banging on a cymbal and a base throbbing away. "People tell me there aint't no use in trying," lead singer Eric Burden wails. After Burden tells his girlfriend she will die before her time, and that… [read more]

Music Has the Power to Influence Essay

… ¶ … music has the power to influence as well as to entertain people?

Music -- the truly universal language

Although it is generally appreciated for its ability to entertain people, music is far more complex than it seems. Music has played an essential role in people's lives ever since the beginning of history, considering that all cultures have a rich background in music. Music has been proved to affect all individuals by inducing feelings that are either negative or positive and by eventually influencing the way that they act. Music accesses parts of the brain that are very important and makes it more difficult for the individual to concentrate on matters that are more significant. The contemporary society is dominated by music, as there is a genre for anyone, regardless of what they like and as people have come to use music for a wide range of purposes. Music is truly the universal language because no other art form affects our emotions, society, and behavior so profoundly.

II. Most cultures today have traditional music, this standing as proof that people have always used music as a technique to amplify or produce particular states of mind. Even though it is difficult to determine what each culture used music for in earlier times, it is generally accepted that most civilizations have come to use music as a means to accompany stories or in order to encourage people to let their imagination run free. Music also made it possible for warriors to employ more strength of mind at the time when they engaged in battle. Largely all important rituals in most cultures are accompanied by music, as people came to acknowledge that music was capable of intensifying events through affecting individuals on a more complex level. Music can be beneficial for people who have trouble remembering things, as it was found to assist patients suffering from maladies like Alzheimer's or dementia.

III. Music experienced notable progress in the second half of the twentieth century as it started to be associated with various movements and as people expressed an increasing demand for particular genres. The 1950s saw a large number of individuals being influenced by music, considering that singers like Elvis Presley experienced success and given that society started to be more permissive regarding the effects that music had on people. Jazz music is considered to be very important in assisting African-Americans as they struggled to make it in a discriminatory society. Through supporting Jazz, many people came to ignore the suffering they experienced as a result of being discriminated and were enabled to come together in communities that shared their beliefs. Music thus made it possible for them to undergo an emancipation process as they started to be less vulnerable and as they developed stronger cultural identities. Matters changed significantly during the 1960s as the counterculture started to produce music that fueled anti-war thinking. Through the…… [read more]

Popular Music Term Paper

… Who needed to be just a Guitar Hero when they could now be an American Idol. (See But this invitation to include everyone into the game of rock and roll surely meant that the messages would be more down-home, more personalized to the lives of many and less about challenges to whichever system.

But when this version of music and rock and roll is written, what it really sound like?

In the age of interactive digital participation, it's very difficult to tell. However, some people feel it will come in packaging that looks a lot like what is happening with the digital book industry. In a publication called Publishing in the Digital Era, consultants for the book publishing industry start by saying that their people should rest easily. For "At first glance, the publishing industry seems unlikely to suffer the same jolting upheaval as the music industry experienced when new technologies hit it." By which they mean that there will not be a fundamental shift. People will still be buying words to read. But then again, their details about the shape of that future seems different and is very similar to what is in store for music and rock and roll. At the same time, they predict that the future of books will be a combination, a hybrid, of various media. This may mean linking their substance to a wide range of means of being purchases, but it also means a different way that consumers use the product. And they particularly see interactive and social avenues where readers and writers will develop their own relationships.

The same is very clearly the case for rock and roll and digital music in general. A blogger for Mashable, Nick Crocker, recently wrote his top five predictions for the future of music in 2010. The first four bullet points centered on how the companies will get smarter about using technology and how CDs will continue to die. But point number five is most intriguing. He says his last prediction is "Who knows?" The then goes on to end with this quote, which says a good deal about all kinds of pages of the future of music and rock and roll: "And of course, there's Facebook. The biggest country in the world (or soon to be), Facebook and music have always been awkward bedfellows. If Zuckerberg and Co. can figure a way to integrate music with the Facebook platform, the existing user base would guarantee a big chunk of the market overnight."


Crocker, N. (2010), Mashable Business, 5 predictions for the music industry in 2010. Retried from

Parker, J. (2009), School of Rock: What does Guitar Hero's popularity mean for the future of rock and roll? The Atlantic. Retrieved from

Bain & Company, Publishing in the Digital Era (2011). Downloadable from… [read more]

Music of Linkin Park Research Paper

… Music of Linkin Park

Over the course of the last decade, the band Linkin Park has transformed and popularized the genres of rap metal and nu metal, fusing them into a unique sound that borrows elements from both without ever… [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.