"Mythology / Folklore / Science Fiction" Essays

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Secret Garden Frances Hodgson Burnett Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (825 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Now it was overgrown and void of life.

The fairy godmother role comes in the form of Dickon Sowerby, who Burnett describes as a Pan looking child who even carries panpipes, and like Pan is a charmer of animals and people. He is able to tame wild creatures and transform them to pets. He even transforms Mary and Colin by introducing them the wonders of nature.

The evil-stepmother character is represented by Mrs. Medlock. She is the head of the servants and primary caretaker of Colin. Although not evil in the true sense, she is strict, demanding and obedient of all the odd rules that Mr. Craven desires enforced. Mrs. Medlock is the main obstacle that Mary and Colin must overcome in order to enjoy the garden and their time with Dickon, for she has been instructed to never allow Colin outdoors or to even allow sunlight to enter his room through opened curtains.

The elf type character is represented by Ben Weatherstaff, the old gardener who was a favorite of Colin's mother. He introduces Mary to the robin and also helps the children keep the garden a secret from the rest of the household.

Archibald Craven represents the kingly character in a fairy tale. As master of the manor, his orders are obeyed to a fault. Since the death of his wife, depression has overshadowed reason and compassion. He has spent most of the last few years traveling abroad, unable to be around anything that reminds him of his wife, including his son. He represents the element that must have a change of heart in order for the story to have a happy ending.

Misselthwaite Manor represents the castle in Burnett's fairy tale. It is large and mysterious with walls that echo of former times. In the beginning, Mary seems dwarfed amid its foreign grander, a little cinder girl roaming the vast halls looking for signs and clues about her new home.

Burnett's story includes many fairy tale elements and themes, such as enchantment and triumph. The magic of nature and the human spirit dominate the flow of "The Secret Garden."

Work Cited

Burnett, Frances Hodgson. The Secret Garden. Pp.

http://www.pagebypagebooks.com/Frances_Hodgson_Burnett/The_Secret_Garden/

Harischandra, Neshantha. "Fairy Tales and the concept of femininity."

Nivedini -- A Sri Lankan Feminist Journal. June 01, 2001; Pp.

Tolkien, J.R.R. "On Fairy-Stories." The Monsters and the Critics and Other

Essays; Pp. http://legends.dm.net/fairy/… [read more]


Importance of Magic Beings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
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"Harry Potter" and "Lord of the Rings," both based on books, employ many of the same tools that fairy tales do to tell their stories. Magical beings fill the pages of these books, and help the characters triumph over evil. Both books contain good and bad wizards, and a wide variety of other magical beings who help and hinder the main characters. These modern fairy tales continue to be popular with a wide range of audiences because not only they are well written and filmed, but also they engage the reader or viewer, and create an alternate universe where we can escape reality and suspend our disbeliefs. In other works, they are magic. We know they are not true, but that does not matter. They have heroic characters we can believe in, and they face dangerous situations that test their courage and allow them to grow as human beings. Fairy tales are magical, but they are also moral tales, and the hero must learn something and attain something for them to work. The best fairy tales are memorable, and the most memorable are those that contain larger than life heroes and larger than life situations they must endure and triumph over. Magical beings and fairies are they to help them, impede them, and make the story more interesting and compelling. That is why sometimes we remember the magical beings more than the heroes, such as the Giant from "Jack and the Beanstalk," the wicked witch from "The Wizard of Oz," and "Gandalf" from "The Hobbit."

Magical beings also inhabit many of these tales, and often, these magical beings create the central character's misfortune or distress. For example, in "Snow White," the stepmother can transform herself into the ugly hag witch, and ply Snow White with a poisoned apple. This magical being is selfish and jealous, and is the cause of Snow White's leaving the castle and long sleep. In "The Wizard of Oz," magical beings surround Dorothy on all sides, from the Wizard himself to the Scarecrow, Cowardly Lion, and Tin Man, along with Glenda, the good witch, who looks remarkably like a fairy princess. Dorothy's nemesis is also a magical being that makes her life miserable throughout the tale and sends her magical flying monkey henchmen to capture Dorothy and her friends. In "The Hobbit," Gandalf is another magical wizard who helps Bilbo throughout his adventures, and Smaug is a terrifying magical dragon that creates havoc for Bilbo throughout the book.

