"Native American Indians" Essays

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Native Americans a Strong Connection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The only thing that makes sense to them is to find better and faster ways to go about enacting that destruction.


While there have been positive initiatives of late regarding Native American rights -- such as the U.S.'s reversal of the Bush administration's position on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous people, which, in dropping its… [read more]

American Indian Studies Native Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,422 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


It was traditionally used to transmit religious beliefs because it conveys cultural tradition" (Oral Tradition And Origin Myth, n.d).

One of the most widespread forms of oral tradition is the story. Storytelling is a skill passed down from one generation to another. Just as with any arrangement of art, practice is the key. The storyteller must be able to gain… [read more]

Natisve Americans Native Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,499 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


al, 142). Native Americans, who were former allies of the French, were treated by British in a hostile and controlling manner. To this, they reacted in such a way that they launched Pontiac War.

The rebellion had been initiated in order to challenge Britain and the Native Americans, had been successful in displacing the British from their forts and forcing… [read more]

Native American Consumers in Counseling and Rehabilitation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (902 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Native Americans

Health and Alcohol Counseling for Native Americans

Native American populations are among the more notoriously disadvantaged demographics in the United States today. Following generations of genocide, Native Americans have largely persisted in the sad state of affairs created by relegation to reservation life. Here, Native Americans often live in isolation from broader society and the socioeconomic, educational and professional opportunities present there within. A byproduct of these conditions is the intersection of negative health indicators, negative mental health indicators and high risk susceptibility to drug and alcohol abuse. As the discussion hereafter reveals, the intersection of conditions such as diabetes, alcoholism, drug dependency and depression demands outreach through both counseling and rehabilitation channels.

Before exploring these channels, it is appropriate to acknowledge some of the heightened risk factors facing native populations. Particularly, many of these heightened risks are actually genetic as well as conditional. This is true of diabetes, for instance. As reported by the American Diabetes Association (ADA)(2008), "according to the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the 'thrifty gene' theory proposes that African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans and Native Americans inherited a gene from their ancestors which enabled them to use food more efficiently during 'feast and famine' cycles. Today there are fewer such cycles; this causes certain populations to be more susceptible to obesity and to developing type 2 diabetes." (ADA, 1)

Available research also seems to imply that there is some connection between the genetic variations creating this vulnerability to diabetes and the vulnerabilities implicated where alcoholism is concerned. Native Americans tend to experience higher rates of alcoholism per population sample than other demographic subsets. This has been attributed to variances in the blood composition of Native Americans that, an article by Lee et al. (2008) tells, may also be a partial culprit higher than average occurrence of diabetes in Native Americans. According to Lee et al., "significant variables associated with the development of diabetes included triglycerides, obesity, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and degree of American Indian blood among participants with NGT at baseline. For those with IGT at baseline, significant predictors included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h glucose, BMI, degree of American Indian blood, and albuminuria." (Lee et al., 49)

In many ways, there is a direct connection between these two problems of diabetes and addiction, not just because they may be inclined by a common genetic disposition. More importantly, these risk factors are invoked by the need for outreach, counseling and rehabilitation in reservation communities. At present, there is a great need for the promotion of lifestyle change amongst Native Americans and this may only be predicated by improved attention to the counseling and support needs that have gone largely unmet to date.…… [read more]

Memory, a Voyage Into History Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,256 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


With Sherman Alexie and his novel, Reservation Blues the novel centers are characters from the 1990's whose interactions include a talking guitar, the living dead, and other cosmic happenings. Like with Momaday, historic memory as well as tribal and individual memory play prominent roles within the world of the novel and allow the environment to represent those memories. On the surface, Alexie's novel is a story of twentieth-century American Indian bildungsroman. Because the characters in the story are reservation Indians, their passage into adulthood is burdened by the question of what kind of "Indians" they will be and who they will inevitably be.

Reservation Blues struggles with major questions of community and identity, with a similar style to Momaday in rapid changes in narrative points-of-view and achronological temporal dimension similar to other Native American literature. The novel interconnects past and present so the reader is both places at once via memory, dreams, and reincarnated spirits like the shape-shifting Coyote the characters name their rock band after. Frederic Jameson explains pn page 304 of his book: "History's competing narrative, memory, is often an embedded critical paradigm in ethnic texts (Stein, and Lehu 40 ). Like with Momaday, Alexie uses his perspective to retell his stories and his focus on the events to shape the way the characters behave. The stories becomes one with the authors.

In the opening sentence of Reservation Blues, Alexie explains how memory and history will play amidst each other throughout the novel: "In the one hundred and eleven years since the creation of the Spokane Indian Reservation in 1881, not one person, Indian or otherwise, had ever appeared there by accident" (Alexie 3) . In Thomas-Builds-the-Fire's view (protagonist) nothing is by coincidence and keeping to memory the events assist in making sense of the past making it a significant way to heal the tribe's psychic well-being. "Five generations of Spokanes are buried on Thomas's reservation at Wellpinit, Washington, sixty-five miles from Spokane, and, although the weight of being the tribe's misfit storyteller, or cultural repository, has "bowed his legs and bent his spine" (Alexie 6). Herein lies the main difference between both books.

Alexie deals with how a tribe battles tradition and modernization. Unlike with Momaday who sought to preserve through memory the history of the Kiowa culture by integrating it into his own memories, the characters of Alexie's novel attempt to deny and forget who they are. They lose faith in their roots and culture leading them to become vulnerable to the dominant American culture. While Thomas tries to keep the traditions of the Spokane alive, the people ignore him to quell their pain. Eventually the magical guitar comes into play and Thomas tries to use music to activate their memory. But unlike the previous novel, history is the burden that everyone in America regardless of race carries as an important part of the American experience.

In conclusion, the two stories of N. Scott Monday and Sherman Alexie showcase Native American literature through their interconnected storytelling… [read more]

21st Century Race Gender Class and Ethnicity Issues for Native American Indians Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,065 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Native Media

Stereotypes and the Impossibility of Objective Identity: The Case of the Native American in Popular Media

The history of the United States, as most people the world over are well aware, has not exactly been a history of peaceful coexistence between divers groups of people with different perspectives, attitudes, and values. Though the country has been dubbed "the melting pot" and truly does support a very ethnically diverse population, its history has been more concerned with eliminating difference and creating similarities than it has been with preserving the individual cultures that came here to be "melted." Of course, there are certain ethnic strains that remain quite vibrant and noticeable, primarily in their culinary contributions: Italian restaurants, Mediterranean cuisine, Polish sausages and the now All-American hot dog: there is a tendency to celebrate certain aspects of the "foreign" cultures that help to make up this nation.

There are two very interesting things to note about these multicultural "celebrations," however. First, they are almost always concerned with European cultures rather than acknowledging the broad array of people that actually make up the citizenry of the United States, and second, the positive aspects of certain cultures are often just as stereotypical and artificial as many of the negative aspects that have been pointed out and/or embellished for centuries. This has had major implications for the group of people that has suffered the longest at the hands of the Europeans' descendants on this continent: the Native Americans. Even their collective grouping and labeling is indicative of the stereotyping these peoples face.

For much of the United States' history and indeed the history of Europeans in the Americas, the many indigenous tribes of the continent were seen as savages -- uncivilized people that had no real sense of morality or values, and that still lived in primitive fashions without the luxuries or economic productivity afforded by modernization. In truth, many tribes had flourishing civilizations, some with substantial villages and cities (especially in South America), and there were highly codified rules of behavior, government, and values. The fact that these values and systems of authority were markedly different from the Europeans' led to the labeling of these peoples as savages. Towards the middle of the twentieth century, however, public sentiment began to shift, and certain elements of Native American culture -- their far more symbiotic relationship with nature and elements of their mysticism especially -- began a new round of positive stereotyping that is damaging and disrespectful in a new way.

Little House on the Prairie

Based on a book series by a woman that actually lived in "Indian country" and the white settlements that followed, Little House on the Prairie was a popular television series in the 1970s and 80s. Its portrayal of Native Americans was highly positive and explicitly apologetic for the manner in which native tribes had been treated by white settlers and the United States government; while this was not the main focus of the show, several episodes throughout the… [read more]

Social Change for American Indian Societies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


NATIVE AMERICAN WORLDVIEW is grounded in historical and cultural changes and traditions. There may not only single way of looking at the world among surviving indigenous populations in the Americas but there are some common characteristics that shape the broader worldview. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Native Americans had had to experience political discrimination including an forceful assimilation policy that often used military power, forced relocation, repression, social and cultural regulation process and ban on use of some cultural ceremonies. Rick Hill (1988) writes about this prejudice:

There was also an assumption that Indians would be better off not being Indians, so that all 'pagan' trappings should be removed to liberate the Indian people from their inferior culture. The religion of the Indian people was attacked, Their objects of religion were removed from the communities."

The social change that Native Americans were forced to adopt was part of the assimilation policy. There were asked to join agriculture instead of focusing on hunting as means of earning livelihood. Some such changes resulted in gradual displacement of native languages and culture paving way for forced social change. But still, despite all these changes, most Native American children would grow up with a common worldview. The worldview has some interesting characteristics that most Native Americans can identify with as M.A. Jaimes (1995) tells us:

In terms of economics, the Native peoples tend to have communal property, subsistence production, barter systems, high-impact technology, and competitive production. In terms of political relations, Native people have consensual processes, direct "participatory" democracy, and laws embedded in oral traditions. On the other hand, modern society has centralized executive authorities, representative democracy, and written laws. In respect to their social relations, they differ, generally, in terms of matrilineality vs. patriarchy, extended vs. nuclear families, and low vs. high population density. Finally, regarding differences in world view, the Native peoples are polytheistic, derive an understanding of the world from the natural order's rhythms and cycles of life, and include animals and plants as well as other natural features in their conceptions of spirituality, which the cultural anthropologists call animism and totemism. (1995, 275)

This is an interesting and rather comprehensive picture of Native American worldview. Many would think that it is too generalized but it has characteristics that aboriginals understand and can relate to. In other words, even if all of them do not believe in the same things and these may not form their worldview, they do understand the conservative and spiritual place from which they originate. Religion is very important and culture is sacred to Native Americans. They all treat earth as a feminine entity and nurturing a bond with earth is essential. It is their way of connecting with the Creator. Their image of nature is grounded in 'Mother Earth', which is seen as a positive force. Robert M. Nelson (1997) maintains that, "a powerful respect for place, in the sense of an actual and particular landscape, is characteristic of much of Native American poetry and… [read more]

Crime-Native Americans Crime Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Crime-Native Americans

Crime Issues for Native Americans

One problem that exists today between the federal government and the Native Americans is crime.

According to a report released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on October 18, 2005, the crime rate against Native Americans has risen during the past five years (Some pp). In 2004, 131,539 Native American were arrested for murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault and burglary, compare to 125,438 in 2003 (Some pp). There is an overwhelming number of arrests of Native Americans, over 72.3% of Native Americans were arrested in cities (Some pp).

Another 10.1 arrest occurred in the metropolitan countries the remainder were in non-metropolitan areas assumed to be the reservations, suburban, and communities that surround the reservation (Some pp).

The federal government reports that during the past five years, American Indian and Alaska Native people of all ages are victimized at the highest rate in the nation (Some pp). According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Report, hate crimes against Native Americans has also increased (Some pp). In 2004, a total of 100 hate crimes consisting of bias crimes were up from 2003, however fewer Native Americans were involved in these crimes (Some pp).

A study released in 1999 by the United States Justice Department reported that American Indians are the victims of violent crime at a rate of more than twice the national average (Violent pp). The study also revealed that Native Americans, compared to other groups, are most likely to be the victims of violent crimes committed by members of a race other than their own (Violent pp). The study reported that over 60% of violent crimes against Native Americans…… [read more]

Native Americans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (562 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Native Americans

Over the years, the United States has exerted oppressive force over the Native American Indians who were in this country long before settlers arrived from Europe. Not only did the white European settlers cheat, rape, and steal from the Natives; they also managed to decimate nearly the entire Native American population. Native American tribes are now forced to live on reservations that are technically separate from the rest of the United States of America, although their sovereignty is still an ongoing matter of debate.

The Supreme Court has assumed in recent years that although non-Indians have the right to be free from political control by Indian nations, American Indians can and should be subject to the political sovereignty of non-Indians. This disparate treatment of both property and political rights is not the result of neutral rules being applied in a manner that has a disparate impact. Rather, it is the result of formally unequal rules. Moreover, it can be explained only by reference to perhaps unconscious assumptions about the nature and distribution of both property and power. This fact implies an uncomfortable truth: both property rights and political power in the United States are associated with a system of racial caste. (Singer 4)

The constant struggles for Indian sovereignty against the United States government came to a forefront in 1973 at the infamous standoff at Wounded Knee. On February 27, 1973, followers of the American Indian Movement occupied the town of Wounded Knee in South Dakota for seventy-one days while U.S. Marshals laid siege. The event nearly sparked off a civil war, and brought Indians' constant struggle for sovereignty to the public eye.

Wounded Knee had been the site…… [read more]

Native American's With Alcoholism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For instance, the rate of diabetic end stage renal disease is as much as six times higher in the Native American population. The number of Native Americans who have had limb amputations due to diabetes is as much as four times higher than in the general population. Among the many possible causes of this situation are poverty, the lack of… [read more]

Constitutional and Civil Rights of Native American Indians Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  4 pages (1,224 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Governor Peter Shumlin

109 State Street, Pavilion

Phone [HIDDEN]



Dear Governor Shumlin

I am writing to you in order to express the concern of the people of Vermont on the current Socio-economic, political, legal and cultural issues, Self-determination, land resources, current adoption/foster care programs of Native American Children and Native American people in Vermont and throughout the United States. First of all I must commend you for your effort in upholding the Constitutional and Civil Rights of Native American Indians. Your kind gesture and action of signing legislative bills in April 22nd, 2011 that officially recognized two Abenaki Bands; the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk Abenaki Nation and the El Nu Abenaki Tribe is very commendable. This latter is however meant to bring to your attention the need for regulating the activities in the adoption/foster care programs of Native American Children and Native American people in Vermont and throughout the United States. The aim is to protect the children from abuse and murder as has been the case as noted by Kevin Annett ( The Alex Jones Channel,2011).

The unfair and unjust foster care system

Governor, it is very clear that they current foster care system is a sham since instead of helping the native children, it steals them from their families as well as culture (ICTMN,2011).This allegation is supported by the investigation conducted by National Public Radio that indicated that close to seven hundred Native American children from South Dakota were forcibly removed from their homes and then subsequently placed in foster homes yearly. In the U.S., the Native Indian children make up about 15% of the total children population and yet they account for close to 50% of the children in American foster homes. Another disturbing reality is that close to 90% of the children in foster homes in the U.S. are placed in homes that are owned by non-Natives as indicated in NPR's state record analysis (Sullivand & Walters,2011).

