Study "Mythology / Folklore / Science Fiction" Essays 56-110

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Modern Fantasy Term Paper

… ¶ … Fantasy

Peter Pan: Resurrected

From Victorian Theatre & Literature to Modern Fantasy on the Big Screen

The 2003 movie version of Peter Pan, directed by P.J. Hogan, is the closest retelling of Sir James Barrie's original novel and play that has been made. However, it still remains a unique story with elements that clearly distinguish it as a modern version of this fantasy. The world of Neverland as created by Barrie and retold by Hogan is perhaps the epicenter of all fantasy, as it is a representation of the collective imagination and creative spirit that is shared by all children. The fantastical elements in this tale are heightened by the elements of Barrie's original language that is retained, combined with the stunning visuals of Hogan's creative visual team. In this story, the eternal child-spirit, Peter Pan, comes to Victorian London to sweep three Darling children away from their mundane life and go on an adventure to the dream-world of Neverland. After teaching them to fly, Peter takes them beyond time and space to his world. There is a clear distinction between the "primary" world of London that correlates to our own reality, where the Darling children attend school, the father works an office job, and the mother worries about social niceties. The "secondary" world of Neverland, however, is far more colorful and exotic; they encounter Fairies, Pirates, Indians, wild Neverlife, and Peter's pack of rogue Lost Boys. The Darling girl Wendy falls in love with Peter, and their stormy relationship leads to the near downfall of Peter's pack. In the end, youth triumphs over the "old, alone, and done for" pirates. However, Peter's pack of Lost Boys choose to return to London with the Darling children to grow up, and Peter is left alone, for he is the only eternal child.

This tragic Victorian children's fantasy can be considered modern for several reasons. The original story was written only about 100 years ago, however some changes that were made to the story for this movie version clearly identify it as a modern fantasy. First, in the original play and novel, Wendy was a very passive character, embodying the ideal "mother" for the boys as Victorian standards would insist. However, as Hogan has portrayed Wendy's character for modern audiences, she is far more proactive and independent. In this telling, Wendy carries a sword and faces foes along side the boys, rather than being as sheltered. The feminist elements of modern womanhood are very prominent. Additionally, in Barrie's story, Wendy does not consider becoming a pirate, whereas Hogan has her consider "joining the dark side" so to speak, and having a semi-romantic relationship with Hook. This reveals both the modern focus on a woman's place in society, as well as another modern element. Together with the very absurd modern addition of Hook…… [read more]


Gulliver's Travels" by Jonathan Swift Term Paper

… They leave responsibility behind to enjoy life, and the authors' commentary seems to indicate that if humankind becomes so selfish as to only think of themselves, then society, and certainly the family unit, will suffer.

In conclusion, family ties are an important part of society, and they can be a very important part of developing your self and your self-awareness. In these two novels, the characters ignore and neglect their families on their own voyages of self-improvement and self-indulgence. The authors seem to be saying that while journeying to find yourself is admirable and even desirable, that returning home again is just as desirable, and one should learn from one's adventures, but understand that home and hearth is an important part of the learning process, too. These two men both return home too late -- they have learned too much, and they have altered their lives forever. Thus, neglecting the family while searching for yourself may be something a man must do, but in the end, he must return home to be truly enlightened, and truly satisfied.

References

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein Or, the Modern Prometheus. New York: Collier Books, 1961.

Swift, Jonathan. Turner, Paul, ed. Gulliver's Travels. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Williams, Kathleen. Jonathan Swift and…… [read more]


Darwin's Children: Book Review Bear Term Paper

… The emotional needs of political and social groups, rather than facts determined by scientific realities thus control Darwin's Children.

How this book could be used in a sociology class

This novel could be used in a threefold capacity. From a political and sociological point-of-view of a teacher, the book's internment component means that a teacher could use it as an excellent springboard to discuss the internment of Japanese-Americans in America, Jews in Nazi Germany, and other instances where governments have specifically reacted out of fear against their own people, people whom have been suddenly deemed aliens, strangers in their own land. The stateless nature of the virus children provides an excellent political parallel with these historical examples.

The literary example of the internment also raises the question of the purpose of science fiction in the classroom. Science fiction, this book suggests, allows individuals to discuss issues not simply in terms of their political and social consequences, but in more abstract terms of alienation and internment, rather than just focusing on, for instance, anti-Semitism or anti-Asian sentiment as localized historical and sociological phenomena. Fiction in general also allows students to identify with aspects of history on a personal and emotive, rather than a purely intellectual and cerebral, levels.

Another emotional aspect of the novel is the estrangement of the novel's children from their parents. Thus, from a sociological perspective, the children's plight has parallels with the difficulty of all adolescent's attempts to extract themselves from their parent's generational grasp and forge a new identity. The fact that these children are mutated provides an additional and poignant resonance to the conflict between the generations, as is best exemplified by the conflict between Stella and Kaye. The scientist profession of the mother and the marginal status of the daughter highlights the conflict between religion and science across the ages, and provides an additional parallel between the conflict of many gay teens and their heterosexual parents as…… [read more]


Metropolis, Directed by Fritz Lang Term Paper

… Little light filters down to the little people of the city, giving much of the film and dark and brooding look. Their lives are dark, just as the underground is dark. Lang knew how to manipulate light, and used it quite effectively in this film. Modern science fiction films often use the same dark, brooding quality to heighten the sense of drama and tension, such as "The Matrix," and "Blade Runner." Brakhage seeks "absolute realism" in his films, thereby turning them into magic. Lang tried to project stark realism in his film, and created magic, long before Industrial Light and Magic came along. "Metropolis" is a classic film that altered the way the public viewed films, and filmmakers wove their craft, and Brakhage seems to have missed one of the best films to ever create magic.

Works Cited

Brakhage, Stan. "Metaphors on Vision." Film and Reality: A Historical Survey.…… [read more]


Dreamed of Creating Magic Term Paper

… In April of 2002, Ray Bradbury was granted another honor; he became on of the few writers to earn a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame (Rayl). His star sits at 6644 Hollywood Boulevard.

These aren't the only awards, Bradbury's work has been included in the 1946, 1948 and 1952 Best American Short Story collections. He has been awarded the "O. Henry Memorial Award, the Benjamin Franklin Award, the World Fantasy Award for Lifetime Achievement, the Grand Master Award from the Science Fiction Writers of America, the PEN Center USA West Lifetime Achievement Award, among others. (About Ray)" He has also been nominated for an Academy Award for his animated film Icarus Montgolfier Wright, and has won an Emmy Award for his teleplay of The Halloween Tree. Throughout the years five of his novels have been made into movies, and many dramatic presentations have been made from his works, many of which he adapted himself. He wrote for years on both Alfred Hitchcock Presents and The Twilight Zone Television Shows.

Ray Bradbury is an extraordinary man, now at nearly 82 years old he isn't even thinking about stopping. When asked, he tells you of his rules for life: the hell with it, and never give up. "Fill your life and don't notice the incapacities. You can't give up. Ever! Ever!," he says (Eyman). He certainly believes it. In the last two years he has finished "four novels, a couple of screenplays and two books of poetry."

Works Cited

About Ray Bradbury." June 18, 2002. http://www.raybradbury.com

Biography of Ray Bradbury." June 18,2002. http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Authors/about_ray_bradbury.html

Eyman, Scott. "Q&A with Ray Bradbury." Palm Beach Post. Sunday March 10, 2002.

Fat Chucks Index." May 21, 2002. June 18, 2002. http://www.fatchucks.com/z4.bb.html

Hartlaub, Joe. "Ray Bradbury." The Book Report Inc. 1999. June 18, 2002. http://www.bookreporter.com/authors/au-bradbury-ray.asp

Jepson, Chris and Johnston, Chris. "Ray Bradbury." Ray Bradbury Online http://www.spaceagecity.com/bradbury/bio.htm

Ochse, Weston. "Ray Bradbury Gets a Hollywood Star." 2002. June 18, 2002. http://www.feoamante.com/FeoNews/articles/bradbury_star.html

Ray Bradbury, Sharp as a Tack After Stroke." November 12, 1999. June 18, 2002. http://www.space.com/sciencefiction/bradbury_stroke_991112.html

Rayl, AJS. "Hollywood Honors Ray Bradbury- Beloved Author, Society Advisor- With a Star." The Planetary Society. April 3, 2002. June 18, 2002. http://www.planetary.org/html/news/articlearchive/headlines/2002/HollywoodHonorsRayBradbury.htm

Sipos, Tim. "Ray Bradbury On Mel Gibson's Fahrenheit 451, Preaching Science, And The Universe." Hollywood Investigative Reporter.com. April 22, 2002. June 18, 2002. http://www.hollywoodinvestigator.com/2002/bradbury.htm.

