Study "Native American Indians" Essays 56-110

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Centrality of Relationship in Native American Thought Essay

… ¶ … Centrality of Relationship in Native American Thought

Human and non-human relationships in Native American Studies

According to Calvin Martin's text The American Indian and the Problem of History, Native American thought has always conceptualized human life in an integrated, biological and environmental fashion. This is a sentiment also echoed by Native author Donald Lee Fixico. For Martin and Fixico this means that rather than creating a fissure or fundamental intellectual divide between the individual and the environment, like much of Western philosophy, or the non-human and the human, Native Americans see the two as fundamentally coexisting. In Theda Purdue's text on Mixed Blood Indians, the tendency of the West to seek to define some entity as 'other' is not seen merely in terms of the human animal's relationship to the environment, but in terms of the categorization of the races that existed in the South.

According to Purdue, in the South, whites were seen as the more evolved 'species' of human. Blacks were deemed inferior and more animalistic, as 'others,' as were Native Americans. The mixed blood Native Americans of Purdue's thus had a strange, liminal status -- neither as low as blacks, or even so-called mulatto blacks, but not fully integrated by any means into white society. Mixed breeds were often conceptualized as 'closer' to whites than 'full-blooded' natives, particularly if they were the children of men who had 'gone native,' men who had children with native women because of kinship ceremonies they had established with the tribe. On the perceived Western continuum of humanness, thus natives or 'natural men' were seen as closer to whites than some other groups, but European acculturization and blood ties were seen to make half-breeds more civilized. In contrast, native tribes did not view race primarily in terms of blood, even though they had occasionally, haphazardly internalized some racial norms of white society.

Despite this distinction, Purdue's study offers an important function for Native American studies, namely the de-romanticizing of many of the myths unintentionally spun by Martin and others, who see Native Americans as pure, and beyond white divisions of self and other, or individual and environment, human and non-human. Purdue's overview is not simply an expose of the unwarranted prejudice experienced by many Native Americans during the era but sadly, she exposes how, contrary to Martin's rather uniform view of native-white relations, natives often adopted the views of black slaves as inferior 'others.' "Changing racial views lead Native Americans to increasingly distance themselves from African-Americans and to regard foreigners with blacks skins more suitable as slaves than blood relations" (Purdue 5). While Martin's essay suggests a kind of 'who can buy or sell the sky' attitude amongst the Native tribes, in fact Indians were accustomed to buying and selling captives during wartime, and often used black slaves as leverage when negotiating with whites for the tribe's survival (Purdue 6).

In fact, rather than finding a paradise of freedom, many free blacks were faced with the uncomfortable prospect of enslavement… [read more]


Native American Women Term Paper

… Native Americn Women

In many ways, the cultural experiences of Native American Women inspired the societal changes that led to women gaining social and political rights in the late 19th and beginning of the 20th century. This resulted directly from the role the Native American Women had in their own society, where they often occupied positions of influence and respect.

The common thing shared was the primary responsibility of women in both societies as mothers and sources of life. However, while in the Native American society, this was a source of worship, with the women enjoying respect and security because of their role, in the white society, this was rather a source and motivation for restricting women in their presence and role within everyday life. As such, we could point out that this cultural baggage in terms of customs and tradition that Native American Women brought along inspired white women to join in their own struggle for the role they were to play in society.

In my opinion, the basic values did not differ so much from Native American women to white women, what truly differed was the capacity of each category to project their values in the society they were part of. While on one hand, values such as equality in rights, participation in decisions or equal role were respected in the Native American society, in the white women's society, this was something that needed to be fought over and achieved. In this sense, the Indian society most likely was much more matriarchal than the white society.

On the other hand, one needs to consider that at the end of the 19th century, Americanization was attempted for the Native American society, which would have included women as well. The result would have most likely have been a decrease in…… [read more]


Kevin Gover, Assistant Secretary Term Paper

… Whites were moving westward and colonizing the land. In doing so, they attempted to bring culture to the Native Americans who were viewed as animals. It was the whites way of taming the Indian, restructuring their way of thinking, and destroying their culture through systematic brainwashing.

Probably the biggest injustice that Gover made reference to was the Native Americans by the government was the Trail of Tears. The Trail of Tears, forced the Cherokee in 1838 and 1839 from their southeastern homeland to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. About 4000 died from starvation, disease, and exposure while on the journey westward or in stockades awaiting removal. The Trail of Tears refers to the route followed by fifteen thousand Cherokee during their 1838 removal and forced to march from Georgia to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. In 1791, an U.S. treaty had recognized Cherokee territory in Georgia as independent and the Cherokee people had created a thriving republic with a written constitution. For decades, the state of Georgia sought to enforce its authority over the Cherokee Nation, but its efforts had little effect until the election of President Andrew Jackson, a longtime supporter of Indian removal. Although the Supreme Court declared Congress's 1830 Indian removal bill unconstitutional in Worcester vs. Georgia.

The idea of moving Native Americans to a different part of the country was not new. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson had suggested that tracts of land in this vast new territory could be given to native peoples if they agreed to cede their lands in the eastern part of the country. Transfers occurred in a piecemeal way, but no consistent removal program developed until after the War of 1812.

In 1830, Congress accommodated the settlers' wishes by passing the Indian Removal Act. The situation had now become a crisis. New president Andrew Jackson, a Tennessee plantation owner and a famous fighter of Native Americans, refused to exercise federal jurisdiction over Native American affairs, allowing southern states to find their own solutions. The Indian Removal of 1830, Congress- with Jackson's blessing- offered Native American peoples east of the Mississippi federal land to the west where the United States government had the authority to protect them. Many of them accepted.

The apology for the atrocities committed by the United States government such as these can never repair the damage done to the Native American people. However, the fact that these injustices are admitted to, rather than denied, makes the road to recovery that much easier. With the admittance of the wrongs done to Native Americans in the past, problems such as these can be avoided in the future. With the apology by Kevin Gover and the BIA, comes a new road to acceptance of Native Americans into the American culture.

Works Cited

Child, Brenda J. (1998). Boarding school seasons: American Indian families 1900-1940. Lincoln: University of Nebraska…… [read more]


Hunting Native American Hunting Rights Essay

… Hunting

Native American hunting rights are a contentious issue in American politics. Often Native American hunting practices conflict directly with the practice of preserving wilderness areas in federal lands. Hunting is the most innate and natural method of acquiring meat. Yet American agricultural practices have transformed the model of eating animal products. Instead of hunting for animals in small-scale meat production for community subsistence, agro-business has taken over the land. Agro-business meats are far less ethically produced than meat that has been hunted, given that the latter refers to wild animals or animals raised in controlled environments, whereas the former refers to animals in captivity, confined inhumanely, and injected with hormones. In The Omnivore's Dilemma, Michael Pollan exposes many of the nefarious practices of the American meat industry. In light of this information, there should be no reason to come in the way of Native American hunting rights. Native American hunting rights must be preserved for the benefit of public health, for the benefit of cultural preservation, and for the benefit of the animals.

Hunting is preferable to the meat industry in America, which has been degraded by agro-business practices. If Native Americans are permitted to hunt, they will have access to the freshest meat possible. Not only are hunted animals fresh; their meats are not raised in the deplorable conditions that Michael Pollan describes in The Omnivore's Dilemma. These conditions include exposures to hormones and antibiotics that have never been tested in multi-generational longitudinal studies. Agro-business lobbyists are too powerful to fight, and Native Americans have often been forced to eat supermarket meat that is wrapped in plastic and packaged in a remote facility.

Moreover, hunting is related to the politics of land use rights. Ongoing court cases in states where protected lands coincide with Indian territory show that the needs of Indians are being systematically overlooked in policy decisions, state, and federal legislation. For example, the state of Minnesota has recently permitted the culling of wolves, a creature that naturally balances an unbalanced ecosystem "Minnesota Ignores Indians, Allows Wolf Hunting," 2013). Culling wolves is far different from hunting deer and other meat creatures. To cull wolves means to kill indiscriminately, as the carcasses are not desirable for meat or fur. On the other hand, killing dear and meat animals means food on the table.

Hunting also means engendering respect for the cycle of life, and for all animals. Children who are raised hunting will develop greater respect for animals, than those who have not been exposed to the way of life that includes hunting. This seems ironic, but it is because killing an animal has a powerful impact on a person's psyche. The person is forced to reckon with the need to take a life to feed another, and breeds a natural respect for the exact quantities of animal needed to sustain life in the community. With…… [read more]


United States in World War II Term Paper

… Minorities in World War II

World War II and Its Impact on Minorities in America

World War II was the most destructive war in human history, claiming the lives of at least fifty million people around the world. It crippled… [read more]


Native American Symbolic Rituals Three Term Paper

… At times there were dances that were common to the entire tribe and these could be performed by professional dancers and singers would accompany them.

Connection

The potlatch was the celebration that encompassed all of the ingredients of the totem pole and the Tamanawas. The three worked together to preserve the history and spiritual beliefs of the people who were attending them. The totem poles were representations of the various bands that cam to the celebration, and the various dances were performed, as mentioned above, to demonstrate the people's feelings about their totems and the rich cultural history. This three-pronged approach was a way for the people to connect with each other and their heritage.

Disbanding the Potlatch

Unfortunately, the Canadian and United States governments did not see the utility of the potlatch. As a matter of fact, the celebration was a danger to their plans. The white people moving into the region were setting up businesses and they needed workers. It was easy for them to find labor because there were plenty of tribes in the area. This was in the interest of the governments of these two countries also because it provided fresh tax revenue and jobs for people in the more eastern provinces and states. Thus, the government wanted to make sure that the Native Americans stayed in place, and once they had been moved to the new towns being built that they did not revert to their traditional ways.

