Study "Native American Indians" Essays 111-165

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North American Place Names Research Paper

… North American Place Names

North American settlements

Europeans are responsible for naming most of the present day locations in North America, as they renamed the territories they settled on the basis of the circumstances they came across the respective places, considering religious names and Europeans places or influential individuals as essential in the process of designation. Even with that, a series of Native American places managed to keep their initial names, either because they were not considered of great importance for the settlers or because their original inhabitants struggled to preserve their cultural heritage.

The city of Jamestown in the state of Virginia owes its name to King James I of England, given that the person to finance the Virginia Company of London in 1607 was the King himself. The settlement was initially called Jamestowne.

New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana and among the most significant French colonies in North America. The city was founded in 1718, when Philippe d'Orleans, the Duke of Orleans, ruled over France. The duke's title came from the French city of Orleans.

In spite of the fact that the Germans did not initially made their presence felt in North America, the Philadelphia district of Germantown is one of the few remains of the first German settlements on the continent. The settlement was founded on October 6, 1683, as a result of the fact that a German community thrived in the territory.

One of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in North America is St. Augustine, which got its name because it was recognized for its potential by Pedro Menendez de Aviles on August 28, 1565. This date was the feast day for Augustine de Hippo, thus the reason for which the settlers came to name the location St. Augustine. The location had initially been inhabited by the Timucua…… [read more]


Smoke Signals Directed by Chris Term Paper

… As they become easier and closer to each other throughout the film, it is easy to hope that they will not make the same choices their father made. Learning more about him will allow them to make better choices and become better men, and that is part of the point of this film. It is funny, it pokes fun at Native American stereotypes, and it is lighthearted in many ways, but it packs an important message underneath, and that is to break the stereotype and become better men.

The film absolutely had to be made in an American Indian milieu, although the underlying theme is timeless and raceless. It could have been about anyone on some levels, but on other levels, it totally describes many of the problems facing Native Americans living on the reservation. The message would not have been as affective if it had not been told from the Native American perspective, and it would not have been as humorous, either. Screenwriter Alexie adds quite a bit of wry humor into the film, and it would have seemed offensive coming from non-Native actors and a non-Native setting. Alexie is not above poking fun at situations and stereotypes of Native Americans, and that would not have been nearly as affective coming from non-Native actors.

I believe that it is quite credible that Native Americans tell their own story, but others can tell it too. The popularity of the Film Dances With Wolves, which tells the story of Native Americans quite effectively, sympathetically, and with compassion is one example. And of course, it is used in the film humorously because Thomas watches it compulsively. Another example would be Little Big Man, starring Dustin Hoffman. It is not necessary for only Native Americans to tell their story, but in this case, it is the most effective and logical solution.

References

Gibson, Arrell Morgan, The American Indian: Prehistory to the Present. Lexington, MA: DC Heath and Co., Publishers, 1985.

Smoke Signals. Dir. Chris Eyre. Perf. Adam Beach, Evan Adams,…… [read more]


Captivity and Slavery in American History Essay

… Captivity & Slavery in American History

Journey towards Freedom of Mind: Understanding the Worldviews of Mary Rowlandson, Captive, and Olaudah Equiano, Slave

During the Colonial period, American society is undergoing a transition that is characteristic of any colonial territory owned… [read more]


Boarding Schools Ojibway Thesis

… ¶ … Native American boarding schools of the Ojibway tribe. Native American schools (Indian Schools) were a way of life for Native American children in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These schools, made mandatory by the government, kept… [read more]


Museum Budget Cuts One-Page Memo to Staff Term Paper

… Museum Budget Cuts

One-Page Memo to Staff Members Indicating Where Cuts Will Impact the Museum:

MEMO to STAFF FROM the DIRECTOR:

My fellow employees, the Montana Museum of Native American Art is facing a financial crisis. Unfortunately, with the loss… [read more]


American West and Brazil, the People Term Paper

… American West and Brazil, The People Who Lived There First

The American West and Brazil: The People Who Lived There First

This paper addresses the Native American population in the West and compares it with the indigenous people of Brazil.… [read more]


