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Native Americans a Strong Connection Term Paper

… The only thing that makes sense to them is to find better and faster ways to go about enacting that destruction.

#3

While there have been positive initiatives of late regarding Native American rights -- such as the U.S.'s reversal… [read more]


American Indian Studies Native Essay

… It was traditionally used to transmit religious beliefs because it conveys cultural tradition" (Oral Tradition And Origin Myth, n.d).

One of the most widespread forms of oral tradition is the story. Storytelling is a skill passed down from one generation… [read more]


Natisve Americans Native Essay

… al, 142). Native Americans, who were former allies of the French, were treated by British in a hostile and controlling manner. To this, they reacted in such a way that they launched Pontiac War.

The rebellion had been initiated in… [read more]


Native American Consumers in Counseling and Rehabilitation Research Paper

… Native Americans

Health and Alcohol Counseling for Native Americans

Native American populations are among the more notoriously disadvantaged demographics in the United States today. Following generations of genocide, Native Americans have largely persisted in the sad state of affairs created by relegation to reservation life. Here, Native Americans often live in isolation from broader society and the socioeconomic, educational and professional opportunities present there within. A byproduct of these conditions is the intersection of negative health indicators, negative mental health indicators and high risk susceptibility to drug and alcohol abuse. As the discussion hereafter reveals, the intersection of conditions such as diabetes, alcoholism, drug dependency and depression demands outreach through both counseling and rehabilitation channels.

Before exploring these channels, it is appropriate to acknowledge some of the heightened risk factors facing native populations. Particularly, many of these heightened risks are actually genetic as well as conditional. This is true of diabetes, for instance. As reported by the American Diabetes Association (ADA)(2008), "according to the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the 'thrifty gene' theory proposes that African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans and Native Americans inherited a gene from their ancestors which enabled them to use food more efficiently during 'feast and famine' cycles. Today there are fewer such cycles; this causes certain populations to be more susceptible to obesity and to developing type 2 diabetes." (ADA, 1)

Available research also seems to imply that there is some connection between the genetic variations creating this vulnerability to diabetes and the vulnerabilities implicated where alcoholism is concerned. Native Americans tend to experience higher rates of alcoholism per population sample than other demographic subsets. This has been attributed to variances in the blood composition of Native Americans that, an article by Lee et al. (2008) tells, may also be a partial culprit higher than average occurrence of diabetes in Native Americans. According to Lee et al., "significant variables associated with the development of diabetes included triglycerides, obesity, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and degree of American Indian blood among participants with NGT at baseline. For those with IGT at baseline, significant predictors included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h glucose, BMI, degree of American Indian blood, and albuminuria." (Lee et al., 49)

In many ways, there is a direct connection between these two problems of diabetes and addiction, not just because they may be inclined by a common genetic disposition. More importantly, these risk factors are invoked by the need for outreach, counseling and rehabilitation in reservation communities. At present, there is a great need for the promotion of lifestyle change amongst Native Americans and this may only be predicated by improved attention to the counseling and support needs that have gone largely unmet to date.…… [read more]


Memory, a Voyage Into History Essay

… With Sherman Alexie and his novel, Reservation Blues the novel centers are characters from the 1990's whose interactions include a talking guitar, the living dead, and other cosmic happenings. Like with Momaday, historic memory as well as tribal and individual memory play prominent roles within the world of the novel and allow the environment to represent those memories. On the surface, Alexie's novel is a story of twentieth-century American Indian bildungsroman. Because the characters in the story are reservation Indians, their passage into adulthood is burdened by the question of what kind of "Indians" they will be and who they will inevitably be.

Reservation Blues struggles with major questions of community and identity, with a similar style to Momaday in rapid changes in narrative points-of-view and achronological temporal dimension similar to other Native American literature. The novel interconnects past and present so the reader is both places at once via memory, dreams, and reincarnated spirits like the shape-shifting Coyote the characters name their rock band after. Frederic Jameson explains pn page 304 of his book: "History's competing narrative, memory, is often an embedded critical paradigm in ethnic texts (Stein, and Lehu 40 ). Like with Momaday, Alexie uses his perspective to retell his stories and his focus on the events to shape the way the characters behave. The stories becomes one with the authors.

In the opening sentence of Reservation Blues, Alexie explains how memory and history will play amidst each other throughout the novel: "In the one hundred and eleven years since the creation of the Spokane Indian Reservation in 1881, not one person, Indian or otherwise, had ever appeared there by accident" (Alexie 3) . In Thomas-Builds-the-Fire's view (protagonist) nothing is by coincidence and keeping to memory the events assist in making sense of the past making it a significant way to heal the tribe's psychic well-being. "Five generations of Spokanes are buried on Thomas's reservation at Wellpinit, Washington, sixty-five miles from Spokane, and, although the weight of being the tribe's misfit storyteller, or cultural repository, has "bowed his legs and bent his spine" (Alexie 6). Herein lies the main difference between both books.

Alexie deals with how a tribe battles tradition and modernization. Unlike with Momaday who sought to preserve through memory the history of the Kiowa culture by integrating it into his own memories, the characters of Alexie's novel attempt to deny and forget who they are. They lose faith in their roots and culture leading them to become vulnerable to the dominant American culture. While Thomas tries to keep the traditions of the Spokane alive, the people ignore him to quell their pain. Eventually the magical guitar comes into play and Thomas tries to use music to activate their memory. But unlike the previous novel, history is the burden that everyone in America regardless of race carries as an important part of the American experience.

In conclusion, the two stories of N. Scott Monday and Sherman Alexie showcase Native American literature through their interconnected storytelling… [read more]


21st Century Race Gender Class and Ethnicity Issues for Native American Indians Essay

… Native Media

Stereotypes and the Impossibility of Objective Identity: The Case of the Native American in Popular Media

The history of the United States, as most people the world over are well aware, has not exactly been a history of… [read more]


Social Change for American Indian Societies Term Paper

… NATIVE AMERICAN WORLDVIEW is grounded in historical and cultural changes and traditions. There may not only single way of looking at the world among surviving indigenous populations in the Americas but there are some common characteristics that shape the broader… [read more]


Crime-Native Americans Crime Issues Term Paper

… Crime-Native Americans

Crime Issues for Native Americans

One problem that exists today between the federal government and the Native Americans is crime.

According to a report released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on October 18, 2005, the crime rate against Native Americans has risen during the past five years (Some pp). In 2004, 131,539 Native American were arrested for murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault and burglary, compare to 125,438 in 2003 (Some pp). There is an overwhelming number of arrests of Native Americans, over 72.3% of Native Americans were arrested in cities (Some pp).

Another 10.1 arrest occurred in the metropolitan countries the remainder were in non-metropolitan areas assumed to be the reservations, suburban, and communities that surround the reservation (Some pp).

The federal government reports that during the past five years, American Indian and Alaska Native people of all ages are victimized at the highest rate in the nation (Some pp). According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Report, hate crimes against Native Americans has also increased (Some pp). In 2004, a total of 100 hate crimes consisting of bias crimes were up from 2003, however fewer Native Americans were involved in these crimes (Some pp).

A study released in 1999 by the United States Justice Department reported that American Indians are the victims of violent crime at a rate of more than twice the national average (Violent pp). The study also revealed that Native Americans, compared to other groups, are most likely to be the victims of violent crimes committed by members of a race other than their own (Violent pp). The study reported that over 60% of violent crimes against Native Americans…… [read more]


Native Americans Term Paper

… Native Americans

Over the years, the United States has exerted oppressive force over the Native American Indians who were in this country long before settlers arrived from Europe. Not only did the white European settlers cheat, rape, and steal from the Natives; they also managed to decimate nearly the entire Native American population. Native American tribes are now forced to live on reservations that are technically separate from the rest of the United States of America, although their sovereignty is still an ongoing matter of debate.