This proved difficult because the people loved their native way of life and the ceremonies that were a law among the people. So, they continued to hold the potlatch every year. But, "the opponents of the potlatch could only see the custom as a wasteful, immoral and heathen practice, an impediment in the road of progress" (U'Mista Cultural Center). The powerful governments were being pressured to do something about the potlatch because it made it difficult to incorporate the Native American tribes into what was to be their new culture. Thus, the governments created a law that read, in part:

"Every Indian or other person who engages in or assists in celebrating the Indian festival known as the "Potlatch" or the Indian dance known as the "Tamanawas" is guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not more than six nor less than two months in a jail or other place of confinement; [and] Any Indian or other person who encourages, either directly or indirectly an Indian or Indians to get up such a festival or dance, or to celebrate the same, or who shall assist in the celebration of same is guilty of a like offence, and shall be liable to the same punishment" (U'Mista Cultural Center).

This practice was carried out by the "Indian" agents who were placed in the position to help the Native Americans, but more often than not actually took advantage of them. One agent raided a potlatch, arrested more than 40 Native Americans who were engaged… [read more]


Native American Comparison Essay

… This question is asked in reference to the narrator informing the reader that the name of the song is "Exodus." He is wondering if there is a deeper meaning to the fact that both of these groups enjoy a song which is about leaving an oppressive location and moving to a space where they can be tolerated as a people. Biblically, exodus refers to the Jews leaving Egypt and travelling to the Promised Land, but it can mean any time wherein a group who has been systematically marginalized comes to a time and an attitude where they break away and become free. This is an intentional historical allusion. The exodus for both Native Americans and the majority culture could be a fleeing from the history of both groups and a determination to live free from that history.

The thesis of Ron Welburn's poetry seems to be that there is a constant and often unspoken conflict in people who have dual cultures. They want to be a part of that majority culture and fit in with everyone else. Yet, they also want to honor their forefathers and represent the heritage of their birth. In "Shinnecock 40," the narrator experiences difficulty and consequential stress because of things that are beyond his control. He is being oppressed, he believes, by some other. The natural world serves as a balm to him. In this poem, Welburn embraces the "we" that encompasses all of humanity. The narrator in "Jazz" is not aware of this we. Instead, it is the girl character Gwen who makes the remark that leads to the understanding of the importance of we. All peoples are different and if we accept one another for both our similarities and our differences, then there would not be occasions like the one the narrator experiences. A person does not have to choose to participate in one culture at the expense of another.

Works Cited:

Welburn, Ron. Coming…… [read more]


White European Authors Depicted Native Research Paper

… This theme of a valiant quest to make way for civilization may have originated in the Old World, but the American frontier Literature of the nineteenth century established the formula of characters and action that became the "Westem," which has since evolved into a unique and influential genre that continues to be an immensely popular form of Literature. The Western that we traditionally think of has been shaped by many sources, both literary and nonliterary." ( )

Cooper is stated to have held an attitude toward the "colored races…" that was of an "unprejudiced philosopher." (Kellner, 1915) Cooper tended to idealize the Indians as he was acquainted with many Indians from his childhood. Research shows that according to Cooper the Indians while they did indulge in scalping and were merciless in pursuit of their enemies…possessed many virtues above all, hospitality, and a sense of self-sacrifice, not only for wife and child, but for a strange friend." (Kellner, 1915)

IV. The Searchers

John Ford's cinematic production 'The Searchers' starred John Wayne, a character who was highly prejudiced and who had no shame about feeling the way that he did. This production is about a quest that one man is obsessed with. John Wayne plays Ethan Edwards whose niece is kidnapped by Comanches, murdering the family and burning down their home. Ethan spends five years searching the tribe that took his niece and to shoot the child dead since "she has become the leavings's of a Comanche buck." ( )

It is reported that 'The Searchers" was "made in the dying days of the classic Western, which faltered when Indians ceased to be typecast as savages." ( ) The films of Ford tended to view Indians more sympathetically than did other productions. One writer states that in 'The Searchers' that Ford may well have been attempting to "…imperfectly, even nervously, to depict racism that justified genocide; the comic relief may be an unconscious attempt to soften the message. Many members of the original audience probably missed his purpose; Ethan's racism was invisible to them, because they bought into his view of Indians." ( )

Summary and Conclusion

The view of the American public was irrevocably impacted by the depiction of the native American Indians in literature and cinematic production. So much affected that it has only been in recent decades that a realization has taken place on the part of the American public that perhaps it was the Indians who got the raw end of the deal after all and that perhaps it was the white man that was the villain and pillager.

The Native American Indian, like so many other races who were overtaken by those who set out to conquer lands possessed by others, were victims rather than perpetrators, and were those who were stolen from rather than those who were doing the stealing. Since the time of 'The Searchers' in the 1950s a broader and more candid view of the plight of the native American Indians has taken hold… [read more]


Historiography of the Native American Removal Term Paper

… ¶ … removal of the Native Americans from the United States of America. In the year 1830, Five Civilized Tribes which included the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Seminole, Choctaw and Creek were still residing in the eastern side of Mississippi. At that… [read more]


Competing Creation Stories Essay

… ¶ … Creation Story: Native American Version vs. European Version

How did the Native Americans view creation as compared and contrasted with how the Europeans who arrived in North America viewed creation?

This paper reviews the creation beliefs (and legends) of both cultures and makes comparisons between them.

European / Christian Creation: The King James Bible (Genesis 1) asserts that God created the heaven and earth when there was no form, there was only darkness, and water. So God spoke, saying "Let there be light: and there was light…" and when God saw the light He had just created with a few words he said the it was "good" so he split the light and darkness. He called the light "Day" and the darkness was "Night." And so the evening and the morning were the very first day of Creation.

Sioux Creation Story: The Sioux believed there was a world prior to this present world we live in. In that first world the people "did not know how to behave themselves or how to act human," the Sioux story explains. So because of that the "Creating Power" said "I will make a new world." With that the Creating Power got his pipe (Native Americans used pipes in spiritual ceremonies) and then he took four dry buffalo chips (which Indians used for lighting campfires and other fire purposes) and put three under the sticks and "saved the fourth one to light the pipe."

Just as in the Christian creation story, in the Sioux story the Creating Power speaks, obviously to himself because there was no one else around, but he also sings. "I will sing three songs, which will bring heavy rain," he said. So in the Sioux story there is the creation of water; the Creating Power sings three songs and heavy rains fall. By singing a fourth song and stamping four times on the land, "the earth will crack wide open" and "Water will come out of the cracks and cover the land." He did sing, the rain did fall, and water "covered everything."

European / Christian Creation: There are clear watery comparisons between the Sioux version and the Christian version. In the Christian version of Creation God said let there be "firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide…… [read more]


Native Americans in "Showdown at Sorrow Cave Essay

… Native Americans

In "Showdown at Sorrow Cave: Bat Medicine and the Spirit of Resistance in Mean Spirit," Andrea Musher analyzes a critical scene in Linda Hogan's novel Mean Spirit. The scene is momentous, even though Musher admits it is not the literary climax of the novel. Musher describes the showdown incident at Sorrow Cave, which provides the symbolic backbone of Hogan's novel.

Musher describes the cave in terms of its basic symbolism as a coffin-like environment in which death and rebirth can take place. Moreover, Musher makes sure to point out the symbolic meaning of the bats that live in the cave and which form a major part of Hogan's narrative. Bats are flying mammals: as such they represent the interface between two worlds. Musher explains that Hogan intended for the bats -- as well as the cave -- to symbolize the Native American experience.

"Showdown at Sorrow Cave" summarizes the incidents that immediately lead up to and follow from the showdown. Talbert is waging war on the Native Americans, who represent everything that the Christians cannot stand in America. The Native Americans are like bats: misunderstood and maligned. Bats walk the line between light and darkness, and as such seem evil to the Christian worldview. Musher describes why the showdown at Sorrow Cave took place in the first place while assuming that the audience has read Mean Spirit already.

Musher also offers background information about the main characters in the scene. As Musher points out, "The spiritual leaders who have gathered at the cave include Michael Horse, Joe Billy, Stace Redhawk, and Father Dunne." Musher offers a character sketch of each of these spiritual leaders. Each of the leaders hails from a different background and point-of-view, but they share one essential feature in common. They are all committed to the indigenous value system that is portrayed as being morally superior to the egotistical Christian worldview. Unlike the Christians, the Native Americans view human beings as being on par with nature as opposed to in control of it. Human beings do not have dominion over nature, as the Christian world view suggests. Rather, human beings must live in harmony with nature. Human beings must also live in harmony with each other, lest death and destruction result.

The name Sorrow Cave underscores the mood of the novel, and Musher reminds readers of this fact. Ultimately, Musher offers the same conclusion that Hogan reaches: sorrow is an integral part of life and it is only by willingly entering the Sorrow Cave that one becomes purified and redeemed. As Musher points out, Hogan's goal is the glorification of Native ideals in light of the trauma they have endured. Hogan includes a diverse cast of spiritual guides for the very fact that "Indianism" is more of a state of mind and consciousness than it is a genetic or racial identity. Musher spends a considerable amount of time dwelling on the character of Father Dunne because of what the priest represents. One of the few… [read more]


Women vs. Mens Rights and Freedoms Throughout History Thesis

… Native Americans vs. American Settlers' Rights

An Example of Inequality

The United States Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and the Declaration of Colonial Rights offer certain rights to American Citizens. Although these rights were guaranteed to all Americans, groups throughout history have been denied certain rights. Among these groups was the first, the Native Americans, whose rights were often overshadowed by the American Colonists' rights. While many legal and human rights were denied to this group while being offered to the colonists, three in particular are monumental. These include the Declaration of Independence's right to life and liberty, the constitution's right to freedom of religion, and the Declaration of Colonial Rights' right of property. Through an examination of the contradictory treatment of Native Americans and American settlers regarding these rights, it can easily be noted that that Native Americans were denied rights of which the American Settlers took advantage.