U.S. Immigrant and Ethnic History Term Paper

… Immigrant and Ethnic History

Compare the Land-Allotment Strategy used with the Choctaw's with the Treaty Strategy that was applied to the Cherokee. What are the key differences between both approaches to Indian lands? Do they share any similarities? What were… [read more]


Removal of the Cherokee Term Paper

… Removal of the Cherokee

The book, The Cherokee Removal, is about savagery and civilization. The Cherokee made poor use of their homelands. White Americans had a higher use for the region, bringing progress to the area. Although it was regrettable… [read more]


Crazy Horse and the Western Term Paper

… One of the well-known peculiarities of modern civilized opinion is its refusal to acknowledge the value of violence. This refusal is a virtue, but like many virtues it involves a certain willful blindness and it encourages hypocrisy."

When the right… [read more]


Art in Non-Western Societies Ritual Object From the Iroquois Tribe Term Paper

… Art in Non-Western Society

The art object under review is an Iroquois ritual object; a turtle rattle, ca 1890,

Material used; turtle shell, wood, sinew, stone

Location; Northeast U.S., West of the Great Lakes, South of Virgina (today), Northeast coast of Canada and U.S.

Brief description:

The large turtle rattle, or 'snapping- turtle rattle' is composed of the complete shell and skin of a snapping- turtle, 12-14 inches long, with head and neck stretched and held by stick splints to form a handle. It is commonly used for ritual and ceremonial purposes in rituals such as the Great Feather Dance and in the performances of the Wooden False Face Society, "whose members also carry them attached by a string to their wrists. Smaller rattles are made from of young snapping turtle measuring approximately 8-10 inches long. It is often used in the Women's Song Rite. "

Description

Turtle rattles are mainly used in ceremonial and healing rituals. These are linked to mythical and religious social structures in the society. According to Iroquois beliefs, it was the mud turtle that saved the daughter of the Chief of the Sky when she accidentally fell through a hole in the heavens. As most of the animals watched her descent in alarm, the turtle dove to the bottom of the sea to bring up mud to make a soft place for her to land. It is also linked to originating myths in that the small area of mud on the turtle's back evolved into the earth.

The turtle shell is described in the Lewis Henry Morgan collection in New York as follows:

The turtle-shell rattle is used in the dance, both as an accompaniment to the singing, and to mark the time. In all of their dances, except the war dance, the singers are seated in the centre of the room, and the dancers pass around them in an elliptical line. They strike the rattle upon the bench, in beating time, as frequently as thrice in a second, and accompany it with singing. After removing the animal from the shell, a handful of flint corn is placed within in, and the skin sewed up. The neck of the turtle is stretched over a wooden handle." (Morgan 1849:86)

The following is a brief description of the making of a turtle rattles. "After the outer shell has been cleaned, a dowel stick is inserted at the bottom. The holes in the shell are covered in deer hide and wrapped with sinew. Inside the shell are kernels of corn, stones or glass beads, which make the rattling sound."

These objects are an important part of the medicine man's repertoire and a necessary part of most ritual and magical work.

Interestingly Speck and Genera note that,

The manner of holding and shaking the horn rattle undergoes some variation as the hands of the users become tired from continued exertion when conducting the longer chants. The rattle held in the right hand, while usually shaken free, may be struck… [read more]


Colonial American Travel Term Paper

… Lastly, although Hamilton was a well-educated and intelligent man who often enjoyed the people he met on his travels, he was very negative about religious zealots. His pursuits were often of an intellectual level: For example, he created a gentlemen's society modeled on the ones he knew in Scotland. It was called the Tuesday Club, a major impetus for intellectual, literary, and musical developments in the colony. This would have been commendable if had not looked down upon others who were not of the same ilk or used the society for his own personal gains. Hamilton actually did not have much money and had hoped that his move to America would give him professional wealth or provide a welltodo wife. His success was due in large part to his developing this social organization and by using his social and cultural talents as a unique currency to substitute for actual wealth.

