Study "Mythology / Folklore / Science Fiction" Essays 111-165

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Ghosts Do Not Exist Thesis

… Ghosts Do Not Exist

Disproving the Existence of Ghosts

Ghosts are a scary thing to think about, but do they truly exist? Many people do hold beliefs that allow the existence of ghosts, yet the very proof they claim to prove ghosts do exist actually can also be used to prove that they don't. There is no proven physical evidence which would prove ghosts walk the earth without a doubt, therefore disproving any beliefs in their existence.

Yet, despite overwhelming evidence, many people actually still believe in the existence of ghosts. Those who do believe in ghosts do so based on the idea that there is no real way to discern what happens after we die, (New England Skeptical Society 2008). No one has ever been able to conclusively prove if we go to heaven, stay on earth as ghosts, or simply cease to exist. Therefore, based on this lack of evidence, many people leave open the possibility that their may be ghastly phantoms do walk the earth, (Franks 2008).

However, the same lack of evidence is concisely what proves the existence of ghosts as a fallacy. There is absolutely no physical evidence which can be replicated for future study. Most scientific findings rely on scientific tests which can be replicated in other labs under similar circumstances, (Verbruggen 2006). Yet,…… [read more]

Family Betrayal in Myth and Modernist / Post-Modernist Drama Term Paper

… Family Betrayal in Myth, Modernist, and Post-Modernist Drama

Although Susan Hazen Hammond's short story "The Kidnapped Wife and the Dream Helper," Arthur Miller's drama "All My Sons," and P.J. Gibson's play "Long Time Since Yesterday" all dramatize the struggles of… [read more]

Use of Mythology in the Clash of the Titians Term Paper

… Clash of the Titans

The film Clash of the Titans (Desmond Davis, 1981) has a plot derived from Classical mythology, specifically retelling the myth of Perseus and his battle with both the Medusa and the Kraken. The film utilizes these… [read more]

Epic Heroes Term Paper

… Epic Heroes of folklore and classic literature have several common traits, which allow them to be called "heroes." Epic heroes do not only posses virtues common for "heroes" but they do also perform heroic deeds for the sake of their family, motherland or their people, sacrificing their lives and personal happiness for the better of others. Heroes should overcome a series of obstacles and deprivations and stand them with dignity and honor. Epic heroes always fulfill their quests and only after that they return back to their families, to their homeland. it's typical for ancient eposes of both Greece and India that due to a number of objective reasons heroes having the call of duty have to leave their homes: "Their journeys are filled with great sense of commitment and purpose which may range from fulfilling a moral duty or win the heart of a maiden. In addition to their devotedness and strong faith, the heroes portray a great deal of intelligence, nobility and personal courage" (Rosenberg). In most of heroic epos stories, heroes experience moral and spiritual transformations during their adventures so that after they return back home they are called "heroes": "hero-myth" cycle in which the hero embarks upon his journey usually follows the pattern: call to adventure; meeting the mentor; obstacles; fulfilling the quest; return of the hero; and, transformation of the hero" (Dominguez). The most famous heroes of ancient literature are Odysseus from Homer's "Odyssey" and Rama from Valmiki's "Ramayana."

Both Indian and Greek cultures have rich mythology and folklore, with special role devoted to epic heroes, who are regarded to be middle persons between mortal people and gods. Heroes serve as classic model for common mortals, as they are smart, witty, brave and possess all human virtues. Heroes are also noble and generous, which makes them equal to kings.

A typical epic hero who finishes his quest with fair virtuous woman of his dream (Sita) is hero Rama, from Indian "Ramayana," written approximately in 5th century B.C. Ramayana is a story of Rama, who was king's son and incarnation of god Vishu. Rama had to spend 14 years in exile together with his brother Lakshama and maiden Sita. Rama's fiancee Sita is later kidnapped by a demon king Ravana, whom Rama kills, rescuing Sita. Rama then returns to his kingdom and restores his right to be the ruler after years spent in exile. It takes several years for Rama and Sita to reunion as being accused in treachery she had to live and raise twin sons alone.

Rama and Sita embody models of Indian man and woman, their personalities represent the most valued virtues in Indian culture. Rama spends a long time in exile, as she follows the advice of his mother to leave the kingdom in trouble times in order to return once and restore his right to rule. His faithfulness and devotedness to mother impress, and even today respect towards parents is considered to be one of the main moral obligations in modern… [read more]

Homer/Dante Return of the Rings Term Paper

… The original eddas, after all, have many sections in which the gods are mocked, as when in the Lokasenna the following taunt is directed at Odin: "They say that with spells | in Samsey once | Like witches with charms… [read more]

Anthropology What Else Do Folk Objects Reveal Term Paper

… Anthropology

What else do folk objects reveal directly that other kinds of folklore do not?

According to Simon J. Bronner, in Folk Groups and Folklore Genres: An Introduction (199-200), "folk objects" are the "material products of folkways." He describes things… [read more]

Matrix and the Power Term Paper

… He broke a taboo that until that moment he was completely unaware of.

Another aspect of many ancient myths that surfaces in The Matrix is manifested in the character of the Oracle. Clearly, the most obvious analogy to the Oracle is the Oracle of Delphi who was said to have the power of divination. The Oracle in The Matrix is believed to also have this power, but she is a very different character than the teenage girls who breathed in sulfur at Delphi. For one thing, she is a middle-aged woman -- she is not young and pure as was required of the priestesses at Delphi. Secondly, the Oracle is not a hierarchical instrument of the clergy. Much like Morpheus -- the shaman -- the Oracle is independent; she only gives aid to those who ask for it.

The Oracle lives in a run-down apartment, caring for children and baking cookies. The Oracle is motherly, and could almost be considered the first mother. The Oracle is similar to the idea of the goddess. Campbell explains, "Since her magic is that of giving birth and nourishment, as the earth does, her magic supports the magic of the earth." (Campbell 101). This is why the Oracle in The Matrix is someone who is unable to leave the matrix; her powers are limited to earthly tasks. She is the goddess of ancient myth.

Neo-is, of course, the hero in this modern myth. He satisfies all of the major requirements for the typical hero in such a tale. According to Campbell, "A hero is someone who has given his or her life for something bigger than oneself." (Campbell 123). The hero is also someone "who has found or done something beyond the normal range of achievement and experience." (Campbell 123). Neo-satisfies both of these requirements. First, he enters a world that no ordinary person has ever witnessed and finds within himself capabilities that he never knew existed. Second, Neo-dies. But, like many mythical heroes, he returns; having overcome death and possessing a new understanding of life.

Because of his triumph over death it is easy to compare Neo-to Christ. The world that Neo-enters is not as comfortable or as easy as the world of his earlier life. The reality is that life is painful, difficult, and harsh. The story of Christ is similar in this way. Jesus is said to have come down from heaven, and suffered a gruesome death for the purpose of awakening "our hearts to compassion, and thus to turn our minds from the gross concerns of raw life in the world to the specifically human values of self-giving and shared suffering." (Campbell 116). Neo's goal is quite comparable -- he seeks to awaken the human race to the fact that they are slaves, and the world they live in is only a shadow of reality.

Additionally, argues Campbell, "what all the myths have to deal with is transformations of consciousness of one kind or another. You have been thinking one… [read more]

Harry Potter Books Term Paper

… We don't know why Snape dislikes Harry so much, but it is revealed to be a personal weakness, and not evil intent. Seemingly nice people, such as Professor Quirrel, can be working to support evil, while his harshest critics, such as Professor Snape, may turn out to be a protector (Tsubata, p. 5). Harry finds that sometimes things are not as they seem; seemingly nice people can be traitors, and harsh people may actually be guardians.

All these opposites, like a pointillistic painting, force the reader to see the truths in between the extremes. Through the use of opposites, Rowling reveals not only new worlds but new truths as well.


Frank, Andrew J., and Matthew T. McBee. 2003. "The Use of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone to Discuss Identity Development with Gifted Adolescents." Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, Vol. 15.

Olson, Mark L. "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone by J.K. Rowling." Accessed via the Internet 6/29/04.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. New York: Scholastic Press. 1998.

Tsubata, Kate. 1999. "How Children Can Gain Magical Reading Powers." The Washington Times. Nov. 16,-Page 5.

Unerman, Sandra. 2002. "Dragons in Twentieth-Century Fiction." Folklore.…… [read more]

Myth Term Paper

… Odysseus was the brain behind the Trojan horse - an ingenious wooden horse that the Greek forces hid inside of in order to gain entry into the fortified city of Troy.

Many of his adventures are recorded in Homer's Odyssey, which is a good description for the adventures Odysseus had in the ten years it took for him to return home. One such adventure was one that had him entering Hades (by order of Circe) to consult Tiresias. Tiresias warned Odysseus that when he returned home there would be men fighting over his goods.