Stewart, Emily. "Review of Ray Bradbury's Martian Chronicles." Misfits. 2001. June 18, 2002. http://www.misfit.org/views/2001/03/estewart20010302.htm

The Ray Bradbury Page." Testerman's Sci-Fi Site. June 18, 2002. http://www.testermanscifi.org/BradburyPage.html

Wilson, Mark. "Fahrenheit 451." Science Fiction Weekly. 1998-2002. June 18, 2002. http://www.scifi.com/sfw/issue174/classic.html

Writer Ray Bradbury kicks off fall Assembly Series" Washington University. June 18, 2002. http://record.wustl.edu/archive/1996/08-22-96/3436.html… [read more]


Allegory and Idealism in Michael Term Paper

… org/bs/06/Sartelle.html).

The fact that the stronger creatures overpower the weaker ones illustrates the perfect allegoric symbolism for the business world. Those who are large and strong merge, sometimes by force, with the smaller businesses of the world.

The dinosaurs had… [read more]


Monolithic Theories of Myth Essay

… ¶ … Monolithic Theories of Myth

Much of what is known about Ancient Greece and Rome has been ascertained via the artifacts which those cultures have left behind them. These artifacts include artwork in the shape of pottery and statuary,… [read more]


To What Extent Were Roman Myths About Their Gods Influenced by Greek Mythology Essay

… ¶ … Greek Mythology on Roman Mythology

Because of the similarities between Greek and Roman mythology, many people assume that Greek and Roman gods are identical and their religious beliefs were the same. Ironically enough, the author's first real exposure… [read more]


Egyptian Mythology Essay

… The unity of Egypt and the foundation of the first Egyptian dynasty by King Menes is the first historical event that is recorded. The Egyptians were pioneers of recording historical events and after them; the trend was followed by different… [read more]


Greek and Roman Greek Mythology Essay

… Icarus's father created a labyrinth and was imprisoned in it. He crafted 2 pairs of wings; one from feathers and other from wax. He warned Icarus for not flying close to the Sun as the wax wings will melt. Icarus did not listen to his father and died once the wings melted. Similarly Tony was also warned by his mom, he created a labyrinth around himself. He thought that he could escape using money and power but he was killed by his own and very close gang members.

Part B: Greek Mythology -- Theoretical Approach for Understanding Myth

Greek mythologies can be better explained using a theoretical approach. Part B of this essay is based on a discussion of strengths and weaknesses of the mythic heroes of the modern movies discussed in Part A.

"Not only do films provide great illustrations of concepts and methods, but they also convey a more profound representation of the major type of modern hero shared by companies and the dominant producers of myth in our societies" (Fournout). In the modern society there is no believer of Odin or Zeus and also there is nothing that constantly reminds us of the mythologies. Movies like "Atlantis" and "Hercules" were produced as a direct effect of mythology. Mythology is a form of literature present in ancient civilizations. We have no historical background of myths; also there is no ecological function. All the fantasies of genre have their roots in the mythology. We cherish the tales of Perseus and Hercules as we view them as heroes. They were the ones, who overcome many odds and accomplished impossible tasks. Researches show that western mythologies have greatly created superman heroes as compared to the Eastern mythologies.

The movie "Jason and the Argonauts" represents tale of a hero, who was a loyal son and to get back the kingdom of his father he strives to get the Golden Fleece. His effort and heroism was supported by the goddess lo love, who wishes o marry him. Jason when came back, gets to know that his father has been killed and his loving mother died of this grief. He then fights to get back the thrown. Jason had the qualities of hard work and determination. He could go any extent to prove himself as a loyal son. The character did not depict any weaknesses to the viewers.

The movie Scarface (1983) was about a violent gangster, Tony, the king of organized crime world. He seeks pleasure in money and power. He cheats his boss and flirts with his girlfriend. He then overtakes the entire mob business and enjoys pleasure with the girl and money, both. His character depicts a person, who is weak from the inside and believes that everything is possible through money and power. He trusts his gang members and later gets killed by them. He realizes that nothing remains forever; neither money nor the power.

Scarface's story was inspired by the Greek mythology of the Icarus., who did not listen… [read more]


Modern and Contemporary Realistic Fiction Thesis

… Fiction

Modern Fiction Qs

Modern fantasy necessarily has a moral. This is clearly seen in all both Harry Potter and the Lovely Bones: Harry must forego his personal desires for the greater good; Susie and her family must move past their grief or be destroyed by it. There is also a great deal of wish fulfillment, which leads to the willing suspension of disbelief. Despite the horrors and loss that occur in these books, there are fantastical elements that make these worlds exciting for the reader to inhabit.

Realistic fiction such as Belle Prater's Boy involves elements that are often extreme, but fully plausible. That is, everything in such a story is possible, however improbable. The value for young adult readers is found at least partially in a less personal way of dealing with very personal issues. The loss of a parent by whatever means, for instance, finds and echo in Belle Prater's Boy; the grief and anger dealt with in the novel can allow a young reader the opportunity to deal with similar emotions in a displaced and less painful way.

3)

The controversy in teaching Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone is found almost entirely in religious objections. The books is predominantly about witchcraft, and though this magic is not evil within the context of the novel a strict reading of the Bible interprets any attempts at magic inherently evil. With this issue aside, it could also be claimed that the "good vs. evil" argument in the book is overly simplistic. This constitutes a misreading of the book, however, as there is nothing straightforward about this issue in the novel. Harry is tempted to evil many times, and good characters become involved in foolish and questionable acts (a fact which becomes more pronounced as the series progresses); it is not simply a struggle of good vs. evil, but a struggle for the good to remain good. This book makes it clear that being good is neither easy nor especially rewarding. Professor Quirrel represents the anti-Harry more than Voldemort in…… [read more]


King Must Die Essay

… ¶ … King Must Die by Mary Renault first issued in 1958, and is a valuable example of historical fiction. Throughout the book, Renault ventures to create a plausible account, based on archeological findings and real information, for the widely known myth of Theseus and the Minotaur of Crete. In this sense, she begins a first-person narration, recounted from the hero's perspective, of the many events which serve to form Theseus as a capable leader up to the age of nineteen.

The present work's focus is to enlist the aspects which pertain to Renault's attempt to foray into the realm of Greek legends in realistic terms, and the manner in which she translates the ancient Mediterranean civilization in her literary onset.

As the legend of the Minotaur has it, Theseus is most memorable for killing the Minotaur, a supernatural monster imprisoned in an underground labyrinth by the king of Crete, and fed on people. Allegedly, these were captured slaves, driven into the maze as unwilling sacrifices to the creature, and were given the option of finding their way out before being found and devoured. Being the young and bold heir of Athens, Theseus volunteers to be taken captive and brought to Crete as offering to the Minotaur. Aided by king Minos's daughter, Ariadne, he enters the labyrinth with a ball of thread that helps him find his way back after bravely slaughtering the evil creature.

Mary Renault took the myth of Theseus and the Minotaur and constructed a novel starting from the historical circumstances which may have surrounded it. In fact, she used Plutarch's biography of Theseus, together with early 20th century archaeological discoveries such as the excavation of Knossos and thoroughly researched everything that has been discovered by archaeologists or anthropologists, to propose a sensible characterization of Theseus and develop a series of adventures that are literarily appealing as well as historically realistic.

The King Must Die achieves the major accomplishment of steeping deeply in the transitional mindset of the Mycenaean period in which the stories take place, where Crete held the hegemony over the Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranean area as a whole was barely emerging from the practice of fertility cults and going through radical religious and political transformations. Specifically, the matriarchal society model of human development was shifting into a culture where multiple sky-gods were favored, and men as gender took the autocratic stage.