Governor, then Indian Child Welfare Act which was passed by the U.S. congress in 1978 categorically mandated that every state must make efforts of placing Indian children with their relatives or a member of their tribes. The same legislation also mandated that the state first make attempts aimed at keeping a given family together with various programs and services. Clearly this is not the case even in Vermont. The NPR report also indicated that a large number of Native adults who already acquired legitimate Indian Welfare license don't have any kids being sent to them by foster homes. The kids are instead being sent to non-Native homes (Sullivand & Walters,2011).

The key findings of the NPR investigation are what perplexed me. I believe you should constitute a commission of inquiry into the matter and find out if the allegations below are fact or fiction.

The NPR investigation published a series of allegations that if indeed are true then you should come up with a remedial action aimed at correcting the situation in Vermont.The first… [read more]

Native Americans Dakota and Lakota Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The Native Indians also further declined with the arrival of the Europeans. Diseases took the best of every village including pneumonia, cholera, smallpox, and measles. The Indians had no built-in immunity to help them fight these diseases and so they either severely suffered from malnutrition or even died. This also forced them to leave their native villages, farming lands and their traditional hunting (Sutton, 2009).

Early historians, explorers, and colonialists considered the Native Americans as godless heathens and barbarians. Evidently, many the missionaries tried their best to convert the religion of the Natives, which they considered it as their divine obligation to save the savaged souls. In many cases, the Native Americans had involved themselves in trade with the English in terms of food supply when harsh winters prevailed. Starvation would have killed many of the English if the Native Americans would not offer their assistance in such times. Sadly, the preconception maintained its dominance within the English consciousness (Brown, 2006).

The Indians who had their habitat in the settlement of Jamestown must have experienced mixed reactions with the arrival of the English in the year 1907. They reacted with hostility at first regarding their previous experience they had with the Spanish explorers along the coastline. They made an attack to a British ship before it even arrived. However, the Indians began to assist the newcomers with traditional hospitality and food. The main motive of the leader of the Confederation of tribes, Mr. Powhatan deciding to offer traditional hospitality and food to the newcomers was to facilitate their assimilation in their system. The colonists got so much absorbed with instant wealth that they forgot to venture into planting corn and other activities, which would sustain their colony. Therefore, they had to rely heavily on the Indians for food (Sutton, 2009).

As the fortunes of the colonies got even worse in the course of its first two years but the leadership of Captain John Smith came to the rescue of the colony. Part of Captain John Smith's leadership was involved with developing trade with local Indians and exploring the area. It was very unfortunate that Smith wanted the English to offer the same treatment to the Indians similar to that of the Spanish, which was to slavery, drudgery, and work so that the English colonists could live on the sweat of their labor (Nabokov, 2010). Therefore, this made Smith take what he wanted by force in occasions where he failed to negotiate with the Indians for food. By 1909, it came to Powhatan's realization that the English had an intention of staying. His disappointment worsened when the Englishmen failed to reciprocate the hospitality he had offered during their arrival; they also declined to marry Indian women. He knew that the English people had come to invade his people and take away their land. This forced the Indians to start attacking the settlers, burning crops that they planted and killing their livestock. With all these events, Powhatan said that the young men… [read more]

American Indian History 1895-1995 Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Native Americans, New Voices: American Indian History, 1895-1995," David Edmunds discusses the fact that Native Americans were largely ignored in scholastic approaches to American history throughout the late 19th and early 20th century, but that this focus changed in the 1960s when the Civil Rights movement encouraged awareness of Native American history. He focuses on several different aspects of the historical portrayal of Native Americans to come to this conclusion. First, he highlights how Native Americans were portrayed in popular media as a group that had been defeated and gives examples of these portrayals. Second, he discusses the fact that Native Americans were largely ignored in historical scholarship, focusing on the fact that Native Americans were largely ignored or marginalized in the American Historical Review for most of the early part of the 20th century. Next, Edmunds discusses the transformation of Native American history in the 1960s, when the Civil Rights movement ushered in an increase in awareness and interest in Native American issues, including Native American history. Since that time period, there has been a growing interest in all aspects of Native American history, expanding it far beyond the white-conflict centered military history that dominated early Native American scholarship and even placing studies of pre-Columbian Native-American society within the context of global development, rather than limiting developmental comparisons to what was occurring in the Western world. What some of this recent scholarship demonstrates is a Holocaust of native populations when Europeans came to the Americas, but also the resilience of native populations in the face of European invasion.

The article is well-written. Because it is basically a review of the available historical information, the article could be very dry and boring. However, he uses good examples to highlight the conclusions and points that he is making in the article. Moreover, he strings together the evidence that he uses to paint a broader portrait, not only of the way that Native Americans were portrayed in American history during those time periods, but also of what they may have meant about the overall cultural treatment of Native Americans during those time periods.

While I certainly have not studied history to the same extent as Edmunds, what I do know of Native American history certainly seems to support his thesis. My discussions with people in older generations all reinforce the notion that they were taught that Native Americans were a people in decline and that their academic study of native populations was limited to learning about how Europeans impacted native populations. Therefore, I have to agree with his conclusions about the changing face of scholarship. I had a difficult time isolating an opinion in the article; Edmunds is engaging in an overview of the history that is available during the time periods he covers in the article, not really drawing any of his own conclusions from that…… [read more]

Native Americans: Separate and Unequal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


3). In a manner that mirrors the attitude of the Quechans, the Cherokee also sought federal protection, but wanted to maintain their sovereignty. In other words, Native Americans were trying to negotiate a place within the expanding European society in North America, but without sacrificing their values, beliefs, and sovereignty. The colonial powers, whether British, Spanish, French, or U.S., responded… [read more]

Native Americans and Their Health Issues Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (695 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Health of Native Americans

The Health Issues of Native Americans

Native Americans -- as a minority cultural group with many subcultures -- have a bleak history in the United States. They have a history of being ignored, or being persecuted, or indeed relegated to poverty status over the last few hundred years. The data available also shows that Native Americans suffer from poor health in many aspects of their lives.

According to Indian Health Services, American Indians and Alaska Natives "have long experienced lower health status" when they are compared with other cultures in the U.S. In fact, Native Americans and Alaska Natives have a life expectancy that is 2.4 years less than all other ethnic groups in the U.S. (74.5 years for Native Peoples vs. 76.9 years for all other groups averaged out) (Indian Health Services data).

Tuberculosis is a problem for Native Americans and Alaska Natives, according to the Indian Health Services information; in fact, Native Peoples die at a rate that is 600% higher than other Americans when it comes to tuberculosis; Native Peoples die at a rate 510% higher than other Americans when it comes to alcoholism; as to motor vehicle crashes, Native Peoples rate of death is 229% higher; the rate for Native Peoples is 189% higher for diabetes; Native Peoples have a rate of death from homicide that is 62% higher than others; and as for suicide, the rate for Native Peoples is also 62% higher than for other Americans (Indian Health Services Data).

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) lists the population of Native Americans at 3.2 million, with about 60 births per 1,000 women and a percentage of births with low birth weight at 7.4%. Fourteen percent of Native Peoples of all ages are in poor health, the CDCP reports, and fifteen percent of all Native Peoples suffer from a limitation of their normal activities due to "one or more chronic health conditions" (CDCP). The CDCP reports that only thirty nine percent of Native Peoples under the age of 65 have health insurance; and eighteen percent of…… [read more]

Keeping Native American Language Alive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Aztec-Tanoan language includes tribes in New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California and Utah (Columbia Encyclopedia).


In 1990, Congress passed the "Native American Languages Act (saving a culture, 2002)" and brought to the forefront the importance of saving the indigenous languages of the United States. This act "mandates that the government preserve and promote the right of Indians to use and develop their indigenous languages (saving a culture, 2002)." In 1992, there was additional legislation that provided annual grants for language recovery programs and these grants are still in place today (saving in culture, 2002).

This legislation was a big change from the government's normally hostile attitude concerning the language and customs of the Indians.


There are some Native American languages that have either already disappeared or are on the brink of vanishing. Native American groups and colleges throughout the country have implemented several programs in attempts to preserve the remaining languages. Though the United States government originally tried to eliminate the Indian language, it is now working to revitalize this part of American culture.

The Native American language not only offers an insight into the Indian culture, but contains valuable information about plants that can help scientist and the medical community, making it imperative to preserve the few remaining languages.

Works Cited

Bartholet, Jeffrey, Tony Clifton, Elizabeth Bryant and Scott Johnson. "The Sounds of Silence."

Newsweek International. (2000): 19 June. Pp. 62.

Harrison, Sheena. "Michigan State U. adopts American Indian Studies Program." University

Wire. (2000): 24 August.

Indians see preserving language as key move Saving a culture." The Washington

Times. (2002): 25 October.

James, Michael S. "Tongue-Tied; Linguists and Native Speakers Fight to Preserve Dying Languages." 08 April 2002. (accessed 11-09-2002) www.ABCNEWS.com).

Native American Languages." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition.

2002): 01 January.

Nijhuis,…… [read more]

Blues the Title of Sherman Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


That the novel presents the crossroads of Wellpinit as a potentially hopeful point in space that offer a chance at redemption instead of damnation is important, because for the most part, life on the reservation is neither hopeful nor redemptive. The space of the reservation is a space where "death, alcohol, poverty, book-burning, and child abuse find their place," and… [read more]

Puritans and Native Americans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


These were people whose idea of God had justified the beheading of the King of England, Charles the First, who could hardly be accused of being a godless heathen; in fact, he was beheaded because his Christian God was insufficiently Puritan. In some sense, the Native Americans were hardly the only victims of Puritan self-righteousness: before going to war with Native Americans, the Puritans had treated the King of England and the population of Ireland with the same lofty contempt.

For that reason, Rowlandson's story of her captivity is more full of Biblical quotations than any attempt to understand the social structure or mores of the Native Americans that abducted her: they were "heathens" and that was enough understanding as far as the Puritans were concerned. But at the same time, the way Rowlandson's story is told is meant to reinforce the cultural narrative of the Puritans at the same time that it denies the cultural narrative of the Native Americans: Downing (1981) reports, concerning the conflict in which Rowlandson's kidnapping occurred (known as King Philip's War or the "First Indian War") that "Increase Mather and other Puritan divines explained the Indian uprising as a sign of God's displeasure, exhorting their congregations about the dangers of 'backsliding'." (Downing 254). In other words, the clash of cultures that we see in Mary Rowlandson's kidnapping is used to strengthen the Puritans self-definition. It is used to reinforce the sense of community among hostile alien presences that do not believe in their Christian God, but it is also used to force the Puritan community itself to examine its own conscience and try to appease that Christian God through righteous behavior.

The only irony is that the Puritans might as well have been looking in a mirror: from the standpoint of an anthropologist, the angry god of this hubristic Protestant sect was just as much a bloodthirsty tribal cult as anything that would be found among the Native Americans. Mary Rowlandson may thank her God that she was only kidnapped by Narragansetts rather than by Aztecs, and that she was ransomed after 11 weeks rather than being slaughtered and eaten on a ziggurat, but at the end of the day the Puritan God seems rather similar to the Aztec version, at least when it comes to the clash of civilizations. Aggressive expansionism and disregard for peaceful coexistence with the lives of those outside the tribal group is more a Puritan than a Native American problem -- but it is a sign of the Puritan dominance in American culture that we are more likely to see Native Americans as behaving like tribal savages, despite the evidence that the Puritans were far more deserving of such terminology.


Downing, D. (1981). 'Streams of Scripture Comfort': Mary Rowlandson's Typological Use of the Bible. Early American Literature 15(3), 252-9.

Faery, R.B. (1995). "Mary Rowlandson (1637-1711)." Legacy 12 (2), 121-132.

Rowlandson, M. (1682). A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, A Minister's Wife in… [read more]

Wounded Knee II Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


All remaining land would be opened up for sale to white settlers, timber companies, mines and railroads. By 1934 when the allotment process ended, over two-thirds of the reservation land held by Native Americans in 1887 had been lost, and 90,000 had become completely landless. No matter whether it was the original intention of Dawes or not, the effect was to increase the poverty of the Indians. In addition, the Indian trust funds created by Dawes to manage royalties for oil, timber and mineral rights, which still exist today, have turned out to by monumentally corrupt and incompetent. In many cases, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) simply lost the records and was unable to account for billions of dollars in payments that were owed to Native Americans. In the history of the U.S. government, there has never been a worse-managed problem, or one that cheated some of the poorest people in the country to such an extreme degree.

In addition to this truly shabby and corrupt treatment meted out by the BIA in its fraudulent mismanagement of Native assets, the Dawes Act also had the effect of undermining the culture and religion of the Indians. For Dawes, total assimilation was the goal, which meant that the Indians would leave in nuclear families and own their own private property as individuals, while tribal governments, communal landholdings and traditional religions would be abolished. Indian Agents appointed to manage the reservations even ensured that Native Americans changed their hairstyles and clothing, while many of their children were adopted by white families or sent to boarding schools where English was the language of instruction. Only in recent years has it become clear that these schools were infamous for high levels of physical and sexual abuse, and that their activities were a form of cultural genocide. All of this was Dawes' intention, since he openly said that he would save the Indians only by killing their culture. Up until the New Deal and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, tribal governments and Native religions and customs were outlawed, although Congress granted all Indians citizenship for the…… [read more]

Native Americans Are the Indigenous Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (869 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The Europeans initiated dominance and superiority from the first time they interacted with the Native Americans. After the Europeans had dominated the land which was occupied by the Native Americans, they went ahead to oppress them and suppress their cultures. After the revolutionary war, the new United States government sought to gain land through treaties of which payment offered for the land was from fair. When Native Americans resisted surrendering their homeland, the United States government simply used superior military power to evict them.

Racism is the basis for discrimination. It is the systematic practice of denying people access to the most crucial resources and necessities in their lives. In an effort of Native Americans to obtain much of the Northern American land, there was a long series of war, massacre and forced displacements, restriction of food rights and imposition of treaties. Land was taken away and numerous hardships were imposed. Till today Native Americans remain among the economically disadvantaged group in the country. After their territories were incorporated, many surviving Native Americans were ranked low than before and were only given 4% of United States territory and treaties that were signed with them were violated.

Politics has impacted positively on the lives of Native Americans since they are able to vote for their people to become leaders. To them getting their people into the office has become a natural step. They have started recruitment campaigns and training seminars for political candidates looking at ways to increase their representatives in state and local posts so that they can deal with the problem s faced by the Native Americans such as discrimination.