These magical beings are usually difficult… [read more]


Forests in Children's Lit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,112 words)
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It is important to notice that characters seem to take for granted rather miraculous occurrences within the forest that they might not have been able to understand and accept within the confines of normality as represented by their previous homes and cities. For example, Red-Cap does not seem surprised to see a wolf speak, just as Snowdrop seems unsurprised when she finds the home of seven little dwarfs and even feels comfortable making herself at home.

So in each story in which they occur, the forests serve to abruptly separate the character from all with which they are comfortable. Whether this occurs on a physical level or on a psychological and symbolic level is not entirely important. What is important is the way in which this enables the story to take place by waving our sense of the real. Forests have always been seen as magical and enchanted places, filled with woodland spirits, fae, changelings, goblins, and dark forces. Within the realm of the forest, it is almost like a Neverland, where reality is decided upon not by the reader's expectations, but by the spirits themselves. It is a long standing philosophical argument that reality is defined by the perceptions of the masses. Therefore, if one enters a magical realm of otherworldly creatures, such as those within the dark forests of fairy tales, it is the beliefs of those creatures, who outnumber the innocent wanderer by far, that defines the reality of that place. This allows for strange occurrences to take place, such as surviving inside the belly of a wolf after being consumed as occurs in Little Red Cap. This is not actually unbelievable, because within the realm of that forest, it is perhaps a normal occurrence for the residents that reside there, and therefore the story may abide by their rules. So, in a more esoteric sense, the characters are separated and isolated from all that is familiar because they walk into a realm where their reality does not line up with the reality that is perceived by those around them. Today, this may be the kind of isolation that is experienced by schizophrenics and other "mentally ill" people whose perception of reality is as far removed from normally functioning members of society as the perceptions of the innocent characters of the Grimm tales are removed from that of the woodland residents. The insane appearance of many fairy tale characters and their actions is actually an incarnation of that isolation, and vice versa.

The forests serves then as a literary device that allows the reader to accept the absurdist world of the fairy tale, while separating the characters from their expectations and their normal conscious world. Characters and readers which step into the boundary of the dark forest will never be the same again, and while most emerge (as did Little Red-Cap or Snowdrop) more enlightened and more mundane adults ready to embrace the normal world of marriage and procreation, there seems to be always the lingering fear… [read more]


Troublemakers Though an Audience Trained Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (888 words)
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Originally he tries to seek meaning in the world, and to join with the humans as a way of coming home. Eventually he realizes he can never join them. After this, he decides to officially reject meaning altogether, though he still seems to believe in it internally. The humans say that he is the antithesis of God, the evil one and the Destroyer, so he decides to take on that role for them and seek meaning (such as it is) in meaninglessness and destruction. In a way, this does succeed for him, and he does find a kind of terrible homeness in it: "I had become, myself, the mama I'd searched the cliffs for once in vain." (Gardner, 80)

Odysseus on the other hand is primarily seeking his physical home, but he too makes his way towards it by means of violence and monstrous deceit. Before he can go home, he must defeat the Trojans, and he does this both through trickery and with exceptional violence. After this, he must go on a long journey, and this path too is filled with murderous deeds and with trickery. Like Grendel he is a thief, and his men steal the cattle of the sun and the provisions of Cyclops. He lies to Cyclops and his enemies, and also to his goddess Athena, and to his own father, son, and wife Penelope. It also seems rather shameful of Odysseus comes home alone of all his men. To paraphrase Oscar Wilde, to lose one comrade may be regarded as a misfortune, but to lose all of them looks like carelessness. Of course, Odysseus is also quite the murderer, as one sees not only in his sack of Troy, but also in the wanton bloodshed in his own house where he kills scores of young men whose only crime is suiting his wife once they believe him dead. Nonetheless, it is this cunning that brings Odysseus home.