Furthermore, Renult's novel amply describes the manner in which pre-Indoeuropean queens' temporary consorts were ritually sacrificed again and again as a symbol for the dying and rising god of vegetation, and for the sake of the kingdom's future when their term ended. Persephone of Elesius, who makes Theseus her consort, informs him that "the law is that the king must die" (Renault 37), thereby clarifying the tradition that the novel's title is also inferred from. In this general context, Theseus might be perceived as the embodiment of transformation and the symbolic leading agent of change: "One should go like a man, not… [read more]


Greek Mythology and Feminine Divinity Essay

… In many instances, Hesiod gave names that unmistakably showed the goddesses' power. In fact, these goddesses did not merely control these aspects of life; rather, the goddesses were these aspects of life, such as: night, day, order, justice, peace, fate, doom, death, sleep, indignation, deceit, friendship, age, strife, blame, woe and the destinies. Furthermore, when the goddesses' names did not make their power obvious, Hesiod explained their power. According to Hesiod, the very reason that he could sing of gods and goddesses was that the persuasive and powerful Muses had given him that gift. Also, Demeter is called a "bright goddess" who is "all-nourishing." Most of the goddesses in Theogony were also wily and favored their children over their husbands, who were castrated or tricked into eating a cleverly disguised rock. Other goddesses who stayed loyal to their husbands used immense power to help them: every day, Day pulls Brightness over the Earth with her chariot, then Night pulls Darkness over the Earth with her chariot. No matter who had the goddesses' loyalty, the many goddesses in Hesiod's Theogony were wily, powerful and pretty much a match for a god.

The Homeric Hymn to Demeter shows the limitations and domestication eventually forced on goddesses by Greek mythology. When Demeter's daughter, Persephone, is kidnapped and raped by Hades and Zeus allows it, Demeter can do nothing directly against Hades or Zeus. Instead, Demeter is grief-stricken, withdraws from Olympus and goes to earth, where she becomes a wet nurse for a human's newborn son. Demeter does retain power over humans and still rules the harvest; however, she is powerless to force Hades or Zeus to release her daughter. In addition, after Zeus persuades Hades to release Persephone, Demeter cannot change the fact that Persephone must return to Hades for part of every year. Contrasted with Theogony, we see a considerably weaker, more limited and more domesticated role for a female deity. The Homeric Hymn to Apollo also shows a weaker, more limited and more domesticated role for goddesses. Here, many goddesses are reduced to helping Leto deliver her child, then washing and clothing the child. Even Hera, Zeus's wife, is limited in fighting a god because she can do nothing to stop Zeus' repeated affairs or to harm Zeus directly. The best she can do against him is to vow not to have sex with him and to stay away from Olympus. Nevertheless, Hera retains power in that she is still able to give birth to a child -- though a horrible one -- without Zeus. By comparing Theogony and the Homeric Hymns to Demeter and Apollo, we can readily see that Greek mythology limited and domesticated a previous notion of feminine divine power.… [read more]


Greek Mythology Is a Collection of Stories Term Paper

… Greek Mythology is a collection of stories by ancient Greeks about their gods and heroes (World News 2007). These stories include myths of the origin of the world, an attempt to understand and interpret the universe and the origin of… [read more]


Jay Mechling Has to Say About Folklore Essay

… ¶ … Jay Mechling has to say about folklore, students, folklorists, mediating structures and megastructures.

Before discussing megastructures and mediating structures, the first thing Jay Mechling makes clear in his essay (p. 340, Folk Groups, Folklore Reader), and he is… [read more]


Mythology Is Important Term Paper

… More sophisticated mythology on the other hand often includes significant conflicts and losses for the good side. In order to deal with conflicts between opposing parties, mythological stories are often used as guidelines for the right way to do this.… [read more]


Irish Folklore Introduction and History Term Paper

… "While you had the shamrock, it kept every enchantment and devilment from you, and when you parted with it, you became as big a fool as the others" (Colum, 395).

The shillelagh is a symbol of the greatness of the Irish oak tree and oak forests. In a column written over 100 years ago by Crofton Croker in the Dublin Penny Journal, explains the importance of the shillelagh to Irish culture. " ... For an Irishman cannot walk or wander, sport or fight, buy or sell comfortably, without an oak stick in his fist. If he travels, he will beg borrow or steal a shillelagh" (Colum, 397). The shillelagh, we are told, was named after a great oak forest in the eighteenth century. The symbolism of the shillelagh is another example of the love the Irish people have for their land and for the products that are grown from it.

CONCLUSION

Irish folklore is still very prevalent in today's society. It does not something that is practiced on a daily basis; it is kept alive in Irish literature. In Irish literature, it is common to find a connection between current society and Irish folklore through its words and symbolism and the use of mythology and folklore. The creativity of the tales and the proud nature of the Irish people to preserve this cultural staple are largely responsible for the continued life of Irish folklore in contemporary society.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Colun, Padraic. Ed. (1962) A Treasury of Irish Folklore. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.

Curtin, Jeremiah. (1890). Myths and Folklore of Ireland. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.

Glassie, Henry. (1998) Irish Folk History: Tales from the North. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press.

O'Sullivan, Sean. (1974) The Folklore of Ireland. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd.…… [read more]


Functions of Myth Term Paper

… If the dance is performed correctly, the Hopis believe it will bring rain (O'Kane 196-205). The Snake Dance is an excellent example of myth in its purest form, as it is the physical acting out of only one of the… [read more]


Storytelling Review of Literature Term Paper

… This conclusion, however, is countered studies. These include research done outside the purview of feminism. Psychologist Richard Meth (1990), for instance, writes as young as three or four years old are able to select toys and games that are considered… [read more]


Mythology Overall, I Do Not Believe Assessment

… Mythology

Overall, I do not believe there is one singular example of a goddess in Greek mythology that fully represents the confrontation of female power and male power. A combination of the myths to me, seems to be more accurate and more fully encompasses the dynamic and tense struggle between male and female power in the illustrious mythology of the Greeks. Artemis, Athena, and Hera together epitomize the full spectrum of power and even the contradictions in power and personality of the female Greek god.

The myths of these women show how women can be powerful, connected to the earth, connected to physical & mental prowess, as well as connected firmly to the feminine, what is domestic, and the family. The combination of these goddess myths also show the spectrum of emotion of women (good and bad) as well as how women are symbols of sexuality, fertility, and virginity. These women are both independent and autonomous, but are also connected to or interdependent with men, with respect…… [read more]


Beowulf in the Epic Poem Term Paper

… Beowulf

In the epic poem Beowulf, the three supernatural beasts function as symbols of man's anxiety towards his environment. it's too easy to forget that in the Anglo-Saxon era, (around the 5th century, C.E.), the environment was much wilder and far more hostile than the environment of luxury and comfort that human beings are used to now. Much of that hostility revolved around how man had a great deal of difficulty surviving. Day to day survival wasn't easy, not even for the rich. Securing food and adequately nutrition was dependent on hunting, fishing and farming: all of those options have one element in common: they are all based in uncertainty. Homes were incredibly flimsy, there was no electricity and even candles were reserved just for the rich. Wolves lived on the perimeter of villages and they had to be warded off from preying of domestic animals or livestock, or even humans, such as small children. Clearly based on these stark facts regarding the sheer challenge presented by day-to-day life, one could see how there would be an underlying tension that acted as the foundation beneath human interactions and human interaction with one's environment.

This anxiety is apparent in the first appearance of Grendel in the text. Grendel drags off thirty or so sleeping heroes of war and consumes all of them savagely. Consider: "When the sun was sunken, he set out to visit/the lofty hall-building, how the Ring-Danes had used it/for beds and benches when the banquet was over./Then he found there reposing many a noble/Asleep after supper; sorrow the heroes, / Misery knew not." This stanza demonstrates the opportunistic quality of Grendel and juxtaposed with the innocent and quiet slumber of the soldiers. In the Anglo-Saxon era, it is no doubt that people had been murdered by predators during soft and peaceful slumber; setting the scene in this manner was a reflection of that occurrence and that fear. This stanza is a pure reflection of the fear of the era: the fear of being preyed upon.

Furthermore, the description of Grendel imparts this character with distinctly diabolical qualities and a strong sense of cunning. Grendel is a sign of evil incarnate. "The monster of evil/Greedy and cruel tarried but little, / Fell and frantic, and forced from their slumbers/Thirty of thanemen; thence he departed/Leaping and laughing, his lair to return to,/With surfeit of slaughter sallying homeward." This description of Grendel both reflects the senselessness of the slaughter, the underlying fear of being killed senselessly by a predator and of the primitive conception of good and evil. One could argue that members of a society which fear monsters are generally ones which have extremely dichotomous notions of right and wrong. The sheer appearance of Grendel and all she does is clearly representative of that. In that sense, she's an extremely simple character: Grendel is evil and she kills with no mercy, creating simply devastation, because that is simply what evil beasts do.