Patricia Yelavich (2008) says that public policies have opened up the natives minds to new things that will benefit their future and the future of their native people. Public policies have also given the Native Americans students opportunity to learn more about the Native American policy structure and to be able to speak and share with their own tribes. Public policies have taught natives about education legislation, water rights settlements, health care and land reacquisition.


History on the Net, (2010). Native Americans - Tribes/Nations. Retrieved September 26, 2011

from http://www.historyonthenet.com/Native_Americans/tribes.htm

Janice C.P. et.al, (2002). Minorities in Rural America: An Overview of Population

Characteristics. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from http://rhr.sph.sc.edu/report/minoritiesInRuralAmerica.pdf

Lewis and Clark (2011). Native Americans. Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native

Patricia Yelavich, (2008). Native Americans students explore public policies at Wilson school.

Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S21/56/17C97/index.xml?section=featured… [read more]

American Indian Culture Before 1763 Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,157 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


American Indian Culture Before 1763

Native American society prior to 1763

The Native American society was thriving before its interaction with the Europeans, especially given that natives had a thorough understanding of how they could exploit land without risking remaining without resources. By the eighteenth century many native tribes had relocated in order to avoid clashing with European settlers. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the Six Nations) had taken opportunity of the fact that invading nations needed resources and organized diverse trading businesses meant to assist both their own people and settlers in their struggle to sustain themselves. From a cultural point-of-view, the Indians managed to preserve most of their cultural values, this most probably being a result of the fact that their society was largely based on them. Native American culture dominated the way that Indian-Americans behaved previous to their encounter with the Europeans, as they mainly focused on respecting four concepts: the environment, the Great Spirit, people, and personal freedom.

Although modern-day society largely promotes the idea that the American Continent was discovered by Genoese explorer Christopher Columbus, it is absurd to consider that someone is capable to discover something that had already been discovered many millennia before. There were several millions of individuals living in the "New World" at the time when the Spanish came across it. These people were organized in diverse groups that developed cultures and habits characteristic to the areas that they lived in and to their society as a whole.

Natives were primarily accustomed to earning a living through farming, hunting, and fishing (fishing was only present in the case of tribes living near coasts) before they could be influenced by their encounter with the Europeans. While men were focused on hunting and fishing, women and children took care of planting and harvesting resources such as corn and beans. Depending on their activity and on the region that they found themselves in, some tribes were nomadic. They followed animals as they traveled through the country and hunted in accordance with their needs. Even with the fact that these communities seemed primitive, they were capable to thrive and to expand their numbers rapidly.

Whereas men were recognized as being superior in regard to women because of their strength and because they were responsible for hunting, most tribes were matrilineal in character. This might be a result of the fact that women were in charge of their economies through conducting farming activities and through caring for resources. Their ability to deliver babies can also be one of the reasons for which they were respected by their communities. Children were particularly important for tribes in general and mothers were provided with special care during their pregnancy and when they gave birth. Depending on the tribe that they belonged to, children were subjected to a series of customs performed with the purpose of preparing them to face life's hardships. Even with that, mortality rates among infants were generally high because they contracted diseases or because they… [read more]

Native American Issues Background and Historical Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Native American Issues

Background and Historical Overview

The historical narrative of the United States presents the Native Americans in a tremendously unfair light that is as morally offensive as it is historically inaccurate. The Sioux Indians in particular have been portrayed as savage killers who raided peaceful Settlers from the North and East who tried to cultivate new lives in the unsettled so-called "Indian Country" west of the Mississippi River in the middle and late 19th century (Anderson, 1986). In truth, the Sioux were merely more defiant of the unjust treatment that all of the Native American tribes received from the white man during the immediate periods preceding and following the infamous Indian Removal Act of 1830. In Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux by Gary Clayton Anderson (1986), the author presents a more historically accurate view of the injustices to which the proud Sioux people (and the other Native American tribes) were subjected by the United States government than the perspective generally promoted by contemporary historical texts.

In principle, the revisionist history of the way that the American West was "won" is only one example of the many different historical inaccuracies that apply to the contemporary view of the way that the European explorers in general, and later, the white Colonialists of the North American Continent and the Settlers of the Wild West in particular ignored the rights of native peoples and systematically exploited, expelled, and in many cases, exterminated them in the process of "settling" lands that had been the ancestral homelands of those native peoples for millennia before the white man ever "discovered" the so-called "New World."

The Experiences of the Sioux as Detailed by Objective Contemporary Historians

Before the Indian Removal Act of 1830, most of the Native American tribes living in what was then called "Indian Country" by the white man lived in relative harmony and respected one another's territorial claims and boundaries (Takaki, 2008). One notable exception was the perpetual state of war that existed between the Sioux and the Pawnee tribes (Takaki, 2008). By the time that the U.S. government began to implement the concept of "Indian Removal" certain tribes, such as the Cherokee Nation and the Choctaws, apparently recognized the futility of armed conflict with the U.S. Army in opposition to their unfair treatment and sought to negotiate the most advantageous resettlement terms possible rather than fight against forces that were far superior in both number and in the technology of warfare (Stannard, 1993; Takaki, 2008).

In addition to securing more favorable resettlement terms and cash compensation, some tribes even achieved court victories over white Settlers who had violated treaties ceding certain territories exclusively for tribal occupation and use (Anderson, 1986; Takaki,…… [read more]

European and Native American Cultures Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,091 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


European & Native American Cultures

European Voyages, especially the Spanish's, were significantly marked by Cristopher Columbus' exploration of mainland America. Rumors spread that this land has flowing gold and silver which were seen necessary to strengthen Spain and make it the European superpower. Columbus thought that America is India and thus called it the Indies.

Apart from the gold and silver, the surprising vast properties and the agricultural crops found in the island had become very historic in Europe especially in their economy. Agricultural products like cacao, corn, potatoes, tomatoes and many other crops were brought in Europe which supported larger European population and contributed much in the growth of it during the 16th century. However this contact had never been as useful for the Native Americans as that of the Native Europeans. Spanish conquistadors had brought with them, unintentionally and intentionally, diseases particularly smallpox and measles that Americans had no immunity. These diseases forced the Native Americans, who were then called as Indians, not merely to acknowledge their existence but to treat their culture as more superior than theirs. They were coerced to live out of their land and those who did not abide suffered from slavery and worse, massive death. The disease brought by the Europeans caused destruction of the Native American population. Some historians, estimated that almost 80% of Native American tribes have died due to the uncurable disease brought by the Europeans.

Europeans had introduced some animals in the land of America as well. One of the seen most useful were the horses. Some of this animal had escaped and breeded in the wild of America. However, the last American horses died in the end of the last ice age. After that, the re-initiation of the same in the land of America brought a huge impact on the culture, particularly in the economy of the Native Americans. They began to travel and trade with other Native American tribes and started to spread out their territorial lands.

Land conquest brought huge influence in history of countries which have been subjected to it. Distribution and exchange of knowledge and culture occurred as a result. However, it had also been the primary reason of numerous bloody warfares during the ancient times.

With the Native Americans, giving was the most respectful act a person can offer. One needs not to stand out and be competitive; cooperation is a word that Native Americans were living for. This communal living of the Native Americans was hardly understood by the European conquistadors. As for them, Europeans, competition was vital and healthy. A respected European should not give instead save for a better future survival. Owning parcels of land was believed to become a form of saving. The same story, which was acquisition of more land and later on the wealth, had been inculcated in Native Europeans' mind, particularly those who eventually sailed to the land of America.

Europeans who arrived in the land of America were under the monarchy form of government. They… [read more]

Native American Literature Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Native American Lit

Wise, Bill and Bill Farnsworth (ill.). Louis Sockalexis: Native American Baseball Pioneer. New York: Lee & Low, 2007.

ISBN: 1584302690 9781584302698, 31 pages, color illustrations, IRA Children's Book Award, Carter G. Woodson Book Award. Juvenile audience.

A biography of professional baseball player Louis Sockalexis. Growing up in the late nineteenth century, Louis' dreams of becoming a baseball player were ridiculed because he was Native American. His success did not end the racism that plague him. Despite this, he managed to achieve his personal dreams and erode the racial barriers in this country to some degree.

-Somewhat overly simplistic in language given the subject matter; could be made more challenging

-Brevity of presentation allows for a quick yet highly informative read

-Illustrations well-matched to the text, yet not entirely necessary

Research the treatment of Native Americans in the 1800s and present your findings

Write a story about another historical attempt to break down a similar barrier

Draw a picture of the crowd you would see at a baseball game today

Share a time when you were treated unfairly and what you did to combat this

Take turns as different characters acting out a scene from the book

Capaldi, Gina. A Boy Named Beckoning. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, 2008.

ISBN: 9780822576440 0822576449, 32 pages, illustrations (some color), Independent Publisher Book Awards, other nominations. Juvenile audience.

Recounts the story of the man known as Carlos Montezuma, a Native American doctor and advocate. Kidnapped at a young age by another tribe, Wassaja is eventually bought by an Italian man who raises him as Carlos. He attends medical school, becomes a successful doctor, and spends his life advocating for Native American rights.

-Very informative and easy to follow with interest.

-Illustrations largely unnecessary.

-Quick pace without skimping on too much detail.

Research what it takes to become a doctor, and report your findings.

Write a plan for how you will become what you want to be.

Create a campaign poster to obtain Native American rights for a 19th century issue.

Debate a current issue facing Native American tribes in the U.S.

Write a brief report on another little-known Native American figure.

Steptoe, John. The Story of Jumping Mouse. New York: Lothrop, Lee, and Shepard, 1984.

ISBN: 0688019021 9780688019020, 40 pages, illustrated, Caldecott nominated. Juvenile literature.

Recounts a Native American legend in an illustrated and somewhat modernized version. With the help of an unselfish Frog, Jumping Mouse goes on a long journey. He eventually finds what he is seeking, ending with a stunning transformation that even he did not expect.

-Rich illustrations greatly enhance the storytelling aspect.

-Somewhat traditionalized storytelling method nonetheless preserves the elements of the original myth in a compelling manner

-Emotionally and intellectually stirring

Draw a picture of Jumping Mouse's transformation…… [read more]

Native American Cultural Aspects Apply to Psychological Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Native American Cultural Aspects Apply to Psychological Theory

According to author Barry M. Pritzker (A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture and Peoples) the early Southwestern tribes (the Navajo, the Athapaskans, the Pima and Hakataya) survived and stayed solvent through trading and exchanging critical goods and services. The passages on this page by Pritzker relate to the "historic and prehistoric periods" long before the Europeans arrived and pushed many Native American tribes off their traditional land. Some of the Indians mentioned above grew corn, beans, squash, cotton, and tobacco -- and those living near rivers ate fish.

The point here is those tribes that did not produce food for themselves or who had very little access to food, and did not hunt deer or buffalo, became involved in raiding others, in trading with other tribes -- or those less fortunate tribes may have been the recipients of gifts from more successful tribes. A big part of the culture of Southwestern Indians was the concept of trading. Trading was likely the most common form of obtaining the basic essentials. "Southwestern tribes exchanged goods on a large scale" during this period in American history, Pritzker writes (p. 4).

Food, turquoise, shell beads and other minerals were traded. Silver jewelry, baskets, blankets and buckskins were traded. They also traded "spouses," Pritzker explains; they traded medicine people and dancers as well as "ritualists." The Indians figured out and devised very complex systems of exchange, and this helped ensure the independence and "basic egalitarianism" that each Indian community required.

Psychological Theory: And so how would this system of trade and exchange relate to traditional psychological theory? Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs fits in interestingly with the trading back and forth between tribes. The first needs on Maslow's hierarchy of needs are human's physiological needs -- the need for food, air, water (http://psychology-about.com) -- came into play in Indian culture. Food was a major need of course and food was at the top of the list of items to be traded from one tribe to another. If the Navajo (nomadic herders of sheep) or Apache (feared…… [read more]

Identification American Indian Movement: Activist Group Seized Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (349 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



American Indian Movement: Activist group; Seized Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1972; protests sports mascots; concerned with Central America too; committed to Native rights.

Wounded Knee: Dec 29, 1890; U.S. government-sponsored massacre; 300 Sioux/Lakota killed; motivated by gold rush; Lakota clung to the Black Hills

Ada Deer: Born 1935; Native American activist; head of Bureau of Indian Affairs 1993-1997; Menominee tribe; female; scholar

Quanah Parker: last chief of Quahadi Comanche; Texas; European mother and Comanche father; mother was captured by Comanche; founder of Native American Church

Sioux Tribe: Native Americans; Lakota; Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Manitoba, Saskatchewan; strong social organization; 3 distinct ethnic groups; half off reservation

Indian Citizenship Act: 1924; Snyder Act; granted full citizenship to indigenous people; signed by President Coolidge; 14th Amendment did not apply before

Chief Joseph & Nez Perce: Chief of Wallowa; resisted removal to Idaho; born in Oregon; related to Gold Rush; led Nez Pierce to Canada

8. Dawes Allotment Act: 1887; allotted land in Oklahoma to Native Americans; exempted "Five Civilized Tribes"; became Burke Act in 1906;…… [read more]

Native American Responses to Anglo Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (401 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Native Americans and Westward Expansion

Although the period in American history known as Westward Expansion brings to mind covered wagons of settlers moving to develop open land in the West, the West had been settled, and explored, far before this era. In fact, during the colonial times, the French, Spanish, and even Russians, joined the British in exploring and colonizing the new world ("American Westward Movement" 2008). For the Americans, Westward expansion meant the furthering of a nation, new business opportunities, and exotic lands. For the Native Americans, it meant tears.

The Native American reaction to Westward expansion and nation building was filled with sorrow. This is to be expected, based on what the Americans forced the Native Americans to give up so that they could expand. One of the precious resources that the Americans asked the Native Americans to give up was their land. The story of the Choctaw tribe is a prime example of this. Although their first experience with Europeans resulted in a particularly bloody battle for the tribe, they actually aided the colonists turned Americans in the Creek war of 1813. Thus, they reacted in an accommodating fashion. But the tribe lived on the desired lands…… [read more]

Reasons for Ritual in Native American Traditions Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,030 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Ritual in Native American Traditions

The Impenetrability of the Native American Mind

Donald Lee Fixico, a Native American author intending to introduce and defend the Indian worldview to a nonwhite audience states in his book the American Indian Mind that Native Americans such as himself, even after being socialized into white society, have a cultural worldview that is integrally and profoundly different than whites, a worldview that is anathema to the linearity and scientific rationalism endemic to white society. Viewing Native culture as such, even to defend the beauty and uniqueness a perspective that has been devalued by white society, may seem to run the risk of essentializing Native Americans and reducing native rituals cultures to museum pieces. According to editor and author Calvin Martin of the collection the American Indian and the Problem of History, the ways that Native American religions and cultures have been conceptualized by white culture often have a "fixed and rigid quality" which creates an object of study that is really a storefront Indian "hewn out of a rock" (Martin 211).