The Supreme Court has assumed in recent years that although non-Indians have the right to be free from political control by Indian nations, American Indians can and should be subject to the political sovereignty of non-Indians. This disparate treatment of both property and political rights is not the result of neutral rules being applied in a manner that has a disparate impact. Rather, it is the result of formally unequal rules. Moreover, it can be explained only by reference to perhaps unconscious assumptions about the nature and distribution of both property and power. This fact implies an uncomfortable truth: both property rights and political power in the United States are associated with a system of racial caste. (Singer 4)

The constant struggles for Indian sovereignty against the United States government came to a forefront in 1973 at the infamous standoff at Wounded Knee. On February 27, 1973, followers of the American Indian Movement occupied the town of Wounded Knee in South Dakota for seventy-one days while U.S. Marshals laid siege. The event nearly sparked off a civil war, and brought Indians' constant struggle for sovereignty to the public eye.

Wounded Knee had been the site…… [read more]


Native American's With Alcoholism Term Paper

… For instance, the rate of diabetic end stage renal disease is as much as six times higher in the Native American population. The number of Native Americans who have had limb amputations due to diabetes is as much as four… [read more]


Constitutional and Civil Rights of Native American Indians Peer-Reviewed Journal

… Governor Peter Shumlin

109 State Street, Pavilion

Phone [HIDDEN]

TTY: [HIDDEN]

Fax [HIDDEN]

Dear Governor Shumlin

I am writing to you in order to express the concern of the people of Vermont on the current Socio-economic, political, legal and cultural… [read more]


Native Americans Dakota and Lakota Essay

… The Native Indians also further declined with the arrival of the Europeans. Diseases took the best of every village including pneumonia, cholera, smallpox, and measles. The Indians had no built-in immunity to help them fight these diseases and so they either severely suffered from malnutrition or even died. This also forced them to leave their native villages, farming lands and their traditional hunting (Sutton, 2009).

Early historians, explorers, and colonialists considered the Native Americans as godless heathens and barbarians. Evidently, many the missionaries tried their best to convert the religion of the Natives, which they considered it as their divine obligation to save the savaged souls. In many cases, the Native Americans had involved themselves in trade with the English in terms of food supply when harsh winters prevailed. Starvation would have killed many of the English if the Native Americans would not offer their assistance in such times. Sadly, the preconception maintained its dominance within the English consciousness (Brown, 2006).

The Indians who had their habitat in the settlement of Jamestown must have experienced mixed reactions with the arrival of the English in the year 1907. They reacted with hostility at first regarding their previous experience they had with the Spanish explorers along the coastline. They made an attack to a British ship before it even arrived. However, the Indians began to assist the newcomers with traditional hospitality and food. The main motive of the leader of the Confederation of tribes, Mr. Powhatan deciding to offer traditional hospitality and food to the newcomers was to facilitate their assimilation in their system. The colonists got so much absorbed with instant wealth that they forgot to venture into planting corn and other activities, which would sustain their colony. Therefore, they had to rely heavily on the Indians for food (Sutton, 2009).

As the fortunes of the colonies got even worse in the course of its first two years but the leadership of Captain John Smith came to the rescue of the colony. Part of Captain John Smith's leadership was involved with developing trade with local Indians and exploring the area. It was very unfortunate that Smith wanted the English to offer the same treatment to the Indians similar to that of the Spanish, which was to slavery, drudgery, and work so that the English colonists could live on the sweat of their labor (Nabokov, 2010). Therefore, this made Smith take what he wanted by force in occasions where he failed to negotiate with the Indians for food. By 1909, it came to Powhatan's realization that the English had an intention of staying. His disappointment worsened when the Englishmen failed to reciprocate the hospitality he had offered during their arrival; they also declined to marry Indian women. He knew that the English people had come to invade his people and take away their land. This forced the Indians to start attacking the settlers, burning crops that they planted and killing their livestock. With all these events, Powhatan said that the young men… [read more]


American Indian History 1895-1995 Reaction Paper

… Native Americans, New Voices: American Indian History, 1895-1995," David Edmunds discusses the fact that Native Americans were largely ignored in scholastic approaches to American history throughout the late 19th and early 20th century, but that this focus changed in the 1960s when the Civil Rights movement encouraged awareness of Native American history. He focuses on several different aspects of the historical portrayal of Native Americans to come to this conclusion. First, he highlights how Native Americans were portrayed in popular media as a group that had been defeated and gives examples of these portrayals. Second, he discusses the fact that Native Americans were largely ignored in historical scholarship, focusing on the fact that Native Americans were largely ignored or marginalized in the American Historical Review for most of the early part of the 20th century. Next, Edmunds discusses the transformation of Native American history in the 1960s, when the Civil Rights movement ushered in an increase in awareness and interest in Native American issues, including Native American history. Since that time period, there has been a growing interest in all aspects of Native American history, expanding it far beyond the white-conflict centered military history that dominated early Native American scholarship and even placing studies of pre-Columbian Native-American society within the context of global development, rather than limiting developmental comparisons to what was occurring in the Western world. What some of this recent scholarship demonstrates is a Holocaust of native populations when Europeans came to the Americas, but also the resilience of native populations in the face of European invasion.

The article is well-written. Because it is basically a review of the available historical information, the article could be very dry and boring. However, he uses good examples to highlight the conclusions and points that he is making in the article. Moreover, he strings together the evidence that he uses to paint a broader portrait, not only of the way that Native Americans were portrayed in American history during those time periods, but also of what they may have meant about the overall cultural treatment of Native Americans during those time periods.

While I certainly have not studied history to the same extent as Edmunds, what I do know of Native American history certainly seems to support his thesis. My discussions with people in older generations all reinforce the notion that they were taught that Native Americans were a people in decline and that their academic study of native populations was limited to learning about how Europeans impacted native populations. Therefore, I have to agree with his conclusions about the changing face of scholarship. I had a difficult time isolating an opinion in the article; Edmunds is engaging in an overview of the history that is available during the time periods he covers in the article, not really drawing any of his own conclusions from that…… [read more]


Native Americans: Separate and Unequal Term Paper

… 3). In a manner that mirrors the attitude of the Quechans, the Cherokee also sought federal protection, but wanted to maintain their sovereignty. In other words, Native Americans were trying to negotiate a place within the expanding European society in… [read more]


Native Americans and Their Health Issues Essay

… Health of Native Americans

The Health Issues of Native Americans

Native Americans -- as a minority cultural group with many subcultures -- have a bleak history in the United States. They have a history of being ignored, or being persecuted, or indeed relegated to poverty status over the last few hundred years. The data available also shows that Native Americans suffer from poor health in many aspects of their lives.

According to Indian Health Services, American Indians and Alaska Natives "have long experienced lower health status" when they are compared with other cultures in the U.S. In fact, Native Americans and Alaska Natives have a life expectancy that is 2.4 years less than all other ethnic groups in the U.S. (74.5 years for Native Peoples vs. 76.9 years for all other groups averaged out) (Indian Health Services data).