When he finally did return, Odysseus disguised his appearance, only revealing himself to his son, Telemachus - after Odysseus' faithful dog Argus recognized him. Odysseus proved his identity by stringing his bow that only he could draw and killed his wife's suitors.

The story of Odysseus appeals to me, as this is a man that used his intellect to win the Trojan War, and also survive the wrath of the Gods, as well as the ten years it took for him to return home to his family. Odysseus is the epitome of a hero. He didn't complete tasks or adventures because he was told to, but because it was part of his journey home. He remained faithful to his wife and the honor of his family, and was a true warrior and leader.

Why was Heracles so highly regarded among both Greeks and Romans? Consider some of his labors and accomplishments.

Heracles (Roman name Hercules) is probably the most well-known and highly revered of Greek and Roman heroes. As a young toddler he demonstrated incredible age and it was for no good reason, because Heracles was the son of Zeus, and Alcmene. Hera, jealous of this half-mortal boy and the meaning of his birth, sent two serpents to kill him, which Heracles strangled without a second thought. Hera's jealousy would eventually lead to Heracles' most known adventures. After going mad and killing his wife (Megara) and son, he was set twelve tasks by King Eurystheus. Heracles had offered himself as a slave, but Eurytheus set the twelve impossible tasks that would rid him of his guilt and make Heracles an immortal.

The Twelve Labors involved great feats of strength, wisdom and charisma. Besides killing the Nemean Lion, and defeating the Hydra, Heracles had to clean the Augean stables, trap the Erymanthian boar and bring Cereberus, the three-headed guard dog of Hades from Tartarus. Heracles was not allowed to use any weapons, and having been granted access to the Underworld by Hermes, Heracles had to drag the dog to the court of King Eurystheus.

Such feats were surely impossible for a mere mortal, and to many men the story of Heracles bravery and immortal strength were boosts to moral and confidence. They were tasks that needed help (in some cases) from the gods, yet Heracles had the determination. It is a characteristic that any Greek or Roman youth or man would aspire to have. Not to mention… [read more]

Politics Hesiod's Theogony Term Paper

… The theme of gods 'being born' provides a link with the creation myths of many other cultures, whereas the idea of successive generations of gods is one that appears to be specific to Greek mythology.

Although Hesiod's poem charts Greek mythology from the universe's origins with Chaos; through the Titans; to the conflicts between various gods, to the eventual stability achieved by Zeus, its primary relevance as a reference source is in its detailed account of the Olympians. By far the most commonly recognized, and studied, generation of the Greek gods, the Olympians are, to many people, the embodiment of Greek mythology. Hesiod reinforces this perception by starkly contrasting the anthropological appearance and traits of the Olympians with the monstrous characteristics of previous generations. This link between modern man and the Olympians is further strengthened when, in his other major poem Works and Days Hesiod writes of how the gods on Olympus created mortal men numerous times, with current humanity being the fifth race of mortals in this evolutionary chain (Works and Days, 110-201). Therefore, in his Theogony, Hesiod has provided modern Western Civilization not only with a systematic genealogy of the Olympians, their origins, and their struggles for succession, but also with a map with which to chart humanity's own evolution.

Hesiod's Theogony, alongside his Works and Days and the works of Homers, are generally considered to form the foundation for Classical Mythology. By studying the myth's contained within such works, and their universal meanings, mythologists seek to understand the world as it was when the cosmos was in its infancy, and utilize that knowledge in order to gain insight into the human condition and the continued importance of myth within modern society. In this regard, Hesiod's Theogony is far more than merely a genealogy of gods, or an account of their fantastic adventures and conflicts. Hesiod's work provides important ideas about creation and the religious views of the ancient world, yet is also a significant source of morality and wisdom that can be applied to modern times. By recording the events and conflicts that resulted in Zeus's rise to supremacy and his organization of the Olympian pantheon, Hesiod, in both Theogony, and Works and Days, provides invaluable source material for the study of Greek mythology, and the influence that myths have constantly, and universally exerted upon humanity.


Hesiod. Theogony. Trans. Hugh.G.Evelyn-White. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2000.

Hesiod. Works and Days. Ed. Apostolos N. Athanassakis, Baltimore: The John Hopkins… [read more]

Witchcraft in the 16Th Term Paper

… 100-101).

Cohn goes on (101) to say witches "exist in imagination only..." And passes them off as a "non-existent" society, a society that has been re-interpreted "in the light of the intellectual preoccupation of the moment." That's pretty damning stuff,… [read more]

Greek Mythology in Ancient Term Paper

… These stories were about murder, adultery, incest, power struggles, and love. According to Greek mythology expert H.J. Rose, the gods are "glorified men and women who remain extremely human, and on the whole, neither irrational nor grossly unfair in their dealings."

In addition to the poets the myths were also told, collected or commented by historians and compilers like Herodotus (484-430 BC), Diodorus Siculus (80 BC - 20 BC), or Dionysius of Halicarnassus (60 BC - AD 7), by the geographer Strabo (64 BC -AD 25), the traveller Pausanias

(fl. ca. AD 150), the philosopher Plato (427-347 BC), a number of scholiasts, and also by philologists and mythographers, at least since the times of Theagenes of Rhegium (fl. c. 525 BC) or Metrodorus of Lampsacus (5th century BC). The typical mythographers may be exemplified with the names of Apollodorus (fl. ca. AD 100) and Hyginus (fl. ca. AD 200), but many other names could be mentioned as contributing to the myths in various forms, as some works of Plutarch (AD 45-120), the collection of Antoninus Liberalis (fl. ca. AD 100), or a certain story by Lucius Apuleius (fl. ca. AD 160).

Greek mythology is populated by many such heroes, Heracles is another great example, better documented than Achilles in the wide range of his endeavors. These "left-over heroes" from an earlier stage of history still dominate the Greek idea of excellence, but they do not fit into the new social world forming after the deterioration of the Minoan-Mycenean civilization. In that new world the clever man wins out, he is often unadmirable in the eyes of later generations, he has like Odysseus "seen many cities, and known the minds of men," he is a socially aware operator who will lead toward the world which Greece was about to forge. In Homer's story about the campaign at Troy, Achilles is a throwback to a state of human existence which had probably become extinct a thousand years before. For that reason he is tragic in spirit, since he is condemned to early death not by his mother's incomplete immersion in holy water, but by the steady development of a new kind of society.

The very familiarity of a great deal of Greek mythology, which was heavily used in a borrowed form by everybody from the Romans to the classically oriented nineteenth century, obscures the fact that many Greek myths are obscure in themselves, and so heavily reworked into later fabrics that the basic meaning of the original cannot be discerned.


Harris, William. The Heroes and Heroic Deeds. Retrieved December 30, 2002, from Greek Mythology and Pre-History

Web site:

Mitchell, Esther. (2001). Mythological Characters. Retrieved December 31, 2002, from Pagewise, Inc.

Web site:

Parada, Carlos. (1997). Brief History of the Greek Myths. Retrieved December 30, 2002, from Greek Mythology Link

Web site:

Xavr. (1998). Origins of Greek Mythology. Retrieved December 31, 2002, from Greek Mythology

Web site:

2002). Greek Mythology. Retrieved December 31, 2002, from Mythography

Web site:… [read more]

Greek Goddess Aphrodite, the Mythology Term Paper

… I will stir up fierce hatred between Trojans and Achaeans, and you shall come to a bad end." (Illiad.PG).

It must be remembered that the war with the Trojans was not all the fault of Aphrodite, it was her love for the Trojan Alexandros (Paris) and her involvement in the lives of mortals that caused the misery and death within both armies (Illiad.PG).

Once Aphrodite has rescued her lover Alexandros she again pushes her self in between the two armies, this time it is to save her son Aineias, however during her protection she is wounded in the hand by a spear from Diomedeswho has been given a gift of seeing any of the Gods who were participating in the battle from the Goddess Athene (Illiad.PG).

However Athene also advised Diomedes not to attack any of the Gods except Aphrodite "her at least you may stab." It is seen that as she is tabbed and her blood begins to pour upon the earth she flees to seek the bosom and protection of her Mother Dione, yet Zeus in his wisdom tells Aphrodite that she is not suited for warfare but should remain the Goddess of Love and Marriage (Illiad.PG).

Aphrodite as we have seen cares little for the love of her husband Hephaestus, she spends time with her mortal lover Alexandros (Paris) as is in love with the God of War Ares. Her romance with the God of War is illustrated in Homer's Odessey, where a bard sings of Aphrodite's secret affair with Ares as they lay together in the bed of Hephaestus, her husband (The Odessey PG).

Whilst the two lovers are entwined they are observed by the Sun, Helios, who informs on the two lovers to Hephaestus, who I his jealousy set a trap for the two lovers. After what can be seen as an immortal Greek divorce court and the returning of courtship gifts to Hephaestus are the two lovers released, with their separation Aphrodite returns to her home on Cyprus (The Odessey PG).