However, Martin's own analysis in his essay "The Metaphysics of Writing Indian-White History" seems to do exactly that -- to create a rock-like, unchanging conception of Native culture and practices. Martin, like Fixico, tends to essentialize 'the' Native American and see the American Indian as a singular, untouchable entity, impenetrable to white historians (Martin 29). Martin, to defend his point-of-view sent his initial essay to a variety of scholars and asked for a response, as detailed in his introductory comments: "An Introduction Aboard the Fidele." Martin believes that Native American culture and that of the Europeans are "mutually irreconcilable, mutually antagonistic, and mutually unintelligible" and no white history ever has or can illuminate native culture because of its profound difference from white culture (Martin 9). Viewed as such, even the most well-meaning historian or anthropologist engages in an act of colonization when he or she engages with the Native person's mind, and writes white history upon the history of the Indians in an act of "historiographic colonialism" (Martin 11). Martin, along the lines of Fixico believes that Native Americans perceived an integration between past and present, and took a holistic and cyclical view of the earth and its history, as opposed to white approaches to history which tends to view 'man' and 'nature' as inherently divided and more often than not, antagonistic. Indian history is biological and primordial, while white history is linear and white religions try to lift the subject 'above' nature, rather than to place the subject through ritual within nature, as is the case with Native American rituals.

Martin believes even white native apologists tend to view native-white relations through only one lens, such as an economic or political paradigm and to essentialize a single outlook or worldview as generalizable to all native societies. The "ebb and flow of Power can in truth be said to form the warp and woof of the Indian-White experience," and whites always wield… [read more]

Native American Cultures of North Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,427 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Native American Culture

Intolerance of native religion is a theme that pervades Native American studies, as the conditions that many Indian nations suffered were guised with a highly religiously motivated idea of manifest destiny. The Cherokee nation was no exception, as many members sought to live a life that was chosen for them, rather than made by choice. One hundred… [read more]

Native American Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Native American Art

Post-War Native American Art

To evaluate the impact that Native American art has had on the evolution of late Modernism - and vice versa - is not an easy task. It was only in the 1930s that art critics and historians began paying attention to Native American art and that it began to be exhibited in respectable… [read more]

Native American Expressive Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,153 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Native American Expressive Culture

The Native American tradition can be seen as an evolving cultural tradition that encompasses countless expressions of creativity, from many varied cultures and expressions of culture. Native American cultural expression has been at various times subverted and reformed. During the 19th century and into the 20th century there was a large movement to force assimilation of… [read more]

Native American Children's Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Teaching Native American Folklore to Children

This paper will examine Donna Norton's typology of Native American folklore and examine how this typology can be a useful pedagogical tool when approaching a diverse student body and when teaching a multicultural curriculum.

Classifying Native American folklore into different types of tales, such as "Setting-the-World-in-Order Tales," "Family Drama Tales," "Trickster Tales," "Threshold Tales" and "Combination Tales," is not simply an effective way to introduce aspects of native culture to young children in a diverse classroom (Norton 2005: 82-87). It can also be a powerful method to draw connections between the children's own cultures and Native American mythology. For example, "Trickster Tales" are "common in folklore all over the world," perhaps the most culturally pervasive kind of tale (Norton 2005: 84). The Trickster of the Pacific North American Indians is called the Raven; another common trickster is the Coyote, and also the Rabbit. Children can read tales of these animals, and compare them with other tricksters from other cultures, such as Anasi the Spider from West Africa. Children can also examine the presence of trickster mythology in modern American media, in films and television, where vulnerable people (like animals and children) trick stronger authority figures with clever and underhanded methods. Also, a teacher might ask why certain animals, like rabbits and coyotes, have common 'trickster' appeal, as opposed to other animals. "Trickster tales are almost always placed in the 'animal tales' genre, with the trickster... identified with a particular animal. These include the mouse deer in Southeast Asia, the fox in Japan, the coyote and the spider among the North American Indians, the tortoise, rabbit (or hare) and spider in West Africa, and the mantis in Southern Africa" (Starr 1999).

Setting-the-World-in-Order" or origin tales are another likely point of connection between many different tales from different cultures (Norton 2005: 82). Encouraging children…… [read more]

Native American Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,340 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In 1968 the first tribal college opened on the Navajo reservation and by 1995, there were twenty-nine such college (Natives Pp). There are numerous radio stations, as well a newspapers and periodicals (Natives Pp).

A common concept among the majority of Native tribes is that of a dual divinity: "a Creator who is responsible for the creation of the world and is recognized in religious ritual and prayers, and a mythical individual, a hero or trickster, who teaches culture, proper behavior and provides sustenance to the tribe" (Native pp). Totems are a part of the spiritual path and represent the understanding cultural heritage as well as personality types (Meeks pp). Animal totems embody not only spiritual beings, messengers and guides, but also "embody some very firm principles in facing internal psychological conflicts that can have a bearing on many aspects of life including the spiritual aspect" (Meeks pp). Even today the dances at Powwows have a strong personal and spiritual dimension as each dance involves different stories and interpretation, depending on tribal and family background (Dances pp).

The arrival of Europeans marked a major change in Native society as tens of millions died from sickness, and programs of slavery and extermination (Native pp). Moreover, Europeans viewed Native American spirituality as worthless superstition and many survivors were forced to convert to Christianity (Native pp). During the mid-20th century both the United States and Canadian governments forced entire generations of native children into residential church operated schools (Native pp).

The current system of tribal government is a governing system imposed by the federal government that is a paternal system that replaces what was previously, in many cases, a matriarchal society, and is viewed by many as no more than an arm of the federal government (Line pp).

During recent decades there has begun a movement among Native American tribes to reconnect and restore much of their cultural heritage. The First Peoples' Cultural Foundation is a non-profit charitable public organization that generates support to raise awareness and funding for Aboriginal language revitalization (First pp). Native Nations Network, NNN, is a Native American and Canadian First Nations global, "online tribal village featuring news, editorials, essays, internet sources, events, action alerts, and specialty sections focusing on issues of sovereignty, treaty rights and activism," with the objective to provide an interactive gathering of Indigenous peoples to share ideas, information, and celebrate all Native cultures (Nations pp). The International Indian treaty Council is an organization of Indigenous Peoples from North, Central, South America and the Pacific with the purpose of working for the recognition and protection of Indigenous rights, traditional cultures and scared lands (International pp). The Center for World Indigenous Studies is an independent, non-profit research and education organization dedicated to promoting a better understanding and appreciation of the ideas and knowledge of indigenous peoples (Center pp).

From November 20, 2004 through January 30, 2005, the Art Institute of Chicago is displaying an exhibit called "Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient… [read more]

Native American Gaming in February Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is believed that this continued onslaught of casino talk is more than a mere ploy to gain revenue for Minnesota, a state that has shown large deficits (Melmer Pp). According to William Hardaker, attorney for Shakopee Sioux, it is an attack on American Indian tribal government in that the legislators are asking the tribes to set aside sovereignty, which… [read more]

Native American History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The purpose of Tracks was to tell its audience about the history, which lay behind the American Natives. Albert Hurtado and Peter Inverson in their novel Major Problems in American Indian History focus this similar theme. The book intends to relate the Indian history by revealing extensive, dissension and pedagogic diversity. The novel once again points out the many problems… [read more]

Native American and African Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Native American and African Tribal

Discussing with regard to Native American and African religious expression is somewhat problematic when considering the numerous religious ideas present in these two cultures. Even with this, one can easily find a series of parallels and differences when going in-depth and gaining a more complex understanding of how African tribes and Native American tribes perceive the concept of religion. The fact that religious ideas promoted by Native American tribes and African tribes are tightly connected to concepts like spirituality and a person's relationship with the natural world makes it possible for someone to comprehend why particular aspects of these two cultures might seem alike.

It would be wrong to associate particular religions to either of these two communities, as one can only reach a conclusion concerning religious customs in each of the two by discovering similarities between the many cultural values that shaped religious concepts both in Native American and in African tribal communities. As a consequence, when considering religious customs in Native American history and in African tribal history, one needs to keep in mind that it is only by generalizing that he or she can come up with a certain set of principles characteristic to each culture.

Animism is an important idea both in Native American religious culture and in tribal African religious culture. Native Americans and African tribes expressed particular interest in the significance of spirituality and of souls. Individuals in both cultures appeared to consider that a person needs to respect the spiritual aspect of life and concentrate on living in agreement with a set of rules in order for him or her to avoid coming across significant problems.

One of the principal things emphasizing the…… [read more]

Career Developmental Needs of Native Americans Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (2,882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Career Developmental Needs of Native Americans

The objective of this work is to examine the career developmental needs of Native Americans and primarily those residing in urban areas and reservations and specifically those in the Southwestern portion of the United States.

Historically, and as noted in the work of Delcruz (1978) social reality and historical relationships are much slower to… [read more]

Define the Treaty of Fort Laramie and What Did it Guarantee the Native Americans Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (725 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Treaty of Fort Laramie and what it guaranteed the Native Americans. The Treaty of Fort Laramie is also called the Sioux Treat of 1868. It was a treaty between the United States Government and several Native American nations, which gave land ownership to them.

The Treaty was an agreement between the United States and several Indian nations, including the Lakota nation, Santee Sioux, Yanktonai Sioux, and Arapaho. It was signed in 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, hence the name. It guaranteed Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and other hunting and land rights in Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. It closed the Powder River Country to whites, and ended Red Cloud's War. The treaty was very unusual at the time because it granted rights to Natives over whites. A historian notes, "The Treaty of Fort Laramie was a rare instance in which the United States negotiated a peace in which it gave the Indians everything they asked, and asked no quid pro quo in return."

Later, gold was discovered in the Black Hills, and the U.S. wanted the land back. Another historian notes, "The allure of gold led the U.S. government to reconsider its commitment to the Treaty of 1868, and Indian agents were dispatched to the Black Hills to convince the Sioux to sell their land."

The Sioux refused, but the U.S. took the land back in 1877 with an act of Congress.

The Struggle for the Black Hills occurred as the Sioux attempted to regain ownership of the lands Congress took back. It began shortly before the 1877 land grab, and consisted of Sioux resistance to white cavalry members who were in the Black Hills supposedly to "protect" the Natives from white gold miners trespassing in the Sioux territory. However, ultimately, they attacked the Sioux for being "hostile," and two battles, the Battle of Rosebud and the Battle of the Little Bighorn were a result. The Natives won those, but eventually lost the war, and the Struggle for the Black Hills continued. It came up again in 1946, when the government formed the Indian Claims Commission and the Sioux appealed to them for Black Hills…… [read more]

Native Americans Earned Respect From the British Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (461 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Native Americans Earned Respect From the British

Were early Native Americans truly as one people with the British? Idealistically, that might be pleasant to believe. However, there is at least some truth to the notion that the British admired the Native Americans in many ways, and indeed, shared "one heart" with the settlers, at least early in the relationship.

When the British first came to America, they found much to admire in the Native Americans. One historian notes, "The noble savage image was born in the first encounter with the white man and dwindled proportionately as the colonists' desire and ability to dominate the land escalated."

One of the main goals of many British colonials was to befriend the Native and Christianize them, as Eliot notes in his piece on Piumbukhou. Piumbukhou is thankful for his Christianization, and attempts to bring his relatives into the fold, to share his "special" relationship with God and the English.

By the late 1700s, the relationship was beginning to change, however. Colonists continually sought new land and moved westward, pushing back the Native Americans from their tribal lands. Many visitors still saw them as noble people who were becoming trouble by British influence, such as alcohol and firearms. Another writer notes, "Yet while she [a British visitor] is critical of European influence in America, especially concerning the corruption of the Native Americans with alcohol,…… [read more]

Native American Trickster Tales "Coyote Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Coyote is often cunning and shrewd, but in this tale, Skunk outwits him, and Coyote becomes the fool. The entire story takes place in nature, with no interaction by man. The Native Americans knew enough not to interfere with nature, they lived most harmoniously with it, and allowed the natural world to shape their own.

In this, the Native Americans were far different from even Thoreau. He enjoyed and appreciated the natural beauty surrounding him, but he did not live "in" it, he was outside, looking in. He still walked the mile to town to visit friends and get a hot meal occasionally. The Native Americans lived on the land, and with the land. They were a part of their natural surroundings, and did not need to leave to live.

This is equally apparent in "Owlwoman and Coyote."

Americans today could learn some valuable lessons from the Native Americans, and even Thoreau. As a society, most of us rarely take time to really enjoy nature around us, and we certainly do not live as a part of nature. The natural world is not only diminishing, it is becoming less and less a part of our lives. We no longer have the time to sit and "smell the roses," and because of it, there is a great void in our lives. Reading these stories helps modern Americans glimpse just a little bit of the natural world, and get an idea of how much more important it used to be in the day-to-day lives of people. It is important to read and remember to get more of an appreciation of the natural world around us, and what…… [read more]

Culturally Responsive After School Programs for Native American Youth White Paper

White Paper  |  8 pages (2,045 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Culturally Responsive Programs

Culturally-Responsive After School Programming

Native American youth are too often overlooked when social workers are crafting programs that reach "at risk" populations. While those programs are generally available to youth in need without regard to ethnicity, Native American youth may have particular challenges and needs that go unmet unless programs are specifically targeted at them. In the… [read more]

American Indian Movement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (560 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Vine Deloria, Jr. And the American Indian Movement

The twentieth century," wrote Vine Deloria, Jr., "has produced a world of conflicting visions, intense emotions, and unpredictable events, and the opportunities for grasping the substance of life have faded as the pace of activity has increased" (Neihardt 1979). These were typically strong words of a man who spent much of that century attempting to alter the image of Native Americans in his home country in the face of ongoing systematic apartheid through his extensive literary output, his activism, and his activities as a college professor at the University of Arizona and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

As Reed (2005) has noted, one of Deloria's strengths as a writer and activist was his sardonic wit and humor, which he deployed in order to provoke people to think deeper about white treachery against Native Americans. Deloria would write in his most famous book, Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (1969), "We have brought the white man a long way in 500 years... from a childish search for mythical cities of gold and fountains of youth to the simple recognition that lands are essential for human existence." Such lines are typical of Deloria's direct form of literary engagement with the reader - and his unapologetic stance, which mixes humor with anger in a potent brew of social historical inquiry.