Though both seem antiheroic, both Grendel and Odysseus are heroes. Their quests for meaning and home seem to stand for the quest each of us must go through to find our place in the world. Both are "every man" as it were, though from drastically different ages. It is fascinating to see the way that the ancient antiheroic hero is beginning to resurface as the only sort of hero the modern world can take…… [read more]


Ann Packer's Short Story Horse Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,009 words)
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Of course, one should not overestimate Elizabeth's maturity as a protagonist, simply because she is more manifestly intellectual in her vocabulary and pursuits than Victor. Both of these protagonists, are to a degree, somewhat stunted in the way that they view the world, not simply because they become obsessed with structuring their lives according to a basketball game or mimicking the writing of the cheerleaders on the sidelines. Because Elizabeth has lost her father, she experiences a terrible sense of lacking in terms of her life as a young, developing woman. Her new life in a single parent household creates a sense of a loss of herself, as well as a sense of a loss of a parent.

Victor and Elizabeth both are driven to close, yet highly conflicted relationships with their surviving mothers because of their status as children in single-parent families, although, again because of gender, this causes Victor to see himself as a kind of parental or surrogate father and husband to his mother, while Elizabeth sees both her mother and herself as bereft because of her lacking a parent. Victor's greater sense of competence, despite his greater youth in years, almost makes him seem more mature than Elizabeth, though less cerebral as a character.

The two stories remain striking in contrast because both deal with such 'real' events as loss, yet both have characters that seek fantasy worlds, in the case of Victor, or fantasy selves, in the case of Elizabeth, as a way of understanding and controlling real-world circumstances. The reality intrudes in the form of class, death, and parental inadequacies, and the 'control' imposed by the narrators takes the form of games and role-playing of high school identities. The white-gloved inhabitants of the world Elizabeth feels alienated from, or the fast and expensive cars desired by Victor are both beyond each character's immediate grasping, but in fantasy they hope to find the idealized versions of themselves that can find a place in such ultimately artificial worlds.

At the beginning of both tales, despite these literal markers of the real world, both protagonists essentially live within themselves. After they undergo an emotional shift and journey of the self, in Elizabeth's case a more internal journey, and in Victor's case a much more physical and concrete way on the basketball court, they are better able to come to grips with the reality of life and the truth of who they are. Of course over the course of the story, Victor's success is part of an elaborate fantasy life that has a reality in the lived world and the narrative that is much more seamless than Elizabeth's projected fantasy of her ideal self. The authors of both stories balance the inner and outer life of the protagonists in different ways, depending on the protagonist's gender and maturity, but ultimately both of these solitary people must come to grips with both the larger world and their developing senses of self.… [read more]


Japanese Pop Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Comics have been affected by the new information age. Both the internet and television have therefore moved the magazines to the back burner in the United States.

The Japanese society is very different from American society. In Japan, the society may be more information hungry than in the U.S., but their comic industry continues to prosper. Although there are specific comics geared for children, new Anime style cartoons and movies are marketed specifically to adults. The Japanese culture continues to hunger for more and more techno and anime. PlayStation II, GameBoy and the walkman are obvious indications of the demand the Japanese culture has on producing newer and savvier technology toys, games and movies.

But the bottom line is that this craze is big business. "We're playing Yu-Gi-Oh, the game that has replaced Pokemon as Japan's No. 1 fad and is expected soon to enter the global lexicon. Yu-Gi-Oh, which means "King of Games," stars a seemingly normal boy named Yugi who gains extraordinary powers when playing a card game. The boom began when it was introduced as a plot twist in the Yu-Gi-Oh manga-comic series, which then spawned an actual card game, as well as Game Boy and PlayStation software, an animated TV show, action figures, pencil boxes and countless other money-sucking doodads. Yu-Gi-Oh is already a $2 billion industry; it caused a riot at a Tokyo games convention and has been banned from Bangkok schools." (Takeuchi-Cullen)

In the United States, the comic book industry and its off-shoots of movies and video games contribute to a less hungry consumer demand. An example of how society has changed in the United States can be demonstrated by one… [read more]


Iliad the Major Greek Figures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (362 words)
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Achilles becomes "Son of Pelus," his human father, when he is at his most petulant, such as in his quarrel with Agamemnon In contrast to these two younger Greeks, Nestor is "sweet worded" and an "old man" whose experienced and balanced counsel highlights the positive lineage of the Greeks that has become corrupted after their long time at war, far away from home, with the Trojans.