When the American settlers declared their independence from England, they stated that each person was endowed with "certain unalienable rights," including life (Jefferson, 1776, para. 1). In addition, the Declaration of Independence States that "all men are created equal" (Jefferson, 1776, para. 1). Native Americans, however, were treated unequally from American settlers, as they were often denied rights to both life and liberty. First, efforts were made to sustain American settlers rights while Native Americans were often killed or left to die as a direct result of the American settlers actions. For instance, the Cherokee Nation attempted to preserve their rights in 1827 by "declaring themselves to be a sovereign nation" through a written constitution, much in the same way that the United States declared their independence from the English. Instead of honoring the nation, though, the American settlers in the area engaged in terrorist activity toward the Native Americans, including mortal activities like burning their villages ("Indiana Removal," n.d., para. 7). Direct violence through wars against Native American wars and individual aggressions against the group left many victims of murder and casualties of war. The Trail of Tears is an example of the violence that Native Americans were exploited and killed by the American settlers. As the United States continued to expand into the South in the late 1800s, they viewed the Native American nations as "standing in the way of progress" ("Indian Removal," n.d., para. 1). For this reason, President Andrew Jackson coerced Native American Nation to signing treaties that forced them to relocate. During the relocation of the Cherokee, called the Trail of Tears, about 4,000 people died of the harsh conditions, including "cold, hunger, and disease" ("Indian Removal," n.d., para. 15). Disease brought to the continent by settlers is another source by which Native Americans were deprived of their right to life. Although the Europeans had lived with certain diseases for many years, building up a certain immunity, Native Americans had no such immunity. The diseases, then, led to the loss of life among Native American communities. Scholars have differed in their classification of such diseases, some… [read more]


Southwest Native Americans Essay

… Southwest Native Americans

Long before the Spanish had set foot on American soil, Native American tribes had been living a thriving life on the continent. The Pueblo people have gotten their name from the Spanish conquerors most probably because of their houses (which had been named pueblos) and the adobe material used for building them. The Pueblos are organized into several tribes around the Southwest deserts. Unlike all most of the Native Americans that have been chased away from their homes, the Pueblos peacefully lived in their homeland and still live today. (Frances Levine)

The Pueblo history goes back to the time of basket makers, approximately 1000 BC when the nomad tribes of hunters and gatherers had decided to settle down. Some of the first houses ever built by them had been partly belowground.

The original Pueblo villages had been formed as people started to gather into large groups and started to construct more advanced buildings. Being neighbors of the Maya people, the Pueblos began to adopt most of the habits of the more advanced Mayans. By implementing Mayan customs, the Pueblos had had much to earn, as they advanced visibly and started to grow crops settle for farming. Another factor that led to the progress of the Pueblos had been the fact that they had learned how to make pots and they no longer had to deposit their possessions in baskets.

The Pueblos had become rich as a result of their constant advancement and their territory extended further into the continent where they traded various resources. Their building customs had also experienced a lot of progress with the Pueblo's starting to build houses out of stone instead of mud bricks. The Pueblos soon developed remarkable building techniques and also mastered the art of pottery making.

During the early second millennium AD, the Pueblos had left their normal houses built on top of hills and have moved to the hoses named pueblos which were built in caves, on canyons. The reason for their action is not clear, but it is possible that they had moved because of warm weather or because they had been searching for a place where they would be safe from a potential war.

At approximately 1300 AD, the Pueblos have chosen to move from their territory towards New-Mexico and Arizona where other Pueblo tribes had lived. There is much controversy surrounding the topic, as no one actually knows why the Pueblos left their advanced buildings, their crops and farms and all their lifetime possessions. The weather seems to be a decisive factor in the event and it is very probable that the Pueblos could no longer grow crops with the weather having turned to be too dry. A somewhat coincidence is that scientists believe that the ancestors of the Navajo and Ute tribes have entered the former Pueblo territory named the Four Corners area during the period that the Pueblos had left it. Many of the Pueblo tribes from Arizona and New Mexico can be traced… [read more]


Native American Writers the Feminine Earth Mother Term Paper

… Native American Writers

The Feminine Earth Mother Through Two Different Styles

Comparison and Contrast of Cusick and Topahonso's Native American Literature

Though their work has echoed off the hills and valleys of the United States since before the first European even began to conceive of the New World, Native Americans have only recently been included in the survey of American Literature. In fact, David Cusick's early literary work concerning the Iraqouis Native Americans succeeded not only in establishing the Native American literary genre, but also in encouraging scholars to reevaluate Native American History Combining the melodious sounds of a sophisticated oral tradition with the beautiful imagery of an untainted United States' wilderness, Native American authors have given American Literature a unique selection of poetry and prose. According to the documentary American Passages: A Literary Survey, Native Americans have long relied on beautiful sounds to craft their work. Both contemporary Native American writers and their myth-weaving predecessors have used the beautiful native tongues and the image of nature as a mother or life sustainer to create marvelous literary pieces. Though many Native American works of literature share these characteristics, works are as varied as they are beautiful. From myths that detail the creation of the world to full-length novels that describe the world through a single woman's eyes, Native American authors have left few topics untouched. Two of the most prominent Native American Authors that exemplify the extremities of these similarities and differences are Iroquois myth writer David Cusick and Navajo poet Luci Tapahonso. In fact, both Cusick's version of the Iroquois Creation Myth and Tapahonso's poem "A Breeze Swept Through" illustrate the importance of a feminine and motherly earth while still expressing a uniqueness in imagery and style.

Both Cusick's myth and Tapahonso's poem begin by establishing the earth as a woman in labor and continue to connect the earth with images of femininity and motherhood throughout the works. Cusick's version of the creation myth begins with a mother in labor, a woman who is about to begin the "travail" of having twins. The weight of the twins causes her to sink down to the "lower world" or earthy realm in order to have her children (Cusick, n.p.). Similarly, "A Breeze Swept Through" details the "first born of dawn" as she is born, slid[ing] out among crimson fluid." Though the narrator of American Passages: A Literary Survey recognizes that the poem both borrows the Navajo creation myth and tells the story of Tapahonso's relationship with her daughters and their births, the poem clearly represents the earth as feminine. In the poem, Dawn is personified as an infant being born of a mother, and birth images are coupled with nature images, such as "smooth rock." The beautiful cinematography of American Passages: A Literary Survey further illustrates these connections by accompanying the poem with breathtaking images of rocks and trees.

Both works go on to emphasize the image of the earth as a woman and a mother in their associations with creation.…… [read more]


Thomas Jefferson's Respect for Native American Culture Term Paper

… Thomas Jefferson's Respect For Native American Culture

Thomas Jefferson was a fundamental figure in the formulation of early American history and life. He is sometimes given a bad reputation because of his relationships with saves. However, in his work "Query XI," Jefferson takes an empathetic stance towards one of the most degraded minorities in the United States, Native Americans. Jefferson praises their nations and compares them to other civilized nations; however, the Native Americans lack certain symbolic structures and idols to testify to their glory. In response, Jefferson posits the idea that the burial mound is one of the greatest monuments of Native American culture. Where they lack in opulence, they make up for in practicality and numbers.

"Great societies cannot exist without government," Jefferson explained how the Native Americans have an unconventional legal system, but that there is still one in place. For this, Jefferson resects these native peoples…… [read more]


No Matter Term Paper

… American Indian Studies

The Cherokee nation was removed from its native lands in 1838 - at the command of President Andrew Jackson and the United States government. The removal of the Cherokee was simultaneously an effort to neuter the most… [read more]


Native Americans and Korean Term Paper

… Native Americans and Korean-Americans are separated by tens of thousands of years when it comes to immigration to the Americas.

The history of Native Americans and their migration to the Americas was traced between 9000 and 50000 years ago. When… [read more]


High School Drop Out Among Native Americans Term Paper

… Native American Dropouts From High School

In autumn, 1980, high dropout rates among Native American students in a Montana high school district were so out of proportion with other school districts' dropout rates that a study was needed in order… [read more]


James Otis and Europeans Opinions of Native Americans Term Paper

… Otis

How does James Otis's opinion of Native Americans compare with what your history text (The American People: Creating a Nation & Society, 7th Edition) tells you about Europeans first ideas about them?

James Otis was one of the most radical voices propelling public opinion to support the American colonist's movement towards independence from the British Crown. He proclaimed freedom and liberty as the natural rights of all human beings. However, as a politician with a substantial working-class base of support, in contrast to some of the more aristocratic Founding Fathers such as Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, Otis was not a supporter or even a sympathizer towards Native American rights. On one hand, when condemning the Stamp Act, Otis invoked Native Americans as kind of natural persons, noting that even so-called ignorant savages would comprehend that the colonist's rights were being violated. But this attitude merely highlights the fact that Otis did not see American territory as in any way contested, or potentially divided between the rights of the colonists and the land's original inhabitants.

Much…… [read more]


Native Americans Some People Maintain Term Paper

… Native Americans

Some people maintain that while Native Americans have become impoverished due to the activities of the United States Government, they have actually gained more than they have lost, due to being placed on reservations. One of the alleged benefits of the reservation system is a free education. However, the poor quality of the education system on Native American reservations contributes to the cycle of poverty, alcohol abuse, and despondency that is present on many Native American reservations. One of the serious problems confronting Native American leaders is that Native Americans as a whole has achieved one of the lowest educational levels among all ethnic groups and are not doing well while attending school (Lin, 1985). The education provided on Native American reservations has done more to harm than to help Native Americans.