Among Deloria's many controversial view points was the idea that corporate culture and technological advancement were destroying life in America. The only way to avoid going in this destructive direction would be to revert back to the tribal ways of ancient Native American life, and thus find salvation (Johnson 2005). This spiritual…… [read more]

Network News Critique Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Network News Critique

What it means to be a Native American Indian in the 21st Century, and 2011

The contemporary general public is still having problems abandoning stereotypes regarding Native Americans, even with the fact that society has allegedly experienced great progress from the time when American Indians were widely discriminated. The Native American community has recently benefited as a result of a series of improvements taking place in several domains involving the group, this proving that the system has partly experienced reform.

Society as a whole is struggling to avoid discrimination from ever happening again in the U.S., with people trying to put across open-mindedness concerning Native Americans. Sundance Institute's Native American and Indigenous Program and the Native American Residential Fellowship Program devised by Peabody Essex Museum in Massachusetts aim at providing Native Americans with equal opportunities to express themselves and to cultivate their abilities.

The authorities have focused on improving conditions for Native Americans in the 21st century even before the era started. Given the experience that the American government has gathered as a result of its inability to provide sufficient support to the minority during the recent decades, it is essential for it to devise and promote more successful methods of destroying stereotypes (Takamura, 1999, p. 232).

In spite of the fact that Native Americans are apparently relatively equal to white Americans, matters are very different when looking deeper into the matter. "The special needs of Native American, Alaskan Natives, and Native Hawaiian older people are acknowledged in Title VI of the OAA, which calls for grants to tribal organizations and to an organization that represents Native Hawaiians" (Takamura, 1999, p. 232). Taking this into account, it only seems natural for the government and for the Native American community to express discontent regarding the way that they are normally treated. It is virtually absurd to ignore the discrimination frequently taking place in situations involving Native Americans, as they continue to be considered less capable to be equal or even to rival white Americans in stressing conditions. In spite of the constant discrimination to which Native Americans have been subjected to for the last few centuries, conditions have apparently changed considerably in the recent years, as people grew more and more concerned about this issue and turned their attention to put an end to discrimination (Takamura, 1999, p. 232).

There has been much controversy regarding Native American during the last years, as they came to be supported by a series of influential individuals and institutions. These respective people and groups that chose to break-away from the traditional way that the masses behaved toward Native Americans are responsible for coming up with a series of programs meant to recognize talent and dedication in the people where it exists. Many individuals are…… [read more]

Navajo Code Talkers of WWII Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,681 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Navajo Code Talkers

Eager to Serve: Navajo Code Talkers

The Navajo Code Talkers are a fascinating group of individuals who served in WWII as radio transmitters, mainly in the Marines.

Townsend 145) the complex and relatively unknown language of the Navajo served as a concentrated and ready made medium for transmitting military information in a secure manner to ensure the… [read more]

Movie Smoke Signals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Smoke Signals

The film Smoke Signals tells the story of two young Native American Indians, Victor and Thomas, who go on a journey to Arizona in order to retrieve the ashes of the former's estranged father. Along the way, both must come to grips with certain traumatic events in their past that they were never able to fully make peace with. In addition, they arrive at a new understanding of what it means to be a Native American Indian in this day and age.

Victor and Thomas, although not directly related, were linked by a traumatic event that occurred when they were infants. Victor's alcoholic father wound up saving baby Thomas from a house fire that killed both of his parents. For this reason, although the two boys were never friends when they were growing up, Thomas feels that he has a strong connection with Victor's father. When the two are boys, Victor's father abandons the family in an alcoholic rage. Because he knows that Victor's father saved his life, Thomas feels the loss tremendously as well.

Thus, when Thomas finds out that Victor will go on a long journey to retrieve the ashes of his dead father, he is eager to go along. He knows that Victor does not have enough money for the journey, so he offers to pay a significant amount of the travel expenses with money he has saved up. Although he finds Thomas's personality annoying, Victor agrees to allow him to come along.

As a young person, it is quite easy to empathize with both Victor and Thomas throughout the course of the film. I was more drawn to the character of Victor, however, which makes sense, as he is the main protagonist…… [read more]

Nevada History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,429 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These were the first white men to venture into the hostile territory, along with roving mountain men who worked for fur trading companies back in the east. But these men's scattered influence on the region could hardly be considered big business. They were explorers, and as their stories filtered back to the settlements along the Mississippi river, and in the… [read more]

Weatherford Indian Givers Brief Summary Book Review

Book Review  |  6 pages (1,968 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Moreover, from 1492 until his death he was insistent about collecting what he regarded as his fair share of the profits, and downright paranoid in his belief that he was being denied the wealth, honor and glory due to him. He believed this was because of his relatively humble and obscure birth, and perhaps this was partially true, although his personality was hardly one to inspire trust and loyalty, either from his subordinates or superiors. Columbus in real life showed a very consistent pattern of deceit and low cunning, even against the men on his own ships, but he was an extremely determined man who used any means necessary to achieve his objectives. This is definitely not the Columbus portrayed in the movie, but then again no film intended for a mass audience would ever dare show a hero tarnished to this degree by greed, corruption and criminality.

6. What is your assessment of the book?

Indian Givers is written in a very lively and engaging style that is highly unusual for an academic work, and is therefore very well-suited for undergraduates and a general audience. All of the information in it is very well-known to historians, anthropologists and other specialists in the field, but not to students or most of the public. Perhaps it never will be. Few white Americans have ever been willing to face the harsh truth that Indians have always been treated like a conquered enemy people, whose language, culture and religion were nearly destroyed by U.S. government policies. By the time Representative Henry Dawes of Massachusetts had passed infamous Severalty Act in 1887, most of the Native American population of North America had already been exterminated. Before whites arrived, the indigenous population north of Mexico may have been as high as 15-20 million, but by the end of the 19th Century it had fallen to about 200,000. Centuries of warfare, slave labor, disease, starvation and deliberate mass murder had led to the near-annihilation of the American Indians, and there were many whites such as William Tecumseh Sherman who were prepared to finish them off completely. Those few Native Americans who survived were mostly confined to reservations under conditions of extreme poverty, with hunger and disease continuing to take a severe toll of their numbers. Similarly, few white Americans will ever be aware of the numerous contributions that the Native peoples have made to world civilization, in spite of the truly horrendous treatment they have received. To be sure, most of those contributions were not exactly voluntary, either but were part of the spoils of conquest and empire.


Columbus C. et al. (1992). Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus. Penguin Classics.

Morison, S.E. (2007). Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Morison Press.

Morison,…… [read more]

Native Americans Gregory E. Dowd- the Indians Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,261 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Native Americans

Gregory E. Dowd- The Indians Great Awakening

In his The Indians Great Awakening, Gregory Evans Dowd recounts the struggle for resistance of a few American Indian tribes against the British- American expansion. Dowd gives an unique and very interesting interpretation of the events taking place during the mid- eighteenth during the colonization of the Native Americans. The particularity of his view lies in the fact that he sees the Indians' spiritual and political resistance to the Anglo-American expansion in terms of an "awakening" of their sense of unity as a people, in spite of the tribal division and the geographical or linguistic differences deriving from this.

Gregory Dowd's book, A Spirited Resistance. The North American Indian Struggle for Unity 1745-1815, was published in 1992 and appeared in the context of many other Native American history books which related the same events. Unlike most of the other texts of the same period however, Dowd's book gave a unique perspective of the events: it tried to reconstruct history from the point-of-view of the Native Americans, focusing on their own perception of the Anglo- American invasion, and relying for this description on specific Native American cultural, spiritual and political sources. Thus, Dowd's book endeavored to look at the British colonization from the inside, from the perspective of the Native Americans who faced it.

The Indians Great Awakening presents the resistance of the Native Americans to the British colonization, and observes the double character of this movement: it is both a spiritual and a political resistance, or in other words, the political resistance is backed up by a spiritual regeneration of the Indians, who rediscover their traditional religions and rituals in their effort to preserve their identity in front of the colonists.

Moreover, the nativistic movement has yet another character apart from the spiritual and the political ones, according to Dowd. The sudden awakening of the Indians is not a mere spiritual revival, but a finding of a sense of unity as a people. They Native Americans felt that they were a separate nation, and a separate race, as different from either the white or black people:

In its most important aspect, it was an awakening to the idea that, despite all the boundaries defined by politics, language, kinship and geography, Indians did indeed share much in the way of their past and their present. It was an awakening to the notion that Indians shared a conflict with Anglo-America, and that they, as Indians, could and must take hold of their destiny by regaining sacred power." (Kupperman 2000, 428)

Dowd supports this idea with examples of the visions and revelations that came from the prophets among the Native Americans. For instance, the Indians new awareness of their identity as a people is supported by their view of the divine creation of men and of the world. They began to see themselves as a separate nation, a separate race of people for which God intended other purposes than for the Europeans:

The people… [read more]

American Indian Studies Native Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"During the last decade, gaming has given Native people an avenue to enter higher education, develop tribal enterprises, tribal courts and health and mental health programs that meet the needs of their communities. Most importantly, Native people have reclaimed their independence" (Napoli, 2002).

Culturally, Native Americans have managed to educate the rest of the American population on their beliefs - and the atrocities committed to them in the past and present - through various means. From Pow-Pows held on Reservations, to PBS specials and Hollywood films, Native American history and beliefs have become widely known and revered. Sweat lodges and 'animal medicine' are commonly associated with the New Age movement, that has excelled their popularity through the decades, nevertheless, they are traditional aspects of Native Americanism that are given new life and sustained existence in a world where the old ways and stories are fading away.

Nevertheless, the most common present day association non-Indians have in regards to Native Americans is gambling and the advance of casinos on Reservations. "Native gaming is active in twenty-eight states across America sustaining a $9.6 billion industry that is growing three times faster than non-Indian gaming (Useem, 2000). Of the 556 federally recognized tribes, 361 have no gambling operations" (Napoli, 2002). Gambling provides Native American communities with the necessary funding to not only provide communities with proper healthcare and education, but give them a strong direction towards sovereignty.

This in turn leads to the development of businesses that amplify Native American lifestyles and traditional businesses. "Many tribes have been successful in developing competitive businesses and advanced training for professional leadership that are congruous with tribal lifestyle, such as hunting and fishing" (Napoli). More importantly, profits from casinos have allowed for the creation of higher education institutions geared towards Native Americans.

In 1998, "more than a third of the surveyed students had previously attended a non-Indian college or university: of those, 88% agreed that tribal college faculty are friendlier, and 93% agreed that more individual attention is shown to students at a tribal college. Finally, 72% agreed that the quality of instruction was higher at their tribal college" (McCarthy).

This creation of an educational system that is not only perceived as 'friendly' towards students, but manages to achieve a high ratio of attendance is an integral part in Native Americans achieving sovereignty. It is a political and economic statement where Native American students feel more secure and more likely to attend their own educational institutions, rather than one 'outside' of their independent state.

There are very few present day 'heroes' for a young Native American growing up in a poverty-stricken area of a struggling Reservation. There are plenty of vices to fall trap to - from gangs and violence, to gambling, debt and alcoholism. It is these such vices that befall any community, and receive government attention to 'cure' them. For Native Americans, it is a struggle to achieve independence as a sovereign state that is the cause of all these vices. For the government… [read more]

Western Experience: Native American Displaced Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The chorus of voices of people wanting to strip us of our homes seems overwhelming: land speculators, eastern settlers who fear us, and missionaries who worried that we could corrupt their neighbors (Sherfy, 2003).

Perhaps one of the most aggravating things about being relocated is the dehumanizing manner in which we have been treated. The Removal Act, which was supported by President Andrew Jackson, allowed the president to set up districts within the Indian Territory. However, in order to ease the conscience of the American people, the act was supposed to provide funds to the people who had been removed, including money for resettlement, protection in their new settlements, and care for us (Sherfy, 2003). The reality was much uglier.

Our removal was authorized by the Treaty of New Echota, which was not never accepted by our tribal leaders or by a majority of our people, and, therefore, could hardly be characterized as an actual treaty. However, we had been experiencing escalating conflicts in Georgia. These conflicts became worse with the discovery of gold in Georgia in 1829, which led to the first Gold Rush in American history. This led to speculators encroaching on our land, and a drive to take over our lands. The state of Georgia also extended their law over our lands. While that effort was unsuccessful, it led to Georgia, along with Tennessee, North Carolina, and Alabama to round up a military force composed of militia, army members, and volunteers and they rounded us up in concentration camps to move us west.

It is impossible to describe the conditions in those camps to one who has not seen it. It was cold there and we were denied access to warm clothing. There was not enough food to feed us. Disease was rampant; we were living in much closer quarters than normal, and even the slightest illness became an epidemic. While we were confined to the concentration camp, this "army" burned our homes and destroyed and plundered our property. Then, white settlers got to enter into a lottery to "win" property that had been in Cherokee lands for generations, all while my people were starving, hungry, ill, and freezing to death. Moreover, these settlers were oftentimes aware of our circumstances, and simply did not care as we were seen as barriers to them getting our land.

In the winter of 1838, they began forcing us to march. Most of us had on little clothing. We were forced to walk, even though most of us did not have any shoes. We were given used blankets from a Tennessee hospital where small pox had broken out, making disease even more of a problem. We were not allowed into towns or villages as we traveled, then charged money to cross a river by ferry. So many of us died huddled under a shelter bluff, waiting to cross on the ferry. While we traveled, whites killed many of us, and were not only not punished for doing so, but rewarded for… [read more]

Fashion the Misappropriation of Native Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


It is highly likely that what the Navajo are doing will be the wave of the future. Native American imagery is often highly aesthetic, so much so that Vogue and other haute couture magazines are catching onto the trend and marketing Native-inspired wear. If more and more Native companies can emerge onto the high fashion catwalks, then the scales would be more in balance. As of now, Vogue and other magazines depict models "wearing Native-inspired fashions and including no Native American designers, photographers or other consultants in the process," (Nittle).

One Austin, Texas manufacturer and retailer forged a close tie with the Navajo nation because he wanted to use the tribal name. Fermin Navar and his business partner Phil Brader "signed a 75-year licensing agreement with the Navajo Nation in 2007 that allows them to sell skin care products and clothing under the Navajo name in exchange for a share of the profits," ("Navajo Nation Fights Urban Outfitters Over 'Disrespectful' Clothing Line"). A prime example of a win-win situation, the Navar example shows that when it comes to the law, "the design doesn't matter; it's the use of the name Navajo," ("Navajo Nation Fights Urban Outfitters Over 'Disrespectful' Clothing Line"). The designs used in high fashion collection, including moccasins and feathers, can be rendered in ways that are culturally sensitive. However, the most socially responsible method of action is to hire more Natives who can consult as to the most harmonious rendition of their tribal traditions.