Also, in contrast to the Greeks, the Trojan warriors early on seem far more threatening in their unity, as well as the willingness of the "man killer Hector" to subsume his personal feelings about the war to the needs of "old Priam." Even the religious superiority of the Trojans is found in the figure of Calachas, the priest of Apollo and the father of the woman at the heart of the first scene of discord between Achilles and Agamemnon. Although Agamemnon disparages the priest with the epithet of "old man," the priest's noble heritage is apparent by his identification as "son of Thestor, bird-reader supreme."… [read more]


Moved My Cheese? By Spencer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (881 words)
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Haw learns about how to cope with change and upheaval in life, and as he learns new lessons, he writes them down. His first lesson is that Change Happens. Our cheese -- things that let us feel secure and able to take care of ourselves, such as a job, go through changes. Once things have changed, it's possible they will be changed in some way forever, and it may happen more than once in our lives. Nothing we do will stop change from happening, so there's no point in pretending it won't happen.

This leads Haw to his second rule: Anticipate Change. Since we know change will happen, smart people keep that fact in mind as they plan their lives.

Hem's next rule is to Monitor Change. Since change is inevitable, it's important to pay attention to when and how it might arrive. In the story, their supply of cheese was shrinking and they hadn't noticed. Worse, it was getting moldy. Once they've coped with the change, they may be better off.

His next rule, Adapt to Change Quickly, is something Hem and Haw had a lot of trouble with. Haw was extremely hungry by the time he started looking for new cheese, and Hem was even worse, even refusing the new cheese Haw had found.

The most important rule was simply, Change. This is the key ingredient: when Hem and Haw's circumstances changed, they needed to change their behavior, as Scurry and Sniff did. But if the next one was even tougher: Be Ready to Quickly Change Again and Again. If the cheese got moved once, it could move again. Haw realized that we need to be prepared with a plan in case our circumstances change. If the cheese disappeared once, it could disappear again.

Haw's next rule, was very difficult for Hem because he dreaded change so much. Scurry, Sniff and Haw discovered that problem-solving could e enjoyable and have unexpected rewards, such as tasty new kinds of cheeses.

One point about change didn't get a lot of attention from Johnson, and that is a first plan after change may not work. Haw might have encountered new obstacles, and his first approach, or even his first several approaches, might not have worked. Then he would have had to be extremely flexible and creative. But Johnson's primary point was that life can be uncertain, and the people who live life the most successfully in the long run are those who see unexpected change as an opportunity instead of a disaster, and that in such times, flexibility is a much better reaction than stubborn refusal to…… [read more]


Legend of Sleepy Hollow Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,474 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Irving puts it even better:

Besides, there is no encouragement for ghosts in most of our villages, for, they have scarcely had time to finish their first nap, and turn themselves in their graves, before their surviving friends have travelled away from the neighborhood; so that when they turn out at night to walk their rounds, they have no acquaintance… [read more]


Women in the Odyssey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (996 words)
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Penelope, for instance, puts off her suitors by announcing that she will marry one of them when she completes the shroud. She knits during the day and unravels her work by night, thus biding time until Odysseus comes home.

The Goddesses' Roles on Olympus,

The goddesses represent key elements in the world that the gods on Olympus oversee. Like their mortal counterparts, they are held in high esteem and are able to exert their power on the world, but only to a certain extent. Each god and goddess is responsible for one realm and must have the approval of other gods in order to affect another area; however, in the beginning of the epic (Book i) it is clear that Athene, the goddess of wisdom, has influence over her male counterparts when she calls a meeting to ask for the help of the other gods in bringing Odysseus home. Athene also appears to possess a power not seen in the other gods, personification. An example is Athene disguising herself as Mentes when visiting Telemachus, Odysseus' son (i. 105). The act of disguising herself as man seems to point to the idea that if she had come as a woman, Telemachus would not have entertained her or listened to what she had to say. This being the case, it is notable that men are still obliged to humor the goddesses. Not having a goddess on a man's side could be the difference between life and death. Given this, it is probably safe to say that goddesses possess equality and perhaps superiority in most aspects on Olympus.

Where are Women most Powerful?

In Homer's society women are most powerful in matters of wisdom and deceit. These two qualities are byproducts of intelligence. Athene is the goddess of wisdom. Without wisdom, Odysseus would not be able to reach his goal (Penelope). Athene is also a master of deceit, shown in her choosing disguise as a tool. Mortals, such as Penelope, are powerful as well in the area of wisdom and deceit. Penelope can deceive and manipulate her suitors. In so doing, she shows wisdom in handling difficult situations. In a way, Circe and Calypso, the goddesses who attempt to keep Odysseus from his goal by seducing him, show that they are powerful deceivers. The most powerful women and goddesses of The Odyssey show high levels of intelligence. Through their intelligence they are able to use their wisdom and deceptive powers to manipulate men to get what they want.