Tuberculosis is a problem for Native Americans and Alaska Natives, according to the Indian Health Services information; in fact, Native Peoples die at a rate that is 600% higher than other Americans when it comes to tuberculosis; Native Peoples die at a rate 510% higher than other Americans when it comes to alcoholism; as to motor vehicle crashes, Native Peoples rate of death is 229% higher; the rate for Native Peoples is 189% higher for diabetes; Native Peoples have a rate of death from homicide that is 62% higher than others; and as for suicide, the rate for Native Peoples is also 62% higher than for other Americans (Indian Health Services Data).

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) lists the population of Native Americans at 3.2 million, with about 60 births per 1,000 women and a percentage of births with low birth weight at 7.4%. Fourteen percent of Native Peoples of all ages are in poor health, the CDCP reports, and fifteen percent of all Native Peoples suffer from a limitation of their normal activities due to "one or more chronic health conditions" (CDCP). The CDCP reports that only thirty nine percent of Native Peoples under the age of 65 have health insurance; and eighteen percent of…… [read more]


Keeping Native American Language Alive Term Paper

… The Aztec-Tanoan language includes tribes in New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California and Utah (Columbia Encyclopedia).

Legislation

In 1990, Congress passed the "Native American Languages Act (saving a culture, 2002)" and brought to the forefront the importance of saving the indigenous languages of the United States. This act "mandates that the government preserve and promote the right of Indians to use and develop their indigenous languages (saving a culture, 2002)." In 1992, there was additional legislation that provided annual grants for language recovery programs and these grants are still in place today (saving in culture, 2002).

This legislation was a big change from the government's normally hostile attitude concerning the language and customs of the Indians.

Conclusion

There are some Native American languages that have either already disappeared or are on the brink of vanishing. Native American groups and colleges throughout the country have implemented several programs in attempts to preserve the remaining languages. Though the United States government originally tried to eliminate the Indian language, it is now working to revitalize this part of American culture.

The Native American language not only offers an insight into the Indian culture, but contains valuable information about plants that can help scientist and the medical community, making it imperative to preserve the few remaining languages.

Works Cited

Bartholet, Jeffrey, Tony Clifton, Elizabeth Bryant and Scott Johnson. "The Sounds of Silence."

Newsweek International. (2000): 19 June. Pp. 62.

Harrison, Sheena. "Michigan State U. adopts American Indian Studies Program." University

Wire. (2000): 24 August.

Indians see preserving language as key move Saving a culture." The Washington

Times. (2002): 25 October.

James, Michael S. "Tongue-Tied; Linguists and Native Speakers Fight to Preserve Dying Languages." 08 April 2002. (accessed 11-09-2002) www.ABCNEWS.com).

Native American Languages." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition.

2002): 01 January.

Nijhuis,…… [read more]


Life in Sherman Alexie's Reservation Blues Term Paper

… All at once the crossroads of the Native American reservation offer a point of meeting between Native American and African-American history and a point of divergence between Native American and white American influence.



That the novel presents… [read more]


Puritans and Native Americans Term Paper

… These were people whose idea of God had justified the beheading of the King of England, Charles the First, who could hardly be accused of being a godless heathen; in fact, he was beheaded because his Christian God was insufficiently Puritan. In some sense, the Native Americans were hardly the only victims of Puritan self-righteousness: before going to war with Native Americans, the Puritans had treated the King of England and the population of Ireland with the same lofty contempt.

For that reason, Rowlandson's story of her captivity is more full of Biblical quotations than any attempt to understand the social structure or mores of the Native Americans that abducted her: they were "heathens" and that was enough understanding as far as the Puritans were concerned. But at the same time, the way Rowlandson's story is told is meant to reinforce the cultural narrative of the Puritans at the same time that it denies the cultural narrative of the Native Americans: Downing (1981) reports, concerning the conflict in which Rowlandson's kidnapping occurred (known as King Philip's War or the "First Indian War") that "Increase Mather and other Puritan divines explained the Indian uprising as a sign of God's displeasure, exhorting their congregations about the dangers of 'backsliding'." (Downing 254). In other words, the clash of cultures that we see in Mary Rowlandson's kidnapping is used to strengthen the Puritans self-definition. It is used to reinforce the sense of community among hostile alien presences that do not believe in their Christian God, but it is also used to force the Puritan community itself to examine its own conscience and try to appease that Christian God through righteous behavior.

The only irony is that the Puritans might as well have been looking in a mirror: from the standpoint of an anthropologist, the angry god of this hubristic Protestant sect was just as much a bloodthirsty tribal cult as anything that would be found among the Native Americans. Mary Rowlandson may thank her God that she was only kidnapped by Narragansetts rather than by Aztecs, and that she was ransomed after 11 weeks rather than being slaughtered and eaten on a ziggurat, but at the end of the day the Puritan God seems rather similar to the Aztec version, at least when it comes to the clash of civilizations. Aggressive expansionism and disregard for peaceful coexistence with the lives of those outside the tribal group is more a Puritan than a Native American problem -- but it is a sign of the Puritan dominance in American culture that we are more likely to see Native Americans as behaving like tribal savages, despite the evidence that the Puritans were far more deserving of such terminology.

References

Downing, D. (1981). 'Streams of Scripture Comfort': Mary Rowlandson's Typological Use of the Bible. Early American Literature 15(3), 252-9.

Faery, R.B. (1995). "Mary Rowlandson (1637-1711)." Legacy 12 (2), 121-132.

Rowlandson, M. (1682). A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, A Minister's Wife in… [read more]


Wounded Knee II Essay

… All remaining land would be opened up for sale to white settlers, timber companies, mines and railroads. By 1934 when the allotment process ended, over two-thirds of the reservation land held by Native Americans in 1887 had been lost, and 90,000 had become completely landless. No matter whether it was the original intention of Dawes or not, the effect was to increase the poverty of the Indians. In addition, the Indian trust funds created by Dawes to manage royalties for oil, timber and mineral rights, which still exist today, have turned out to by monumentally corrupt and incompetent. In many cases, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) simply lost the records and was unable to account for billions of dollars in payments that were owed to Native Americans. In the history of the U.S. government, there has never been a worse-managed problem, or one that cheated some of the poorest people in the country to such an extreme degree.

In addition to this truly shabby and corrupt treatment meted out by the BIA in its fraudulent mismanagement of Native assets, the Dawes Act also had the effect of undermining the culture and religion of the Indians. For Dawes, total assimilation was the goal, which meant that the Indians would leave in nuclear families and own their own private property as individuals, while tribal governments, communal landholdings and traditional religions would be abolished. Indian Agents appointed to manage the reservations even ensured that Native Americans changed their hairstyles and clothing, while many of their children were adopted by white families or sent to boarding schools where English was the language of instruction. Only in recent years has it become clear that these schools were infamous for high levels of physical and sexual abuse, and that their activities were a form of cultural genocide. All of this was Dawes' intention, since he openly said that he would save the Indians only by killing their culture. Up until the New Deal and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, tribal governments and Native religions and customs were outlawed, although Congress granted all Indians citizenship for the…… [read more]


Native Americans Are the Indigenous Essay

… The Europeans initiated dominance and superiority from the first time they interacted with the Native Americans. After the Europeans had dominated the land which was occupied by the Native Americans, they went ahead to oppress them and suppress their cultures. After the revolutionary war, the new United States government sought to gain land through treaties of which payment offered for the land was from fair. When Native Americans resisted surrendering their homeland, the United States government simply used superior military power to evict them.