To illustrate how much Aphrodite is desired by the male Gods of Greece is the conversation between Hermes and Apollo, Hermes admits that he would be snare three times over if only he could have Aphrodite within his bed (The Odessey PG).

Aphrodite is seen by many as pure and innocent yet in all her travails she does little to boost the name of love more she boost the name of lust, her role as a goddess of marriage is made a mockery by her unfaithfulness to her husband. However, she is loved by all the male gods who would perhaps like to see her in their beds rather than in the bed of the God of War Ares or her husbands.

Aphrodite is seen as a woman who only fights when the odds are in her favor for as soon as she is wounded in the hand on the battlefield by Diomedes for protecting her son she immediately turns and flees to… [read more]

Supernatural Tales Epic of Gilgamesh Essay

… Eventually despite the fact that, they will not offer Gilgamesh exactly what he wanted (to be immortal like them), they gave him extremely little in the way of positive, practical spiritual advice.

Hercules has been viewed as the greatest of all heroes in the mythology of Greek, Hercules was known as the strongest man in the world. Above and beyond marvelous substantial strength, he was also known for his great self-confidence and he also measured himself equal to the gods. In terms of intelligence, Hercules was never a blessed one, however his courage was the major factor behind the lack of cunning. He was an easily angered person and his unexpected sudden occurrence of rage over and over again debilitated blameless bystanders. The outstanding side of Hercules was that after the fury passed, he could realize the mistake and used to be in full of sorrow and guilty for the occurrence, the important bit is that without any conditions he was ready to take whichever type of punishment for his misdeeds. This was one hero who could only be defeated by the supernatural forces, and it was through magic that his mortal life came to an end. It is important to note that in Greek mythology, parentage Hercules as well as Dionysus with half-mortal were entirely immortal and were therefore worshiped as gods.

Numerous disastrous stories encircle Hercules hero, these started from the Hera's detestation for Heracles, it is said that the background of this hatred culminated from the fact that Hercules was born to Alcmene, a mortal female. Conceivably the largest part of Hercules famous story emerges from his twelve labors which started from killing the Nemean lion and ended with capturing Cerberus. It is said that all these tasks were laid down by the king Heracles' archenemy Eurystheus as a retribution for killing one of his own children. It is believed that the grounds for this dreadful action were due to Hera's anguish, which drove Heracles mad. Hercules immortality was granted by the king as a result of successful completion of the twelve tasks. Unlike Gilgamesh who never got what he wanted (to be immortal like gods), due to his relationship with both the people as well as the gods instead the gods gave him extremely little in the way of positive, practical spiritual advice. It is clear that after Hercules death he became a god unlike Gilgamesh who just died and got buried and forgotten.


Perhaps it is proper to remind ourselves that the Epic of Gilgamesh has constantly been referred to a lively embryonic tale. It probably started as separate verbal hero narratives progressively and disconnectedly composed and reframed around Gilgamesh. Even though researchers refer to a certain version of the epic as the "standard Babylonian version," it is proper to acknowledge that this is indeed one snapshot instant in the narration of the story.


W.T.S. Thackara, "The epic of Gilgamesh: A spiritual biography" for a theosophical interpretation. Or see my "Exploring diversity through… [read more]

Men and Women Depicted Essay

… Again, such a turn of events demonstrates how mythology often depicts men as being easily manipulated by women. The fact that mythology depicts men in this manner also suggests that they should be viewed as highly fearful creatures. However, the fickleness of men is a theme which is absolutely repeated upon. Theseus falls in love with Araidne and then abandons her, falling in love with her sister Phaedra. According to the myths, it's still not clear how that happened exactly. This example showcases yet again another instance where ment exhibit a certain degree of disloyalty and infidelity to their partners.

These texts and the gender roles which are highly prevalent within them, serve to demonstrate that no matter how lofty or superior these heroic characters like Hercules and Theseus are, they can still be affected and influenced by the rather concrete gender typologies that resound through mythology as a whole. For example, while Hercules is still a great hero and a great warrior, he still falls prey to the common tropes and archetypes of gender. He is still easily manipulated: for instance when he marries Deianira, she gives him a clock which has a balm at the center of it, which Deianira thought would make him love her forever, but which ends up almost killing Hercules. This event alone portrays these standard gender archetypes once more: Deianira was being manipulative. Even if she didn't intend to kill Hercules, she did intend to try to exert force over his own free will. Hercules demonstrated that he could in fact be manipulated in this way. In the myth of Theseus, Theseus' fickleness is indeed acute: he doesn't just fall out of love with Ariadne, he abandons her on the small island of Dia. Thus, aside from being heartbroken, his wife is left deserted and pining for him even more. This speaks to not only an inconsistent character of the male gender in general, but a cold and unfeeling heart.

Thus, Greek mythology as a whole has many concrete treatments of men and women and the actions which are often connected to each gender can be very specific and acute. The myths of Hercules and Theseus demonstrate that men, regardless of their individual attributes and specific character details, are treated as fickle and easily swayed or manipulated by women. Women are at once treated as ethereal, beguiling creates at best, who are often ready, willing and able to manipulate men. At their worst, women are treated as shrews, and generally bloodthirsty for revenge and creatures who will stop at nothing to get…… [read more]

Homeric Hymn to Demeter Essay

… ¶ … Homeric Hymn to Demeter, what is the fate of Persephone?

Persephone is married to Hades and is taken to the underworld. Her mother, Demeter, manages to force the gods to allow Persephone to return to the world above. However, Persephone has eaten a pomegranate seed, which means that she is linked to Hades. The result is that Persephone must spend part of the year in Hades, but can spend part of her year on earth with her mother, Demeter (Foley 1993, p.70). Therefore, she spends part of her life as Demeter's daughter, but must spend one-third of the year as her husband's wife, which also makes her the Queen of the Underworld. This position gives Persephone some power in her own right.

Why does Demeter go to Eleusis? Why does she want to make the child Demophon immortal? Why does she fail?

Demeter goes to Eleusis initially looking for Persephone. Then, she disguises herself as a part of a plan that is not initially revealed in the poem. "Disguised as an old woman, she is met by the daughters of king Celeus, makes a long deceptive speech to them, is courteously brought home, courteously received again by Celeus' wife Metanira, and employed by her as nurse to her young son Demophon" (Parker 1991, p.8). This is part of her plan to force the other gods to back her in her struggle with Zeus and force him to return her daughter, Persephone to her. She intends to turn the mortal child Demophon immortal for reasons that are not ever explained in the poem. Her plans are foiled when Metanira comes in and finds that Demeter has placed Demophon in the fire, although the reasons why this discovery would foil Demeter's plans is never fully explained.

3. Why does Demeter demand a ritual at Eleusis? What is the purpose of the ritual?

According to Kerenyi, Demeter demands a ritual sacrifice at Eleusis so that the initiates who were "desirous of witnessing the epopteia at Eleusis" could be worthy to take her grief upon themselves (Kerenyi 1991, p.60). This grief was her grief at losing Persephone. This ritual is explained as having its roots in…… [read more]

Founding of Rome in Livy and Plutarch Term Paper

… ¶ … founding of Rome in Livy and Plutarch. What sources do they cite? Are there any significant differences from Virgil's account in Aeneid Book 6?

The story of Romulus and Remus, the two abandoned twins suckled by a she-wolf, was framed by Livy to stress the practical and self-sufficient qualities of the mythological founder of Rome. In Livy's eyes, Romulus embodied the Roman virtues popular in his day. He either deemphasized the fantastical elements of the Romulus story or treated them with open skepticism (Miles 138). Livy believed that the godlike ancestry of Romulus was symbolic, not literal, and debunked the idea that Romulus was raised by a literal wolf. Instead, Romulus' foster-parents were herdsman and their stepmother was a prostitute (hence, a she-wolf in Roman slang) (Miles 139; 143). Livy also stressed the real, martial struggles of Romulus to win Rome which indicated that his victory was anything but divinely-ordained and inevitable. In contrast, Plutarch accepted the fantastic elements of the myth, stating that there was no way Romulus could have achieved what he did in the absence of divinity. In contrast to Livy, Plutarch suggested that the twins' true ancestry was always known, not something they had to prove with self-sufficiency and great deeds.

Livy's interpretation of the legend is thus also very different from that which was exhibited by Virgil in Book 6 of the Aeneid, in which the hero goes to the underworld and learns of the future glory of Rome. In Virgil, the triumph of Romulus is inevitable, but in Livy's conception it is anything but -- Livy used Romulus to symbolize the Roman's status as a self-made people, which was very different from that of the Greeks in terms of the Romans' practicality, morality, and ability to wage war (Miles 149).

Q2. Discuss literary parallels for elements of the legend of the founding of Rome. Are there any unique elements to the Romulus and Remus legend?