The women and goddesses in The Odyssey of Homer are the driving forces of the epic. They represent the ultimate goal and the wisdom required to reach a goal. Though men attempt to put women in their place from time to time in the epic, it turns out that without the intelligence of women, Odysseus would not have the capacity return home again and in…… [read more]


Supernatural Elements in Shakespeare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,757 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Sir Isaac Newton, the father of the modern study of Physics, is himself alleged to have written more than 100,000 pages on occult practices and alchemy. Even religious leaders, such as Innocent VIII, believed in the practice of witchcraft and were more than willing to ascribe witches a wide array of impressive powers and abilities far beyond the reach of normal human means. Indeed, the supernatural in Shakespeare's work needs to be reckoned as a very real and concrete force and this fact can be seen in the profound, serious, and dramatic effects that supernatural figures have in Shakespeare's works. While a purely metaphorical reading of such works might be more palatable to the modern skeptical sensibility, it would do a gross injustice to Shakespeare's intent. One way to view the appearance of the "weird sisters' in Macbeth, is not as simple superstition, however, but as a more philosophical and reasoned response to the problem of evil. By including the witches in the play, Shakespeare assigns a supernatural dimension to Macbeth's crime that takes it beyond the mere realm of human evil.

Bibliography

Innocent VII. "Bull Summis desiderantes, Dec. 5th, 1484." Medieval Sourcebook:

Witchcraft Documents [15th century]. Apr. 11, 2003. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/witches1.html

Shakespeare, William. Macbeth, 1623 First Folio Edition. Apr. 11, 2003. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/ShaMacF.html

Witches." The Background of Ideas. Shakespeare's Life and Times. Apr. 11, 2003. http://web.uvic.ca/shakespeare/Library/SLT/ideas/witches.html… [read more]


Harry Potter and the Sorcerer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Harry and Draco become rivals, competing it seems at all turns. However, for all Draco's wealth and ego, Harry wins each challenge, such as the school's game of Quidditch, a bit like hockey on broomsticks. Harry even eventually wins the cup for his team.

While most of the other children have gone home for the Christmas holidays, Harry remains at school rather than returning to the Dursleys. He is given an anonymous Christmas gift, an invisibility cloak, once belonging to his father. With the aid of the cloak, Harry is able to roam the dark corridors of the school and enter secret chambers undetected. He discovers the Mirror of Erised, a mirror that allows one to see what they truly wish to see, for Harry it was his parents. Harry also discovers the Sorcerer's Stone, for which he fights his ultimate battle for good.

Rowling's story is not only a story of good and evil, it is a coming of age story. Harry matures from a modest under-privileged boy to a powerful wizard of fame and respect. His first year at Hogwarts taught him not only the use of magic, but also an understanding of the human soul. Dumbledore had nurtured him as no one else had, giving him love and sense of purpose.

Dumbledore says, "You know, the Stone was really not such a wonderful thing. As much money and life as you could want! The two things most human beings could choose above all...the trouble is, humans do have a knack of choosing precisely those things that are worst for them" (Rowling 297).

Rowling's book has met with great success. However, not everyone are fans. A group of parents petitioned the South Carolina State Board of Education to review the Rowling's books for excessive violence (Duin C1). And one Christian writer said Rowling "taught no Christian principles at all...in direct contradiction to scripture" (Harry pg). Most reviewers caution Christian readers to accept Rowling's story as one would a fairy-tale, a simple story of good and evil (Mattingly C7).

Rowling has created a children's classic. She incorporates all the necessary moral themes that children need to comprehend and appreciate. Good always prevails in the end, intolerance and racism only harms, and class status has little to do with accomplishment and success.

Works Cited

Duin, Julia. "Writer's wizardry with words welcomed; Young fans mob British author at signings." The Washington Times. October 21, 1999; pp C1.

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone." Christian Apologetics and Research

Ministry. http://www.carm.org/features/harry_potter.htm accessed 04-09-2003).