Racism is the basis for discrimination. It is the systematic practice of denying people access to the most crucial resources and necessities in their lives. In an effort of Native Americans to obtain much of the Northern American land, there was a long series of war, massacre and forced displacements, restriction of food rights and imposition of treaties. Land was taken away and numerous hardships were imposed. Till today Native Americans remain among the economically disadvantaged group in the country. After their territories were incorporated, many surviving Native Americans were ranked low than before and were only given 4% of United States territory and treaties that were signed with them were violated.

Politics has impacted positively on the lives of Native Americans since they are able to vote for their people to become leaders. To them getting their people into the office has become a natural step. They have started recruitment campaigns and training seminars for political candidates looking at ways to increase their representatives in state and local posts so that they can deal with the problem s faced by the Native Americans such as discrimination.

Patricia Yelavich (2008) says that public policies have opened up the natives minds to new things that will benefit their future and the future of their native people. Public policies have also given the Native Americans students opportunity to learn more about the Native American policy structure and to be able to speak and share with their own tribes. Public policies have taught natives about education legislation, water rights settlements, health care and land reacquisition.

References

History on the Net, (2010). Native Americans - Tribes/Nations. Retrieved September 26, 2011

from http://www.historyonthenet.com/Native_Americans/tribes.htm

Janice C.P. et.al, (2002). Minorities in Rural America: An Overview of Population

Characteristics. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from http://rhr.sph.sc.edu/report/minoritiesInRuralAmerica.pdf

Lewis and Clark (2011). Native Americans. Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native

Patricia Yelavich, (2008). Native Americans students explore public policies at Wilson school.

Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S21/56/17C97/index.xml?section=featured… [read more]


American Indian Culture Before 1763 Essay

… American Indian Culture Before 1763

Native American society prior to 1763

The Native American society was thriving before its interaction with the Europeans, especially given that natives had a thorough understanding of how they could exploit land without risking remaining… [read more]


Native American Issues Background and Historical Thesis

… ¶ … Native American Issues

Background and Historical Overview

The historical narrative of the United States presents the Native Americans in a tremendously unfair light that is as morally offensive as it is historically inaccurate. The Sioux Indians in particular have been portrayed as savage killers who raided peaceful Settlers from the North and East who tried to cultivate new lives in the unsettled so-called "Indian Country" west of the Mississippi River in the middle and late 19th century (Anderson, 1986). In truth, the Sioux were merely more defiant of the unjust treatment that all of the Native American tribes received from the white man during the immediate periods preceding and following the infamous Indian Removal Act of 1830. In Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux by Gary Clayton Anderson (1986), the author presents a more historically accurate view of the injustices to which the proud Sioux people (and the other Native American tribes) were subjected by the United States government than the perspective generally promoted by contemporary historical texts.

In principle, the revisionist history of the way that the American West was "won" is only one example of the many different historical inaccuracies that apply to the contemporary view of the way that the European explorers in general, and later, the white Colonialists of the North American Continent and the Settlers of the Wild West in particular ignored the rights of native peoples and systematically exploited, expelled, and in many cases, exterminated them in the process of "settling" lands that had been the ancestral homelands of those native peoples for millennia before the white man ever "discovered" the so-called "New World."

The Experiences of the Sioux as Detailed by Objective Contemporary Historians

Before the Indian Removal Act of 1830, most of the Native American tribes living in what was then called "Indian Country" by the white man lived in relative harmony and respected one another's territorial claims and boundaries (Takaki, 2008). One notable exception was the perpetual state of war that existed between the Sioux and the Pawnee tribes (Takaki, 2008). By the time that the U.S. government began to implement the concept of "Indian Removal" certain tribes, such as the Cherokee Nation and the Choctaws, apparently recognized the futility of armed conflict with the U.S. Army in opposition to their unfair treatment and sought to negotiate the most advantageous resettlement terms possible rather than fight against forces that were far superior in both number and in the technology of warfare (Stannard, 1993; Takaki, 2008).

In addition to securing more favorable resettlement terms and cash compensation, some tribes even achieved court victories over white Settlers who had violated treaties ceding certain territories exclusively for tribal occupation and use (Anderson, 1986; Takaki,…… [read more]


European and Native American Cultures Essay

… European & Native American Cultures

European Voyages, especially the Spanish's, were significantly marked by Cristopher Columbus' exploration of mainland America. Rumors spread that this land has flowing gold and silver which were seen necessary to strengthen Spain and make it… [read more]


Native American Literature Annotated Bibliography

… Native American Lit

Wise, Bill and Bill Farnsworth (ill.). Louis Sockalexis: Native American Baseball Pioneer. New York: Lee & Low, 2007.

ISBN: 1584302690 9781584302698, 31 pages, color illustrations, IRA Children's Book Award, Carter G. Woodson Book Award. Juvenile audience.

A biography of professional baseball player Louis Sockalexis. Growing up in the late nineteenth century, Louis' dreams of becoming a baseball player were ridiculed because he was Native American. His success did not end the racism that plague him. Despite this, he managed to achieve his personal dreams and erode the racial barriers in this country to some degree.

-Somewhat overly simplistic in language given the subject matter; could be made more challenging

-Brevity of presentation allows for a quick yet highly informative read

-Illustrations well-matched to the text, yet not entirely necessary

Research the treatment of Native Americans in the 1800s and present your findings

Write a story about another historical attempt to break down a similar barrier

Draw a picture of the crowd you would see at a baseball game today

Share a time when you were treated unfairly and what you did to combat this

Take turns as different characters acting out a scene from the book

Capaldi, Gina. A Boy Named Beckoning. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, 2008.

ISBN: 9780822576440 0822576449, 32 pages, illustrations (some color), Independent Publisher Book Awards, other nominations. Juvenile audience.

Recounts the story of the man known as Carlos Montezuma, a Native American doctor and advocate. Kidnapped at a young age by another tribe, Wassaja is eventually bought by an Italian man who raises him as Carlos. He attends medical school, becomes a successful doctor, and spends his life advocating for Native American rights.

-Very informative and easy to follow with interest.

-Illustrations largely unnecessary.

-Quick pace without skimping on too much detail.

Research what it takes to become a doctor, and report your findings.

Write a plan for how you will become what you want to be.

Create a campaign poster to obtain Native American rights for a 19th century issue.

Debate a current issue facing Native American tribes in the U.S.

Write a brief report on another little-known Native American figure.

Steptoe, John. The Story of Jumping Mouse. New York: Lothrop, Lee, and Shepard, 1984.

ISBN: 0688019021 9780688019020, 40 pages, illustrated, Caldecott nominated. Juvenile literature.

Recounts a Native American legend in an illustrated and somewhat modernized version. With the help of an unselfish Frog, Jumping Mouse goes on a long journey. He eventually finds what he is seeking, ending with a stunning transformation that even he did not expect.

-Rich illustrations greatly enhance the storytelling aspect.

-Somewhat traditionalized storytelling method nonetheless preserves the elements of the original myth in a compelling manner

-Emotionally and intellectually stirring

Draw a picture of Jumping Mouse's transformation…… [read more]


Native American Cultural Aspects Apply to Psychological Essay

… ¶ … Native American Cultural Aspects Apply to Psychological Theory

According to author Barry M. Pritzker (A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture and Peoples) the early Southwestern tribes (the Navajo, the Athapaskans, the Pima and Hakataya) survived and stayed solvent through trading and exchanging critical goods and services. The passages on this page by Pritzker relate to the "historic and prehistoric periods" long before the Europeans arrived and pushed many Native American tribes off their traditional land. Some of the Indians mentioned above grew corn, beans, squash, cotton, and tobacco -- and those living near rivers ate fish.