Works Cited

"Chief Pendant Necklace. WTForever21. Blog. Retrieved: http://wtforever21.com/2011/08/chief-pendant-necklace/

Kane, Rachel. "Forever 21 Sells Faux Native American Items in Their Columbus Day Sale." Huffington Post. October 10, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rachel-kane/forever-21-columbus-day_b_1000788.html#undefined

"Native American culture shouldn't be appropriated for fashion." Turn the Page. Oct 29, 2011. Retrieved online: http://taholtorf.wordpress.com/2011/10/29/native-american-culture-shouldnt-be-appropriated-for-fashion/

Native Threads. Website: http://www.nativethreads.com/

"Navajo Nation Fights Urban Outfitters Over 'Disrespectful' Clothing Line," FoxNews.com. 17 Oct, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.foxnews.com/us/2011/10/17/navajo-nation-fights-urban-outfitters-over-disrespectful-clothing-line/

Ng, Christian. "Urban Outfitters Removes 'Navajo' from Product Names." ABCNews. 20 Oct, 2011. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2011/10/urban-outfitters-removes-navajo-from-product-names/

Nittle, Nadra Kareem. "Native American Influences in Fashion." About.com. Retrieved online: http://racerelations.about.com/od/diversitymatters/a/Native-American-Influences-In-Fashion.htm

"The Strange Case of the Hipster Headdress." Native Appropriations. 3 Feb, 2010. Retrieved online: http://nativeappropriations.blogspot.com/2010/02/strange-case-of-hipster-headdress.html

"Urban Outfitter's 'Navajo' Problem Becomes A Legal Issue." Jezebel. Blog. Retrieved online: http://jezebel.com/5848715/urban-outfitters-navajo-problem-becomes-a-legal-issue

Wade, Lisa. "Feathers and Fashion: Native American is in Style." April 13, 2010. Sociological Images/The Society Pages. Retrieved online: http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2010/04/13/american-indian-is-in/… [read more]

Developed Technology of the Native Americans Before European Settlements Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Indian-American Technology

Stasis: It is still commonly believed that technology in America began or was introduced by Europeans after the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.

Between 1000 and 1003 AD or five before Christopher Columbus discovered America for the Old World in October 1492, Scandinavians landed in the Continent but failed to settle permanently (Kishlansky et al.… [read more]

US Treaty With Navajo Native Americans Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,451 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


U.S. Treaty with Navajo Native Americans

The Treaty Between the United States and the Navajo Tribe of Indians

Although it is fair to say that most of the treaties created between the United States government and the former rulers of the Americas, the native tribes, were inequitable and favored the interests of the American government rather than the native populace,… [read more]

Civil War American Indian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,457 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … conflict between Native Americans and colonists was inevitable from the beginning. The insurgence of colonialism from the 17th to the 18th century led to the complete transformation of the Eastern American frontier from wilderness to colonial settlements. As a result, the "Indian Civil Wars" between the colonists and the various Indian nations represented some of the bloodiest conflicts… [read more]

Bias in Curricula Native American Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


All of the Indian characters are grunting savages. The time period, place and tribes involved are unknown, and the storyline is rather dark. Other legends use terms such as "squaw," "papoose," "chief," and "redskin." Wardrobe descriptions are always of beads, feathers, and buckskin and there is often vanishing Indian concept at play -- Native Americans are portrayed as a soon-to-be-extinct species, with no place or existence as human beings in contemporary America. In one story, animals "become" Indians simply by carrying bows and arrows or dressing the part in Indian clothing. In another children "play Indian" as if "Indian" was a role that one could assume as one can dress up like doctors or cowboys or baseball players. By comparison, it would be very politically incorrect to imply animals and children can dress up as African- Americans or "play Italian."

Often characters are only successful if they abandon traditional ways in favor of those of white or mainstream society. White figures are depicted as a sort of social worker or teacher capable of presenting the remedies need to the dilemma encountered. Perhaps one of the worst things about this compilation of stories is that they have the power to make a Native American child feel embarrassed or ashamed of his or her heritage. Further, the reader is led to believe that all Indian legends are the same. The themes do not vary much at all. Illustrations consist of pictographs and cave paintings that seem to have no relation to the stories. The assertion that this represents an accurate tribal history fails to convince and ultimately is not related to the overall context of the book or adventures and situations the characters encounter.

This work is one of the reasons why children search libraries for information regarding "Indians" instead of seeking tribal details on the Lakota or the Oneida or the Choctaw. Interestingly, this treatment of Native Americans is also further built into Western library systems used in schools. The Dewey Decimal Classification system itself marginalizes American Indian abstracts by placing them in the past (in the history section) and separate from the whole of human knowledge (Olsen, 2001). Most libraries omit major Native American concepts, lack specificity, fail to organize Native American material in logical ways, and at times use offensive or outdated terminology. This all reveals a perceived lack of relevance and a lack of recognition of American Indian nations. Not only does it hinder the access of Indian materials to all users, it, like the abstracts in question, reinforce to the outside world the stereotypes that American Indians are part of the past and do not contribute relevant knowledge to contemporary society.


Banks, L.R. (2005). The Indian in the cupboard. New York: Random House/Listening Library.

Olson, H.A. (2001). Classification or organization: What's the difference? Knowledge

Organization 28(1), 1-3.

Phillips, W.S. (1963). Indian Campfire Tales: Legends about the Ways of Animals and Men. New York:…… [read more]

Centrality of Relationship in Native American Thought Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,103 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Centrality of Relationship in Native American Thought

Human and non-human relationships in Native American Studies

According to Calvin Martin's text The American Indian and the Problem of History, Native American thought has always conceptualized human life in an integrated, biological and environmental fashion. This is a sentiment also echoed by Native author Donald Lee Fixico. For Martin and Fixico this means that rather than creating a fissure or fundamental intellectual divide between the individual and the environment, like much of Western philosophy, or the non-human and the human, Native Americans see the two as fundamentally coexisting. In Theda Purdue's text on Mixed Blood Indians, the tendency of the West to seek to define some entity as 'other' is not seen merely in terms of the human animal's relationship to the environment, but in terms of the categorization of the races that existed in the South.

According to Purdue, in the South, whites were seen as the more evolved 'species' of human. Blacks were deemed inferior and more animalistic, as 'others,' as were Native Americans. The mixed blood Native Americans of Purdue's thus had a strange, liminal status -- neither as low as blacks, or even so-called mulatto blacks, but not fully integrated by any means into white society. Mixed breeds were often conceptualized as 'closer' to whites than 'full-blooded' natives, particularly if they were the children of men who had 'gone native,' men who had children with native women because of kinship ceremonies they had established with the tribe. On the perceived Western continuum of humanness, thus natives or 'natural men' were seen as closer to whites than some other groups, but European acculturization and blood ties were seen to make half-breeds more civilized. In contrast, native tribes did not view race primarily in terms of blood, even though they had occasionally, haphazardly internalized some racial norms of white society.

Despite this distinction, Purdue's study offers an important function for Native American studies, namely the de-romanticizing of many of the myths unintentionally spun by Martin and others, who see Native Americans as pure, and beyond white divisions of self and other, or individual and environment, human and non-human. Purdue's overview is not simply an expose of the unwarranted prejudice experienced by many Native Americans during the era but sadly, she exposes how, contrary to Martin's rather uniform view of native-white relations, natives often adopted the views of black slaves as inferior 'others.' "Changing racial views lead Native Americans to increasingly distance themselves from African-Americans and to regard foreigners with blacks skins more suitable as slaves than blood relations" (Purdue 5). While Martin's essay suggests a kind of 'who can buy or sell the sky' attitude amongst the Native tribes, in fact Indians were accustomed to buying and selling captives during wartime, and often used black slaves as leverage when negotiating with whites for the tribe's survival (Purdue 6).

In fact, rather than finding a paradise of freedom, many free blacks were faced with the uncomfortable prospect of enslavement… [read more]

Native American Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (601 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Native Americn Women

In many ways, the cultural experiences of Native American Women inspired the societal changes that led to women gaining social and political rights in the late 19th and beginning of the 20th century. This resulted directly from the role the Native American Women had in their own society, where they often occupied positions of influence and respect.

The common thing shared was the primary responsibility of women in both societies as mothers and sources of life. However, while in the Native American society, this was a source of worship, with the women enjoying respect and security because of their role, in the white society, this was rather a source and motivation for restricting women in their presence and role within everyday life. As such, we could point out that this cultural baggage in terms of customs and tradition that Native American Women brought along inspired white women to join in their own struggle for the role they were to play in society.

In my opinion, the basic values did not differ so much from Native American women to white women, what truly differed was the capacity of each category to project their values in the society they were part of. While on one hand, values such as equality in rights, participation in decisions or equal role were respected in the Native American society, in the white women's society, this was something that needed to be fought over and achieved. In this sense, the Indian society most likely was much more matriarchal than the white society.

On the other hand, one needs to consider that at the end of the 19th century, Americanization was attempted for the Native American society, which would have included women as well. The result would have most likely have been a decrease in…… [read more]

Kevin Gover, Assistant Secretary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (990 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Whites were moving westward and colonizing the land. In doing so, they attempted to bring culture to the Native Americans who were viewed as animals. It was the whites way of taming the Indian, restructuring their way of thinking, and destroying their culture through systematic brainwashing.

Probably the biggest injustice that Gover made reference to was the Native Americans by the government was the Trail of Tears. The Trail of Tears, forced the Cherokee in 1838 and 1839 from their southeastern homeland to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. About 4000 died from starvation, disease, and exposure while on the journey westward or in stockades awaiting removal. The Trail of Tears refers to the route followed by fifteen thousand Cherokee during their 1838 removal and forced to march from Georgia to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. In 1791, an U.S. treaty had recognized Cherokee territory in Georgia as independent and the Cherokee people had created a thriving republic with a written constitution. For decades, the state of Georgia sought to enforce its authority over the Cherokee Nation, but its efforts had little effect until the election of President Andrew Jackson, a longtime supporter of Indian removal. Although the Supreme Court declared Congress's 1830 Indian removal bill unconstitutional in Worcester vs. Georgia.

The idea of moving Native Americans to a different part of the country was not new. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson had suggested that tracts of land in this vast new territory could be given to native peoples if they agreed to cede their lands in the eastern part of the country. Transfers occurred in a piecemeal way, but no consistent removal program developed until after the War of 1812.

In 1830, Congress accommodated the settlers' wishes by passing the Indian Removal Act. The situation had now become a crisis. New president Andrew Jackson, a Tennessee plantation owner and a famous fighter of Native Americans, refused to exercise federal jurisdiction over Native American affairs, allowing southern states to find their own solutions. The Indian Removal of 1830, Congress- with Jackson's blessing- offered Native American peoples east of the Mississippi federal land to the west where the United States government had the authority to protect them. Many of them accepted.

The apology for the atrocities committed by the United States government such as these can never repair the damage done to the Native American people. However, the fact that these injustices are admitted to, rather than denied, makes the road to recovery that much easier. With the admittance of the wrongs done to Native Americans in the past, problems such as these can be avoided in the future. With the apology by Kevin Gover and the BIA, comes a new road to acceptance of Native Americans into the American culture.

Works Cited

Child, Brenda J. (1998). Boarding school seasons: American Indian families 1900-1940. Lincoln: University of Nebraska…… [read more]

Hunting Native American Hunting Rights Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (959 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Native American hunting rights are a contentious issue in American politics. Often Native American hunting practices conflict directly with the practice of preserving wilderness areas in federal lands. Hunting is the most innate and natural method of acquiring meat. Yet American agricultural practices have transformed the model of eating animal products. Instead of hunting for animals in small-scale meat production for community subsistence, agro-business has taken over the land. Agro-business meats are far less ethically produced than meat that has been hunted, given that the latter refers to wild animals or animals raised in controlled environments, whereas the former refers to animals in captivity, confined inhumanely, and injected with hormones. In The Omnivore's Dilemma, Michael Pollan exposes many of the nefarious practices of the American meat industry. In light of this information, there should be no reason to come in the way of Native American hunting rights. Native American hunting rights must be preserved for the benefit of public health, for the benefit of cultural preservation, and for the benefit of the animals.

Hunting is preferable to the meat industry in America, which has been degraded by agro-business practices. If Native Americans are permitted to hunt, they will have access to the freshest meat possible. Not only are hunted animals fresh; their meats are not raised in the deplorable conditions that Michael Pollan describes in The Omnivore's Dilemma. These conditions include exposures to hormones and antibiotics that have never been tested in multi-generational longitudinal studies. Agro-business lobbyists are too powerful to fight, and Native Americans have often been forced to eat supermarket meat that is wrapped in plastic and packaged in a remote facility.

Moreover, hunting is related to the politics of land use rights. Ongoing court cases in states where protected lands coincide with Indian territory show that the needs of Indians are being systematically overlooked in policy decisions, state, and federal legislation. For example, the state of Minnesota has recently permitted the culling of wolves, a creature that naturally balances an unbalanced ecosystem "Minnesota Ignores Indians, Allows Wolf Hunting," 2013). Culling wolves is far different from hunting deer and other meat creatures. To cull wolves means to kill indiscriminately, as the carcasses are not desirable for meat or fur. On the other hand, killing dear and meat animals means food on the table.

Hunting also means engendering respect for the cycle of life, and for all animals. Children who are raised hunting will develop greater respect for animals, than those who have not been exposed to the way of life that includes hunting. This seems ironic, but it is because killing an animal has a powerful impact on a person's psyche. The person is forced to reckon with the need to take a life to feed another, and breeds a natural respect for the exact quantities of animal needed to sustain life in the community. With…… [read more]

United States in World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Minorities in World War II

World War II and Its Impact on Minorities in America

World War II was the most destructive war in human history, claiming the lives of at least fifty million people around the world. It crippled many more millions and cost nations astronomical amounts of property damage. World War II also has left a huge legacy… [read more]

Native American Symbolic Rituals Three Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,268 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


At times there were dances that were common to the entire tribe and these could be performed by professional dancers and singers would accompany them.


The potlatch was the celebration that encompassed all of the ingredients of the totem pole and the Tamanawas. The three worked together to preserve the history and spiritual beliefs of the people who were attending them. The totem poles were representations of the various bands that cam to the celebration, and the various dances were performed, as mentioned above, to demonstrate the people's feelings about their totems and the rich cultural history. This three-pronged approach was a way for the people to connect with each other and their heritage.

Disbanding the Potlatch

Unfortunately, the Canadian and United States governments did not see the utility of the potlatch. As a matter of fact, the celebration was a danger to their plans. The white people moving into the region were setting up businesses and they needed workers. It was easy for them to find labor because there were plenty of tribes in the area. This was in the interest of the governments of these two countries also because it provided fresh tax revenue and jobs for people in the more eastern provinces and states. Thus, the government wanted to make sure that the Native Americans stayed in place, and once they had been moved to the new towns being built that they did not revert to their traditional ways.