Although Native Americans are lumped together into one group, the term actually refers to over 500 different groups of people. Although Native Americans share some common traits, they come from backgrounds with different customs, languages, and family structures (Espinosa). One of the commonalities is that Native Americans are a population known to have higher than expected incidence of problems in areas of unemployment, poverty, substance abuse, physical and mental health, suggests (Espinosa). Another commonality, and a contributing factor to those problems, is the fact that the education offered on Native American reservations is of lower quality than public education offered off of reservations. Because approximately 25% of the Native Americans in the United States live on reservations, the poor quality of the education offered on the reservations has a crippling effect on all Native Americans.

Among the most commonly held explanations for the poor quality of education received by many Native Americans, "the cultural differences between Native Americans and whites is probably the most well-known and well accepted, both within and outside academia" (Lin, 1985). Native American students are perceived as lacking mental preparedness for schooling, and being less interested in schooling (Lin, 1985). Furthermore, there are cultural differences between white teachers and Native American students, which may have contributed to the failure of Native American students to succeed in an educational system that was taken from a historically European educational setting and transferred to Native American reservations without consideration of cultural differences. Finally, the poor self-concept of Native American students, who may feel the same types of despair and hopelessness as many adults on reservations, may contribute to failure to thrive in an academic environment.

One of the largest cultural differences between Native Americans and their non-Native American teachers is the history of education in their respective cultures. Native Americans were traditionally educated for the roles that they would assume as adults by working with and imitating their elders (Indian Treaties, 1999). There was no formal system of…… [read more]


American Indian Children and Adolescents Term Paper

… Teresa D. LaFromboise and Kathryn Graff Low begin their article "American Indian Children and Adolescents" by stating, "For centuries, American Indians have been uprooted, relocated, educated, and socialized in attempts to integrate them into the dominant culture and extinguish their tribal identity and tradition," (114). The authors weave this broad social and political commentary with data gathered from case studies. With a sympathetic and humanistic approach to their research, LaFramboise and Graff Low describe demographic data related to the Native American community and family, an overview of empirical evidence related to mental health in the Native community, and offer suggestions for culturally-specific treatment for mental health issues in particular. The authors offer insight into the structure of Native communities and families and show how and why a monocultural treatment modality might not serve the needs of American Indians. Like many other articles in the collection edited by Jewelle Taylor Gibbs, Larke Nahme Huang, et al. entitled Children of Color, the article's greatest impact may be its potential for application to other minority groups. In focusing on Native American youth and the particular problems that demographic faces, LaFramboise and Graff Low offer the social scientist a means to approach other communities with similar compassion and respect for their unique needs and histories.

LaFramboise and Graff do an excellent job of pointing out the problems with treating minority populations, focusing especially on cultural differences. For example, within the Native American population they focus on in the article, income is low, poverty rampant, and illiteracy relatively high. Moreover, poverty has affected more than just individuals and their families: poverty has fragmented the Native communities and their tribal structures. The authors also show that as more and more American Indians seek improved…… [read more]


Mary Rowlandson, Hannah Dustin Term Paper

… They escaped to Boston with the scalps to prove the tale, and gained fifty pounds as a reward (HannahDustin.com).

They each coped with their captivity in remarkably different ways, and their stories ultimately improved the understanding of Native Americans by showcasing the disparity of native culture and behavior.

The stories of the captivity of each of these three women reveal the diversity of customs among Native American through the greatly different treatment afforded to the three women. Depending on the customs of the tribe that they encountered, or the specific political situation, each of the women was treated differently as either prisoners of war, slaves, or adopted as family members.

Mary Rowlandson's captivity showcases the political resistance of the Native Americans who captured her. She was captured during the war of King Philip, who led a full rebellion against the white settlers. As such, Mary was in many ways a prisoner of war, whose capture was politically motivated. She was released from capture when a ransom was paid, thus benefiting the cause of her captors.

Mary Jemison's captivity shows a profoundly different side to Native American culture, and a different reason for taking a captive. While her capture was also likely motivated by resistance to white movement onto native land, her eventual treatment was different. As was common among natives of the time, she (a captive) was sold to a native family and adopted into their tribe. She was fully accepted into their society, and married a native man and had children.

A in contrast, Hanna Dustin's story reveals a truly different aspect of native culture. She was treated badly by her captors, and warned that she would have to run the gauntlet naked. She described the "savages" as mocking her mangled and dead child's body. Her hatred of the natives was so intense that it spurred her to make a brutal escape. In this account of captivity, the natives are seen as brutal savages who take captives merely as slaves for their own gain and cruel amusement.

In conclusion, the stories of the captivity of Mary Rowlandson, Hannah Dustin, and Mary Jamison all reveal different things about the practice. They each coped with their captivity in remarkably different ways, and their stories ultimately improved the understanding of Native Americans by showcasing the disparity of native culture and behavior. In their stories, these differences are shown in their differential treatment, and in the differing reasons that the natives had for taking captives. The Native Americans took captives in order to show their resistance to the settler's occupation of their land, as a custom to increase the members of their tribe, or even for monetary gain.

Works Cited

About.com. Mary White Rowlandson, Women's History. 12 April 2004. http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_mary_rowlandson.htm

Cook, Tom. Mary Jemison. Glimpses of the Past, People, Places, and Things in Letchworth Park History.

12 April 2004. http://www.letchworthparkhistory.com/jem.html

HannahDustin.com. The Story of Hanna Dustin/Duston of Haverhill, Massachusetts. 12 April 2004. http://www.hannahdustin.com/hannah_files.html

Lancaster Online. Mary Rowlandson's capture and redemption. 12 April 2004.… [read more]


Indian Education/Boarding Schools Term Paper

… ..but they got caught. They tied their legs up, tied their hands behind their backs, put them in the middle of the hallway so that if they fell, fell asleep or something, the matron would hear them and she'd get out there and whip them and make them stand up again." Joyce Burr, a Turtle Mountain Chippewa/Oglala Sioux who lived at Wahpeton Indian school from 1952 to 1959 also reports beatings for offences ranging from climbing trees, to not making her bed quickly (Kelley).

In addition to harsh punishments, children at the schools had to deal with the threat of illness. Contributing factors to this were crowded conditions and insufficient medical care. As a result diseases like tuberculosis, influenza and measles were rampant. Deaths at the schools were common, with 189 headstones in a Chemawa cemetery, representing only those students whose bodies were not returned home for burial.

Perhaps surprisingly, there were many positive experiences noted by former students. These include warm memories of friendships and sports, and the chance to meet children from other cultural groups.

By the 1920s there were extensive complaints that the Indian boarding schools were too expensive. As a result, most Indian children attended public schools in 1923. By the 1930's federal Indian policy allowed for a reflection of the diversity of Indian cultures in state education. In 1928, a report on Indian education noted that the boarding school were rife with overcrowding, poor medical care, substandard teaching, and poor nutrition.

In conclusion, Indian boarding schools represent one of our nation's early attempts to subjugate the Native American culture. Ultimately, the schools disappeared largely due to reports of mistreatment of the children and financial concerns. The schools should serve as a hopeful reminder that our nation has learned much about cultural diversity in the years since.

Works Cited

Marr, Carolyn J. Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Libraries. Digital Collections. 19 October 2002. http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr/biblio.html

Kelley, Matt. The Associated Press. American Indian boarding schools: 'That hurt never goes away'. Wednesday, April 28, 1999. 19 October 2002. http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSFeatures9904/28_indians.html… [read more]


European Epidemics on Native American Term Paper

… They thought the goods given to them by the Europeans were gifts for the use of the resources, a custom of their society. This was not the case. They had actually bought the land with these "gifts."

Restriction of The Native Americans' food supplies, the following malnutrition, worsened by alcohol they were plied with by the settlers, as well as the recurring epidemics of European diseases, further depleted the Native Americans and destroyed their lifestyles.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it was not war that wiped out the Native Americans, but diseases such as smallpox, measles, malaria, and influenza. Native Americans had no resistance to these diseases and entire tribes were soon decimated by fast-spreading epidemics.

Before the Europeans came to America, the Native Americans had a diverse and complex society. By the time Native American societies were described and their populations estimated, the effects of disease introduced by the explorers had already devastated their entire society.

Bibliography

Primary

Geier, Mark. The Encyclopedia of Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763), Facts on File, Inc., 1991.

Debo, Angie. A History of the Indians of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.

D'Azevedo, Warren Ed., Handbook of North American Indians. Great Basin. Vol. 11. Smithsonian Institution, 1986.

Secondary

Bailey, Alfred E., The Conflict of European And Eastern Algonkian Cultures,…… [read more]


Native Americans Are Generally Perceived as Being Book Report

… Native Americans are generally perceived as being an inferior civilization, mostly because the technology they owned at the time of their interaction with Europeans was substandard. However, taking into account data recently discovered, it becomes obvious that they managed to develop rapidly without having possession of the means that assisted their counterparts in Eurasia in experiencing progress

Native Americans were underestimated across time, particularly during the last five centuries, as newcomers imposed their cultural values on America's first inhabitants with no regard to the harm they provoked.

Although the masses are not acquainted with most of the technological triumphs achieved by people inhabiting the American continent previous to the fifth century, present day archeologists prove that American civilizations were actually very complex and thriving.

There is much controversy regarding the time when the American continent was first colonized, considering that until recently most individuals believed that the first people came into the territory thirteen thousand years ago, by crossing the Bering Strait. According to certain scientists, there were five waves of settlement on the American continent before Columbus's first landing.

Theorists claim that one of the first human settlements in America goes back fifty thousand years, but there is little data to prove that this is actually true. Chilean artifacts show that it is very likely for the American continent to have contained human settlements thirty thousand years ago.