Romulus and Remus are socially marginal figures -- cast-off children, the result of the rape of a vestigial virgin by Mars -- who attain great political…… [read more]

Popular Culture Folk Essay

… Often in the case of popular culture, the audience is the creator, and this phenomenon is perhaps most evident in African-American art and culture such as Hip Hop (Bennett). Furthermore, there is the aggregate viewer response to popular culture that can have a transformative effect on the art as well as on the viewer. For example, Levine refers to the "contagion" of other people's reactions during live performances.[footnoteRef:8] [7: Levine 1378] [8: Levine1395]

The potential problem with contagion is that it mitigates what would be a natural personal encounter with the art, and encourages instead the conformity to shared values and experiences. Kelley refers to this as the penetration of the collective consciousness, which is a shared function of popular and folk cultures. As Haque puts it, popular culture is now a curious dialogue between the consumer and producer: "popular culture is what happens as mass culture gets pulled back into folk culture." As the relationships between popular, mass, and folk culture become more complex, they also become more inviting for scholars. Recent scholarship reveals an affection if not outright appreciation for the effects of popular culture, as it can be studied for its anthropological, sociological, psychological, aesthetic, historical, and contextual relevance. Hartley also points out the confluence of popular culture and journalism, which in the era of phenomenon like iReporting, reveals the curious connections between consumer/audience and producer/artist.

Levine's astute analysis has therefore a strong bearing on how scholars perceive popular culture, and reveals why popular culture can and should be integrated into the pedagogies that once shunned it. Using examples from early 20th century artistic expressions, Levine is able to show the genesis of popular culture -- which is related directly to technology and other means of mass production. Mass, popular, and folk culture can collectively inform historical debates.

Therefore, all popular culture must be taken within its historical context. In this same way, Levine would note the importance of the development of art forms like sampling and mash-ups, which offer postmodern and ironic allusions to the elements of popular culture within a new and often underground and critical framework. As Davis points out, there are academic debates over where constructs like "urban art" fit into the debate over what constitutes popular culture and what its value is. Then, there are examples of the ways new media is allowing the exploration of even more unique types of folk, popular, and mass culture. When artistic elements can "go viral," they become mass produced but not in the way record labels mass produced blues recordings in the 1930s; in the way that artists now control, while the audience too has control over what and how much is consumed. There is a mass contagion of shared reactions to ideas, events, and the elements of folk culture when something is shared via social media. This would be another avenue for Levine to explore. The audience can locate meaning wherever and whenever, and an object once dismissed can be revitalized when viewed from… [read more]

Wife's Story Firstname Lastname Research Paper

… B.

Cover Art

Night, and the moon, figure prominently in the story. Cover art should include a full moon with the suggestion that there is something sinister in its influence. Attached is a sample the art department can use as inspiration to capture the essence of this story.


Back Cover/Catalog Copy

"He was a good husband, a good father. I don't understand it. I don't believe in it. I don't believe that it happened" (Le Guin, 2011). So begins Ursula K. Le Guin's haunting tale of moonlight and mystery. A young mother is increasingly troubled by her husband's late-night hunting trips and the unexplainable changes that have come over him. She fears for her family and knows that she must protect them at all costs.


Le Guin, U. (2011). The wife's story. In Acosta, D.L.P. a. A. (Eds) Literature: A World of Writing Stories, Poems, Plays, and Essays [VitalSource Digital Version](pp. 3-27) Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

Werewolfman. Retrieved March 23, 2013, from Google…… [read more]

Quintessential Elements of Grotesque Essay

… Comparison of Poe's Gothic Fictions with the Southern Gothic Stories


Both stories, A Rose for Emily and A Good Man is Hard to Find, are representative of gothic elements such as the use of crime and horror. In A Rose for Emily, the very thought of Emily not only living with a corpse, but sleeping with it is horrific "The man himself lay in the bed" (490). He adds that "The body had apparently once lain in attitude of an embrace" (490). In A Good Man is Hard to Find, O'Connor provides a description of a horrifying murder scene where the misfit kills grandmother and her family. In the scene after the accident, the mere introduction of the misfit sends terror down the reader's spine. "The grandmother shrieked. She scrambled to her feet and stood staring" (1149). In all these two stories the gothic elements are similar to Edgar Poe's The black Cat and The Fall of the House of Usher, Edgar Poe's style of writing, which includes excessive use of adjectives in The Fall of the House of Usher instills a spirit of fear, and even despair in the readers, " & #8230;upon the mere house, and the simple landscape features of the domain & #8230;" he adds "… upon the bleak walls - upon the vacant eye-like windows - upon a few rank sedges - and upon a few white trunks of decayed trees" (1193) or more evident is a scene in The Black Cat "…with gore, stood erect before the eyes of the spectators. Upon its head, with red extended mouth and solitary eye of fire…" he continues "… sat the hideous beast whose craft had seduced me into murder…" (14).


Faulkner's story, A Rose for Emily, and O'Connor's A Good Man is Hard to find are representative of Southern Gothic, they adapt Gothic elements, such as crime and horror, to portray the social condition of the American South. On the contrary, Edgar Poe's The Black Cat and The Fall of the House of Usher are gothic fiction whose prevailing mood is terror or suspense. His intention is to tap…… [read more]

Bermuda Triangle Like the Statues Essay

… Red and purple glow in the sky, coupled with storms that vanished as quickly as they came, were also reported (Imbrogno). Wagner notes, "it has been suggested that aliens have chosen the Bermuda Triangle as a point at which to capture and abduct for unknown purposes," (2). Therefore, the Bermuda triangle could have deeper, extraterrestrial import. Most Bermuda Triangle disappearances, according to Imbrogno, occur in March, July, August, and October; these happen to be the same months that "the majority of paranormal and UFO cases" peak (137).

Another paranormal explanation that is less commonly documented is that the Bermuda Triangle phenomenon is due to ghosts; specifically, the ghosts of African slaves committed to avenging their people (Wagner). The ghosts of slaves haunting the Saragasso Sea offer as plausible an explanation as any other. Space-time continuum warps; nefarious aliens interested in human abduction and experimentation, possibly residing in a hollow earth; and sea farts all comprise the compendium of theories that attempt to explain why so many ships, sailors, pilots, and planes have gone missing in a single and seemingly innocent part of the world. The glistening blue seas of the Caribbean have become more sinister as a result of the experiences told by the likes of Christopher Columbus. Flight 19 might have been found; but the fact remains that dozens of others have lost their lives to whatever forces lie beneath the waters of the Bermuda Triangle.


Bermuda Triangle: The True Story. [Documentary Film]:

Hamilton, Sue. The Bermuda Triangle. Edina, MN: ABDO, 2008.

Imbrogno, Philip. Interdimensional Universe: The New Science of Paranormal Phenomena. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn, 2008.

Kelly, Kate. "The Bermuda Triangle 1945: The Veterans Who Never Returned." The Huffington Post. Nov 13, 2012. Retrieved online:

MacGregor, Rob. The Fog. Woodbury, MN: Llewelyn, 2005.

Myhre, Jon F. Discovery of Flight 19: A 30-Year Search for the Lost Patrol in the Bermuda Triangle. Paragon, 2012.

"The 'Mystery' of the Bermuda Triangle." Retrieved online:

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "The Bermuda Triangle." Retrieved online:

Obringer, Lee Ann. "How the Bermuda Triangle Works." How Stuff Works. Retrieved online:

Rosenberg, Aaron. Unsolved Mysteries: The Bermuda Triangle. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2002.

Rosenberg, Howard. "The Bermuda Triangle." Sealift 24, no. 6 (June 1974): 11-15.

Wagner, Stephen. "Top Theories for the Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle." Retrieved online:… [read more]

Storytelling in Odyssey Book Report

… ¶ … Storytelling in "The Odyssey"

Storytelling not only shapes the Odyssey, it demonstrates the power of storytelling. Homer was not simply telling a story, he manipulated the art of storytelling to create a masterpiece that reads like a page… [read more]

Ann Beattie Essay

… As its title suggests it is about what we are really talking about when we talk about love. The subject of love is brought up, not because Mel, Terri, Nick, and Laura want to communicate affection towards one another, but as a way of expressing their hidden aggressions and darkest secrets and fears.

"Love So Fleeting, Love So Fine"

Carol Shields' "Love So Fleeting, Love So Fine" is a story about the 'created' nature of love. In the story, the sign "Wendy is back!" In the window of a store causes the narrator to imagine what Wendy is like and to fall in love with his created image of Wendy. In this story, theme, rather than plot or character is what is important. The plot is nonexistent -- the story illustrates an illusion we often have, when our fantasy of a person is more vivid than the reality. This is often true of people who 'fall in love' with celebrities, or who project their own needs upon other people, rather than embrace the human perfections of real people. Having a relationship with an idealized figure is less frightening than having a relationship with a real person.

Shields' story seems particularly relevant today, when it is very easy to fall in love with people based upon information gleaned from the Internet. The ease of creating a false persona through words and suggestive images enables someone to 'love' the idea that the other person creates, rather than a true human being. The story does not inspire the reader to have a favorite character but rather to squirm uncomfortably as well as to laugh about the behavior exhibited by the narrator, as it rings all to true with his or her own behavior.