If one were to compare that to mythological… [read more]


Oates' Story Essay

… They were the "echo of a song from last year " -- this is no longer the newness and vigor of the music mentioned at the beginning of the story, rather music has become stale and passe. Connie, the allusion seems to say has become old too.

Oate's story is one that makes an impact and lodges itself in your mind. Whether cautionary tale or one that is fantasy with psychological implications, Oates' Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? leaves a message to all people everywhere, regardless of age, never to follow a stranger. That the man is a rapist and child-molester seems to be clear from his actions and form his telling Connie what he will do to her. That he may also kill her seems to be implied in the last sentence ("the vast sunlit reaches of the land behind him and on all sides of him -- so much land that Connie had never seen before and did not recognize except to know that she was going to it" -- an implication of infinity) and from Connie's fears that she may never see her mother or her bed again. . The story is replete with multiple meanings, and that, together with the skillful way in which it is written makes it one that has an enduring impact.

Source

Oates, JC Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Retrieved from:

http://www.usfca.edu/jco/whereareyougoing/

Kurkowski, CJ. A Psychological Analysis of Connie: A Feminist Viewpoint of "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Retrieved from:

http://home.mindspring.com/~blkgrnt/footlights/foot66.html

Quirk, Tom. "A Source For "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Ed. Elaine Showalter. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1994. 81-89.

Urbanski, Marie Mitchell Olesen. "Existential Allegory." "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Ed. Elaine Showalter. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1994. 75-79.… [read more]


Epic of Gilgamesh Research Paper

… Epic of Gilgamesh is literature, history, and an insight into the basis for human civilization. It is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia, thought to be one of the first areas in which humans urbanized. Most scholars believe it was… [read more]


Critique and Assessments on Children's Literature Assessment

… American children walk into a library, and they immediately run to the children's department where they can normally find thousands of nonfiction, fiction and story books depending on their age. They can walk into a bookstore, such as Barnes and… [read more]


Villains Throughout Myth Research Proposal

… Myth Villains

The Common Characteristics of Villainy: An Examination of Dastardly Traits from Early Mythology

There are many wildly different sets of mythologies and individual myths in existence today; every human culture has some set of fundamental beliefs that is… [read more]


Bres Celtic Fertility God Essay

… Bres -- Celtic Fertility God

Much like other cultures in Western civilization, that of the ancient Celts who lived primarily in what is now Northern England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland, worshipped an entire range of gods and goddesses, known as a pantheon. Culturally, the ancient Celts which included a group of religious worshippers called the Druids, were deeply influenced by the natural world around them; thus, they created this pantheon of gods and goddesses as a way of giving praise and recognition to the forces of nature, most of which they did not fully understand.

Of course, like many other ancient Western cultures, the Celts "were a warrior people who depended greatly upon specific gods and goddesses for protection and victory against their enemies" (Brezina, 189); they were also great worshippers of deities related to fertility and agriculture whom they saw as being responsible for "birth, life and death and for the bounty given to them through the planting and cultivation of foodstuffs" necessary for daily life (Monaghan, 267).

One of the most important Celtic gods related to fertility was Bres, a very early Celtic name meaning "the glittering one," perhaps a reference to sunlight or the bright light of a cold winter's day in the hinterlands of ancient Ireland and Scotland (MacKillop, 346). According to Corona Brezina, Bres is most closely associated with Irish mythology and folklore and was often referred to as "Eochu Bres or "Beautiful Bres," due to being extremely handsome, virile and appealing to women. As the son of Prince Elatha, the ruler of the Fomorians, and Eriu, herself a goddess and from which the ancient name of Ireland is derived (i.e., Eire), Bres in his youth became the king of a group of Irish nobles known as the Tuatha De Danann, but as Patricia

Monaghan points out, Bres "was not a very popular nor beloved king of his people, due to his arrogance and self-love which he flaunted whenever possible" (268).

Exactly how Bres became the king of the Tuatha De Danann is not clear, but according to prevailing Celtic/Irish mythology, a former king known as Nuada "lost his hand in the first Battle of Magh Tuireadh" (Lindemans, Internet) and was quickly deemed as unfit to rule as king, one reason being his addiction to hard drink. Although Bres' father Elatha was the ruler of the Fomorians, there appears to have been some kind of tension between the Fomorians and the Tuatha De Danann; nonetheless, in an act of "reconciliation, the Tuatha De decided to name Bres as their king" and allowed him to marry Brigid, one of the most important fertility goddesses in Celtic/Irish mythology and folklore (Lindemans, Internet).

As previously mentioned, Bres turned out to be a very brutal and untrustworthy king for his people. As a ruler, Bres was "tyrannical. . . raised taxes to a near unbearable level" (Lindemans, Internet) and forced many of the Tuatha De Danann to be his personal slaves, "working in his house as unpaid laborers and… [read more]


Norse Myth of Valhalla and Its Rebuilding Essay

… ¶ … Norse myth of Valhalla and its rebuilding. It will answer two questions regarding the Norse myth of Valhalla and the gods' survival of Ragnarok.

Who are these new gods and why did they survive Ragnarok?

Many of the old gods die in Ragnarok, such as Odin, Thor, Freyr, Heimdall, and Loki. Ragnarok occurs after the death of Balder, one of the favorite gods, and after the Norse world undergoes three winters back to back. Odin is aware of the gods' fate at Ragnarok, and knows there is nothing he can do to prevent it. Among the new gods are Vidar, Vali, Modi, Magni, Balder, Honir, and Hod, and they survive because they have hidden during the fighting and subsequent destruction of the Earth, or in the case of Balder and Hod returned from Hel after the destruction. The author writes, "And Balder and Hod will come back from the world of the dead; it will not be long before they, too, tread the new green grass on Idavoll" (Crossley-Holland 175). The gods also survive because of fate, which is such an important aspect of Norse mythology. Odin knew the gods' fate before Ragnarok occurred, and new that he could not change that fate. The gods who survived did so because it was their fate to return to the new world, and lead the people in a new way, so they were essential for the survival of the humans and the return of the world to its natural, fresh state.

In Norse mythology, the gods are the most important beings, and so some of them have to survive to continue the myth and to continue life. The old gods suffer their fate at Ragnarok, and that leads to the destruction of the old world, and the rebirth of a new, where everyone has a new chance at life and a new beginning. The author writes, "There will be life and new life; life everywhere on earth. That was…… [read more]


Shrek the Movie Creating the Myth by Linda Seger Essay

… Shrek: Modern Myth

Storytelling is as naturally human as breathing. Every culture has stories, and usually a venerated position of storyteller or re-enactor -- whether they are literally oral storytellers writers, actors, singers, artists, and even film directors, storytellers have existed as long as human society has. As Linda Seger notes in her essay "Creating Myth," there are also many similarities between the stories that all cultures tell (Seger, 1). These mythical archetypes are universally recognizable, and even modern films like Shrek can be shown to stem directly from these sources (seger, 5).

Shrek is an animated film about an ogre who ends up -- quite reluctantly -- on a quest to save a princess. The film incorporates many commonly known fairy tales and nursery rhymes, largely to comic effect, and adds some changes to the basic fairy tale plot. But at its heart, this movie is a very typical fairy tale, which is perhaps the most direct form of myth available to us today. There are some very easily identifiable archetypes in the film -- Shrek, the hero; Donkey, the sidekick; Fiona, the princess in distress -- and the plot also follows a fairly traditional trajectory. Like most fairy tales, Shrek is a story of personal discovery as well as external achievement.

Seger identifies two basic types of myths at the start of her esy, the searching myth and the hero myth: "Some of these stories are 'search' stories. They address our desire to find some kind of rare and wonderful treasure...[hero stories] come from our own experiences of overcoming adversity, as well as our desire to do great and special acts" (Seger, 1). It is significant that Seger phrases her statements in the inclusive first person; these stories are collectively ours, and remain entertaining and compelling because they express sentiments and desires common to all human experience, and this is one of the most important lessons in Shrek.

The…… [read more]


Myth With in Art Essay

… Myth Within Art: The Birth of Venus by Botticelli

One need only stroll through any major art museum to come to the conclusion that many great artists are inspired by mythology. At first blush, the fascination with mythology might seem as if the artists are hiding from reality and retreating into fantasy. However, one who believes that has only a limited understanding of the role of mythology in culture, because myths "are not childish stories or mere pre-scientific explanations of the world, but serious insights into reality." This is because mythical themes help explain cultural norms, and how various cultural groups approach major issues like sex, death, marriage, childbirth, and war.