Farming is one of mankind's greatest inventions and it is responsible for…… [read more]


Columbus Author's Representation the Book Term Paper

… The following quote from Loewen's book Lies My Teacher Told Me illustrates the far left extremist view:

'The Europeans were able to conquer America not because of their military genius, or their religious motivation, or their ambition, or their greed. They conquered it by waging unpremeditated biological warfare" (Loewen, 76)

Divine's interpretation that Europeans exposed the Indians to disease against which they had no natural immunity (Divine, 10) seems more reasonable than to believe that there was biological warfare hundreds of years ago. Further, Divine's discussion of European motivations is just as relevant as outcomes.

Divine acknowledges disease as destroying the cultural identity of North American tribes and disrupting trade (Divine, 10), but doesn't give enough data to fully understand the severity of the problem. Divine's mention of disease hardly approaches the more detailed and devastating accounts by Loewen. For example, Loewen tells how Pilgrim William Bradford described the results of Dutch rivals of Plymouth visiting an Indian village in Connecticut to trade.

"But their enterprise failed, for it pleased God to afflict these Indians with such a deadly sickness, that out of 1,000, over 950 of them died, and many of them lay rotting above ground for want of burial . . ." (Loewen, 84)

On the opposite coast things were just as bad for Native Americans. There, the Native American population of California declined from 300,000 in 1769 (by which time it had already been cut in half by various Spanish-borne diseases) to 30,000 a hundred years later, owing mainly to disease, starvation, homicide, and a declining birthrate (Loewen, 84).

Because of the different ways Divine and Loewen have dealt with the issue of disease, one has to wonder if either Divine has toned down his account to be accepted or if Loewen has far over exaggerated the situation. Nevertheless, one does get a sense that Divine does care about the plight of the Native Americans and that disease was an important issue.

III. Discussion Response

Although Divine isn't as left as many historians, he's certainly to left of the average person-on-the-street. Media has stereotyped Native American Indians as wild, aggressive savages. Americans most frequently associate American settlements with groups such as the Pilgrims who came to the New World not because of competition between religions, but to flee religious persecution by the Church of England. And, Americans are taught the kindness of the English as best exemplified by Thanksgiving, a holiday in which the colonists share their feasts with the Indians.

Due to mainstream teaching of American history that only relates part of the truth, the average person is likely to have a very negative reaction to Divine's book, dismissing it as socialist-like propaganda or at least an anti-American diatribe. As Loewen mentioned, once ideas are ingrained they are difficult to change. For history to be rewritten, it must be related correctly beginning at a very young age.

Bibliography

Divine,…… [read more]


History of Discrimination and Prejudiced Term Paper

… As Lum (2003) reveals many children for a long period of time were pulled away from their families and communities in an attempt to basically remove their 'savage' nature. Their nature was in fact likely not savage, simply very different… [read more]


Importance of Humanities Term Paper

… ¶ … Humanities

Even with the fact that humanities have generally shaped their understanding of life as a whole, many individuals are unable to understand the important role that they played across time and today. People unknowingly receive significant information during their lives as a result of the fact that they have access to humanities. As a result of coming across humanities-related topics, individuals are probable to experience success in a series of domains ranging from poetry to business and warfare. The expression "walk a mile in one's shoes" applies perfectly when considering humanities, taking into account that an individual can actually learn how it would be to experience such an event as a result of being provided with information through studying the humanities.

When considering Sherman Alexie's "The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven," one is likely to acknowledge that the humanities are actually important from a historical and cultural point-of-view. The writer provides readers with complex portrayals of Native Americans as they interact with European concepts and as they fall victim to alcohol. Even with the fact that most people are likely to express interest in the collection of stories because of their intriguing nature, these narratives present readers with the chance to understand more concerning Native Americans and how they feel regarding their position in society. Many are probable to believe that Alexie wanted to discriminate natives through these stories. However, the truth is that the writer manages to provide a vivid picture of the feelings present in Native American communities and the problems that these individuals experience as they struggle to integrate a society that expresses hostile attitudes in regard to their thinking.

The fact that Alexie has had a deeper understanding of Native American culture is reflected by his certainty that Indians can manage to stay without alcohol as long as they focus on their traditions and on their history. The writer actually emphasizes the fact that abstention from drinking alcohol is the key to success when considering Native Americans. Indians can apparently experience significant progress if they focus on their core values.

Alexie's involvement in the humanities made it possible for many other individuals to see matters from the perspective of Native Americans. Having a complex understanding of humanities as a whole is probable to represent an advantage for a person. Similarly, someone who is familiarized with Native American history and thinking as a consequence of having read…… [read more]


Luigi Persico's "Discovery of America" Was Placed Term Paper

… Luigi Persico's "Discovery of America" was placed at large stairway of the east facade of the Capitol and after considerable protests from the masses it was removed permanently in 1958 (Jaffe, 2008). The first look at the statue without going… [read more]


Boston in the 1600 Essay

… " (KAMENSKY, 1997)

Weather

Eastern Massachusetts, bordered by Woburn on the north, Stoneham and Medford on the east and southeast, Arlington on the south, and Lexington on the west.

The Aberjona River, Mystic Lake, and several ponds are located in Winchester. Winchester is 8 miles north of Boston, 9 miles north of Waltham, 18 miles south of Lowell, and 225 miles from New York City.

Total Area: 6.29 sq. miles Land Area: 6.04 sq. miles Density: 3,355 per sq. mile Climate (National Climatic Data Center)

Normal temperature in January

3°F

Normal temperature in July

2°F

Normal annual precipitation

Conclusion

In conclusion, we know today that Boston and the immediate area went on to become a great metropolis. But I the beginning, no one could have know if the city or its inhabitants would survive. This report did not intend on exposing any new or dramatic insights in the Boston's illustrious history. This report merely meant to provide insight into the life and times of those early American settlers and to provide some geographical information. The objective was to focus on the city of Boston, Massachusetts and its immediate surrounding areas and what they were like in the late 1600 to early 1700's. The paper focused on the Bostonians interaction with each other, the Native American Indians, the local geography and some recorded severe weather. The research began at the beginning of colonization in Massachusetts Bay and eventually moved to Boston. From there we explored interactions of the new Americans and the original Americans.

References

Burns, Constance K., & Formisano, Ronald P. (1984). Boston, 1700-1980: The Evolution of Urban Politics. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

Clements, William M. (1986). Native American Folklore in Nineteenth-Century Periodicals. Athens OH: University of North Carolina Press.

KAMENSKY, JANE (1997). Governing the Tongue: The Politics of Speech in Early New England. New York: Oxford University Press.

Spartacus School Network. (n.d.). Massachusetts Bay Colony. Retrieved December 11, 2003, at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USABmapM.htm of Mass. (n.d.). Praying Indians. Retrieved December 11, 2003, at http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/praying.html

Unknown. (n.d.). Colonial America 1600-1775. Retrieved December 10, 2003, at http://falcon.jmu.edu/~ramseyil/colonial.htm

Wokeck, Marianne S. (1999).…… [read more]


Native Art of North Term Paper

… She and Laurens Hammack describe in detail the ritual and cosmological role of caves, solstice marking, the two-headed snake, lakes, shrines, and kickball games intended to make rain. The parallels also include the deities known in Mexico as Quetzalcoatl, Tlaloc, and Tezcatlipoca." (Sorenson, 1987)

II. Similarities of Ceramics

Ceramics is another area of art form that can be found as similar in North American and Mesoamerican Indian cultures. For example, Ceramics from the middle Savannah River in Georgia and South Carolina (known as Stallings, Stallings Island, or St. Simons) are similar to those of the earlier Puerto Homiga ceramics of Colombia. The following pictures show first, a piece of Stallings Ceramic followed by two pictures of Puerto Homiga ceramics of Colombia.

Figure 1 -- Stallings Ceramics

Source: http://scnapr.info/pottery%20website/series%20and%20types/series%20and%20type%20images/Stallings/Stallings/stallings14.html

Figure 2 - Puerto Homiga Ceramics of Colombia

Source: http://scnapr.info/pottery%20website/series%20and%20types/series%20and%20type%20images/Stallings/Stallings/stallings14.html

Figure 3 - Puerto Homiga Ceramics of Colombia

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LBK-Pottery.jpg

The similarities in the Stallings ceramics and the Puerto Homiga Ceramics of Colombia are clear in that the fibers and shell middens used in creating the ceramics are visible in both the Stallings and the Puerto Homiga Ceramics.

According to the work of Messenger (2012), other similarities in Mississippian art and Mesoamerican art include the following:

(1) Shell gorgets:

(2) Eccentric flints

(3) Formation of mounds at Crystal River Site in Florida where mounds are arranged in a distinct plaza arrangement with stairs fronting the central plaza and stones at the base of the stairs that appear to resemble stelae which is Classic Mayan art; and (4) Celestial serpents -- flying winged horned serpent in the Southeast resembling Quetzalcoatl and Itzamna in Mesoamerica? (Messenger, 2012)

Summary and Conclusion

This study has examined the similarities in North American Indian artwork and Mesoamerican Indian artwork and has found that there are amazing similarities in art forms and use of materials and designs in art expression between Indians in North American and those in Mesoamerica.