Mattingly, Terry. "Wizardry of Harry Potter under fire; Christians reading more into popular children's books." The Washington Times. October 30, 1999; pp C7.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. Scholastic, Inc. 1997; pp

Wizardry of Harry Potter under fire; Christians reading more into popular children's books

It was the kind of proclamation that mayors sign all of the time - with a twist.

Whereas, Earth Religions are among the oldest spiritual systems on the planet; and whereas, Followers… [read more]


Australia's Aboriginal Supernatural Beliefs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (726 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Uluru is a perfect example of a Dreamtime location, and is a sacred area to Aborigines.

It is not only landmarks, and animals that are sacred to Dreamtime. Councilman Joseph explains that "Plants that are Dreaming we just leave alone. There are certain times when we can pick some of these plants. The law governs how we fit in with the environment, how our daily life is decided" (Dream, p4).

A prominent figure in Aboriginal lore, is the 'yowie' or Yuuriwinaa which means 'hairy woman or man'. The Yuuri were small people upto 4 feet tall, and having long white hair. Variations of the Yahoo, or Yuuri are found across Australia, with Aborigines from the Blue Mountains describing them as "fearsome creatures who are responsible for many deaths of their people. Legend has it that they would stand in the hollowed out trees waiting for their people to walk passed" (Yuuri, p2). Others recount the Yuuri as being passive and sometimes mischievous.

The Australian Aborigines have had strong ties to nature and their environment. Today, these ties are fighting to survive. It is these "strong ties between the land and Aboriginal peoples [that] have diminished since European settlement began, upsetting a unique environmental balance. Many Aborigines believe that the decline of Australian native species is partly because traditional ecological knowledge has not been handed down to children; and old people, who "held the law" for those animals and plants, have died" (Dream, p5).

Their relationship and respect for Earth Mother is the key component of their supernatural beliefs where Dreaming, and Dreamtime contribute to the way they govern themselves and live their day-to-day lives.

Bibliography

Experience Aboriginal Australia"

Australia

Australian Tourist Commission, 2003.

Ennis, D. Earth Mother and the people: The true meaning of aboriginal rights

Briarpatch Magazine, April 2002

Humphrey, M. The World's Oldest Inhabitants

Online, 2003. http://users.orac.net.au/~mhumphry/aborigin.html

Murray, D.A. "Aboriginal Dream"

Children: 21st Century Guardians of the Land

Times Educational Supplement,

June 23, 1995, Extra Environment, p. IV- V.

Povah, F. "Yuuri"

Aboriginal Legends

Online, 2003.

A www.yowiehunters.com/yowie/reports/general… [read more]


Crucible Arthur Miller's Play Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (359 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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The protagonist of the story, John Proctor, finds himself caught up in the very human decision to do what is right or do what is easier. He has committed adultery with Reverend Parris' niece Abigail Williams, and he is overcome with guilt by this. Throughout most of the play he wrestles with the good vs. evil that is inherent in every human being.

Eventually, in Act IV, Proctor decides that he cannot give a written confession that will cause harm to others. He has written a confession, but he tears it up, because he realizes that it will also affect the lives of others in the town in a negative way (Classic, 1999). By doing this he feels a sense of duty and his conscience is cleared so that he can die with dignity. It appears that good has won the day once again, but John Proctor and many others in the play suffered a great deal in order to obtain a reasonably happy ending.

Works Cited

ClassicNote on The Crucible (1999). ClassicNotes. 7 April 2003 http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/crucible/fullsumm.html… [read more]


Shakespeare Delays the Entry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (634 words)
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Therefore, these three men all hint that somehow Othello is a deceitful, selfish, lecherous man.

However, once Othello enters in scene 2 and he speaks with Iago, it becomes clear that the Moor is a strong but gentle man. Iago tells Othello that Brabantio spoke "such scurvy and provoking terms / Against your honor," (I, ii, 8-9). Instead of Othello losing his temper and swearing revenge on his father-in-law, he dismisses the insult: 'let him do his spite," (I, ii, 19). When the audience witnesses the Duke's reaction to Brabantio's accusations, we are further convinced that Othello is not a devious man but that Iago is the true villain. Already, Brabantio, Roderigo, and Cassio are portrayed as dupes, instruments of the wily Iago. Iago, the audience can plainly see, is an evil man.