This proved difficult because the people loved their native way of life and the ceremonies that were a law among the people. So, they continued to hold the potlatch every year. But, "the opponents of the potlatch could only see the custom as a wasteful, immoral and heathen practice, an impediment in the road of progress" (U'Mista Cultural Center). The powerful governments were being pressured to do something about the potlatch because it made it difficult to incorporate the Native American tribes into what was to be their new culture. Thus, the governments created a law that read, in part:

"Every Indian or other person who engages in or assists in celebrating the Indian festival known as the "Potlatch" or the Indian dance known as the "Tamanawas" is guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not more than six nor less than two months in a jail or other place of confinement; [and] Any Indian or other person who encourages, either directly or indirectly an Indian or Indians to get up such a festival or dance, or to celebrate the same, or who shall assist in the celebration of same is guilty of a like offence, and shall be liable to the same punishment" (U'Mista Cultural Center).

This practice was carried out by the "Indian" agents who were placed in the position to help the Native Americans, but more often than not actually took advantage of them. One agent raided a potlatch, arrested more than 40 Native Americans who were engaged… [read more]

Native American Comparison Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This question is asked in reference to the narrator informing the reader that the name of the song is "Exodus." He is wondering if there is a deeper meaning to the fact that both of these groups enjoy a song which is about leaving an oppressive location and moving to a space where they can be tolerated as a people. Biblically, exodus refers to the Jews leaving Egypt and travelling to the Promised Land, but it can mean any time wherein a group who has been systematically marginalized comes to a time and an attitude where they break away and become free. This is an intentional historical allusion. The exodus for both Native Americans and the majority culture could be a fleeing from the history of both groups and a determination to live free from that history.

The thesis of Ron Welburn's poetry seems to be that there is a constant and often unspoken conflict in people who have dual cultures. They want to be a part of that majority culture and fit in with everyone else. Yet, they also want to honor their forefathers and represent the heritage of their birth. In "Shinnecock 40," the narrator experiences difficulty and consequential stress because of things that are beyond his control. He is being oppressed, he believes, by some other. The natural world serves as a balm to him. In this poem, Welburn embraces the "we" that encompasses all of humanity. The narrator in "Jazz" is not aware of this we. Instead, it is the girl character Gwen who makes the remark that leads to the understanding of the importance of we. All peoples are different and if we accept one another for both our similarities and our differences, then there would not be occasions like the one the narrator experiences. A person does not have to choose to participate in one culture at the expense of another.

Works Cited:

Welburn, Ron. Coming…… [read more]

White European Authors Depicted Native Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This theme of a valiant quest to make way for civilization may have originated in the Old World, but the American frontier Literature of the nineteenth century established the formula of characters and action that became the "Westem," which has since evolved into a unique and influential genre that continues to be an immensely popular form of Literature. The Western that we traditionally think of has been shaped by many sources, both literary and nonliterary." ( )

Cooper is stated to have held an attitude toward the "colored races…" that was of an "unprejudiced philosopher." (Kellner, 1915) Cooper tended to idealize the Indians as he was acquainted with many Indians from his childhood. Research shows that according to Cooper the Indians while they did indulge in scalping and were merciless in pursuit of their enemies…possessed many virtues above all, hospitality, and a sense of self-sacrifice, not only for wife and child, but for a strange friend." (Kellner, 1915)

IV. The Searchers

John Ford's cinematic production 'The Searchers' starred John Wayne, a character who was highly prejudiced and who had no shame about feeling the way that he did. This production is about a quest that one man is obsessed with. John Wayne plays Ethan Edwards whose niece is kidnapped by Comanches, murdering the family and burning down their home. Ethan spends five years searching the tribe that took his niece and to shoot the child dead since "she has become the leavings's of a Comanche buck." ( )

It is reported that 'The Searchers" was "made in the dying days of the classic Western, which faltered when Indians ceased to be typecast as savages." ( ) The films of Ford tended to view Indians more sympathetically than did other productions. One writer states that in 'The Searchers' that Ford may well have been attempting to "…imperfectly, even nervously, to depict racism that justified genocide; the comic relief may be an unconscious attempt to soften the message. Many members of the original audience probably missed his purpose; Ethan's racism was invisible to them, because they bought into his view of Indians." ( )

Summary and Conclusion

The view of the American public was irrevocably impacted by the depiction of the native American Indians in literature and cinematic production. So much affected that it has only been in recent decades that a realization has taken place on the part of the American public that perhaps it was the Indians who got the raw end of the deal after all and that perhaps it was the white man that was the villain and pillager.

The Native American Indian, like so many other races who were overtaken by those who set out to conquer lands possessed by others, were victims rather than perpetrators, and were those who were stolen from rather than those who were doing the stealing. Since the time of 'The Searchers' in the 1950s a broader and more candid view of the plight of the native American Indians has taken hold… [read more]

Historiography of the Native American Removal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,097 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


¶ … removal of the Native Americans from the United States of America. In the year 1830, Five Civilized Tribes which included the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Seminole, Choctaw and Creek were still residing in the eastern side of Mississippi. At that time, the other tribes had been forcefully moved to the western side. There were indeed several reasons that made the… [read more]

Competing Creation Stories Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Creation Story: Native American Version vs. European Version

How did the Native Americans view creation as compared and contrasted with how the Europeans who arrived in North America viewed creation?

This paper reviews the creation beliefs (and legends) of both cultures and makes comparisons between them.

European / Christian Creation: The King James Bible (Genesis 1) asserts that God created the heaven and earth when there was no form, there was only darkness, and water. So God spoke, saying "Let there be light: and there was light…" and when God saw the light He had just created with a few words he said the it was "good" so he split the light and darkness. He called the light "Day" and the darkness was "Night." And so the evening and the morning were the very first day of Creation.

Sioux Creation Story: The Sioux believed there was a world prior to this present world we live in. In that first world the people "did not know how to behave themselves or how to act human," the Sioux story explains. So because of that the "Creating Power" said "I will make a new world." With that the Creating Power got his pipe (Native Americans used pipes in spiritual ceremonies) and then he took four dry buffalo chips (which Indians used for lighting campfires and other fire purposes) and put three under the sticks and "saved the fourth one to light the pipe."

Just as in the Christian creation story, in the Sioux story the Creating Power speaks, obviously to himself because there was no one else around, but he also sings. "I will sing three songs, which will bring heavy rain," he said. So in the Sioux story there is the creation of water; the Creating Power sings three songs and heavy rains fall. By singing a fourth song and stamping four times on the land, "the earth will crack wide open" and "Water will come out of the cracks and cover the land." He did sing, the rain did fall, and water "covered everything."

European / Christian Creation: There are clear watery comparisons between the Sioux version and the Christian version. In the Christian version of Creation God said let there be "firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide…… [read more]

Native Americans in "Showdown at Sorrow Cave Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Native Americans

In "Showdown at Sorrow Cave: Bat Medicine and the Spirit of Resistance in Mean Spirit," Andrea Musher analyzes a critical scene in Linda Hogan's novel Mean Spirit. The scene is momentous, even though Musher admits it is not the literary climax of the novel. Musher describes the showdown incident at Sorrow Cave, which provides the symbolic backbone of Hogan's novel.

Musher describes the cave in terms of its basic symbolism as a coffin-like environment in which death and rebirth can take place. Moreover, Musher makes sure to point out the symbolic meaning of the bats that live in the cave and which form a major part of Hogan's narrative. Bats are flying mammals: as such they represent the interface between two worlds. Musher explains that Hogan intended for the bats -- as well as the cave -- to symbolize the Native American experience.

"Showdown at Sorrow Cave" summarizes the incidents that immediately lead up to and follow from the showdown. Talbert is waging war on the Native Americans, who represent everything that the Christians cannot stand in America. The Native Americans are like bats: misunderstood and maligned. Bats walk the line between light and darkness, and as such seem evil to the Christian worldview. Musher describes why the showdown at Sorrow Cave took place in the first place while assuming that the audience has read Mean Spirit already.

Musher also offers background information about the main characters in the scene. As Musher points out, "The spiritual leaders who have gathered at the cave include Michael Horse, Joe Billy, Stace Redhawk, and Father Dunne." Musher offers a character sketch of each of these spiritual leaders. Each of the leaders hails from a different background and point-of-view, but they share one essential feature in common. They are all committed to the indigenous value system that is portrayed as being morally superior to the egotistical Christian worldview. Unlike the Christians, the Native Americans view human beings as being on par with nature as opposed to in control of it. Human beings do not have dominion over nature, as the Christian world view suggests. Rather, human beings must live in harmony with nature. Human beings must also live in harmony with each other, lest death and destruction result.

The name Sorrow Cave underscores the mood of the novel, and Musher reminds readers of this fact. Ultimately, Musher offers the same conclusion that Hogan reaches: sorrow is an integral part of life and it is only by willingly entering the Sorrow Cave that one becomes purified and redeemed. As Musher points out, Hogan's goal is the glorification of Native ideals in light of the trauma they have endured. Hogan includes a diverse cast of spiritual guides for the very fact that "Indianism" is more of a state of mind and consciousness than it is a genetic or racial identity. Musher spends a considerable amount of time dwelling on the character of Father Dunne because of what the priest represents. One of the few… [read more]

Women vs. Mens Rights and Freedoms Throughout History Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,294 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Native Americans vs. American Settlers' Rights

An Example of Inequality

The United States Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and the Declaration of Colonial Rights offer certain rights to American Citizens. Although these rights were guaranteed to all Americans, groups throughout history have been denied certain rights. Among these groups was the first, the Native Americans, whose rights were often overshadowed by the American Colonists' rights. While many legal and human rights were denied to this group while being offered to the colonists, three in particular are monumental. These include the Declaration of Independence's right to life and liberty, the constitution's right to freedom of religion, and the Declaration of Colonial Rights' right of property. Through an examination of the contradictory treatment of Native Americans and American settlers regarding these rights, it can easily be noted that that Native Americans were denied rights of which the American Settlers took advantage.

When the American settlers declared their independence from England, they stated that each person was endowed with "certain unalienable rights," including life (Jefferson, 1776, para. 1). In addition, the Declaration of Independence States that "all men are created equal" (Jefferson, 1776, para. 1). Native Americans, however, were treated unequally from American settlers, as they were often denied rights to both life and liberty. First, efforts were made to sustain American settlers rights while Native Americans were often killed or left to die as a direct result of the American settlers actions. For instance, the Cherokee Nation attempted to preserve their rights in 1827 by "declaring themselves to be a sovereign nation" through a written constitution, much in the same way that the United States declared their independence from the English. Instead of honoring the nation, though, the American settlers in the area engaged in terrorist activity toward the Native Americans, including mortal activities like burning their villages ("Indiana Removal," n.d., para. 7). Direct violence through wars against Native American wars and individual aggressions against the group left many victims of murder and casualties of war. The Trail of Tears is an example of the violence that Native Americans were exploited and killed by the American settlers. As the United States continued to expand into the South in the late 1800s, they viewed the Native American nations as "standing in the way of progress" ("Indian Removal," n.d., para. 1). For this reason, President Andrew Jackson coerced Native American Nation to signing treaties that forced them to relocate. During the relocation of the Cherokee, called the Trail of Tears, about 4,000 people died of the harsh conditions, including "cold, hunger, and disease" ("Indian Removal," n.d., para. 15). Disease brought to the continent by settlers is another source by which Native Americans were deprived of their right to life. Although the Europeans had lived with certain diseases for many years, building up a certain immunity, Native Americans had no such immunity. The diseases, then, led to the loss of life among Native American communities. Scholars have differed in their classification of such diseases, some… [read more]

Southwest Native Americans Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,305 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Southwest Native Americans

Long before the Spanish had set foot on American soil, Native American tribes had been living a thriving life on the continent. The Pueblo people have gotten their name from the Spanish conquerors most probably because of their houses (which had been named pueblos) and the adobe material used for building them. The Pueblos are organized into several tribes around the Southwest deserts. Unlike all most of the Native Americans that have been chased away from their homes, the Pueblos peacefully lived in their homeland and still live today. (Frances Levine)

The Pueblo history goes back to the time of basket makers, approximately 1000 BC when the nomad tribes of hunters and gatherers had decided to settle down. Some of the first houses ever built by them had been partly belowground.

The original Pueblo villages had been formed as people started to gather into large groups and started to construct more advanced buildings. Being neighbors of the Maya people, the Pueblos began to adopt most of the habits of the more advanced Mayans. By implementing Mayan customs, the Pueblos had had much to earn, as they advanced visibly and started to grow crops settle for farming. Another factor that led to the progress of the Pueblos had been the fact that they had learned how to make pots and they no longer had to deposit their possessions in baskets.

The Pueblos had become rich as a result of their constant advancement and their territory extended further into the continent where they traded various resources. Their building customs had also experienced a lot of progress with the Pueblo's starting to build houses out of stone instead of mud bricks. The Pueblos soon developed remarkable building techniques and also mastered the art of pottery making.

During the early second millennium AD, the Pueblos had left their normal houses built on top of hills and have moved to the hoses named pueblos which were built in caves, on canyons. The reason for their action is not clear, but it is possible that they had moved because of warm weather or because they had been searching for a place where they would be safe from a potential war.

At approximately 1300 AD, the Pueblos have chosen to move from their territory towards New-Mexico and Arizona where other Pueblo tribes had lived. There is much controversy surrounding the topic, as no one actually knows why the Pueblos left their advanced buildings, their crops and farms and all their lifetime possessions. The weather seems to be a decisive factor in the event and it is very probable that the Pueblos could no longer grow crops with the weather having turned to be too dry. A somewhat coincidence is that scientists believe that the ancestors of the Navajo and Ute tribes have entered the former Pueblo territory named the Four Corners area during the period that the Pueblos had left it. Many of the Pueblo tribes from Arizona and New Mexico can be traced… [read more]

Native American Writers the Feminine Earth Mother Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,000 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Native American Writers

The Feminine Earth Mother Through Two Different Styles

Comparison and Contrast of Cusick and Topahonso's Native American Literature

Though their work has echoed off the hills and valleys of the United States since before the first European even began to conceive of the New World, Native Americans have only recently been included in the survey of American Literature. In fact, David Cusick's early literary work concerning the Iraqouis Native Americans succeeded not only in establishing the Native American literary genre, but also in encouraging scholars to reevaluate Native American History Combining the melodious sounds of a sophisticated oral tradition with the beautiful imagery of an untainted United States' wilderness, Native American authors have given American Literature a unique selection of poetry and prose. According to the documentary American Passages: A Literary Survey, Native Americans have long relied on beautiful sounds to craft their work. Both contemporary Native American writers and their myth-weaving predecessors have used the beautiful native tongues and the image of nature as a mother or life sustainer to create marvelous literary pieces. Though many Native American works of literature share these characteristics, works are as varied as they are beautiful. From myths that detail the creation of the world to full-length novels that describe the world through a single woman's eyes, Native American authors have left few topics untouched. Two of the most prominent Native American Authors that exemplify the extremities of these similarities and differences are Iroquois myth writer David Cusick and Navajo poet Luci Tapahonso. In fact, both Cusick's version of the Iroquois Creation Myth and Tapahonso's poem "A Breeze Swept Through" illustrate the importance of a feminine and motherly earth while still expressing a uniqueness in imagery and style.