"Say Yes"

Tobias Wolff's "Say Yes" portrays a couple having a seemingly inconsequential argument. The wife and the husband argue over whether people of different races and ethnicities should marry. Eventually, their conversation deteriorates into a quarrel as to whether the husband would have married the wife if she had been black. The husband is portrayed as an insensitive boor who is proud that he helps out with the housework. "A few months earlier he'd overheard a friend of his wife's congratulate her on having such a considerate husband, and he thought, I try. Helping out with the dishes was a way he had of showing how considerate he was." However, he expresses uncomfortably racist attitudes.

The humor of the story derives from the man's arrogance when he expresses his thoughts and feelings. His wife cuts her finger while watching the dishes and the apparently superficial cut comes to symbolize a deeper rift that exists in the relationship that has been revealed by the argument. By the end of the short story, the man feels as if his wife is a stranger. They never knew one another's views on marriage, and their polarization indicates an emotional as well as political divide in the couple's life. The title implies that the… [read more]

Good Man Is Hard Research Paper

… ] one of [her] own children" she is correctly identifying herself as the ultimate source of the Misfit's misdeeds over the course of the story (O'Connor 22). Thus, instead of finding grace or forgiveness, the grandmother's last (and only useful) act is actually to condemn herself, such that her subsequent death may be seen as the story meting out some form of twisted, darkly humorous justice.

After considering each of the aforementioned discussions of Flannery O'Connor's short story "A Good Man is Hard to Find," it became clear to me that overall, the story takes a disdainful view of the grandmother and uses the final scene a means of highlighting her various moral and intellectual failings. In particular, the essays which best helped to answer my initial questions regarding the story were John Desmond's article "Flannery O'Connor's Misfit and the Mystery of Evil" and Stephen Bandy's essay "One of my babies": the misfit and the grandmother" because they helped to reveal how the character of the Misfit is used to contrast and highlight the grandmother's ignorance and selfishness. Furthermore, Robert C. Evans' essay "Cliches, Superficial Story-Telling, and the Dark Humor of Flannery O'Connor's 'A Good Man is Hard to Find" was helpful because it offered insights into the story's use of humor, which is an important tool for demonstrating the limited thinking done by the grandmother and her lack of self-awareness. In fact, the only essay I consulted which offered little insights was Gary Sloan's essay "Mystery, magic, and malice: O'Connor and the Misfit," because it is more concerned with fitting the story into a preconceived notion regarding O'Connor's entire corpus rather than addressing the reality of the story on its own terms.

Works Cited

Bandy, Stephen . "One of my babies": the misfit and the grandmother." Studies in Short Fiction.

Winter. (1996): 1-7. Print.

Desmond, John. "Flannery O'Connor's Misfit and the Mystery of Evil." Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature. 56. (2004): 129-37. Print.

Evans, Robert C. "Cliches, Superficial Story-Telling, and the Dark Humor of Flannery

O'Connor's 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." Dark Humor. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York,

NY: Infobase Publishing, 2010. 139-148. Print.

Flannery, O'Connor. A good man is hard to find and other stories. New York, NY: Harcourt

Books,…… [read more]

Fairy Tales in Post Jungian Psychotherapy Term Paper

… ¶ … Thereby Hangs a Tale

How do we come to understand our own lives? This is a question that is surely as old as our species, and perhaps even older, for some level of insight and inquiry surely existed… [read more]

Stealing Rocks From Paradise: Pele Research Paper

… The myth that the Hawaiian goddess Pele takes revenge upon anyone who steals rocks or sand from the islands is over 40 years old, and the anecdotal evidence of such a myth is used as a method of preventing millions of tourists and visitors from taking a pierce of the islands home and potentially destroying the environment there. The roots of the myth are straightforward as are the methods for disproving it, scientifically. Also, the connection between human fear of the unknown and the priorities of those looking after the islands as stewards is more than a coincidence. By examining the myth under a scientific microscope, and by understanding the scientific limitations and body of knowledge that was accepted when the myth was created (1960's and 1970's," it is possible to further pinpoint the origins of the myth itself. However, this myth cleverly blends little known and understood ancient mythology with the scientific knowledge and psychological vehicles that keep people in a state of fear of the unknown. The Hawaiian Islands are a beautiful place and the ancient Hawaiians had many myths and religious ceremonies to help understand the world around them. The myth surrounding Pele's vengeance for stealing rocks from the island is very obviously a 20th century environmentally charged invention.


Field, J.P.; Belnap, J.; Breshears, D.D.; Neff, J.C.; Okin, G.S.; Whicker, J.J.; Painter, T.H.;

Ravi, S.; Reheis, M.C.; and Reynolds, R.L. (2010). "The ecology of dust." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. Vol. 8, No. 1. Pp. 423 -- 430.

Goudie, A.S. (2009). "Dust storms: Recent developments."

Journal of Environmental Management. Vol. 90, No. 1. Pp. 89-94.

Hulme, M. (2008), "The conquering of climate: discourses of fear and their dissolution." The

Geographical Journal. Vol. 174, No. 1. Pp. 5 -- 16.

Martin, D. (2010). "Uncovering unconscious memories and myths for understanding international tourism behavior." Journal of Business Research. Vol. 63, No. 4. Pp. 372-383.

Nakuina, E.M. (2007). "Ancient Hawaiian water rights, and some of…… [read more]

Neptune One of the Best Known Deities Research Paper

… Neptune

One of the best known deities in all of mythology, and Roman mythology in particular, is the one called Neptune. Roman mythology parallels Greek mythology in its main stock of dieties, and in this case, the god Neptune is… [read more]

Batman Outfit Exploring the Batman Character Research Paper

… Batman Outfit

Exploring the Batman Character and Outfit

After experiencing two world wars and the destruction both of them wrought, the American public was weary of seeing lawlessness and violence on a scale that defied imagination. The public was eager… [read more]

Rhetorical Analysis of Cinderella Stories Essay

… Cinderella is a children's story told in many different ways; this essay is a rhetorical analysis of a French version by Charles Perrault and the Germany version written by the Grimm Brothers. Both versions are the story of young girl whose life is dramatically changed when her father takes a new wife. Each story contains the characters of a stepmother and two stepsisters, an absent father and a prince who rescues Cinderella from horrors of her home life. While the underlying foundation is the same, the two stories differ significantly in the character's behaviors toward Cinderella, the characters whom watch over Cinderella, the authors' tone and manner, and the lessons to be learned from reading the stories.

The most substantial difference between the two stories is Cinderella and the fairy godmother character. In Perrault's version, Cinderella is smart, witty and gracious. She uses her skills to not raise suspension in her stepmother or sister's mind that she is the unknown princess. His Cinderella also receives some degree of respect from her sisters, who consult Cinderella on their hair and clothing for the ball. Perrault's Cinderella is aided by a benevolent godmother who engages with Cinderella in the preparation for attending the ball; Cinderella works with her fairy godmother to find the vegetables and animals, which become her coach, horses and coachmen that transport her to the ball.

The Brothers Grimm's Cinderella is a victim who receives no respect from her new family and is often verbally abused. Additionally, a warm and kind godmother does not exist in the Grimm Brother's version. The help Cinderella receives is giving by the birds in her home and the tree, which grows on her mother's grave. Cinderella seems to only follow the directions of the…… [read more]

Annotated Bibliography Donald Barthelme Research Paper

… ¶ … Barthelme's Short Stories

Donald Barthelme wrote novels, short stories, children's literature and more. His style was called "experimental" and sometimes seemed "impersonal" (Lingan, John). A writer in the Texas Observer recently said that Barthelme's plots "are about as… [read more]

Oppel, Kenneth. Silverwing. New York: Simon Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … Oppel, Kenneth. Silverwing. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

ISBN: 0689815298 9780689815294, elementary school and junior high readers, fantasy/fiction. First in an ongoing and long-running series; accommodating but not overwhelming praise.

The first in a long series, this book recounts the tale of a young bat who has been separated from his colony and must find them not only to be reunited with them, but also to warn them of impending evil and destruction. A fantasy story that also serves as a coming of age tale and an adventure story, aiming to satisfy young readers' moralistic and story telling expectations, this book succeeds on these levels without propelling the tale further into the canon of a more lasting literary work. The cliff hangers that punctuate the chapters of the story will definitely keep the reader involved, but the characters are ultimately superficial, and the plot is in many ways formulaic, especially to more experienced readers.

Analytical Comments

The story, though exciting and engaging, is ultimately devoid of true originality and purpose

An excellent book to encourage reading in developing readers through the gripping nature of the story

Characterization is at once vivid and superficial, making for an odd mix in this novel

Animal characterizations are largely counter-intuitive, leading to near-automatic shifts in perspective and developing broader awareness of issues of difference/multiculturalism/etc.