The point here is those tribes that did not produce food for themselves or who had very little access to food, and did not hunt deer or buffalo, became involved in raiding others, in trading with other tribes -- or those less fortunate tribes may have been the recipients of gifts from more successful tribes. A big part of the culture of Southwestern Indians was the concept of trading. Trading was likely the most common form of obtaining the basic essentials. "Southwestern tribes exchanged goods on a large scale" during this period in American history, Pritzker writes (p. 4).

Food, turquoise, shell beads and other minerals were traded. Silver jewelry, baskets, blankets and buckskins were traded. They also traded "spouses," Pritzker explains; they traded medicine people and dancers as well as "ritualists." The Indians figured out and devised very complex systems of exchange, and this helped ensure the independence and "basic egalitarianism" that each Indian community required.

Psychological Theory: And so how would this system of trade and exchange relate to traditional psychological theory? Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs fits in interestingly with the trading back and forth between tribes. The first needs on Maslow's hierarchy of needs are human's physiological needs -- the need for food, air, water (http://psychology-about.com) -- came into play in Indian culture. Food was a major need of course and food was at the top of the list of items to be traded from one tribe to another. If the Navajo (nomadic herders of sheep) or Apache (feared…… [read more]


Identification American Indian Movement: Activist Group Seized Thesis

… Identification

American Indian Movement: Activist group; Seized Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1972; protests sports mascots; concerned with Central America too; committed to Native rights.

Wounded Knee: Dec 29, 1890; U.S. government-sponsored massacre; 300 Sioux/Lakota killed; motivated by gold rush; Lakota clung to the Black Hills

Ada Deer: Born 1935; Native American activist; head of Bureau of Indian Affairs 1993-1997; Menominee tribe; female; scholar

Quanah Parker: last chief of Quahadi Comanche; Texas; European mother and Comanche father; mother was captured by Comanche; founder of Native American Church

Sioux Tribe: Native Americans; Lakota; Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Manitoba, Saskatchewan; strong social organization; 3 distinct ethnic groups; half off reservation

Indian Citizenship Act: 1924; Snyder Act; granted full citizenship to indigenous people; signed by President Coolidge; 14th Amendment did not apply before

Chief Joseph & Nez Perce: Chief of Wallowa; resisted removal to Idaho; born in Oregon; related to Gold Rush; led Nez Pierce to Canada

8. Dawes Allotment Act: 1887; allotted land in Oklahoma to Native Americans; exempted "Five Civilized Tribes"; became Burke Act in 1906;…… [read more]


Native American Responses to Anglo Essay

… Native Americans and Westward Expansion

Although the period in American history known as Westward Expansion brings to mind covered wagons of settlers moving to develop open land in the West, the West had been settled, and explored, far before this era. In fact, during the colonial times, the French, Spanish, and even Russians, joined the British in exploring and colonizing the new world ("American Westward Movement" 2008). For the Americans, Westward expansion meant the furthering of a nation, new business opportunities, and exotic lands. For the Native Americans, it meant tears.

The Native American reaction to Westward expansion and nation building was filled with sorrow. This is to be expected, based on what the Americans forced the Native Americans to give up so that they could expand. One of the precious resources that the Americans asked the Native Americans to give up was their land. The story of the Choctaw tribe is a prime example of this. Although their first experience with Europeans resulted in a particularly bloody battle for the tribe, they actually aided the colonists turned Americans in the Creek war of 1813. Thus, they reacted in an accommodating fashion. But the tribe lived on the desired lands…… [read more]


Reasons for Ritual in Native American Traditions Essay

… ¶ … Ritual in Native American Traditions

The Impenetrability of the Native American Mind

Donald Lee Fixico, a Native American author intending to introduce and defend the Indian worldview to a nonwhite audience states in his book the American Indian… [read more]


Native American Cultures of North Term Paper

… Native American Culture

Intolerance of native religion is a theme that pervades Native American studies, as the conditions that many Indian nations suffered were guised with a highly religiously motivated idea of manifest destiny. The Cherokee nation was no exception,… [read more]


Native American Art Term Paper

… Native American Art

Post-War Native American Art

To evaluate the impact that Native American art has had on the evolution of late Modernism - and vice versa - is not an easy task. It was only in the 1930s that… [read more]


Native American Expressive Culture Term Paper

… Native American Expressive Culture

The Native American tradition can be seen as an evolving cultural tradition that encompasses countless expressions of creativity, from many varied cultures and expressions of culture. Native American cultural expression has been at various times subverted… [read more]


Native American Children's Literature Term Paper

… Folklore

Teaching Native American Folklore to Children

This paper will examine Donna Norton's typology of Native American folklore and examine how this typology can be a useful pedagogical tool when approaching a diverse student body and when teaching a multicultural curriculum.

Classifying Native American folklore into different types of tales, such as "Setting-the-World-in-Order Tales," "Family Drama Tales," "Trickster Tales," "Threshold Tales" and "Combination Tales," is not simply an effective way to introduce aspects of native culture to young children in a diverse classroom (Norton 2005: 82-87). It can also be a powerful method to draw connections between the children's own cultures and Native American mythology. For example, "Trickster Tales" are "common in folklore all over the world," perhaps the most culturally pervasive kind of tale (Norton 2005: 84). The Trickster of the Pacific North American Indians is called the Raven; another common trickster is the Coyote, and also the Rabbit. Children can read tales of these animals, and compare them with other tricksters from other cultures, such as Anasi the Spider from West Africa. Children can also examine the presence of trickster mythology in modern American media, in films and television, where vulnerable people (like animals and children) trick stronger authority figures with clever and underhanded methods. Also, a teacher might ask why certain animals, like rabbits and coyotes, have common 'trickster' appeal, as opposed to other animals. "Trickster tales are almost always placed in the 'animal tales' genre, with the trickster... identified with a particular animal. These include the mouse deer in Southeast Asia, the fox in Japan, the coyote and the spider among the North American Indians, the tortoise, rabbit (or hare) and spider in West Africa, and the mantis in Southern Africa" (Starr 1999).

Setting-the-World-in-Order" or origin tales are another likely point of connection between many different tales from different cultures (Norton 2005: 82). Encouraging children…… [read more]


Native American Culture Term Paper

… In 1968 the first tribal college opened on the Navajo reservation and by 1995, there were twenty-nine such college (Natives Pp). There are numerous radio stations, as well a newspapers and periodicals (Natives Pp).

A common concept among the majority… [read more]


Native American Gaming in February Term Paper

… It is believed that this continued onslaught of casino talk is more than a mere ploy to gain revenue for Minnesota, a state that has shown large deficits (Melmer Pp). According to William Hardaker, attorney for Shakopee Sioux, it is… [read more]


Native American History Term Paper

… The purpose of Tracks was to tell its audience about the history, which lay behind the American Natives. Albert Hurtado and Peter Inverson in their novel Major Problems in American Indian History focus this similar theme. The book intends to… [read more]


Native American and African Essay

… Native American and African Tribal

Discussing with regard to Native American and African religious expression is somewhat problematic when considering the numerous religious ideas present in these two cultures. Even with this, one can easily find a series of parallels and differences when going in-depth and gaining a more complex understanding of how African tribes and Native American tribes perceive the concept of religion. The fact that religious ideas promoted by Native American tribes and African tribes are tightly connected to concepts like spirituality and a person's relationship with the natural world makes it possible for someone to comprehend why particular aspects of these two cultures might seem alike.