One of the more interesting characters in mythology is the Roman goddess Venus. Venus was the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, and the Roman version of the goddess was largely influenced by the earlier Greek myths about Aphrodite. Venus played a major role in Roman culture during the Roman Republic and empire, and was associated with love, beauty and fertility. She was also considered the literal ancestor of the Roman people. The Birth of Venus was painted by Italian artist Sandro Botticelli in 1484 or 1485, though its origin and patron are otherwise unknown.

The myth of the birth of Venus is incredibly symbolic. According to both Greek and Roman mythology, Uranus, the ruler of the universe, was killed by his son Saturn. Uranus had been intent upon hiding some of his children, which enraged Gaia, Saturn's mother. Saturn used a giant sickle and ambushed Uranus, cutting off his genitals, castrating Uranus, and casting the severed member into the sea. Accounts vary, but either Uranus' blood or semen created several different varieties of mythical demi-gods. In addition, either from the member or the testicles cast into the sea, Venus rose, fully formed, from the sea foam. She was transported by a shell to the shore, which is thought to symbolize the human vulva.

The most significant theme in the birth of Venus myth is the idea of patricide and infanticide, themes that dominated much of both Greek and Roman mythology. Although Saturn is originally praised for his actions against Uranus, he is eventually subjected to the same type of treatment from his children, when he seeks to dominate them as Uranus had done to his children. In this way, the myth issues a powerful warning against the accumulation of too much power, and justifies the use of force against those who would abuse their power. In addition, the myth features an immaculate conception, as Venus is born from the sea foam and is born fully-grown. She becomes one…… [read more]


Archetypes From Greek Mythology Essay

… Archetypes From Greek Mythology

Greek mythology and modern times: Archetypes

An archetype is a type of general character who seems to exist as a 'type' in a universal fashion, in different times and cultures. One such an example is that of a 'transgressor,' one who transgresses the boundaries of conventional behavior, such as Dionysius, the god of wine and misrule in Greek mythology. Dionysius was followed by hordes of drunken female worshippers who engaged in suggestive dances, and whose own half-feminine, half-male appearance was considered transgressive. Other transgressive individuals in modern times might similarly 'bend' accepted rules of gender and sexual behavior -- including drag queens or even the comedian Eddie Izzard, a heterosexual male who wears women's clothing, lipstick, and makeup while he critiques society in his comedy shows.

Tricksters like Hermes are some of the most beloved characters in all of Greek mythology, despite their amorality. Hermes playfully steals Apollo's cattle when the young god is barely old enough to walk. Other tricksters today might be comedians like John…… [read more]


Mythology the Joy Luck Club the Film Term Paper

… Mythology

The Joy Luck Club

The film "The Joy Luck Club" is a classic example of a mythical tale. First, it is told as a complex of stories that may be fact or may be fantasy, and it illustrates a deeper meaning to life and the characters' reaction to life. The film is also mythical in that it tells the story of two different cultures, the culture of the older women who grew up in China and have tried to retain much of their home culture (such as their weekly mahjong games and their favorite foods). Then there is the new generation, their daughters, who have little interest in their culture and have made themselves as totally American as possible. This shows the mind and character of these two generations, and they are symbolic of the changes that occur between generations, cultures, and values.

This film looks at the minds and characters of these women, and analyzes them to show why they do the things they do. They indicate these women all have hopes…… [read more]


Mythology According to Her Promise to Keep Term Paper

… Mythology

According to her promise to keep the people's fields well-watered, the Rain Goddess generously endowed the plains with her blessing. All manner of fruit flourished there, from oranges and figs to yams and barley. Her sporadic waters mingled with her husband's, the Sun God's, warm and gentle light. However, the Storm God, jealous of the love between his brother and the Rain Goddess, frequently intervened and attempted to sabotage their noble efforts. The Storm God and the Sun God had for years vied for the love and affection of the gorgeous Rain Goddess, whose beauty was surpassed by no one. When it came time for the Rain Goddess to choose her husband, the Storm God vowed perpetual revenge, for he had been passed over, rejected in favor of his younger and more handsome brother. The Sun God's dashing looks attracted to him many goddesses, and the Storm God was weary of his brother's perennial successes. Hot -tempered by nature and less reliable than his brother, the Storm God possessed one feature his brother did not, one trait that gave him an edge with the Rain Goddess: he had the ability to arouse her passions and force her floodgates to open. Whenever the Storm God wished, he could taunt and torment the Rain Goddess until she would cry and fight back and when she did, the Storm God felt as if he mitigated some of his pain and humiliation and believed that he regained his pride.

When the Storm God argued with the Rain Goddess, their voices rose in tumultuous union, causing crashes of thunder and flashes of lightening. More than kissing the plains with her waters, the Rain Goddess would flood them and the people often cursed her for her irregularity. In contrast, her husband the Sun God was reliable and even when great puffs of cloud obstructed his light, the Sun God helped their crops to grow and thrive and kept their families warm. Yet the people knew that the sun and the rain were both required for healthy fields.

One day…… [read more]


Popular Culture Is Relatively Young Term Paper

… Through greed, jealousy, and pride their hearts have become like stone. So they are turned into statues, but retain their consciousness that they might behold their sister's happiness until they admit their own faults. (from Opie, I. The Classic Fairy… [read more]


Realism in Film -- Altman Term Paper

… Miller prefers using drugs to using her body for pleasure. Rather the main ethical dilemma the protagonist faces is economic and personal. Should McCabe allow himself to be bought out by the mining company who wishes to cast his saloon and gambling house out of the area? Should he risk his life for the sake of personal, material gain and attempt to build upon Mrs. Miller's enterprise and his own?

McCabe makes use of prostitution as a financial lure for gamblers, using the bodies of women for financial gain but the film sees him as superior to those who would kill him with bounty hunter rather than see him make money. Mrs. Miller may be a whore with a heart of gold, in the traditional stereotypical lines the Western favors, but she is also a savvy businesswoman who chooses her lot in life to a great degree, and an addict who is unrepentant, calcified in a soul that is beyond repair to the cares of the world. Only through capitalism and individualism is she cable of any connection with an individual like McCabe.

Yet, the film does have the qualities of popular mythology in its depiction of the American West. "I have poetry in me," McCabe says at one point, both lauding himself in spirit, as well as desiring to scheme to make more money. Ultimately, the film both shows how mythology, like the community's emotional investment in a church, has power in the West, but this mythology is only as real and as strong as it exists in peoples minds, while the texture of real life and violence, of bounty hunters and outlaws who destroy McCabe, poetry and all, body and mind, triumph according to the natural law of human life and reality. To quote Roger Egbert, "death is very final in this Western, the ultimate hallmark of realism. This is not because, statistically more people get killed in "McCabe and Mrs. Miller," but because the audience cares about the characters and believes in their 'real' existence upon the frontier.

Work Cited

"McCabe and Mrs. Miller." Directed by Robert…… [read more]


Mythology Tales of Love Begin Term Paper

… It is hard to imagine experiencing the intense feeling of love at first sight without it being reciprocated by the object of desire. Plato characterized love at first sight as an act of nature that "matches in beauty and is… [read more]


Mythology the Classical Myths Term Paper

… Odysseus succeeds because of his cunning and his strengths, just as Hercules does. The Gods also help both men at times during their quests, and both men return home victorious. The main difference is that Odysseus lives to enjoy his… [read more]


R.R. Tolkien: The Lord Term Paper

… This is pastoral England restored, the land that Tolkien believed had, in reality, succumbed to the advance of machines and the modern world:

The country in which I lived in childhood was being shabbily destroyed before I was ten, in… [read more]


Mythological Origin Story for Constellation Essay

… Neleh showed all those with interest how to chart the stars and their movement, while the Leahcim formed the everlasting bond between shepherd and dog. As a master mariner, Divad instructed the coastal people how to read the flow of wind and water, along with the craftsman's skills needed for long journeys across the sea. Ydnar travelled the world building weatherproof houses of clay and wood rather than mud and thatch, while Yrag revealed the mysteries of medicine and healing to the masses. The twins Yecats and Yecart made the most impact, however, using their status as demi-gods to shatter the illusion of divine omnipotence, and telling anybody willing to listen that humanity held much more power than it ever believed to be possible. Combined with the elemental lessons being taught to men, women and children in all of the world's known lands by her other six children, Anre's oldest offspring had managed to inspire and empower mankind.