By reading these narratives, it is not very difficult to ascertain how the class system, which is so much a part of the present American economic system, arrived and developed in this country. It was hoped by the settlers that they would create a new world, much different than the one they left. However, in this travel guide it was…… [read more]


Andrew Jackson How the Exaltation Term Paper

… These tribes were continually pushed farther west as American farmers and frontiersmen moved farther west. Jackson's policy became the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which allowed the government to transplant any Native American tribe living east of the Mississippi River. Many people thought the relocation was voluntary, but that was not a provision of the Act. Most removals occurred under duress, and they continued long after Jackson's presidency, most notably in 1838 when the Cherokee removal became known as the "Trail of Tears," because so many Cherokees died on the long journey to their new home in Oklahoma. Other tribes lost many members as they were pushed westward, and they lost their culture because their living conditions were totally different than they had been in the East.

Perhaps the worst part of the Indian Removal Act was that it totally ignored the culture and lifestyle of the Indians. They had developed distinct and intricate cultures in their native habitats, but they were removed to lands that were far different from where they had lived, and so, their old habits and customs were no longer valid. There were different animals to hunt, different types of landscape, and different materials to build homes with. Nothing was the same, and their entire lives and culture was changed to allow the country to "grow." It literally grew around and in spite of the Native Americans, leaving them little room for themselves and the lives they had always known. Today, such blatant racism would be decried and disavowed, but at the time, Americans saw it as their divine right, and little thought went to the Indians who had to change their entire culture as a result of the white man's whims. Seen as savages by most Americans, the Indians drew less compassion than many animals. Most Americans regarded them as less than human, perpetuating the saying that the "only good Indian was a dead Indian." There was little sympathy for the original residents of the country, because the superior European colonists always felt they were better and above the people who managed to live off the land so effectively. They did not damage the environment the way the Europeans did, and they did not need so much land for growth and expansion. Because the Indians were seen as less than human, there was little support for their side, and little opposition to the idea of removal. Jackson's personal views seem to indicate that he too had little compassion for the Indians, and in fact, he felt removal would actually be better for them in the end. It is easy to rationalize decisions when they seem to be in the best interest of the victims, and so, America rationalized the removal decision by deciding the Indians would be happier if they were moved farther away from encroaching civilization. Except, no body bothered to ask the Indians. Jackson's policy perpetuated prejudice and misunderstanding, and created a deep hatred for whites in many Native Americans. It also killed… [read more]


Vine Deloria Jr.'s Custer Died Term Paper

… Custer, Deloria wrote, "represented the Ugly American of the last century and he got what was coming to him."

d.

American Indians must continue their efforts to become unified in their efforts to secure their rights. Following the events sponsored by the American Indian Movement (AIM) at Wounded Knee, site of the 1890 massacre, Deloria reports that the sense of unity among American Indians was heightened and has increased ever since. According to Vine Deloria, " AIM created a feeling of solidarity among Indians which has only increased and entrenched itself during the intervening years." 7

e.

Virtually everyone in America claims to be part Indian, usually through a grandmother who as "Cherokee."

In a sort of claim to dubious fame, Deloria humorously comments on how frequently non-Indians told him, when he was executive director of the National Congress of American Indians, that they too share his Indian heritage, with these white Americans always having their claim through a Cherokee grandmother, a tribe they locate variously from Maine to Washington State.

f.

Just as many blacks believe that reparations are in order for "peculiar institution" of slavery and continue to press for equality in the workplace and society in general, Deloria makes the point that Indians too have been historically regarded as second-class citizens and the mistreatment continues today.

Deloria makes the point that despite the numerous, and sometimes well-intentioned government programs designed to assist Native Americans overcome this historic disparity in treatment and allocation of resources, many of these programs have done more harm than good, and this is a characterization of the "well-intentioned" programs. Through a series of treaties, the United States promised to protect the Indian nations, but the history of how governments at all levels have mismanaged and embezzled American Indian funds and property is well established. According to Deloria, "One of the finest things about being an Indian is that people are always interested in you and your 'plight.' Other groups have difficulties, predicaments, quandaries, problems, or troubles. Traditionally, we Indians have had a 'plight.'"