It would be wrong to associate particular religions to either of these two communities, as one can only reach a conclusion concerning religious customs in each of the two by discovering similarities between the many cultural values that shaped religious concepts both in Native American and in African tribal communities. As a consequence, when considering religious customs in Native American history and in African tribal history, one needs to keep in mind that it is only by generalizing that he or she can come up with a certain set of principles characteristic to each culture.

Animism is an important idea both in Native American religious culture and in tribal African religious culture. Native Americans and African tribes expressed particular interest in the significance of spirituality and of souls. Individuals in both cultures appeared to consider that a person needs to respect the spiritual aspect of life and concentrate on living in agreement with a set of rules in order for him or her to avoid coming across significant problems.

One of the principal things emphasizing the…… [read more]


Career Developmental Needs of Native Americans Thesis

… Career Developmental Needs of Native Americans

The objective of this work is to examine the career developmental needs of Native Americans and primarily those residing in urban areas and reservations and specifically those in the Southwestern portion of the United… [read more]


Define the Treaty of Fort Laramie and What Did it Guarantee the Native Americans Essay

… ¶ … Treaty of Fort Laramie and what it guaranteed the Native Americans. The Treaty of Fort Laramie is also called the Sioux Treat of 1868. It was a treaty between the United States Government and several Native American nations, which gave land ownership to them.

The Treaty was an agreement between the United States and several Indian nations, including the Lakota nation, Santee Sioux, Yanktonai Sioux, and Arapaho. It was signed in 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, hence the name. It guaranteed Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and other hunting and land rights in Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. It closed the Powder River Country to whites, and ended Red Cloud's War. The treaty was very unusual at the time because it granted rights to Natives over whites. A historian notes, "The Treaty of Fort Laramie was a rare instance in which the United States negotiated a peace in which it gave the Indians everything they asked, and asked no quid pro quo in return."

Later, gold was discovered in the Black Hills, and the U.S. wanted the land back. Another historian notes, "The allure of gold led the U.S. government to reconsider its commitment to the Treaty of 1868, and Indian agents were dispatched to the Black Hills to convince the Sioux to sell their land."

The Sioux refused, but the U.S. took the land back in 1877 with an act of Congress.

The Struggle for the Black Hills occurred as the Sioux attempted to regain ownership of the lands Congress took back. It began shortly before the 1877 land grab, and consisted of Sioux resistance to white cavalry members who were in the Black Hills supposedly to "protect" the Natives from white gold miners trespassing in the Sioux territory. However, ultimately, they attacked the Sioux for being "hostile," and two battles, the Battle of Rosebud and the Battle of the Little Bighorn were a result. The Natives won those, but eventually lost the war, and the Struggle for the Black Hills continued. It came up again in 1946, when the government formed the Indian Claims Commission and the Sioux appealed to them for Black Hills…… [read more]


Native Americans Earned Respect From the British Term Paper

… Native Americans Earned Respect From the British

Were early Native Americans truly as one people with the British? Idealistically, that might be pleasant to believe. However, there is at least some truth to the notion that the British admired the Native Americans in many ways, and indeed, shared "one heart" with the settlers, at least early in the relationship.

When the British first came to America, they found much to admire in the Native Americans. One historian notes, "The noble savage image was born in the first encounter with the white man and dwindled proportionately as the colonists' desire and ability to dominate the land escalated."

One of the main goals of many British colonials was to befriend the Native and Christianize them, as Eliot notes in his piece on Piumbukhou. Piumbukhou is thankful for his Christianization, and attempts to bring his relatives into the fold, to share his "special" relationship with God and the English.

By the late 1700s, the relationship was beginning to change, however. Colonists continually sought new land and moved westward, pushing back the Native Americans from their tribal lands. Many visitors still saw them as noble people who were becoming trouble by British influence, such as alcohol and firearms. Another writer notes, "Yet while she [a British visitor] is critical of European influence in America, especially concerning the corruption of the Native Americans with alcohol,…… [read more]


Native American Trickster Tales "Coyote Term Paper

… Coyote is often cunning and shrewd, but in this tale, Skunk outwits him, and Coyote becomes the fool. The entire story takes place in nature, with no interaction by man. The Native Americans knew enough not to interfere with nature, they lived most harmoniously with it, and allowed the natural world to shape their own.

In this, the Native Americans were far different from even Thoreau. He enjoyed and appreciated the natural beauty surrounding him, but he did not live "in" it, he was outside, looking in. He still walked the mile to town to visit friends and get a hot meal occasionally. The Native Americans lived on the land, and with the land. They were a part of their natural surroundings, and did not need to leave to live.

This is equally apparent in "Owlwoman and Coyote."

Americans today could learn some valuable lessons from the Native Americans, and even Thoreau. As a society, most of us rarely take time to really enjoy nature around us, and we certainly do not live as a part of nature. The natural world is not only diminishing, it is becoming less and less a part of our lives. We no longer have the time to sit and "smell the roses," and because of it, there is a great void in our lives. Reading these stories helps modern Americans glimpse just a little bit of the natural world, and get an idea of how much more important it used to be in the day-to-day lives of people. It is important to read and remember to get more of an appreciation of the natural world around us, and what…… [read more]


Culturally Responsive After School Programs for Native American Youth White Paper

… Culturally Responsive Programs

Culturally-Responsive After School Programming

Native American youth are too often overlooked when social workers are crafting programs that reach "at risk" populations. While those programs are generally available to youth in need without regard to ethnicity, Native… [read more]


American Indian Movement Term Paper

… Vine Deloria, Jr. And the American Indian Movement

The twentieth century," wrote Vine Deloria, Jr., "has produced a world of conflicting visions, intense emotions, and unpredictable events, and the opportunities for grasping the substance of life have faded as the pace of activity has increased" (Neihardt 1979). These were typically strong words of a man who spent much of that century attempting to alter the image of Native Americans in his home country in the face of ongoing systematic apartheid through his extensive literary output, his activism, and his activities as a college professor at the University of Arizona and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

As Reed (2005) has noted, one of Deloria's strengths as a writer and activist was his sardonic wit and humor, which he deployed in order to provoke people to think deeper about white treachery against Native Americans. Deloria would write in his most famous book, Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (1969), "We have brought the white man a long way in 500 years... from a childish search for mythical cities of gold and fountains of youth to the simple recognition that lands are essential for human existence." Such lines are typical of Deloria's direct form of literary engagement with the reader - and his unapologetic stance, which mixes humor with anger in a potent brew of social historical inquiry.

Among Deloria's many controversial view points was the idea that corporate culture and technological advancement were destroying life in America. The only way to avoid going in this destructive direction would be to revert back to the tribal ways of ancient Native American life, and thus find salvation (Johnson 2005). This spiritual…… [read more]


Network News Critique Essay

… Network News Critique

What it means to be a Native American Indian in the 21st Century, and 2011

The contemporary general public is still having problems abandoning stereotypes regarding Native Americans, even with the fact that society has allegedly experienced great progress from the time when American Indians were widely discriminated. The Native American community has recently benefited as a result of a series of improvements taking place in several domains involving the group, this proving that the system has partly experienced reform.

Society as a whole is struggling to avoid discrimination from ever happening again in the U.S., with people trying to put across open-mindedness concerning Native Americans. Sundance Institute's Native American and Indigenous Program and the Native American Residential Fellowship Program devised by Peabody Essex Museum in Massachusetts aim at providing Native Americans with equal opportunities to express themselves and to cultivate their abilities.