Bibliography

Art of the Americas: Information for Educators (2000) Education Department of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Retrieved from: http://deyoung.famsf.org/files/ArtoftheAmericasEducatorGuide.pdf

Messenger, LC (2010) The Southeastern Woodlands: Mississippian Cahokia -- Late Prehistoric Metropolis on the Mississippi. Making Archaeology Teaching Relevant in the XXI Century (MATRIX). Retrieved from: http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/naa/naa_web/mod13D.html

Sorenson, JL (2012) Mesoamericans in Pre-Columbian North America. Meal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Brigham Young University. Retrieved from: http://maxwellinstitute.byu.edu/publications/books/?bookid=71&chapid=829

Thornton, R. (2010) The Mesoamerican connection: the Toltecs, artisans, scholars, priests and fearsome warriors. The Examiner. 22 Apr 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.examiner.com/article/the-mesoamerican-connection-the-toltecs-artisans-scholars-priests-and-fearsome-warriors… [read more]


American Studies Environment and Native Americans Term Paper

… American Studies

Environment And Native Americans

American Indians historically have been the pioneers of environmental protection even though the true authentic image of Native American environmental ethic has been distorted in wake of romantic environmentalism, by the Hollywood. Sierra Club book on forestry says, "For many thousands of years, most of the indigenous nations on this continent practiced a philosophy of protection first and use second of the forest."(Anderson, 1997). While the History of Native American resource does not necessarily meld environmental issues with ethics. Modern environmentalists are patronizing American Indians and thereby, neglecting the lesson of their rich heritage fathering Resource Conservation. Interior Secretary Stewart Udall said, "The Indians were, in truth, the pioneer ecologists of this country."

True that American Indians have transformed the North American landscape. But it was always out of rational response to abundance or scarcity.For instance in case of huge expanse of open land, they farmed extensively; often they would clear land for farming by cutting or burning forests; therein they would farm the fields on the huge expanse until its soil fertility exhausted. Deforestation was common from New England to Southwest, as a consequence of dense Indian population and intense farming. Historians comment that the departure of the Anasazi from the canyons of southeastern Utah in the 13th century may have been due to their having depleted the wood supplies they used for fuel. At another stance, the buffalo hunting tribes herded hundreds of animals over cliffs in the 18th and early 19th centuries on the Great Plains, and left behind tons of meat to be eaten by scavengers. This hardly goes in sync with the environmental ethic Indians are attributed to. "Samuel Hearne, a fur trader near Hudson's Bay, recorded in his journal in the 1770s that the Chipewayan Indians would slaughter large numbers of caribou and musk ox, eat only a few tongues, and leave the rest to rot"(Anderson, 1997).

Hence, Indians contributed a great deal to the environment around them according to their needs provided shaping doesn't necessarily mean spoiling just as lack of modern concepts of government doesn't mean lack of rules. American Indian tribes made prolific wealth because they had clear property rights to land, fishing and hunting territories, and personal property. Pre-Columbian Indian history has evidences of property rights conditioning humans' relations with the natural environment. For instance North American Indians dependent on hunting and fishing had well-defined territories to practice wildlife conservation. Hence Indians had realized the importance of incentives and formed their societies around establishments with encouraged good human and natural resource. Private ownership also encouraged investment and production in…… [read more]


Native Mythology to North America Term Paper

… In contrast to what Christians and Catholics believe that the first man and woman were Adam and Eve and were created by God, the myths of Native Americans have diverse ideas on origin of the earth, as well as the… [read more]


American Colonies the Puritans Who Arrived Essay

… ¶ … American Colonies

The Puritans who arrived in America in 1630 were on a mission to build a -city upon a hill- as an example of what could be done in a society committed to Gods laws. In the… [read more]


U.S. History Indian Giver Essay

… U.S. History -- Indian Giver

Despite dwindling numbers of Native Americans seen in today's world, they were once the reigning power in the United States. After centuries of development separate from Europeans, Native Americans were introduced to new settlers who later forced them into the decrepit state they are in today. However, before Europeans had such a negative impact on Native American life, it was the Native Americans who had positive influences on the Europeans traveling from overseas. Ideas about fair treatment of prisoners and a strong democracy trickled into mainstream American society and helped influence how the country functions today.

The initial indigenous people who lied and worked in the North Atlantic helped mold the country as we know it today. Native Americans had major philosophical influences on what was to later become one of the most powerful nations in the world -- the United States. One major philosophical element the United States still holds dear to this day is the fair treatment of prisoners. Many other nations, and even Native Americans from other geographical regions of North America held traditions to kill off prisoners of war.…… [read more]


Negotiating Relationships Between Indian Nations and European Invaders Essay

… ¶ … Native American Nations and European invaders. Specifically it will discuss and evaluate the diplomacy, warfare, and the politics of negotiating relationships between Indian Nations and European invaders. When the French, British, Spanish, and Dutch explorers and colonists came to this country, they encountered many different Native American tribes and nations, and eventually, they displaced or eradicated many of these nations.

Clearly, some Native Americans had courteous and even happy relationships with the European invaders. Pocahontas married an Englishman, Joseph Brant fought on the side of the British during the Revolutionary War, and Squanto traveled to England and helped the Pilgrims during their first year in America. French fur traders also had good relationships with the Natives, because they depended on them for furs and trade throughout Canada and the northern U.S. The French often abided by Native rules, at first. A Web site notes "Europeans at first conducted business according to Native-imposed rules. The European system simply grafted itself onto a pre-existing aboriginal trade network, adapting to local customs."

In other areas, like New England, many of the Natives helped the Pilgrims when they first came to the country, and continued to help them adapt to the rigors of the New World. Many of these early settlers recognized the Natives had strong governments and societies, and they recognized them because they realized they were better friends that enemies. "These Indians formed governments that Europeans recognized, [...] because contention for control of territory among Europeans and the vulnerability of European settlements required the recognition of Indian nations."

They got along together so they would not turn to violence and attack.

Of course, not all the relationships were so harmonious. As European settlers began to encroach on Native lands, skirmishes developed, and all out wars occurred, often with the settlers with their guns, against the Natives without guns, leading to outright massacres of the Native tribes. Many also succumbed to diseases that they had never encountered before, like smallpox, which ravaged many tribes in North and South America.

Thus, there was diplomacy among settlers and the Native tribes in many cases, and there were treaties and negotiations that were upheld by both parties. However, the Europeans claimed the lands they conquered, and in many cases, they decimated the Natives, such as the Inca and Aztec Empires, where the Spanish conquered them, killed many of them, and then many more died from the European diseases the conquistadors brought with them, like smallpox.

The English learned to negotiate with the Natives, and the fledgling U.S. Government did too, for a time. A historian writes, "In the early years of the republic, the U.S. government was forced to negotiate with Native peoples who could ally themselves with the Spanish or the British because it could not afford protracted Indian wars politically, militarily, or economically."

However, the politics of these negotiations changed, and…… [read more]


Native Americans the Aleutian Islands Term Paper

… ' who owned titles and resources, while the commoners, although free, did not. The 'ruling class' did not, however, rule by divine right. Instead:

Inherited chiefly or elite status had to be validated by performance -- leadership of raids to… [read more]


Interactions of the Europeans Term Paper

… "The shift from Indian to European dominance in New England entailed important changes (Cronon, 1986)." Because of the way the Europeans settled in the animal and plant population were negatively affected. Before the colonists arrived the Native Americans would hunt and work one area, then move on to another area. This gave areas they left a chance to re-grow and repopulate for future use. The colonists moved here and stayed in one place. In time they depleted much of the animal and plant life that had been a natural part of the eco system. This caused them to have to change the way things were done and to grow new food and raise new animals. Instead of letting the natural system take its course as the Native Americans had always done, the colonists took over the course and force fed it. This set the pattern that we still live with today.

The Native Americans took part in the destruction of the eco system as well. They were intrigued with metal and the utensils that were made with metal so they killed more animals than they would normally have killed for the ability to trade. All in all both sides contributed to the change in the system and the changes that caused to the land.

Few Native American traditions pertaining to the land have survived the years. However, the idea of planting in one area, then moving to another and letting the first area regain its health has been adopted by farmers all over the nation. The changes that were forced upon our lands set in motion a system that we are bound by today. But along the way we did adopt some of the Native American elements of respecting the land and the Native Americans adopted some of the…… [read more]


French and Indian War Cultural Term Paper

… [11: Anderson, Fred (2000). Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766. New York: Knopf]

The war is frequently seen as war that existed between France and Britain. However, Indian nations… [read more]


Colonial America -- Issues and Answers Essay

… Colonial America -- Issues and Answers

Did race determine whom the colonists, would enslave, or was it coincidental that the majority of the enslaved population would be a certain group? Contrast the slavery issues in Chesapeake with the slavery in… [read more]


Sandia Mountains Environmental History Essay

… Railroads put an end to the traditional geographical isolation of the Pueblos by the 1880s. Electricity came to Sandia Pueblo in 1952, followed shortly by natural gas, indoor plumbing, and automobiles (New Mexico State Record Center and Archives 2012). Technology influenced the lives of the Pueblo people but did not weaken their bond to the region.

The Sandia people are intensely religious, holding a deep connection to the Sandia Mountains. Religion and life are inseparable in traditional Pueblo culture. The Pueblo ideal embraces a way of life that is in harmony with all of nature. Pueblo beliefs hold that there are sacred mountains in each direction, plus the sun above and earth below, and that these define and balance the Pueblo world. Many Pueblo religious ceremonies revolve around the weather and are devoted to ensuring adequate rainfall. To this end, Pueblo Indians evoke the power of katsinas, sacred beings who live in mountains and other holy places, in ritual and masked dance (What-When-How 2012). These practices reflect the Pueblo relationship with the world around them.

Sandia Mountains tribes have identified specific sites of traditional cultural and religious significance in the mountains. The Sandia Mountains are a place where tribes perform ceremonial activities in keeping with traditional cultural practices that maintain their cultural identity and the continuity of their culture. Area tribes use the mountains for such traditional cultural and religious activities as hunting, traditional plant and mineral gathering, religious pilgrimages, accessing springs, and as a place for special offerings (Benedict 2009, 1).

Today the Sandia Pueblo people continue to share the region with others who also fell under the spell of the Sandia Mountains. For all the challenges, they seem to find answers. Living in this area has shaped their existence in ways both subtle and obvious. It seems that, for many, their bond to the region is never to be broken.