Othello is summoned by the Duke of Venice for genuine military reasons. The Duke and the senators inform Othello that the Turks are causing problems in Cyprus and the services of the military hero Othello are needed. Othello is thus seen by the nobles and rulers as an effective military leader. When Brabantio approaches the Duke and accuses Othello of witchcraft, the Duke cannot believe that his trusted officer would be capable of such a grave offense. Wanting to believe Othello is innocent, the Duke listens to his argument and does not doubt that he tells the truth. Desdemona's testimony seals the deal and Othello is temporarily off the hook.

The first act of Shakespeare's tragedy Othello establishes the main characters' personality traits and foreshadows events to come. Iago is the quintessential villain; he seems intent on bringing on the downfall of Othello at any cost. To do so, he uses the pathetic Roderigo and the unsuspecting Cassio. Eventually he involves Desdemona, indirectly causing her murder and Othello's suicide. Othello is portrayed by…… [read more]


Pop Art on Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,538 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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There can be no question that popular culture certainly makes an impression on society; but the result of that impact is something that can't easily be measured. However, it can't be disputed that the reach of pop art is wide as its influence can be seen from clothing to interior decorating.

Although it is true that beauty is in the eye of the beholder, many Americans fail to see the beauty or the art in some of the art that claims to be "popular." Only time will tell what the lasting impression will be when two cultures collide, but it is safe to say that both cultures will never be same.

Works Cited

Davidson, Gienapp, Heyman, Lytle, and Stoff. Nation of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990. 17 December 2002.

Metrailler, Edouard. High in Saccharine, Low in (Moral) Fiber. The Harvard Salient. 7 October 1996. http://www.digitas.harvard.edu/~salient/issues/961007/mediocrity.html17 December 2002.

Morse, Margaret. Pop Art. Biddingtons. 17 December 2002. http://www.biddingtons.com/content/pedigreepop.html17 December 2002.

Myers, Ken. What Distinguishes "popular" Cultures From Other Varieties of Culture? Modern Reformation. http://www.modernreformation.org/mr97/janteb/mr9/01distinguishes.html17 December 2002.

Paris, Barry. On the Arts: Pop-culture politics: farewell to sex, hello to arms. Post-Gazette. 15 October 2000. http://www.post-gazette.com/magazine/20001015onarts4.asp17 December 2002.

Segal, David. Where's the Return Fire in the Culture Wars? Washington Post. July 2002. http://washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A11268-2002Jul1?language=printer17 December 2002.… [read more]


Russian Composer Piotr IL'yich Tchaikovsky Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,238 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Because the piece is attempting to demonstrate the characters of Romeo and Juliet, first alone, then together, then after their suffering has matured them, the pitches of the piece also underlines this romantic emphasis. The tonality of the music seems to shift from the heady notes that signify the adolescence of the character, to the more rich, joyous, and complex nature of the romance, then to the wildness of the fight that results in Mercutio's death and Juliet's feigned suicide. The tonality has majesty and completeness even during the most jarring parts of the narrative, however, that indicate its solid location in a Romantic work, as opposed to an atonal modern work. The 'complete' nature of the tonal range to the ear helps create a sense of fantasy, of otherworldly reality. Although the work is in B Minor, and a minor scale is often used to create a sense of unrest in the ear of the audience, there is still a sense of fulfillment in the range in the listener. Thus is ultimately unlike a modern atonal work. The harmonic subtlety of the work builds but always resolves the tension.

The timber or characteristic color or sound of the Overture as a whole is of joy rather than despair. Even the most desperate parts of the piece, which will later reecho in the fight and suicide scenes, have a quality of excitement rather than fear or depression. Although the music may have a stabbing quality to illustrate a death or stabbing or madness, the music never becomes unpleasant, even though the character depicted may be in an unpleasant situation. This is an excellent example of how the music is both narrative -- it does shift and change with the story -- but never becomes so jarring that it leaves the realm of fantasy and enters the world of reality. Although the forceful irregular rhythms of the street music may at times point ahead to Stravinsky and beyond, these rhythms are sufficiently complemented or contrasted with subsequent harmony that the fantastical quality of the narrative is still preserved.