Both Cusick's myth and Tapahonso's poem begin by establishing the earth as a woman in labor and continue to connect the earth with images of femininity and motherhood throughout the works. Cusick's version of the creation myth begins with a mother in labor, a woman who is about to begin the "travail" of having twins. The weight of the twins causes her to sink down to the "lower world" or earthy realm in order to have her children (Cusick, n.p.). Similarly, "A Breeze Swept Through" details the "first born of dawn" as she is born, slid[ing] out among crimson fluid." Though the narrator of American Passages: A Literary Survey recognizes that the poem both borrows the Navajo creation myth and tells the story of Tapahonso's relationship with her daughters and their births, the poem clearly represents the earth as feminine. In the poem, Dawn is personified as an infant being born of a mother, and birth images are coupled with nature images, such as "smooth rock." The beautiful cinematography of American Passages: A Literary Survey further illustrates these connections by accompanying the poem with breathtaking images of rocks and trees.

Both works go on to emphasize the image of the earth as a woman and a mother in their associations with creation.…… [read more]

Thomas Jefferson's Respect for Native American Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Thomas Jefferson's Respect For Native American Culture

Thomas Jefferson was a fundamental figure in the formulation of early American history and life. He is sometimes given a bad reputation because of his relationships with saves. However, in his work "Query XI," Jefferson takes an empathetic stance towards one of the most degraded minorities in the United States, Native Americans. Jefferson praises their nations and compares them to other civilized nations; however, the Native Americans lack certain symbolic structures and idols to testify to their glory. In response, Jefferson posits the idea that the burial mound is one of the greatest monuments of Native American culture. Where they lack in opulence, they make up for in practicality and numbers.

"Great societies cannot exist without government," Jefferson explained how the Native Americans have an unconventional legal system, but that there is still one in place. For this, Jefferson resects these native peoples…… [read more]

No Matter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,441 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


American Indian Studies

The Cherokee nation was removed from its native lands in 1838 - at the command of President Andrew Jackson and the United States government. The removal of the Cherokee was simultaneously an effort to neuter the most powerful of all of the native American peoples, but also to seize their land. Jackson's eyes were on the lands… [read more]

Native Americans and Korean Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,947 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Native Americans and Korean-Americans are separated by tens of thousands of years when it comes to immigration to the Americas.

The history of Native Americans and their migration to the Americas was traced between 9000 and 50000 years ago. When tackling the topic of migration of the native Americans, one can go as far as almost 50000 years ago. Searches… [read more]

High School Drop Out Among Native Americans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,011 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Native American Dropouts From High School

In autumn, 1980, high dropout rates among Native American students in a Montana high school district were so out of proportion with other school districts' dropout rates that a study was needed in order to come to grips with the problem. According to an article in the Journal of American Indian Education, about 60%… [read more]

James Otis and Europeans Opinions of Native Americans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



How does James Otis's opinion of Native Americans compare with what your history text (The American People: Creating a Nation & Society, 7th Edition) tells you about Europeans first ideas about them?

James Otis was one of the most radical voices propelling public opinion to support the American colonist's movement towards independence from the British Crown. He proclaimed freedom and liberty as the natural rights of all human beings. However, as a politician with a substantial working-class base of support, in contrast to some of the more aristocratic Founding Fathers such as Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, Otis was not a supporter or even a sympathizer towards Native American rights. On one hand, when condemning the Stamp Act, Otis invoked Native Americans as kind of natural persons, noting that even so-called ignorant savages would comprehend that the colonist's rights were being violated. But this attitude merely highlights the fact that Otis did not see American territory as in any way contested, or potentially divided between the rights of the colonists and the land's original inhabitants.

Much…… [read more]

Native Americans Some People Maintain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Native Americans

Some people maintain that while Native Americans have become impoverished due to the activities of the United States Government, they have actually gained more than they have lost, due to being placed on reservations. One of the alleged benefits of the reservation system is a free education. However, the poor quality of the education system on Native American reservations contributes to the cycle of poverty, alcohol abuse, and despondency that is present on many Native American reservations. One of the serious problems confronting Native American leaders is that Native Americans as a whole has achieved one of the lowest educational levels among all ethnic groups and are not doing well while attending school (Lin, 1985). The education provided on Native American reservations has done more to harm than to help Native Americans.

Although Native Americans are lumped together into one group, the term actually refers to over 500 different groups of people. Although Native Americans share some common traits, they come from backgrounds with different customs, languages, and family structures (Espinosa). One of the commonalities is that Native Americans are a population known to have higher than expected incidence of problems in areas of unemployment, poverty, substance abuse, physical and mental health, suggests (Espinosa). Another commonality, and a contributing factor to those problems, is the fact that the education offered on Native American reservations is of lower quality than public education offered off of reservations. Because approximately 25% of the Native Americans in the United States live on reservations, the poor quality of the education offered on the reservations has a crippling effect on all Native Americans.

Among the most commonly held explanations for the poor quality of education received by many Native Americans, "the cultural differences between Native Americans and whites is probably the most well-known and well accepted, both within and outside academia" (Lin, 1985). Native American students are perceived as lacking mental preparedness for schooling, and being less interested in schooling (Lin, 1985). Furthermore, there are cultural differences between white teachers and Native American students, which may have contributed to the failure of Native American students to succeed in an educational system that was taken from a historically European educational setting and transferred to Native American reservations without consideration of cultural differences. Finally, the poor self-concept of Native American students, who may feel the same types of despair and hopelessness as many adults on reservations, may contribute to failure to thrive in an academic environment.

One of the largest cultural differences between Native Americans and their non-Native American teachers is the history of education in their respective cultures. Native Americans were traditionally educated for the roles that they would assume as adults by working with and imitating their elders (Indian Treaties, 1999). There was no formal system of…… [read more]

American Indian Children and Adolescents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Teresa D. LaFromboise and Kathryn Graff Low begin their article "American Indian Children and Adolescents" by stating, "For centuries, American Indians have been uprooted, relocated, educated, and socialized in attempts to integrate them into the dominant culture and extinguish their tribal identity and tradition," (114). The authors weave this broad social and political commentary with data gathered from case studies. With a sympathetic and humanistic approach to their research, LaFramboise and Graff Low describe demographic data related to the Native American community and family, an overview of empirical evidence related to mental health in the Native community, and offer suggestions for culturally-specific treatment for mental health issues in particular. The authors offer insight into the structure of Native communities and families and show how and why a monocultural treatment modality might not serve the needs of American Indians. Like many other articles in the collection edited by Jewelle Taylor Gibbs, Larke Nahme Huang, et al. entitled Children of Color, the article's greatest impact may be its potential for application to other minority groups. In focusing on Native American youth and the particular problems that demographic faces, LaFramboise and Graff Low offer the social scientist a means to approach other communities with similar compassion and respect for their unique needs and histories.

LaFramboise and Graff do an excellent job of pointing out the problems with treating minority populations, focusing especially on cultural differences. For example, within the Native American population they focus on in the article, income is low, poverty rampant, and illiteracy relatively high. Moreover, poverty has affected more than just individuals and their families: poverty has fragmented the Native communities and their tribal structures. The authors also show that as more and more American Indians seek improved…… [read more]

Mary Rowlandson, Hannah Dustin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They escaped to Boston with the scalps to prove the tale, and gained fifty pounds as a reward (HannahDustin.com).

They each coped with their captivity in remarkably different ways, and their stories ultimately improved the understanding of Native Americans by showcasing the disparity of native culture and behavior.

The stories of the captivity of each of these three women reveal the diversity of customs among Native American through the greatly different treatment afforded to the three women. Depending on the customs of the tribe that they encountered, or the specific political situation, each of the women was treated differently as either prisoners of war, slaves, or adopted as family members.

Mary Rowlandson's captivity showcases the political resistance of the Native Americans who captured her. She was captured during the war of King Philip, who led a full rebellion against the white settlers. As such, Mary was in many ways a prisoner of war, whose capture was politically motivated. She was released from capture when a ransom was paid, thus benefiting the cause of her captors.

Mary Jemison's captivity shows a profoundly different side to Native American culture, and a different reason for taking a captive. While her capture was also likely motivated by resistance to white movement onto native land, her eventual treatment was different. As was common among natives of the time, she (a captive) was sold to a native family and adopted into their tribe. She was fully accepted into their society, and married a native man and had children.

A in contrast, Hanna Dustin's story reveals a truly different aspect of native culture. She was treated badly by her captors, and warned that she would have to run the gauntlet naked. She described the "savages" as mocking her mangled and dead child's body. Her hatred of the natives was so intense that it spurred her to make a brutal escape. In this account of captivity, the natives are seen as brutal savages who take captives merely as slaves for their own gain and cruel amusement.

In conclusion, the stories of the captivity of Mary Rowlandson, Hannah Dustin, and Mary Jamison all reveal different things about the practice. They each coped with their captivity in remarkably different ways, and their stories ultimately improved the understanding of Native Americans by showcasing the disparity of native culture and behavior. In their stories, these differences are shown in their differential treatment, and in the differing reasons that the natives had for taking captives. The Native Americans took captives in order to show their resistance to the settler's occupation of their land, as a custom to increase the members of their tribe, or even for monetary gain.

Works Cited

About.com. Mary White Rowlandson, Women's History. 12 April 2004. http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_mary_rowlandson.htm

Cook, Tom. Mary Jemison. Glimpses of the Past, People, Places, and Things in Letchworth Park History.

12 April 2004. http://www.letchworthparkhistory.com/jem.html

HannahDustin.com. The Story of Hanna Dustin/Duston of Haverhill, Massachusetts. 12 April 2004. http://www.hannahdustin.com/hannah_files.html

Lancaster Online. Mary Rowlandson's capture and redemption. 12 April 2004.… [read more]

Indian Education/Boarding Schools Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


..but they got caught. They tied their legs up, tied their hands behind their backs, put them in the middle of the hallway so that if they fell, fell asleep or something, the matron would hear them and she'd get out there and whip them and make them stand up again." Joyce Burr, a Turtle Mountain Chippewa/Oglala Sioux who lived at Wahpeton Indian school from 1952 to 1959 also reports beatings for offences ranging from climbing trees, to not making her bed quickly (Kelley).

In addition to harsh punishments, children at the schools had to deal with the threat of illness. Contributing factors to this were crowded conditions and insufficient medical care. As a result diseases like tuberculosis, influenza and measles were rampant. Deaths at the schools were common, with 189 headstones in a Chemawa cemetery, representing only those students whose bodies were not returned home for burial.

Perhaps surprisingly, there were many positive experiences noted by former students. These include warm memories of friendships and sports, and the chance to meet children from other cultural groups.

By the 1920s there were extensive complaints that the Indian boarding schools were too expensive. As a result, most Indian children attended public schools in 1923. By the 1930's federal Indian policy allowed for a reflection of the diversity of Indian cultures in state education. In 1928, a report on Indian education noted that the boarding school were rife with overcrowding, poor medical care, substandard teaching, and poor nutrition.

In conclusion, Indian boarding schools represent one of our nation's early attempts to subjugate the Native American culture. Ultimately, the schools disappeared largely due to reports of mistreatment of the children and financial concerns. The schools should serve as a hopeful reminder that our nation has learned much about cultural diversity in the years since.

Works Cited

Marr, Carolyn J. Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Libraries. Digital Collections. 19 October 2002. http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr/biblio.html

Kelley, Matt. The Associated Press. American Indian boarding schools: 'That hurt never goes away'. Wednesday, April 28, 1999. 19 October 2002. http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSFeatures9904/28_indians.html… [read more]

European Epidemics on Native American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They thought the goods given to them by the Europeans were gifts for the use of the resources, a custom of their society. This was not the case. They had actually bought the land with these "gifts."

Restriction of The Native Americans' food supplies, the following malnutrition, worsened by alcohol they were plied with by the settlers, as well as the recurring epidemics of European diseases, further depleted the Native Americans and destroyed their lifestyles.


In conclusion, it was not war that wiped out the Native Americans, but diseases such as smallpox, measles, malaria, and influenza. Native Americans had no resistance to these diseases and entire tribes were soon decimated by fast-spreading epidemics.

Before the Europeans came to America, the Native Americans had a diverse and complex society. By the time Native American societies were described and their populations estimated, the effects of disease introduced by the explorers had already devastated their entire society.



Geier, Mark. The Encyclopedia of Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763), Facts on File, Inc., 1991.

Debo, Angie. A History of the Indians of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.

D'Azevedo, Warren Ed., Handbook of North American Indians. Great Basin. Vol. 11. Smithsonian Institution, 1986.


Bailey, Alfred E., The Conflict of European And Eastern Algonkian Cultures,…… [read more]

Native Americans Are Generally Perceived as Being Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Native Americans are generally perceived as being an inferior civilization, mostly because the technology they owned at the time of their interaction with Europeans was substandard. However, taking into account data recently discovered, it becomes obvious that they managed to develop rapidly without having possession of the means that assisted their counterparts in Eurasia in experiencing progress

Native Americans were underestimated across time, particularly during the last five centuries, as newcomers imposed their cultural values on America's first inhabitants with no regard to the harm they provoked.

Although the masses are not acquainted with most of the technological triumphs achieved by people inhabiting the American continent previous to the fifth century, present day archeologists prove that American civilizations were actually very complex and thriving.

There is much controversy regarding the time when the American continent was first colonized, considering that until recently most individuals believed that the first people came into the territory thirteen thousand years ago, by crossing the Bering Strait. According to certain scientists, there were five waves of settlement on the American continent before Columbus's first landing.

Theorists claim that one of the first human settlements in America goes back fifty thousand years, but there is little data to prove that this is actually true. Chilean artifacts show that it is very likely for the American continent to have contained human settlements thirty thousand years ago.

Farming is one of mankind's greatest inventions and it is responsible for…… [read more]

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