At first glance the gods and goddesses on high simply laughed as they watched Anre's children working, dismissing them as meddling fools with mortal blood who were beneath them in every way. Only when the sacrificial fires lighting their temples were cold, and the banners hung in their name had fallen, did the gods and goddesses take notice. Mankind had made the leap they had always thought to be thousands of years at bay, prompted and prodded by the work of Anre and her eight children. Now capable of growing their own food, travelling across the sea, mapping the skies and mastering the natural world around them, people everywhere simply ceased praying to the powers they once depended on for survival. And when the sun continued to rise and fall, and the seasons continued to fade into one another on schedule, even the most superstitious among them began to suspect that the gods and goddess were no longer needed after all. Stripped of the universal belief which had always empowered them, the gods and goddesses who had once ruled over the realm of man were suddenly powerless over creature lacking divine blood.

While this made retribution against the rebellious humans an impossibility, the humiliated gods and goddesses who once considered Anre to be one of them quickly focused their rage on the one they believed to be responsible for humanity's advancement. The dethroned King of the Gods was especially vicious and vindictive in seeking his vengeance, and he quickly surmised that the most apt punishment for Anre would be forcing her to leave Earth altogether, thus abandoning her beloved humans just as their ascendency was underway. Thus, she was imprisoned among the stars, exiled to an eternity spent shining from the heavens above, forever able to see the Earth from afar, but never permitted to follow the progress mankind may make. And while their half-human origins made them difficult to discover, each of Anre's eight children was eventually rooted out and subjected to the same punishment as their mother, the gods and… [read more]


Dark Knight Hero Myths Essay

… Step 6

Step 6 of the hero myth is noted by the hero beginning his quest to fulfill his destiny according to Seger. She wrote " this often means getting past witches, outwitting the devil, avoiding robbers, or confronting evil. " Bruce Wayne begins to assume the character of Batman to help signal this change in the story. By the middle of the film, the story is set where an eventual confrontation between the Joker and Batman becomes clear. The Joker is set upon seeking revenge on the city and interrupts the Wayne, Dent, Rachel exchange in the restaurant.

Step 7

A complete heroic myth must also contain some near-death or extremely dangerous situation which compels the hero to dig deeper and continue on with his struggle. This part of the myth is evident in a good portion of the film as the confrontations between the Joker and Batman begin to escalate. Batman is eventually portrayed as a violent vigilante and is being wrongfully blamed for the death of two policemen demonstrating how his powers have been usurped from him and is now in a more weakened and depleted state.

Continuing on this theme in the movie, Batman struggles to find a way to deal with both Harvey Dent and the Joker as it appears the whole city of Gotham has abandoned his vigilante methods after he is blamed for the police deaths. Batman reaches new levels of despair and pain when his childhood sweetheart, Rachel, is murdered by the Joker. Soon after, Dent aligns himself with the Joker, changes his name to Two Face and swears revenge on Batman and the rest of the city. Like so many hero myths, Batman has reached rock bottom and all seems lost.

Step 8

The eighth step of the hero myth according to Seger witnesses the hero reaching down deep and begin to fight back from his depression and loss. During this step, the hero must realize that it is up to him to save himself and that he is the only one who can make things right. This increase in motivation is evident in The Dark Knight as Batman takes it upon himself to rid the city of Gotham of both the Joker and Harvey Two Face.

Step 9

Seger explained that this portion of the hero myth is signified by a redemption action ridding the hero of his problems. This step can usually be attributed to the climax of any story or myth. In the case of The Dark Knight, this step is slightly skewed and does not totally align itself with Seger's analysis.

In the climax of this film an extraordinary fight scene with many explosions, tricks and turns demonstrates how the hero of this story, Batman, does eventually capture the Joker and kills Harvey, exacting his revenge and finding an end to the violent behavior that these two criminals perpetrated on the citizens of Gotham. But the victory is not totally sweet for Batman as he is eventually… [read more]


Mythology Greek Heroism Is a Significant Element Essay

… Mythology

Greek Heroism

Heroism is a significant element in Greek mythology. Many of the most famous stories that are still studied and adapted into films today are based directly on the myths from ancient Greece. While these stories themselves are adapted in the modern times, the stories also take shape in modern stories that are not directly related to the myths themselves. Greek heroes from mythology have a few consistent similarities, though their individual stories are distinct. Most of the heroes, if not all, have some ancestry that leads directly to the gods. In other words, Greek heroes have some kind of link through their lineage to those who are immortal and all powerful. This heritage gives the heroes some kind of mystical advantage, insight, or strength that contributes directly to their status or achievements of heroism. Greek heroes from mythology also always have a tragic flaw. They have some kind of weakness that both contributes directly to their downfall or failure(s) along their journeys, yet these flaws also contribute to their strength as heroes. The tragic flaw is an opportunity to learn for the hero and to triumph despite their flaws.

These basic characteristics of Greek heroes influences the conception of the hero in modern times. There are some clear connections between Greek heroes and comic books heroes. Batman has a tragic flaw which is also the place or source from where he draws strength. He is afraid of bats, and that is the symbol he uses to represent himself. He uses his fear to become a hero that bad guys, in turn, fear. Superman's tragic flaw or apparent weakness is kryptonite, the rock that is a remnant of his destroyed home planet. His planet is gone, in its original form, and the pieces of his home, which he can never return to, in…… [read more]


Greek Mythology and the Human Experience Ancient Assessment

… Greek Mythology and the Human Experience

Ancient Greek mythology is filled with stories of titans, gods, demigods, heroes, and human beings and can provide an insight into how the Ancient Greeks viewed the nature of human existence. In general, human beings of the ancient world were not thought of as having any of the special characteristics prevalent in the world prior to their inception, and the creation of women was not believed to have been of benefit to the world. Two specific myths, that of Pandora and the Five Ages of Man are examples of how mythology can illuminate the relationship between men and women as well as the development and fate of human beings.

The origin of Pandora actually began with Prometheus, the titan who stole the secret of fire from the gods and gave it to man. As a punishment, Zeus ordered that Pandora be created in the forge of Hephaestus, endowed with beauty and abilities by Athena and Zeus, and presented as a gift to man. Pandora was to become the wife of Prometheus' brother Epimetheus; along with another special gift. The other gift was a jar, which some refer to as a box, with a label that warned the jar should never be opened. Of course, Pandora opened the jar and unwittingly unleashed all of the evil in the world.

Pandora, the first woman, was created as a plot by the king of the gods to punish mankind for Prometheus' actions. She was created with beauty, but also a cunning and will that would eventually cause great trouble. In fact, it was her meddling with things she should not have been meddling with that was the cause of all the evil in the world. Therefore, the Ancient Greeks viewed women as the cause of all the world's evil, and believed that women were…… [read more]


Jung's Archetypal Myths Assessment

… Myths, along with fairytales and folklore, are part of society's struggle throughout the years to conceive the inconceivable. As great stories, they have been the subject of attention to such extend that it altered the basis on which they formed. Nevertheless, criticism and deconstruction have not faulted the domain to such lengths that it did not survive, because, after all, who would have been able to fill the gap that the disappearance of such stories would have created?

Unlike what ethnologists claim, that myth is merely the representative form of a ritual act, an image that reduces myth to simply a series of incorporated practices, Jung related the formulation of myths to human psyche. He explained that within our psyche lays both an individual unconsciousness and a collective one and that it is within human nature to express externally that which is part of man's inner world. What seems to explain best how myths are created is that, in Jung's understanding, we are all creating myths, whether we do it consciously or not. Indeed, we can identify with such a vision which claims that even literature emerges from within the channels of the subconsciousness' self, the same place from where the mythical charge develops the mental pattern to project spiritual creation.

Jung understood myths as the expression of archetypes, that is to say that, for him, the notion of archetypes was to be depicted by observing carefully and constantly that it is often that myths and stories within universal literature appear thematically similar in given places and given times. These archetype images are nothing but space, a tendency for a priori representation, until they are recognised otherwise. They are instinctively manifested by the psyche because the archetype is directly inaccessible to the conscious mind, thus transcendental. and, if we think of what myths generally explore, in matter of themes, we can affirm that there is a tendency in human nature to reach and identify itself with what surpasses the knowledge of the intellect. In this respect, Jung used myth as a resource to find meaning within various subjects of culture, psychology, and meaning of life overall.