The author emphasizes that the American Indians primary "plight" for the future is one of transparency, because after all, everyone can readily understand it because they themselves are "part Cherokee": "People can tell just by looking at us what we want, what should be done to help us, how we feel, and what a 'real' Indian is really like."

Consequently, Deloria notes that Indian people are reexamining themselves in an effort to redefine a new social structure for their collective futures.

Conclusion

The research showed that with the publication of his book, Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto in 1969, Vine Deloria, Jr. helped to fuel a revolution of sorts among the Native Americans who continue to experience the lingering ethnocentric effects of a mainstream society that believes it knows what is best for all of its citizens, even those who were here first.

Bibliography

Deloria, Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto, New York: Macmillan, 1969.… [read more]


Sherman Alexie's Poetry Research Paper

… Sherman Alexie: The Poetry of the Native American Experience

Sherman Alexie is the most famous Native American writer writing in English today. His style is characterized by an irreverence that masks a much more serious intention. Of Alexie's work, it has been said: "A reader enters the land of MTV and renascent AIM: a cartoon Pocahontas meets Beavis and Butt-head at the forest's edge, Sitting Bull takes on Arnold Schwarzenegger at Wounded Knee '73. The Last Real Indian has a few last words" (Lincoln, "Futuristic hip"). Alexie's work is deliberately designed to undercut stereotypes of Native Americans. His fierce intelligence and modernity belies the concept that Indians are somehow primitive; his fluid use of contemporary references makes a bold claim that Indians are anything but a people of America's past.

What does Alexie want to see within the ranks of Indian writers? "I want us to write about the way we live." He wants Indian writers to write from their own lived experiences, not some nostalgic and romanticized notion of what it means to be Indian. "When I see words like the Creator, Father Sky, Mother Earth, Four Legends, I almost feel like we're colonizing ourselves. These words, this is how we're supposed to talk -- what it means to be Indian in white America. But it's not who we really are; it's not what it means to be Navajo or Spokane or Cour d'Alene (De Ramirez, "Fancy Dancer")

Alexie, a Native American author who expresses a deep love for the classics of American poetry and American film has said that all Native American writers "do have a cultural responsibility above and beyond what other people do, more than other ethnic group, simply because we are so misrepresented and misunderstood and appropriated. We have a serious responsibility to tell the truth" and to act as "cultural ambassadors" (Caldwell, "Interview"). But that cultural ambassadorship means telling the actual truth, not merely recapitulating old truths or cliched ideas of the exotic Native American in white culture.

With this in mind, Alexie's works are profoundly personal but he always links them to a larger cultural understanding. His meshing of classical form, personal life, and Indian culture can be seen in his poem "Sister Fire; Brother Smoke" about his sister who died in a fire. The poem takes the form of a classic villanelle like Dylan Thomas' "Do not go gentle into that good night" and makes effective use of the form's constrained repetition: "When I see my sister in every fire,/is it me who sets her in those pyres/and burns her repeatedly?" he asks. The poem reflects how Alexie is haunted by his sister's death yet also demonstrates self-conscious awareness of his role as a writer, which is to lie: "Have I become an accomplished liar," is the other refrain that is repeated throughout the villanelle structure.

As a Native American author, Alexie clearly feels a responsibility to his people and his family, even while he claims an author's privilege to tell stories… [read more]


Good and Bad of the Last of the Mohicans Term Paper

… To connect spirituality with goodness and "civilization," Cooper tries to show how people of the day saw things. Many people presently often send missionaries to third world countries believing religion will provide these "savages" with guidance and goodness. Whether or not it positively impacts people is left to choice and perspective.