Extended series provides ground for developing longer attention spans and developing regular reading habits

Lesson Ideas

Draw a picture of what you think one of the characters looks like

Create a map with several of the different points/journeys that occur in the book, showing how they are related

Dance as if you were a bat, with short legs and big wings -- how do you move differently?

Research bats and describe certain features about these animals that make them unique

Gather natural elements that you think might make a good habitat for a bat and share them with the class

Lowry, Lois. The Giver. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1993.

ISBN: 0395645662 9780395645666, 180 pages; juvenile readers (late elementary school/junior high). Newberry Award winner (1994), high critical praise and consistent readership.

Jonas is a typical twelve-year-old in his futuristic and highly controlled -- and seemingly idyllic -- world, but when he begins his erstwhile apprenticeship and becomes the Receiver of the community's past memories, feelings, and subjective/interpretive abilities, he becomes a threat to the community and to those he loves. A dystopian novel that also serves as an effective coming of age story aimed at the readers who are primed for just such a tale, the Giver delivers both story and message along with a great deal of intellectual and philosophical questioning. The deep emotions, persistent existential questions, and gripping plot will keep readers of all capabilities and interest levels engaged. The fully realized characters inspire worry and compassion one minute, while allowing the reader to share in the triumphs and epiphanies of the protagonist with the next turn of a page.

Analytical Comments

Some very dark subject matter, possibly… [read more]

Pillars of Zen the Road of Trials Essay

… ¶ … Pillars of Zen

The Road of Trials: Zen and the Hero's Journey

Roshi Philip Kapleau -- to whom is credited, in large part, the introduction of Zen Buddhism to the west -- recounts in his seminal work, the… [read more]

Carroll Shakespeare Allegory as a Device Essay

… Carroll Shakespeare

Allegory as a Device in the Work of Shakespeare and Carroll

The purpose of the allegory in literature is to deliver a concise narrative in which a clear plot arc and definable moral themes allow for the deliver… [read more]

Lord of the Rings Thesis

… ¶ … Wording in J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings

Although the recent motion picture adaptation of J.R.R. Tolkien's masterpiece, The Lord of the Rings, was not the first such enterprise, it did go a long way towards attracting… [read more]

Sexuality in Specific Fairy Tales Term Paper

… The prince is transformed into a Beast. We have physical ugliness as a mask which prevents people from seeing the real person. At the same time, this ugliness is a punishment for the vanity of the young who think they have absolute power and will continue to be young forever. He is ugly and she is beautiful and these are the coordinates which define them best. After all, she is called Belle.

Once again we have Disney teaching girls that beauty is what must define a woman. But this time it is just as important for men. The beast becomes depressed and has poor self-esteem after he looses his physical beauty. Sex and relationships are closely connected with looks. O the one hand, there is the beast who would like to change back to his old look . He learns about the difference between form and substance. But so does she because she is able to penetrate behind the looks and understand there is seething more to discover.

Once more the role of the woman is that of saving the man. The beast returns to the state of the prince after they are wed. It is important to understand that the man can be attractive and love worthy even in the absence of a good looking aspect. The woman on the other side is the Beauty par excellence, Belle. The development of their sexualities is different. She becomes more and more aware of his and of her own while he tries to dominate his animal side. Perhaps the beast is a way of saying that man and animal are somehow synonymous. Just lie Ariel, Belle needs to abandon her father and her family, but in the Beast's home she will be treated like a queen, having the occasion to occupy her time with reading and other meaningful activities. From this we understand that she is appreciated as a person as well and that brains are important as well.

In the case of the Little Red Riding Hood there might be perhaps a bigger quantity of relevant sexual symbols. First and foremost it must be underlined that she does not have a real name. she is defined by the hood that she is wearing and by the action of riding (searching). The hood is red and in this colour we may have connotations ranging from passion, love, sex to blood and despair. Nevertheless she is considered to be innocent and naive. The riding towards the grandmother's house is a journey of initiation. The wolf on the other hand is the symbol of male desire.

Once again we have the metaphor of the animal used in order to define the man. The female character lacks experience at the beginning but the fact that red defines her might let us think that she just had her first menstruation. The journey is one of becoming a woman. It is interesting to notice that the roles of man and women are represented as antagonistic. The… [read more]

Theme of Excellence in Hero Myths Around the World Research Proposal

… ¶ … Excellence" in Hero Myths around the World

The "Excellent" Hero

The myths and legends of years past tell of luminous men and demigods who conquered great monsters, gods, and evil men. They are reminders of the honor and… [read more]

Foktales Children Grow Up With Bedtime Stories Thesis

… Foktales

Children grow up with bedtime stories their parents or older siblings told them. As they grow up and expand their literary universe, they find out that the stories they thought were created by the national folklore of their country… [read more]

Heroic Figures Essay

… Mythic Comparison: Hercules, Jason, Daedalus

The story of Daedalus and Icarus stands in notable contrast to the stories of Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece, and the Twelve Labors of Hercules. Jason and Hercules are heroes who do the impossible, and succeed against all odds. However, Daedalus and Icarus challenge the conventional boundaries the gods put upon humanity and fail. Daedalus is imprisoned by King Minos, after being compelled to build the Labyrinth to house the bestial Minotaur. Cleverly, much like Hercules cleans the Augean stables, Daedalus finds a way out, by making wings for himself and his young son, Icarus. The two men fly away from the island. But while Daedalus counsels his young son not to fly to close to the sun, Icarus cannot resist, the wax on his wings melt, and the young man falls into the ocean and drowns.

The dangers of aspiring too high initially do not seem applicable to Hercules, who is the strongest man in the world and is given greater license to defy the laws of gravity. Hercules is forced to perform twelve labors, but he does so successfully as a result of his divine qualities. Jason triumphs because he is given the aid of an outside, divine source in the form of Medea's witchcraft. Yet even Jason's story ends in tragedy, as he is forced to marry the non-Greek sorceress who helped him win the fleece. He tries to divorce her, but she kills their two small children and his younger fiancee in retaliation, after leaving, unscathed in a winged chariot. Like Daedalus, Jason tries to exceed the bounds of humanity and fails. And also like Daedalus, his children are more directly penalized than their overreaching father. With both of these stories, the lesson is clear -- hubris is dangerous, and will be punished.

But why must Hercules suffer his labors? The queen of the gods, outraged because her husband Zeus…… [read more]

Jesus' Use of Parables of Reversal Cause Essay

… Jesus' use of parables of reversal cause challenge the understanding of the kingdom of God among his contemporaries by using a combination of the familiar and the unfamiliar to instruct and convince. The purpose of a metaphor, which Jesus often uses, is to connect something known with something unknown, therefore increasing knowledge of the known. In Jesus' case, the metaphors are special because they use the principal of reversal. In many of his parables, the character that seems to be most enviable is really the one who is not acting in way that coincides with God's kingdom. For example, Jesus recounts the story of a Pharisee and a common person in Luke 18:9-14. In the parable, the Pharisee thanks God for his many assets and attributes in public, while the common person simply begged God for Mercy. It was not the rich and high-status Pharisee that Jesus commended in this parable, but the common man. Thus, Jesus reversed his disciples' understanding of the Kingdom of heaven by claiming it does not value splendor, but rather, sincerity.

Few deny the existence of Jesus. Through historical records and scholarship, most believe that the…… [read more]

Choices Portrayed in Sequential Arts Term Paper

… ¶ … Portrayed in Sequential Arts

Us vs. Them?

Common sense should tell us that reading is the ultimate weapon - destroying ignorance, poverty and despair before they can destroy us.

A nation that doesn't read much doesn't know much.… [read more]

Traditional Folk or Fairy Tale Term Paper

… Traditional Folk or Fairy Tale

Various Versions of "Sleeping Beauty"

There are several different versions of the fairy tale classic "Sleeping Beauty." Three main versions, including a version entitles "Sun, Moon, and Talia" associated with Giambattista Basile, the Grimm Brother's "Little Brier-Rose," and the Walt Disney Classic film based on Charles Perrault's version. All three incorporate different aspects with common characteristics, showing the evolution of the story through generations of oral and written tradition.