Reference List

Benedict, Cynthia. 2009. Contemporary American Indian uses and tribal consultation, U.S. Forest Service, http://www.fs.fed.us/outernet/r3/cibola/projects/nepa_reports/hondo/tribal_uses_specialist_report.pdf (accessed March 22, 2012).

Hawkinson, Bruce. 2011. History A brief, unresearched history of the Sandia Park Scenic Byway neighborhood. Sandia Park Scenic Byway Neighborhood Association, http://www.sandia-park.com/History_and_Maps.html (accessed March 22, 2012).

Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Sandia Pueblo, http://www.indianpueblo.org/19pueblos/sandia.html (accessed March 22, 2012).

New Mexico State Record Center and Archives. 2012. Sandia Pueblo, http://www.newmexicohistory.org/filedetails.php?fileID=1220 (accessed March 22, 2012).

Sandia Pueblo. 2009. The Pueblo of Sandia, http://www.sandiapueblo.nsn.us/home.html (accessed March 22, 2012).

Smith, Mike. 2006. Towns of the Sandia Mountains. Chicago: Arcadia Publishing.

Stubbe, Paul E. 2005. "Weather in the Sandia Mountains" in Field Guide to the Sandia Mountains, edited by Robert Julyan…… [read more]


Compare and Contrast Two Minority Cultures in NM Essay

… New Mexico: Mexican-Americans and Native Americans

New Mexico is particularly recognized for the multitude of cultures residing within its borders. Although a great deal of people cannot tell the difference between Native Americans and Mexican-Americans, these two ethnic groups are actually very different in culture and traditions. The most plausible reason for which the masses find it difficult to distinguish between Mexicans Americans in New Mexico and Native Americans in New Mexico is because the two ethnic groups are very similarly in genetics. Also, the fact that both groups have their origins on the American continent contributes to their association.

In order for most people to understand how Mexican-Americans are different from Native Americans one can take into consideration Hispanics and Amerindians. Mexican-Americans are Hispanic individuals with their roots in a Spanish-speaking country of Latin America. In contrast, Native Americans are people who have their roots in countries speaking indigenous languages (New Mexico - Ethnic groups).

The Amerindian population in New Mexico is approximately 173,000, which is about 9.5% of the total number of individuals residing in the state. The reason for which the Hispanic population in the state is close to 765,000 (42.1 of the state's population) is that the territory was inhabited by Spanish until 1912, when it officially got annexed by the United States (New Mexico - Ethnic groups).

Both ethnic groups are similar through the fact that they resisted Anglo dominance at certain moments in history. Even if the Spanish-oriented cultural values in New Mexico are younger that those belonging to Native Americans, they both survived through time in spite of the fact that the state is presently part of an Anglo-speaking country.

When taking into consideration educational institutes specially structured to fit each of the two cultures, one can find that the American government has shown more interest in presenting Hispanics with opportunities to attend schools, colleges, and institutes by using bilingual school programs (Nunez-Janes, 2002). Less privileged, Native Americans are mostly required to attend classes taught in English, as there are little to no schools offering Amerindian individuals the chance to be taught in their native languages (Guillory & Wolverton, 2008). All things considered, both ethnic groups have access to learning in their own language (Article 23).

Their cultural values are known to be an impediment for Amerindians in their struggle to integrate society. Compared to the total number of Indians in the state of New Mexico, the ones who managed to raise their capital notably is very small. Even with that, seeing that there are Amerindians in the state who were not brought down by their background in doing business, it becomes obvious that the ethnic group has good business-doing abilities but most Native Americans are ill-prepared and thus show reluctance in engaging in money making activities other than low-income jobs (Pinel, 2007).

Although most Native American groups were chased from the territories they previously owned, those in New Mexico were more successful in protecting their lands. The 1680 Pueblo Revolt is an… [read more]


Nature of American Views About Race Beginning Essay

… ¶ … nature of American views about race beginning with early American colonist views about American Indians and culminating with views about blacks and the institution of slavery" without first acknowledging that the question is itself embedded within the culture… [read more]


Dam Building and Indian Lands Thesis

… Dam Building and Indian Lands

The Native Americans have had much to suffer as a result of the colonists entering their territory and robbing them of their lands. While some cultures might consider territorial possessions to have a less significant… [read more]


Motivations of the French and Indian War Essay

… ¶ … motivations of the French and Indian War and the role the American Indians played in that conflict

Ostensibly, the French and Indian War (1754-1763) was primarily a war about territory. The British and French were in dispute over a specific patch of land in the Ohio Valley, which had been originally claimed by the French, then was abandoned in the face of native hostility and was now claimed by a British company. However, the conflict spiraled into something much greater. Eventually, it would pit the two countries against one another in a struggle of who would control the territories of the New World, who would determine its religious ideology, its economic makeup (trade with the natives vs. agriculture), and finally which alliances with the native populace would prove more powerful and durable.

In contrast to the English, the French had largely amicable relations with the Indians when they first arrived. The Indians generally welcomed the French, "who wanted nothing from them but furs and a plot of land on which to build their posts." Many Frenchmen developed close, even familial relationships with Indians, and created a large 'half breed' population, further cementing their alliances with the tribes through intermarriage and blood. Then, during the 1750's competition between English and French settlers in the Ohio River Valley increased. The first, instigating cause of the war was precipitated by the march of the French explorer Celeron into Ohio, who claimed the land for his king though he "received a hostile reception" from the natives of the area who treated Celeron as a hostile interloper.

Although the British did have strong alliances with some tribes, most notably the Indian tribes known as the Five Nations, the members of the Iroquois League, the Iroquois remained an exception. From Indian perspectives, the French had shown more respect for their culture, not engaged in nearly as much land-grabbing, and had also provided them with valuable material goods, such as hatchets and brass kettles. Thus, despite Celeron's hostile reception, most Indian tribes allied with the French. The Puritan and English…… [read more]


American Indigenous People's Survival Research Paper

… ¶ … Native American Genocide

The topic of this paper is Native Americans and their treatment by Westernized society within the boundaries of the United States. From a historical perspective, Native Americans have always endured resistance and marginalization once Europeans… [read more]


Employee's Cultural Research Proposal

… Western work culture is very much built around structure, getting done when asked and not necessarily when the time is "ripe" and so forth. For a Native American worker, this can be a shock to the system and can go against the grain of their ideals of Indian Time and so forth. However, Native Americans hold that the control we think we have over circumstances is frequently an illusion and can lead to a lot of wasted energy. Much can be gained by watching, listening, waiting and then acting when the time is right. "Indian time" is really about respecting the "timeliness" of an action. It makes more sense to plant crops when the weather is right than when the calendar says it is time.

What a mistake it would be to take this traditional concept of timeliness and develop a misperception that contemporary Indian people are frequently late. Maximizing productivity of Native American workers (by non-Native American employers) requires an understanding of and respect for American Indian culture and associated activities. Successful work practices must recognize and/or deal with employees' ethnicity, family-sensitive supervision and work/family role conflict. Flextime and non-standard work schedules that permit flexible starting and quitting times as well as rotating days off, will eliminate conflicts between work and family life for Native American workers. Research will provide convincing evidence in favor of non-standard work schedules for Native American workers while maintaining organizational effectiveness, organizational membership, and positive employee attitudes. The use of flexible work schedules and break periods can be applied to…… [read more]


Social Significance of 1763 Essay

… Things changed slowly in 1763, however, and there were considerable advanced warnings that the Native Americans were not happy with the intentions of the British. Rather than work to establish a working relationship with the Native Americans, as the French had done so successfully by relying on ceremonial gifts, British Commander in Chief Jeffrey Amherst established a frugal policy of letting the Indians fend for themselves. From the perspective of Native Americans, the gifts that had recognized their fallen warriors, reinforced good intentions, and portrayed the European rulers as a benevolent power, had suddenly disappeared, along with their access to ammunition they sorely needed to feed their families. By contrast, Amherst saw the Indians as beggars who needed to be weaned. When Amherst garrisoned British troops on Indian land without permission, without gifts, and without trade in ammunition, the only conclusion possible was that the British intended to take the land by force.

In addition to British indifference to the Native peoples, immigration from Europe and the colonies into Indian lands only exacerbated tensions (Galloway 56-59). The sheer number of Europeans moving to the 'backcountry' overwhelmed British attempts to control the tide. Many of these 'front line' settlers tended to be an unruly lot and were used to a lifestyle of self-rule. Some of the more elite colonists, including George Washington, wanted to take advantage of the land rush that was beginning in the war's aftermath (Galloway 60-65). By purchasing land in advance of the settlers' arrival, they hoped to make a fortune. Their reasoning was based on the assumption that all this land now belonged to the English Crown and not to the Native American tribes, but underneath was a desperate need to recover financially from the war.

In Virginia, George Washington was farming worn out land and facing a sizable debt, so the promise of rich soil along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers was very enticing. Although Washington had married a wealthy widow, his assets during the war had been "… swallowed up before I knew where I was, all the money I got by the Marriage, nay more, brought me in Debt" (Galloway 28).

The combination of smallpox epidemics, famine, broken promises, and indifference by the British Army inevitably led to the first American Revolution (Galloway 67-74). The Delaware Chief Pontiac spearheaded a nationwide revolt that left the British Army frustrated and spread thin. Forts across the eastern half of what would become the United States were taken and some 500 soldiers and hundreds of settlers were killed. Out of desperation, germ warfare, in the form of smallpox-contaminated blankets, had been 'gifted' to Indian leaders. In the end, competing loyalties, disease, and the need for access to European goods undermined the effort to rid North America of Whites. Although colonists successfully revolted against British rule 12 years later, the status and vulnerability of the Native Americans prevented them from retaining autonomy in what was a rapidly changing continent.