The authorities have focused on improving conditions for Native Americans in the 21st century even before the era started. Given the experience that the American government has gathered as a result of its inability to provide sufficient support to the minority during the recent decades, it is essential for it to devise and promote more successful methods of destroying stereotypes (Takamura, 1999, p. 232).

In spite of the fact that Native Americans are apparently relatively equal to white Americans, matters are very different when looking deeper into the matter. "The special needs of Native American, Alaskan Natives, and Native Hawaiian older people are acknowledged in Title VI of the OAA, which calls for grants to tribal organizations and to an organization that represents Native Hawaiians" (Takamura, 1999, p. 232). Taking this into account, it only seems natural for the government and for the Native American community to express discontent regarding the way that they are normally treated. It is virtually absurd to ignore the discrimination frequently taking place in situations involving Native Americans, as they continue to be considered less capable to be equal or even to rival white Americans in stressing conditions. In spite of the constant discrimination to which Native Americans have been subjected to for the last few centuries, conditions have apparently changed considerably in the recent years, as people grew more and more concerned about this issue and turned their attention to put an end to discrimination (Takamura, 1999, p. 232).

There has been much controversy regarding Native American during the last years, as they came to be supported by a series of influential individuals and institutions. These respective people and groups that chose to break-away from the traditional way that the masses behaved toward Native Americans are responsible for coming up with a series of programs meant to recognize talent and dedication in the people where it exists. Many individuals are…… [read more]


Navajo Code Talkers of WWII Term Paper

… Navajo Code Talkers

Eager to Serve: Navajo Code Talkers

The Navajo Code Talkers are a fascinating group of individuals who served in WWII as radio transmitters, mainly in the Marines.

Townsend 145) the complex and relatively unknown language of the… [read more]


Movie Smoke Signals Term Paper

… Smoke Signals

The film Smoke Signals tells the story of two young Native American Indians, Victor and Thomas, who go on a journey to Arizona in order to retrieve the ashes of the former's estranged father. Along the way, both must come to grips with certain traumatic events in their past that they were never able to fully make peace with. In addition, they arrive at a new understanding of what it means to be a Native American Indian in this day and age.

Victor and Thomas, although not directly related, were linked by a traumatic event that occurred when they were infants. Victor's alcoholic father wound up saving baby Thomas from a house fire that killed both of his parents. For this reason, although the two boys were never friends when they were growing up, Thomas feels that he has a strong connection with Victor's father. When the two are boys, Victor's father abandons the family in an alcoholic rage. Because he knows that Victor's father saved his life, Thomas feels the loss tremendously as well.

Thus, when Thomas finds out that Victor will go on a long journey to retrieve the ashes of his dead father, he is eager to go along. He knows that Victor does not have enough money for the journey, so he offers to pay a significant amount of the travel expenses with money he has saved up. Although he finds Thomas's personality annoying, Victor agrees to allow him to come along.

As a young person, it is quite easy to empathize with both Victor and Thomas throughout the course of the film. I was more drawn to the character of Victor, however, which makes sense, as he is the main protagonist…… [read more]


Nevada History Term Paper

… These were the first white men to venture into the hostile territory, along with roving mountain men who worked for fur trading companies back in the east. But these men's scattered influence on the region could hardly be considered big… [read more]


Weatherford Indian Givers Brief Summary Book Review

… Moreover, from 1492 until his death he was insistent about collecting what he regarded as his fair share of the profits, and downright paranoid in his belief that he was being denied the wealth, honor and glory due to him. He believed this was because of his relatively humble and obscure birth, and perhaps this was partially true, although his personality was hardly one to inspire trust and loyalty, either from his subordinates or superiors. Columbus in real life showed a very consistent pattern of deceit and low cunning, even against the men on his own ships, but he was an extremely determined man who used any means necessary to achieve his objectives. This is definitely not the Columbus portrayed in the movie, but then again no film intended for a mass audience would ever dare show a hero tarnished to this degree by greed, corruption and criminality.

6. What is your assessment of the book?

Indian Givers is written in a very lively and engaging style that is highly unusual for an academic work, and is therefore very well-suited for undergraduates and a general audience. All of the information in it is very well-known to historians, anthropologists and other specialists in the field, but not to students or most of the public. Perhaps it never will be. Few white Americans have ever been willing to face the harsh truth that Indians have always been treated like a conquered enemy people, whose language, culture and religion were nearly destroyed by U.S. government policies. By the time Representative Henry Dawes of Massachusetts had passed infamous Severalty Act in 1887, most of the Native American population of North America had already been exterminated. Before whites arrived, the indigenous population north of Mexico may have been as high as 15-20 million, but by the end of the 19th Century it had fallen to about 200,000. Centuries of warfare, slave labor, disease, starvation and deliberate mass murder had led to the near-annihilation of the American Indians, and there were many whites such as William Tecumseh Sherman who were prepared to finish them off completely. Those few Native Americans who survived were mostly confined to reservations under conditions of extreme poverty, with hunger and disease continuing to take a severe toll of their numbers. Similarly, few white Americans will ever be aware of the numerous contributions that the Native peoples have made to world civilization, in spite of the truly horrendous treatment they have received. To be sure, most of those contributions were not exactly voluntary, either but were part of the spoils of conquest and empire.

REFERENCES

Columbus C. et al. (1992). Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus. Penguin Classics.

Morison, S.E. (2007). Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Morison Press.

Morison,…… [read more]


Native Americans Gregory E. Dowd- the Indians Term Paper

… Native Americans

Gregory E. Dowd- The Indians Great Awakening

In his The Indians Great Awakening, Gregory Evans Dowd recounts the struggle for resistance of a few American Indian tribes against the British- American expansion. Dowd gives an unique and very… [read more]


American Indian Studies Native Term Paper

… "During the last decade, gaming has given Native people an avenue to enter higher education, develop tribal enterprises, tribal courts and health and mental health programs that meet the needs of their communities. Most importantly, Native people have reclaimed their independence" (Napoli, 2002).

Culturally, Native Americans have managed to educate the rest of the American population on their beliefs - and the atrocities committed to them in the past and present - through various means. From Pow-Pows held on Reservations, to PBS specials and Hollywood films, Native American history and beliefs have become widely known and revered. Sweat lodges and 'animal medicine' are commonly associated with the New Age movement, that has excelled their popularity through the decades, nevertheless, they are traditional aspects of Native Americanism that are given new life and sustained existence in a world where the old ways and stories are fading away.

Nevertheless, the most common present day association non-Indians have in regards to Native Americans is gambling and the advance of casinos on Reservations. "Native gaming is active in twenty-eight states across America sustaining a $9.6 billion industry that is growing three times faster than non-Indian gaming (Useem, 2000). Of the 556 federally recognized tribes, 361 have no gambling operations" (Napoli, 2002). Gambling provides Native American communities with the necessary funding to not only provide communities with proper healthcare and education, but give them a strong direction towards sovereignty.

This in turn leads to the development of businesses that amplify Native American lifestyles and traditional businesses. "Many tribes have been successful in developing competitive businesses and advanced training for professional leadership that are congruous with tribal lifestyle, such as hunting and fishing" (Napoli). More importantly, profits from casinos have allowed for the creation of higher education institutions geared towards Native Americans.

In 1998, "more than a third of the surveyed students had previously attended a non-Indian college or university: of those, 88% agreed that tribal college faculty are friendlier, and 93% agreed that more individual attention is shown to students at a tribal college. Finally, 72% agreed that the quality of instruction was higher at their tribal college" (McCarthy).