These three versions all have different aspects which make each version unique to the author and time period from which it was created. Basile's version "Sun, Moon, and Talia" is the most unique of all three being discussed. This version incorporates no evil witches or curses, but a mere prophecy which tells of the fate of young Talia, the Sleeping Beauty. The prince who eventually marries her does not save her from her sleeping state, but rather impregnates her while she sleeps. It is her children, the products of this illicit union, which eventually pull her out of her slumber. This version also incorporates a plot line resembling Greek mythology, the wife of the King who falls in love with Talia attempts to feed his children to him and murder Talia. She is eventually found out and killed, leaving Talia and her new family to live "happily ever after." On the other hand, the version found in the Grimm Brother's collection, is much more familiar to American audiences. This version, however has its own differences from the other two. The curse comes not from an evil witch, but from a jealous fairy. Brier-Rose, who is the Sleeping Beauty who is only fifteen in this version, is guarded by a patch of thorns which causes the death of many princes who attempt to save her from her slumber. Once the prince who was destined for Brier-Rose does attempt to save her, he faces neither fight nor danger. The hedge of thorns turns to flowers and he is allowed to save her with true love's kiss. The Walt Disney version of the tale also has its own unique quirks. In this version, an evil witch curses Aurora, the name of this Sleeping Beauty, out of hatred for her father's humble and good kingdom. Here, Aurora is whisked away and hidden from the evil witch; however, Prince Phillip stumbles upon her, and without knowing that he is actually engaged to her falls in love with the young beauty. After she pricks her finger, Prince Phillip must fight and defeat the evil witch and the dragon which guards Aurora. Eventually he reaches her, and believing that she is dead he kisses her one last time. This awakens her…… [read more]

Warrior Maiden: Link Between Story and Tribe Term Paper

… ¶ … Tribe

The Warrior Maiden

The Oneida tribe is a Native American people that belong to the Iroquois Confederacy, which settled originally in upstate New York. The name that the people give themselves is derived from "Onayotekaono," meaning the… [read more]

Frankenstein Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and the Myth Term Paper

… Frankenstein



According to Robert Kiely, Victor Frankenstein, the main protagonist in Mary Shelley's 1818 British masterpiece of terror and suspense, is the "divine wanderer" with a spirit "enlivened by a supernatural enthusiasm"… [read more]

Zeus -- the Father of the Gods Term Paper

… Zeus -- the Father of the Gods

According to Ronald Leadbetter, the Greek god Zeus, "the youngest son of Cronus and Rhea, was the supreme ruler of Mount Olympus and of the Pantheon of the Gods" who lived in opulent… [read more]

Joseph Campbell and the Hero's Cycle Term Paper

… Joseph Campbell & the Hero's Cycle

Joseph Campbell and the Hero's Cycle

Joseph Campbell was a scholar who studied mythology and believed that diverse myths from all over the world tell the same basic "archetypal" story. One type always begins… [read more]

Homeric Hymns Term Paper

… Homeric Hymns: Strength and Trickery in the Lives of the Ancient Greek Gods and Heroes

Often it is said that the Greeks 'had a word for it,' in reference to Greek sexual, political, and social matters. Yet frequently 'it' for the Greeks, even when discussing heroism, is trickery, as noted by Peter Mazur in his 2005 analysis of the "Homeric Hymn to Hermes," published in the most recent addition of the Journal of the American Philological Association's Journal of Philology. In the Hesiod Homeric-style hymn that bears the name and sings the origin of Hermes, the god Apollo describes his half-brother Hermes as melain I nukti eoikos or like the "black night" (line 358) rather than the light represented by Apollo in the Homeric hymn to Apollo's creation. Where the baby Apollo, after his birth, (lines 131-32) claimed his two most prominent symbols as the lyre and the bow. Hermes steals his brother's lyre, and his first act as a young god after inventing fire is to inevitably start thinking about cooking and feeding his growling belly! (Lines 94-137) Hermes steals Apollo's cattle, rather than does upfront battle with a she-dragon, as did Apollo in his chronicled hymn of origins. (Lines 300-310)

Thus, Apollo rightly sees that beneath baby Hermes' innocent appearance lies something more sinister: although Hermes was born at dawn. (Line 17) Unlike his brother, Hermes is a companion and creature of the night. The two related gods, seen together, and when their hymns are paired together, are not polar opposites of good and bad, as they might be seen in a Christian context. Rather, the two gods are manifestations of two sides of the divine and heroic nature, in context of the larger catalogue of the hymns. Hermes uses deception, while Apollo uses strength. Apollo sings songs from his lyre. Hermes steals from his elder half-brother and uses music for devious purposes.

Thus the most famous Homeric hymns to the male Olympians Apollo and Hermes were each intended to give the original listeners of the texts not simply a sense of the young god's characteristic activities and natures through narrating the myths of their births and early lives, as noted by Robin Mitchell Boyask in his commentary on the hymns. Rather, in such hymns, the classicist Peter Mazur suggests that the contemporary reader must keep in mind the observation concerning the rise of Zeus in Hesiod's "Theogony" that the origin myths of the gods also attempt to give the Greek readers a sense of what it means to apprehend the full nature of the divine in his ideal, heroic form. The gods can demonstrate tricks in their own instances, with great bravado and show in a positive fashion, as well as show higher, elevated qualities as manifest in Apollo's killing of the dragon and his playing of the lyre.

Robin Mitchell Boyask, however, stresses that Homeric hymns tend to be patterned on human hero myths such as the Homeric "Iliad" and "Odyssey." The Hesiod use of divine… [read more]

Cassandra -- a Woman Scorned Term Paper

… Cassandra -- a Woman Scorned Because a God Was Scorned

Few heroines of Greek mythology have been as unjustly treated as Cassandra. Oddly enough, many of the websites devoted to classifying characters from Greek mythology view her in negative terms. One site quotes a number of contemporary mythologists, calling the "daughter of the Trojan king

Priam and Queen Hecuba...very beautiful, but quite unbalanced," not only in terms of the way she was perceived in the eyes of others, but also in terms of her priorities as a priestess and a woman. (Sandels, 2004) the site makes note of the fact that as a child, Cassandra "was left over night in a temple of Apollo together with her brother Helenus. In the morning, their parents found the children entwined with snakes. The serpents were flicking their tongues into the children's ears, and so they were given the gift of prophecy." (Sandels, 2004)

Because of this gift, Cassandra was made a priestess, and not required to marry, as were most women in ancient society. However, Cassandra later refused the God Apollo, who condemned the young woman to never be believed in her prophecy. One site, entitled "" even sneers: "Was she [Cassandra] grateful? Not a bit. She grew to be a very beautiful lady whom Apollo was smitten with, but it was years before she would grant him as much as a kiss. Him, the most radiant handsome God ever, who had women swooning in droves!" The implication is that Cassandra, because of her beauty and her intelligence, as well as the gift she was given (a gift given, incidentally, against her will, when she was a child) should give up everything to the god Apollo, even her body. (Saunders & Ramsey, 2004)

Such a misogynist view reflects the modern association of chastity or sexual continence with repression, forgetting that chastity in the Greek world was often a contingent quality and status for remaining a priestesses. The oracle at Delphi was chaste, as were the follower of Artemis, goddess of the moon -- thus by asking her to give up her chastity, Apollo was essentially asking Cassandra to give up her holy status as a religious priestess and oracular voice, by sacrificing her continence to him.

Granted, Apollo was the source of Cassandra' gift. But remember that Apollo's sister, Artemis was chaste, as was the goddess of wisdom Athena. Chastity enabled a woman to be free of the burdens of childbearing and keeping a home for a husband, thus Cassandra's desire to remain chaste was only understandable, for an intelligent and articulate woman possessing an extraordinary religious gift of insight and interpretation. To suggest that Cassandra should simply have been grateful for her prophetic gift while she had it, and given into Apollo because he was the source of her gift -- and thus likely have had to have given up both her gift and her priestly status, seems to suggest that the woman 'asked for it' -- in other words Cassandra… [read more]

Glass Menagerie and "Death of a Salesman Term Paper

… ¶ … Glass Menagerie and "Death of a Salesman": Escaping into Dreams

The plays "The Glass Menagerie" by Tennessee Williams and "Death of a Salesman" by Arthur Miller share a similar theme in that they both explore themes related to… [read more]

Roman Sculpture of Flora Goddess of Spring and Flowers Roman Mythology Term Paper

… Ancient Art

Flora: Goddess, Mother, and Whore

Within the confines of the Telfair Museum of Art there is a plaster cast of an ancient Roman statue of the goddess Flora. The original version of the statue stands in the Vatican and dates back to the year 14 C.E. The statue is of a heavy-limbed middle-aged woman, with her hair carefully arranged like a Roman matron. Her hair is bound, rather than loose flowing, like a married rather than a young and virginal woman. The medium size of the statue is neither intimidating in its stature nor precious in its scale. It is evidently large enough to be effective for public display, but not so small as to resemble the small, private scale deity sculptures designed perhaps for the context of Roman home worship.

Flora wears a transparent-like garment that emphasizes and conceals the nudity of her figure in its artful drapes and beckons the gazer in a friendly and alluring way. Her palm turned open, as if making an offering. She wears a garland of flowers in her hair, as is typical of all statues of the goddess Flora ("Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon, 1999) She strikes the viewer as both sensual, yet also motherly, traditional and womanly. She is nude and provocative in the way she extends her grasping hand to the gazer, but not intimidating in her beauty.