Why do we agree with Jung's making of…… [read more]


Heracles -- Mythological Hero Essay

… Some sources refer that he was sent to "destroy" Stymphalian birds while others say he was just sent for driving them out. Moreover, sources also differ with regard to the origin of Stymphalian birds. Some sources say that there was an annual migration from places unstated, and others believe that they fled from wolves. The favorable living conditions at the lake made the birds thrive and multiply into countless numbers. Some versions of the adventure suggested that the Stymphalian birds were vicious man-eaters, while other sources described the birds as equal to lions or leopards in their fierceness.

The arrival of Heracles at the swamp, made him perplexed with the idea of dealing with those fierce Stymphalian birds. Killing those birds was an impossible task for any normal or common man. During the expedition, he was visited by Athena who gave him a special gift forged by Hephaestus. The gift was a special nose maker, to scare the Stymphalian Birds in to the air and keep Heracles safe from the fierce creatures. The noise was such that the birds were forced to fly up and away, never to be seen again. Some sources say that he killed them, while others say that some of them were killed with poisoned arrows.

Artwork Description

The twelve labors of Heracles have been carved and printed on pottery, like vases, clay pots etc. And several canvas artworks and paintings also depicts some heroic acts and stunts done by the legendary hero. The adventure of slaying the Stymphalian birds is also depicted on images painted on ancient pottery depicting slings and catapults. The figure below demonstrates pottery having the image of the heroic man -- Heracles, who is trying to slay away the birds using his bows and arrows.

The artwork below clearly depicts a linkage between the strength and valor of Heracles and his heroic stunts depicted in slaying away the furious Stymphalian birds as one of his twelve labors required in purifying himself.

Pottery depicting Hercules fighting with the Stymphalian birds (Theoi Greek Mythology, 2007)

References

Theoi Greek Mythology (2007), Stymphalian Birds, Retrieved January 3, 2013, from http://www.theoi.com/greek-mythology/heracles.html… [read more]


God Apollo Term Paper

… God Apollo:

Apollo is a multi-talented Greek god who is represented as a young and good-looking man and used a chariot given to him by his father in some cases. Apollo was the son of Zeus, the father and Leto,… [read more]


Hercules: Disney vs. Classical Literature Movie Review

… In the movie, he is initially considered to be a god, by birth, losing his immortality through a scheme concocted by his uncle, Hades. In literature, Hercules is a demigod as he was the son of a god and a mortal; moreover, Hercules was never considered to be immortal and is ultimately killed by his jealous wife. Moreover, a major aspect of the Herculean myth is, for the most part, overlooked. In classical mythology, Hercules is tasked with twelve labors, which would be considered to be his greatest feats. In the movie, Hercules approaches these labors as though they were menial tasks that would prove his heroic qualities to his father, Zeus, and allow him to be restored on Olympus as a god. In the movie, Hercules is initially shown to be self-centered and self-serving, but his attitude changes when he meets and falls for Megara, one of Hades' pawns. When it is revealed that Megara has sold her soul to Hades that the storyline shifts from Hercules trying to return to Olympus and instead trying to save the "damsel-in-distress." In typical Disney fashion, the story concludes with Hercules rescuing Megara, saving her soul from eternal damnation, and Hercules and Megara living happily ever after.

Though Hercules attempts to maintain a classical feel, even going as far as to divide the narrative as though it was a Greek tragedy with choric interludes, it is a major departure from the classical Herculean myth. Unlike classical mythology, the story ends happily with everyone getting what they want and restoring peace and order into the world. Classical literature does not shy away from messy endings and expects certain stories to end tragically, whereas this movie adaptation is mostly devoid of any tragedy except for the separation of child from parents, a separation which does not seem tragic at all since there is no evidence that Zeus and/or Hera searched for their long lost son after he was abducted.… [read more]


How the Robber Bridegroom and Feather Crowns Represent a Particularly Feminine Version of History Essay

… Feminine History In Welty and Mason

Eudora Welty and Bobbie Ann Mason write American history from a feminist perspective in their works of historical fiction. In the novella the Robber Bridegroom, Welty subverts the anti-feminist fairy tale genre in a story set in the Natchez Trace during early nineteenth century. Mason, in Feather Crowns, relates everyday life in the rural Kentucky during the late nineteenth century and the early- to mid-twentieth century when modernity is beginning to overtake traditional life ways in rural America.

Researcher Akram Habeeb quotes Eudora Welty stating "I feel no strain with legends and fairy tales and I've always loved them" (46). The Robber Bridegroom relies heavily on the conventions of the fairy tale, folklore, mythology, and epic legend genres, but Welty's main female characters, Rosamond and Salome, are not the typical fairy tale princess and evil stepmother.

The beautiful young women of fairy tales are usually virtuous, passive, and helplessly imprisoned, longing to be rescued by their dreamy heroic princes; Snow White, Cinderella, and Rapunzel are strong examples of this type of character. Rosamond, however, is the opposite of this stereotype in several ways. Being a virgin, one can view her as virtuous, innocent, and pure, but she is also a liar, and dishonesty is not a virtue. Contrary to the typical fairy tale maiden, Rosamond is also lusty and sexually expressive, as when she reflects on her first encounter with Jamie Lockhart in the woods. She doesn't have only a passive interest in being swept away in romantic love but also an active interest in sex (Habeeb 50).

Moreover, Rosamond exhibits active self-interest when she tries to learn Jamie's true identity. She wants that knowledge and needs the mystery to be solved so she…… [read more]


Literature in Popular Culture Edgar Allen Poe's the Gold Bug Book Report

… Poe Gold Bug

Edgar Allen Poe's "The Gold-Bug" encapsulates the era of Romanticism in American literature. The short story boasts some of the thematic elements for which Poe is famous for such as mental instability, social isolation, and death. However,… [read more]


Different Storylines of Cinderella Research Paper

… ¶ … Folklore

ive Analysis of the Cinderella Story

"In the sea of malice envy frequently gets out of her depth; and, while she is expecting to see another drowned, she is either drowned herself, or is dashed against a… [read more]


Greek and Roman Mythology Thesis

… Greek and Roman mythology is often seen as a single area of study today, the fact is that the two cultures never existed side by side. The Greek culture preceded Rome, and was then also the basis for many of the Roman myths that followed. On the other hand, it must also be recognized that Rome had unique myths of its own. Furthermore, Roman mythology was not only influenced by Greece, but also by several other philosophies that existed at the time, including Egyptian religions and Christianity.

The Rise of Rome

In order to describe the history of Roman and Greek mythology, it is important to consider the origins and growth of the cultures involved in its development. The early imperial beginnings of Rome were for example heavily influenced by Western Greek colonization and the Etruscans (N.K. -- Associated Content). In addition, Rome's own myths, related orally from generation to generation, combined with tales from other cultures to form a single mythical body. The most well-known popular Roman myth was that of Romulus and Remus, existing among others such as the fall of Tarquinius Superbus.

In order to reconcile Greece and Rome into a single Roman imperial structure, historians began an attempt to consolidate the histories of the two nations. According to N.K. (Associated Content), this was most successfully done by Polybius, with his "Histories," depicting the rise of Rome. The work describes how Rome was gradually able to build its empire by means of control over its subjects, which contrasted with Greek democracy. According to Polybius, the longevity and stability of the Roman empire was a direct result of its empirical rather than democratic nature. Interestingly, although the Roman empire succeeded the Greek, its success was in fact in large part due to its assimilation of Greek ideas, education, and philosophies. In other words, Rome did not discard all things Greek, but rather accepted them into its culture in order to make it stronger. The same is true of Greek myths.

Greek Myth

According to Patrick Mullen, the Greek culture, having been established for centuries when the Roman empire was only at its beginning, featured a strong basis of mythology. The most significant of these was the Iliad. This was one of the earliest written Greek work. The Roman counterpart, the Aeneid, appeared only about 700 years later (Mullen).

Greece also featured a rich religious life, with myths relating the adventures of their gods, goddesses and heroes. An interesting point here is that, although the Greeks did believe in an afterlife, this was hardly seen as a reward for a life well lived. Instead, the human spirit was reduced to an eternity of degraded suffering. Hence the importance the mythical heroes attached to being remembered for their great deeds (Mullen). This belief also inspired the Greeks to live life as well as they could, and do as well as they could in whatever area they chose. Both warriors and intellectuals were highly regarded.