Works Cited

Galloway, Colin G. The Scratch…… [read more]


Sacred Pipe Black Elk Essay

… Your kingdom come, Your will be done in earth, as it is in heaven." The Making of Relatives certainly speaks to the idea that all humans are part of God's creation. I wondered, then, and will read more of Black… [read more]


Cheyenne Again Analyze Multicultural Children Book Review

… Cheyenne Again

Analyze Multicultural Children's Picture Books

Eve Bunting's Cheyenne Again

One of the struggles many teachers have regarding the legacy of Anglo-Indian relations is to present the topic in a fair manner that does not whitewash history yet also… [read more]


Jamestown Settlement Term Paper

… The implications hit both the physical and human environments of the natives. In addition, the implications have continuously progressed with time leaning on to posterity whereby the nature and structure of modern America was attributed.

Moreover, the natives of the then Virginia colony had a conception of a sign that could eventually emerge and have intense implication to them. The sign was also inclusive to the inter-cultural conflict brought about by the colonialists. Arrival of new people was an assurance that things in the future to come were not pleasant. To curb intimidation from the new comers, Mann, shows how the Native Indians took control for the better period they could by overruling the best and fertile land that they had already acquired (Mann 2007).

This Columbus and post-Columbus period mainly highlighted repercussion towards the physic-human environment. According to Calloway's reading, there was a region that was unfriendly to human environment. In their quest of laying their colonial foundation, the settlers had to dwell on a region infested with animals and insects not fit for human interaction. In the same page, the first colonel of Jamestown, Rolfe introduced new species of plants and animals that dependently changed the balance that Jamestown's ecosystem once had (Calloway 54). The percussions of the environmental imbalance paved way for more prone diseases that were never experienced by the Native Indians.

Conclusion

Native America and its history is a platform to the comprehension of other thematic concerns that depict aspectual details of people and continued implications of inferiority and superiority, which according to Mann and Calloway was the rift between the natives and colonizers. Ways in which the natives were traded for was unfair noting that the land was initially theirs, a reason why Calloway refers to the Native Indians as 'Injuns'. It is worth taking in the reading a and lessons from history in pursuit of a solution to problems affecting modern America.

Works Cited

Calloway Colin. First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History. New York: Bedford / St. Martin's. 2004.

Mann Charles. Jamestown, America, Lost and Found. National Geographic. [Online] Retrieved from http://<…… [read more]


Culture of the Film Jeremiah Johnson Essay

… Jeremiah Johnson & Culture

The American movie Jeremiah Johnson is a story of a 19th century American frontiersman and ex-soldier who wishes to escape the drama of the United States. He escapes all that he knows from the Mexican-American war in order to face the world alone, but soon finds that this is not as easy as he had realized. When encountering the Native Americans, specifically the Crow Tribe, culture clash and the inevitable exchanges of people new and old in a desolate land create the cultural tension of Jeremiah Johnson.

The crow Indians chief, named Paints-His-Shirt-Red, along with a white mountain-man named Bear Claw Chris Lapp teach Jeremiah how to survive the mountains. The laws of state and the rule of law do not exist in this part of the world at this time; every interaction was unguided and could end violently. Johnson through the movie deals with the concepts of having possessions to care for and protect, and having no possessions so as to not be tied to any place on Earth. One example of this is his weak rifle, a 0.38 caliber rifle that cannot protect him well enough against the wilderness. He finds a dead man who has died to a bear attack, but who has a fine example of a 0.50 caliber rifle, that shows the first and most important possession to these men; their rifles that they needed for protection. The woman who needs to give up her son because she is unable to take care of him shows a softer type of materialism and possession. This is shown when Johnson finds the cabin with Caleb, his adopted son. Caleb represents property that Johnson must protect, changing his situation from having nothing to now having something to live for.

Del Gue, who has been sentenced to death by the Blackfoot tribe by being buried in sand up to his neck, represents the negative cultural aspects of the Americans. Gue was buried in the sand and left to die, showing what the Indians wanted to do to the white man. Gue takes Jeremiah to a Blackfoot camp late at night, and ends up killing the Blackfeet Indians who had his possessions. The material possessions of Gue drove him to murder, which is a representation of how materialism is so important to the American frontiersman.

Jeremiah then stumbles upon a peaceful Indian tribe, the Flathead Indians, who have adopted Christianity. Unknowingly, Jeremiah changes the relationship between himself and the Flathead Indians chief by offering them the possessions of the Blackfoot tribe and their scalps. According to tribal tradition, the Flathead Chief must now give Jeremiah Johnson…… [read more]


William Cronon's Changes in the Land Book Review

… ¶ … land: Indians, colonists, and the ecology of New England

William Cronin's Changes in the land: Indians, colonists, and the ecology of New England is not a book about geography alone, as its title might suggest. Rather it is also a historical analysis of the different conceptions of land rights held by the English colonists of the New World and the New England Indians of the Americas. The English colonists viewed the land as something that must be bought and sold and 'owned' by someone. In contrast, the natives had no concept of personal, possessive property rights and ownership was conveyed via use rather than title. However, Cronin's thesis is not that the Native Americans lived in simple harmony with the land, as is sometimes portrayed. The natives did change the land through their husbandry and hunting, although Cronin makes the case that ultimately the native methods of altering the environment were less harmful than the methods used by the Europeans.

One of the exemplary paradoxes discussed by Cronin is the Indian's acceptance of seasons of 'want and plenty.' The Indians, particularly the hunter-gatherer tribes, lived in abundance in the summer and spring, when there was rich hunting and fishing. However, they accepted that during the lean seasons of winter they would be hungry. When asked by the aghast colonists why this was so, the Indians pointed out that they never starved to death from year to year. Cronin believes that this method of instinctive husbandry kept population densities low, and thus did not tax the land. The agricultural Indians also engaged in practices like burning the forest in a controlled manner so they could plant, which actually enriched the soil and limited wide scale destruction from more rampant forest fires with dry tinder. Burning the underbrush also made it easier to flush out game (Cronin 51). The natives did till the soil, but did so with clamshell hoes, which minimized erosion, versus the more intrusive methods of European tilling (Cronin 49).

To substantiate his thesis, Cronin is faced with the problem that the Europeans, as the 'winners' of the struggle to dominate the land, have…… [read more]


Racism Affecting Native and African-American Essay

… Expectations here are that the research will support that African and Native American are struggling in the United States. Research should provide strong evidence (slavery) and overwhelming statistical data that support this hypothesis. Research will also be generated by individually looking at both groups and the racism that occurs in each (African and Native Americans), then taking time to compare both of them against causations and other minority groups in many socioeconomic factors.

The second question to be researched deals with the idea of why racism against African-American groups is different from racism against other immigrant groups. Expectations here are that the research will provide examples of why racism against African-Americans is different and in many cases worse than other immigrant (minority) groups. Research will be generated by first looking into the idea and definition of what racism is and is not. The research will generate empirical evidence on why racism against African-Americans is different from other immigrant (minority) groups using a historical example of indentured servants vs. slavery to support the argument.

The third question will explore many of the same ideas as question two but will look at why Native Americans have had trouble advancing in the United States system of stratification. The research about racism from question two will be used again. The evidence generated from this research will look closely at why Native Americans are different from other immigrant (minority) groups. Special attention will be focused on how the white man committed genocidal acts on the Native American people (Stannard, 1992).

References:

Rodriguez, J. (2007). Slavery in the United States: a social, political, and historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Stannard, D.E. (1992). American holocaust: the conquest of a new world. New York, NY: Oxford…… [read more]


Cherokee Removal Essay

… ¶ … urging of President Andrew Jackson to Congress, he advocated that the Cherokees should be driven to lands west of the Mississippi because of two reasons:

The objectives of "civilizing" the tribes and driving them west contradicted each other.

Constitution did not provide the Federal government with the right to dismember an already existing state and to recognize a sovereign state within their boundaries without the consent of their legislature.

Jackson saw himself in a paternalistic role and the Cherokees and other Native American tribes as children that needed guidance in how to properly manage their affairs. By exiling the tribes to the lands over the Mississippi River, they would be free from the depredations of whites and would then be able to develop into an "interesting commonwealth." In other words, they would then resolve the contradiction that whites had forced on them between trying to assimilate and the continual pressure to move west and out of the way of white settlers. At this early time in American History, no one in the American government or intelligentsia foresaw the time when the "Great American Desert" west of the Mississippi would become attractive to white settlers as well (Erbach, "The Cherokee Removal Group a Readings").

Certainly this picture of "Old Hickory" does not square well with the much celebrated rise of Jacksonian Democracy that the Jackson administration supposedly ushered in with the presidential election of 1828. What does become apparent is that this commonwealth was available for white males only. Native Americans need not apply and needed to be moved out of the center of it with all possible speed.

Senator Peleg Sprague calls upon the United States government to honor their treaties (some 15 between 1783 and 1819) with the Cherokees. The fact that there have been 15 separate treaties would seem that the Federal Government and the American people it represents did not take their treaty obligations seriously to begin with (Erbach, "The Cherokee Removal Group B. Readings"). With any other nation that had overwhelming military power and was not in a continually weakening state, America would have been more meticulous in the observance of a treaty. The fact that it was with a Native American tribe that was sitting upon valuable land in the South sealed the fate of the Cherokees who were to be shipped to the far West with impunity. As the Senator pointed out, they were highly cultured and civilized by White and Indian standards. In fact, they were developing at an amazing and rapid pace. They were expected by Whites to go over the Mississippi to a strange land amongst hostile people and somehow miraculously survive. Certainly, this is why over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died on the way west to the territory that is now present day Oklahoma ("Historical Documents: The Trail of Tears").

The report from the Committee of Indian Affairs on the Removal of Indians delivered to the House of Representatives on February 24, 1830 states that… [read more]

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