This statue of Flora embodies Roman contradictory attitudes towards female fertility and sexuality -- on one hand, sexuality was desirable for familial propagation, but on the other hand female liberality in the sexual sphere was something Roman society wished to contain -- it wished women to be both sexual and fertile, yet new and fresh as the spring and virginal was well. The physical openness and apparent sexual accessibility in the statue's physical configuration combined with its girlish flowers may reflects the fact that Flora was the goddess of flowers, fertility, and the new spring, and also the goddess of prostitutes.

According to the Roman Lexicon, Flora was the goddess that made the foliage bloom and "later she became protector of the spring and everything that blooms, including flowers." ("Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon, 1999) Originally, she and another female deity, known as Pomona, shared dual springtime functions -- Flora was of the flowers, Pomona was the goddess of fruit that could be picked from trees. Pomona "kept a garden from which she excluded would-be suitors. The Etruscan god Vertumnus (perhaps "Changer" or "Turner") turned himself into an old woman who advised Pomona to marry Vertumnus. When he resumed his usual form as a young male god, she accepted him." ("Flora and Pomona," Ancient Roman Mythology, 2004)

But gradually, Flora became the better known and more celebrated of the two, paired deities, and subsumed some of Pomona's traditional 'fruit-oriented' celebratory, functions. Interestingly enough, Flora also had an attached myth that had a theme of female fertility being an enclosed garden that must be impinged upon for fruition and… [read more]

Give a Close Critical Discussion of This Extract From Book One Homer's the Odyssey Term Paper

… ¶ … Innocence of the Gods:

A close critical discussion of Zeus haranguing the powers

Early in book one of Homer's Odyssey, there is a short and yet vital scene which begins with "Recalling Aegisthus, Zeus harangued the immortal powers..."… [read more]

Storytelling Human Beings Are Naturally Term Paper

… .. " A character's true motivation can only be learned when "we strip aside the conventional representation of a character and push them to act under pressure." (pg. 100)

Imagine two characters, one a female housewife and the other a… [read more]

1939 by Robert L Term Paper

… Rudolph immediately finds a friend in fellow-misfit Herbie, and instead of striking out on his own like the ugly ducklings before him, Rudolph and his friend strike out to find an entire island of misfits. Furthermore, instead of just being accepted by a group of misfits, Rudolph works to make sure that the misfit toys are accepted by children and that they lose their marginalized status. This reflects the American folklore history of outsider as hero. Where other societies and groups may have the best examples of their societies as their folk heroes, such as a beautiful swan in the classic ugly ducking tale, American folk heroes are celebrated because of their differences.

In addition, the story of Rudolph encompasses the American pioneer spirit. One of the central characters is a Yukon explorer, who aids the hero and his sidekick on their quest. Furthermore, unlike many folk tales that end with the death of the monstrous antagonist, Rudolph and Herbie transform the Abominable Snowman from a terrifying threat to a docile pet-like creature. American folk heroes, such as Pecos Pete and Paul Bunyan, go up against nature and rather than conquering it, transform nature from an enemy into an ally.

Because Rudolph is not only a classic example of the timeless misfit tale, but also encompasses American ideals and traditions, it is an important work in any study of folklore. An important aspect in the study of folklore is examining how folklore is transformed into fables and tales that then become part of a culture's traditions. By examining which elements of timeless themes are embraced by individual cultures in their folk traditions, a pattern emerges, revealing the ideals and values of the culture. Because Rudolph may be the most prominent folk-icon to develop wholly in America, and because that development occurred rapidly and recently, the study of Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer is actually the study of the American folk tradition. Therefore, Rudolph should be the subject of…… [read more]

Personal Definition Term Paper

… Bloom writes, "Early black heroines are invariably exemplary, characterized by their self-sacrifice and by their tireless labor for the collective good." Yet, Alice Walker defines her heroes in terms of realism and power. They overcome and survive the circumstances of their births. Survivalist is another word for Alice Walker's heroes. I believe that Walker's heroes fit into the parameters of my definition. They have intent to succeed and they overcome incredible hardship to further their purpose. Their sacrifice is selfless, designed to forward the fate of those around them, if only to suffer so the others do not have to.

From the meaning of hero in ancient times to the label and connotation of the word hero today, one can trace a common connotation. Hero means different. In Greece, one recognized a hero as a brave, strong man whose metal was tested by incredible challenge. He persevered for the good of his quest to achieve his goal. If he failed, his effort was still heroic. He was remembered for his intent as well as his achievement. He was different from ordinary men. He suffered great challenges and achieved greater glory. When Gods disappeared from the meaning of the word, heroes became mere mortals. They are still different from the rest of us. They are among those who overcame the temptations of the day, whose intents and actions are noble. Sir Gawain fought the Green knight believing he would die. He was a hero whose intent was to defend the honor of his king by going to his death.

Gould suggests that every hero becomes such because of his fifteen minutes of fame. This writer believes a hero to be more. Walker endows her heroes with tenacity, a will to succeed and a purpose. White finds heroism in the consistency of effort, diligence and exacting perseverance.

A find heroism in the rise of one to meet the expected or unexpected challenge, in the understanding of the sacrifice, and the willingness to risk when all others remain silent. I do not require my heroes to have super powers. Nor do I require them to be honest or noble. My heroes take themselves and their circumstances and reach beyond them.

At some point in time, they look past themselves toward a goal that will, in their estimation, better the lot of others and in some manner, they force themselves to act.

Works Cited

Ayto, John. Arcade Dictionary of Word Origins: The Histories of More Than 8000 English Language Words. New York: Arcade Publishing.1980

Bloom, Harold, ed. Alice Walker. New York: Chelsea House, 1989.

Strunk, William, and E.B. White. "The Elements of Style." American Greats. Eds. Wilson, Robert A. And Stanley Marcus. New York: PublicAffairs, 2000. 72-73.… [read more]

Old Man With Enormous Wings Term Paper

… In Marquez's story, the local priest Father Gonzago writes to the Vatican for their opinion on the winged man. They respond with questions, but appear to dismiss his questions generally. This might seem odd. However, if one looks at worldwide reports of miracles (such as weeping Mary statues, stigmata sufferers, the existence of a girl in a coma who can heal people, or sightings of the Virgin or Christ), then one will notice that the Catholic Church has consistently sent inquiries into the subjects with a skeptical eye, and does not generally accept the truth of these miracles. That it would do the same to an angel with parasites in its wings only makes sense.

So this story is at least socio-culturally realistic in its portrayal of how people in one area might respond to the appearance of a winged man; even apart from that, however, the tale struggles to retain its basic earthy realism. There is nothing wrong with humans noticing and believing that most things which happen will have some physical reality and explanation, and to aid in this Marquez makes sure that his winged man has the realistic traits one would expect of a winged figure. If there were indeed winged people or angels who were inhabiting earth, one would expect them to follow basic laws of nature. So their wings should have parasites, they should be heavy when wet (unless specifically adapted for water), and they should be exceptionally large compared to the body of the individual. A human with wings would indeed have to have wings so large that if they were very wet and injured or missing their most functional feathers (as if accidentally clipped from a storm) that person might be unable to rise from the mud or to fly again for a long time. Likewise a winged individual would have muscle configurations and a body build such that an inspector of them would report "They seemed so natural on that completely human organism that he couldn't understand why other men didn't have them too." (Marquez)

In conclusion, it seems safe to say that even if this story is very improbable (there is no evidence to suggest that some ancient winged Norwegians exist somewhere in the world), it is at the same time very realistic. The description of the appearance, physical complaints, and even personality of a winged man is very convincing. Just as real to human experience are the descriptions of how villagers and the wider religious world might respond to such a phenomenal appearance as that of an aged winged…… [read more]

Artistic 'Techniques' Art Becomes Reality Term Paper

… Now he will haunt others too.

The script was written in a series of coffee shop all-nighters, caffeine and sugar and sleep depravation becoming language as I dictated the screenplay to another. Like the oral myths of singing bards and holy shamans, the story came to life as I spoke it to another, and became all at once concrete and fluid as he put it down on the page, his own interpretation of what I had said adding to the energy of it. Each photograph used n the film carefully taken using shadows and obscure angles to cause of a sense of unrest and unavoidability as they sit upon the back wall of the room which represents the boy's mind. The painting -- ah, a masterpiece in itself -- the oil tarps found deep in the woods wrapped around bones and furs of long abandoned and forgotten hunting trophies, stained with the "Warning: Toxic" paints of landfills and garbage piles and the maddening lead-filled house paint found in a storage cellar miles from civilization. Red, red, red, black. Night falls, the generators cough into compliance to our demand for electricity, and the lights glare into his eyes as my own words flow through his lips. Between frames of film later drawings of ancient rites and back alley longings will be interspersed. Perhaps the audience will be deft enough to catch it, or perhaps the drawings of India Ink and sweat will only seep into their subconscious as they watch. This is my body, the paints and film canisters and darkrooms of a thousand sleepless nights waiting for this moment when my art would become reality. Drink of it.… [read more]

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