This creation of an educational system that is not only perceived as 'friendly' towards students, but manages to achieve a high ratio of attendance is an integral part in Native Americans achieving sovereignty. It is a political and economic statement where Native American students feel more secure and more likely to attend their own educational institutions, rather than one 'outside' of their independent state.

There are very few present day 'heroes' for a young Native American growing up in a poverty-stricken area of a struggling Reservation. There are plenty of vices to fall trap to - from gangs and violence, to gambling, debt and alcoholism. It is these such vices that befall any community, and receive government attention to 'cure' them. For Native Americans, it is a struggle to achieve independence as a sovereign state that is the cause of all these vices. For the government… [read more]


Western Experience: Native American Displaced Term Paper

… The chorus of voices of people wanting to strip us of our homes seems overwhelming: land speculators, eastern settlers who fear us, and missionaries who worried that we could corrupt their neighbors (Sherfy, 2003).

Perhaps one of the most aggravating… [read more]


Fashion the Misappropriation of Native Research Paper

… It is highly likely that what the Navajo are doing will be the wave of the future. Native American imagery is often highly aesthetic, so much so that Vogue and other haute couture magazines are catching onto the trend and marketing Native-inspired wear. If more and more Native companies can emerge onto the high fashion catwalks, then the scales would be more in balance. As of now, Vogue and other magazines depict models "wearing Native-inspired fashions and including no Native American designers, photographers or other consultants in the process," (Nittle).

One Austin, Texas manufacturer and retailer forged a close tie with the Navajo nation because he wanted to use the tribal name. Fermin Navar and his business partner Phil Brader "signed a 75-year licensing agreement with the Navajo Nation in 2007 that allows them to sell skin care products and clothing under the Navajo name in exchange for a share of the profits," ("Navajo Nation Fights Urban Outfitters Over 'Disrespectful' Clothing Line"). A prime example of a win-win situation, the Navar example shows that when it comes to the law, "the design doesn't matter; it's the use of the name Navajo," ("Navajo Nation Fights Urban Outfitters Over 'Disrespectful' Clothing Line"). The designs used in high fashion collection, including moccasins and feathers, can be rendered in ways that are culturally sensitive. However, the most socially responsible method of action is to hire more Natives who can consult as to the most harmonious rendition of their tribal traditions.

Works Cited

"Chief Pendant Necklace. WTForever21. Blog. Retrieved: http://wtforever21.com/2011/08/chief-pendant-necklace/

Kane, Rachel. "Forever 21 Sells Faux Native American Items in Their Columbus Day Sale." Huffington Post. October 10, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rachel-kane/forever-21-columbus-day_b_1000788.html#undefined

"Native American culture shouldn't be appropriated for fashion." Turn the Page. Oct 29, 2011. Retrieved online: http://taholtorf.wordpress.com/2011/10/29/native-american-culture-shouldnt-be-appropriated-for-fashion/

Native Threads. Website: http://www.nativethreads.com/

"Navajo Nation Fights Urban Outfitters Over 'Disrespectful' Clothing Line," FoxNews.com. 17 Oct, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.foxnews.com/us/2011/10/17/navajo-nation-fights-urban-outfitters-over-disrespectful-clothing-line/

Ng, Christian. "Urban Outfitters Removes 'Navajo' from Product Names." ABCNews. 20 Oct, 2011. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2011/10/urban-outfitters-removes-navajo-from-product-names/

Nittle, Nadra Kareem. "Native American Influences in Fashion." About.com. Retrieved online: http://racerelations.about.com/od/diversitymatters/a/Native-American-Influences-In-Fashion.htm

"The Strange Case of the Hipster Headdress." Native Appropriations. 3 Feb, 2010. Retrieved online: http://nativeappropriations.blogspot.com/2010/02/strange-case-of-hipster-headdress.html

"Urban Outfitter's 'Navajo' Problem Becomes A Legal Issue." Jezebel. Blog. Retrieved online: http://jezebel.com/5848715/urban-outfitters-navajo-problem-becomes-a-legal-issue

Wade, Lisa. "Feathers and Fashion: Native American is in Style." April 13, 2010. Sociological Images/The Society Pages. Retrieved online: http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2010/04/13/american-indian-is-in/… [read more]


Developed Technology of the Native Americans Before European Settlements Term Paper

… ¶ … Indian-American Technology

Stasis: It is still commonly believed that technology in America began or was introduced by Europeans after the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.

Between 1000 and 1003 AD or five before Christopher Columbus discovered America… [read more]


US Treaty With Navajo Native Americans Thesis

… U.S. Treaty with Navajo Native Americans

The Treaty Between the United States and the Navajo Tribe of Indians

Although it is fair to say that most of the treaties created between the United States government and the former rulers of… [read more]


Civil War American Indian Term Paper

… ¶ … conflict between Native Americans and colonists was inevitable from the beginning. The insurgence of colonialism from the 17th to the 18th century led to the complete transformation of the Eastern American frontier from wilderness to colonial settlements. As… [read more]


Bias in Curricula Native American Essay

… All of the Indian characters are grunting savages. The time period, place and tribes involved are unknown, and the storyline is rather dark. Other legends use terms such as "squaw," "papoose," "chief," and "redskin." Wardrobe descriptions are always of beads, feathers, and buckskin and there is often vanishing Indian concept at play -- Native Americans are portrayed as a soon-to-be-extinct species, with no place or existence as human beings in contemporary America. In one story, animals "become" Indians simply by carrying bows and arrows or dressing the part in Indian clothing. In another children "play Indian" as if "Indian" was a role that one could assume as one can dress up like doctors or cowboys or baseball players. By comparison, it would be very politically incorrect to imply animals and children can dress up as African- Americans or "play Italian."

Often characters are only successful if they abandon traditional ways in favor of those of white or mainstream society. White figures are depicted as a sort of social worker or teacher capable of presenting the remedies need to the dilemma encountered. Perhaps one of the worst things about this compilation of stories is that they have the power to make a Native American child feel embarrassed or ashamed of his or her heritage. Further, the reader is led to believe that all Indian legends are the same. The themes do not vary much at all. Illustrations consist of pictographs and cave paintings that seem to have no relation to the stories. The assertion that this represents an accurate tribal history fails to convince and ultimately is not related to the overall context of the book or adventures and situations the characters encounter.

This work is one of the reasons why children search libraries for information regarding "Indians" instead of seeking tribal details on the Lakota or the Oneida or the Choctaw. Interestingly, this treatment of Native Americans is also further built into Western library systems used in schools. The Dewey Decimal Classification system itself marginalizes American Indian abstracts by placing them in the past (in the history section) and separate from the whole of human knowledge (Olsen, 2001). Most libraries omit major Native American concepts, lack specificity, fail to organize Native American material in logical ways, and at times use offensive or outdated terminology. This all reveals a perceived lack of relevance and a lack of recognition of American Indian nations. Not only does it hinder the access of Indian materials to all users, it, like the abstracts in question, reinforce to the outside world the stereotypes that American Indians are part of the past and do not contribute relevant knowledge to contemporary society.

References

Banks, L.R. (2005). The Indian in the cupboard. New York: Random House/Listening Library.

Olson, H.A. (2001). Classification or organization: What's the difference? Knowledge

Organization 28(1), 1-3.

Phillips, W.S. (1963). Indian Campfire Tales: Legends about the Ways of Animals and Men. New York:…… [read more]

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