The texture of the work, or the "interweaving, spacing, and contrasting, of instrumental parts," (Grout & Palisca 821), also creates this combined sense of story and fantasy. The music has clear sections that, if the listener is familiar with the tale, can be seen to illustrate the story of Romeo and Juliet into small sections or acts, like in a play. For instance during, during sharp shifts in the composer's slightly reformulated narrative, such as the shift in focus from Friar Laurence at the beginning to the brawling families, the silence is used to illustrate the division. At other times the orchestra is at war with one another, the more harsh instruments contrasting with the more sonorous instruments to create a sense of clash of hate and love. However, even these clashing elements have a pleasant quality, even though they may illustrate unpleasant events, everything still flows as part of an observed story,… [read more]


Children's Literature Can Provide Rich Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (994 words)
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Wisps of cloud carry the boy through the engineering process without verbal narrative. Wiesner's illustrations drive the story so effectively that words would sully the forward motion of the plot. Likewise, Tuesday is without words, a story told entirely in watercolor. Here the color scheme is grey and green, complemented by an eerie yellow: the frogs leap off the page with their iridescence. The scene in which the police examine the strange lily pads is like a mural: like a Rockwell painting the expression on the detective's face tells a thousand words. Tuesday and Sector 7 are both entirely devoid of words but the plot is ushered by the skillful illustrations of Wiesner. Hurricane is accompanied by a verbal narrative, which turns out to be unnecessary and redundant, especially in light of Tuesday and Sector 7. Also done in watercolors, Wiesner's illustrations are masterful and delightful, done in either dark or light tones depending on the storyline. During the storm, the palate is dark green and brown, but when the boys play with the fallen tree and enter their fantasy world, Wiesner uses muted tones: beige, white, and grey. Lighting accompanies the changes in mood, which do complement the narrative, however unnecessary it may be.

Wiesner's characters develop in tandem with the illustrations in all four of these examples. In Hurricane the boys are full of life and excitement at the coming storm, and when they play on the fallen tree the delight on their faces is evident. But Wiesner's talent in developing his characters through illustrations is more evident in Sector 7 and Tuesday. The boy in Sector 7, who remains nameless, undergoes a visible transformation after his experience with the clouds. Initially part of his school group, the boy is taken on a magical and creative journey and is instrumental in creating alternate cloud forms (much to the chagrin of the cloud engineers). When the boy is returned to his group, he feels confident and satisfied; his experience was unique. When he and the other students peer out of the snowy window of the school bus, the fascination in his eyes does not wane despite his knowledge of the inner workings of the clouds. The frogs in Tuesday undergo a similar transformation between the beginning and end of the story. Their magical flight offers them an experience they have never had; they float and frolic. When their journey comes to an end and they have to return to the pond, some of them are noticeably disgruntled. Wiesner leaves the reader on a joyous note: when pigs fly. But the most noticeable character transformation occurs in Wiesner's The Three Pigs. In his version of the classic tale, the pigs take control of the story and take the cat and the fiddle and a dragon along with them. By transcending the boundaries of an oft-told tale, the pigs send children and adults a message of creativity, confidence, and elation. We can truly believe that…… [read more]


Young Goodman Brown, Nathaniel Hawthorne Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (517 words)
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But people believed in witchcraft then, so it should be viewed as a realistic fear.

There is not ever given any explanation for Brown's presence in the woods that night except to meet up with others interested in witchcraft. At the opening of the story, Hawthorne writes, "Goodman Brown felt himself justified in making more haste on his present evil purpose." Perhaps he was going to gather evidence of witchcraft, since he expected to return to his wife's bosom, but Hawthorne reveals other emotional thoughts of Brown's to the reader. He leaves that out. It seems just as likely that Brown intended to indulge in the occult just one time to achieve some goal, and then never participate in it again.

A little further in the story, Brown reveals that he has misgivings about the night's purpose. He says,

Friend... having kept covenant by meeting thee here, it is my purpose now to return whence I came. I have scruples, touching the matter thou wot'st of." It seems unlikely that Brown would be opposed to revealing witchcraft, as his reaction for the rest of his life was so strong. Rather it seems that the love of his young wife silenced him from speaking out so that she would not be put to death.

Hawthorne seems to suggest that it was all a dream, but Brown has good reason both to believe otherwise and to react as…… [read more]