Within The Last of the Mohicans the divergence of good Native Americans, characterized by Uncas and the tribes of Delawares and Mohicans, and bad Native Americans like Magua and the Huron tribe, set the stage for the final image of Native Americans in the American culture and literature. James Fenimore Cooper divides his Native American characters into good ones and bad ones, to not accurately depict real Native American culture but to provide culturally relevant context. Romanticized Native Americans play the role of civilized savages who become victims and friends of an ever expanding civilization of Europeans. Although Magua and Uncas play the roles of good and bad guys, they both meet a tragic fate showing the ultimate fate of Native Americans.

Native Americans have long been seen by Americans as the savages of the new land. They were treated as hostiles and were removed or pushed out by settlers so they can take and farm the land. The Last of the Mohicans shows this struggle as well as provides a way for readers to come to terms with the inevitable fate of most Native Americans. History shows that many Native Americans suffered and died for the advancement and expansion of European settlers. Countless battles were fought and lost by Native Americans and whole tribes killed. This does not mean Native Americans were or are a forgotten people. They still possess their traditions and beliefs.

Still, Americans had and continue to have a stereotypical image of Native Americans. This book provides a popular image of good and bad Native Americans. Whether or not the representation was justified or true to the reality does not matter as it served the purpose it was written for. It helped readers come to terms with the fate of Native Americans in an ever-changing continent.

Works Cited

Daniel, Clay. "Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans." The Explicator 56.3 (1998): 126-129. Print.

Kuiper, Kathleen. Native American culture. New York, N.Y.: Britannica Educational Pub./Rosen Educational Services, 2011. Print.

McWilliams, John P. The last of the Mohicans: civil savagery and savage civility. New York: Twayne Publishers; 1995. Print.

Merchant, Peter. "The Last of the Mohicans reconsidered." Children's Literature in Education 24.2 (1993): 85-100. Print.

Oberg, Michael Leroy. Uncas: first of the Mohegans. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2003. Print.

Ratliff, Tom, James Fenimore Cooper, and Sidong Li. The…… [read more]


Richard Estrada: A Rhetorical Analysis Essay

… There are precious few Native Americans playing on professional sports teams in general and even then the teams are not given potentially offensive ethnic names. For example, note the predominance of Latino-Americans on many baseball teams, yet no team would be called the 'Banditos.' There are many examples in popular culture where referring to the culture of another in a stereotypical fashion has been deemed offensive such as the Frito Bandito in the corn chip commercial. Along with these other once-beloved, now reviled stereotypes must go the Washington Redskins and their ilk.

Opponents to Estrada might argue that he makes a hasty generalization that the team names are offensive or any use of ethic team mascots is offensive. Also, some teams do use human mascots other than Native Americans such as Notre Dame's Fighting Irish, the University of Pennsylvania's Quakers and the Greek Spartans. These examples have stimulated little controversy and in some instances are viewed as complementary. Another hasty generalization within Estrada's analysis is his assumption because one Native American father and child is offended by the portrayal than all are: it is possible to find someone offended by almost anything. He also falls into the bandwagon fallacy at times, arguing that because everyone (including Stanford University) is dropping their Indian names, then all other teams should follow their example.

Regardless, despite Estrada's tendency to generalize based upon anecdotal cases, Estrada offers a 'complete' argument that touches upon all of the components of a logically and rhetorically sound argument: it appeals to pathos, logos, and ethos simultaneously. Estrada paints a compelling and moving portrait of the human costs of prejudice, suggesting that it is not merely an inconsequential issue of political correctness but has had a material effect upon a child's self-esteem. He demonstrates that ethically a shift from such names is keeping within the changing attitudes within American society and that the use of discriminatory language would not be tolerated were it wielded against more politically powerful groups than Native Americans. Finally, Estrada shows that there is no logical reason for retaining the name: the Washington Redskins are as much a part of reality as the Frito Bandito and other cardboard, cartoon representations of non-white cultures dreamed up by Madison Avenue and Hollywood. They exist in the imaginations of whites rather than reflect the experiences of Native Americans.

Work Cited.