The Greek democracy was based upon… [read more]


Purpose of Mother Figure in Greek Myth Thesis

… ¶ … Female Role Depicted in Greek Mythology

In various Greek mythologies, women are portrayed as fertility figures. The idea of giving birth was esoteric and divine, leading to the act of worshipping Goddess in the ancient world. There are… [read more]


How Does the Conflict Between Free Will and the Predestination Play Out in Greek Mythology? Essay

… Greek Mythology

Predestination and free Will in Greek Mythology

Designed to provide answers to the difficult questions members of Greek society had to deal with, Greek mythology often considered the debate between predestination and free will. Often, a mythical character's immoral actions would lead to a cleverly derived punishment by the gods, suggesting that free will elicited consequences. Instances such as this include the punishments of Icarus, Narcissus, and Baucis and Philemon all show how a person's actions can lead to his or her demise. In each of these stories, a person is either rewarded or punished because of his or her own actions ("Greek Mythology," 2008, paras. 30-31). The issue of fate in Greek Mythology is perhaps most directly considered through the existence of the three fates, the Moiari, of the women who hold the destiny of all mankind in their hands. Of the stories that consider fate, however, none is more prominent than the Oedipus trilogy. By recounting the story of a king who tries to escape his fate only to find out he cannot do this, Sophocles pushes the Greeks to consider many of the deeper questions in life, such as the purpose of humanity. A closer look at fate by examining both the characteristic three fates and the story of Oedipus reveals that Greeks did not have an assumption of free will, like that which is so prevalent in the 21st century.

Called the Moirai, a name that means parts, the three fates assigned each person his or her "share in the scheme of things" (Atsma, 2008, para. 1). Lead by Zeus, whom Atsma (2008) describes as the "god of fate," the three goddesses used a string to show the life of a man or woman. According to Saunders and A (2006), all the good and evil a person did in his or her life was woven into the string to determine his or her fate (para. 3). The goddesses of fate were ugly, old, and knew the future, as well as frequently pictured with signs of "dominion" (Atsma, 2008, para. 4). Each holding specific jobs -- spinning, measuring, and cutting that thread -- the goddesses determined the consequences of mens' actions. However, Astma (2008) points out that the fates did not necessarily direct a person's life. Instead, they determined the consequences of the actions that people freely undertook. Furthermore, while Zeus could always save someone from receiving his or her fate, the fates were also open to persuasion by humans and other goddesses. In the end, however, it was…… [read more]


Mortal Struggle in Mythology Essay

… Mortal Struggle in Mythology

In mythology, mortals experienced some of the greatest difficulties on this earth because they believed they were dealing with gods who could unleash their vengeance on them at any moment. The gods were believed to be in control of practically everything that mortals were not. This included elements of nature, which could harm or even destroy a life on earth. From the earliest myths such as Gilgamesh, we see mankind struggling with the notion of finicky gods. Ovid also shows us how mankind was often allowed to make mistakes, seemingly for the pleasure of the gods. Even Homer tells stories of mortals who were unlucky enough to incur the wrath of the gods. With unseen goods looming overhead, watching their every move, it is not difficult to imagine how stressful this life must have been. Rain, floods, droughts, fire, pain, and even death could result from unbecoming behavior. Mortals were living with the addition struggle of dealing with gods that could turn on them at any moment, a fact that makes mortals in mythology incredibly strong creatures.

In The Epic of Gilgamesh, we find an entire society that seems to revolve around the behavior of the gods. Mortals believed that the gods controlled their fate and to complicate matters, there were many gods responsible for many things. For instance, when Enlil hears the ruckus mankind is making, he approaches the gods and says, "The uproar of mankind is so terrible and sleep is no longer possible by reason of the babel" (32). In addition, we read in "those days the world teemed, the people multiplied, the world bellowed like a wild bull, and the great god was aroused by the clamor" (32). Here we see two different things going on. In one world, the mortals are behaving as they do and in the other world, we see gods becoming annoyed with that behavior. The gods controlled every aspect of nature and could deliver all sorts of punishments for any behavior they did not like. Rain, thunder, lightening, droughts, and anything in between could happen in the blink of an eye. This was no doubt unstable at best as mortals attempted to make sense of everything and sometimes the best they could do was determine that bad behavior brings forth the wrath of the gods.

In Ovid's The Metamorphosis, there are many relationships that teach us about the struggles that mortals encountered. Again, we see how the gods can become merciless. For example, when Actaeon inadvertently catches a glimpse of Diana while she is bathing, he is changed into a deer. In the story of Midas, we see how the gods…… [read more]


Roman Mythology Even From the Early Ages Essay

… Roman Mythology

Even from the early ages, people have believed in the existence of supernatural forces that can either help or harm them. Every nation has had its supernatural beings they believed in. There are similarities between some cultures when concerning their gods because one culture got inspired from another one or simply because of coincidences. The Roman and the Greek cultures are a lot alike, with the Greeks having influenced the Romans in several domains from architecture to theological beliefs.

Romans paid great attention to their gods and it had been crucial for one to act according to what the gods presumably wanted in order for him or her to be favored by them. In spite of their dedication to their gods, the Romans did not initially have them, or, at least, not in an elaborate form. The reason for the similarities between Roman and Greek gods is that the Romans had inspired for there Pantheon from the Greeks. After having conquered Greece, the Romans adopted many of the Greek customs, as they observed that the Greek civilization had been a very advanced one, more advance than their own.

The Greek god Ares has been the god of war, and, people considered that he was very cruel and terrifying. His equivalent in the Roman culture was Mars, also considered by people to control war and everything that was related to the subject. However, the Romans did not consider Mars to be cruel. On the contrary, Mars was considered by the Romans to be good to its people, and besides being the god of war he was also a supporter of agriculture and fertility.

Greeks mainly associated their gods with legends while Romans had a more elaborate mythological system. Roman gods had specific roles and were interconnected into…… [read more]


Female Archetype Mother Teresa and Goddess Kali Research Proposal

… ¶ … Compassionate Mother Archetype

Mythological archetypes can be found almost anywhere one is willing to look for them. Joseph Campbell began his exploration of myths and mythological figures -- and his book the Power of Myth -- with an… [read more]


Frankenstein Mary Shelley Conceived of Victor Essay

… Frankenstein

Mary Shelley conceived of Victor Frankenstein as playing God, in much the same way as some individuals today see scientists who are seeking to discover things which they consider best left undiscovered and mysterious. Victor is in fact for Shelley, the conception of all that is potentially bad about science, but most specifically all that is potentially bad about secularizing morality and playing God with knowledge and action a very stark danger of science. The preface of the work demonstrates the idea that reanimation of life, in this passage "the event" has been supposed to be possible by modern scientists of the day and therefore the author stresses that it is not so fanciful as just to have been based on a supernatural idea.

THE EVENT on which this fiction is founded has been supposed, by Dr. Darwin, and some of the physiological writers of Germany, as not of impossible occurrence.... yet, in assuming it as the basis of a work of fancy, I have not considered myself as merely weaving a series of supernatural terrors. The event on which the interest of the story depends is exempt from the disadvantages of a mere tale of spectres or enchantment.

Shelley 5)

The idea of reanimation of life had been brought to the publics attention through science and therefore cannot be supposed to simply be one of pure imagination, as it is clear that this time that the dark nature of science was in fact (according to the novice) seeking such a reality and years of social fear of such events culminated to make the story entirely gripping to the reader.

This work expresses that the darkest days of science were at hand and in fact many believe that these events could have occurred, at least in attempt during a period where medical science was a paying a high premium to grave robbers to bring them the freshest of human bodies to dissect and discover. The work, in my opinion in fact played upon old fears of the supernatural, such as the digging up and reburying of corpses, in some mutilated form, especially in cases where the deceased looked "fresh" and could have then been recently stalking the living as a vampire.

Later in the work, as the monster becomes personified Shelley actually has the monster ask the scientist why he would deem to make such a joke. He asks why he was created, against his will to be a specter of human existence, completely unable to live as a living man and he asks for a companion so he might go and live out the remainder of his days away from man and in peace. When Frankenstein refuses him this he seeks to convince him through reason.

You are in the wrong," replied the fiend; "and, instead of threatening, I am content to reason with you. I am malicious because I am miserable. Am I not shunned and hated by all mankind? You, my creator, would tear me to… [read more]

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