Estrada, Richard. "Sticks and stones and sports teams." [21 Feb 2014]

http://www.mtsac.edu/writingcenter/Sticks%20and%20Stones%20and%20Sports.pdf… [read more]


Colonial America: Questions Puritans Essay

… In contrast, African-Americans had far less leverage as slaves. In particular, slaves laboring to harvest cash crops of the South were isolated from developing American society and created their own culture, in contrast to the smaller numbers of house servants in the North.

Q3. Investing in the New England area or the Chesapeake?

The New England colonies are much more independent from the British crown in terms of their governance. The "Massachusetts Bay Colony had to obey English laws. However, its charter provided more independence than did the royal charter of Virginia" (The Pilgrims and Puritans come to America to avoid religious persecution," Holt Social Studies, 2012). New England society is governed by and influenced by religious norms, much more so than the American South. Communities are close-knit, in contrast to the slave plantations of the South where there are chiasmic class divides between slave and free and rich and poor. Small-scale farming is the New England norm and slavery in the North is largely confined to house servants.

Although they have no cash crops, the New England colonies are not lacking in wealth. "Trade was vital to New England's economy. New England merchants traded goods locally, with other colonies, and overseas. Many of them traded local products such as furs, pickled beef, and pork" (The Pilgrims and Puritans come to America to avoid religious persecution," Holt Social Studies, 2012). There is a class hierarchy in New England, but in not nearly as marked a fashion as in the Chesapeake. Another source of wealth is the handicrafts of tradesman: "Families often sent younger sons to learn skilled trades such as blacksmithing, weaving, shipbuilding, and printing. The young boys who learned skilled trades were known as apprentices" (The Pilgrims and Puritans come to America to avoid religious persecution," Holt Social Studies, 2012). Fishing, whaling, and shipbuilding were all viable sources of income, given the proximity of the seas.

Overall, the close-knit communities and relatively stable economy of New England seems to recommend it more as a source of investment. Its copious ports offer a window upon the world in terms of trade and its people are rich in knowledge. They have even established a public school system. On a cash crop farm, what if one crop fails? New England offers many potential areas for investment, and trade in a variety of goods and services. Also, the chances of a wide-scale slave revolt are minimal, in contrast to the South, where such a revolt seems likely.

Q4. Robinson Crusoe

In terms of taking advantage of the opportunities of the New World, the divisions between the races are the most notable: Africans were brought to the Americas by force, and required to labor as slaves. For them, the New World was a prison, not a place of great promise. However, even white men of the lower classes often suffered as unpaid indentured servants, exchanging their unpaid labor for passage to America. These men and women were treated very poorly. "Only about 40% of… [read more]


British Agricultural Revolution and English Research Proposal

… 4 An example of such claims included those of the colonies of Massachusetts that stretched across present day Michigan and Wisconsin.5 This battle beyond the Appalachian Mountains between Whites and Native Americans had international repercussions, namely, with the British government. After 1763, the Crown was interested in maintaining peace in her newly won territories, a peace that was necessary to pay down a huge war debt. The last thing the British government wanted at this time was to reopen war with the natives, especially after Pontiac's War and their conclusion of a peace treaty. Indeed, the Crown moved to check westward settler advancement, opening a rift between the British government and the colonists that would help bring about revolution later on.6 This did not stop the settlers. Indeed, Pontiac's rebellion set a paradigm of genocide for the conflicts to come, including opening a Pandora's box of dirty tricks such as using small pox to decimate native populations to soften them up before launching military campaigns.7

Conclusion

To sum up and review, the author has demonstrated a pressing need for more research concerning the British agricultural revolution and English settlement patterns in their colonies in New England. It is the authors contention that the world view of the English influenced their agricultural practices and the way that these practices changed the ecology of the land in New England. While largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, it did however have commonalities with the Middle and Southern colonies in the drive West and a decimation of Native American cultures and populations. Needless to say, there were huge differences between this English world view and English agricultural policies and the Native American world view, agricultural practices and approach to the environment.

While agriculture was largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, the push in the English settlers mind to keep going west to find arable land was alive and well and continued throughout the colonial period. This English view of agricultural policies was in flux during the colonial experience and after the French and Indian War (post 1763), their policies vis a vis the Native American tribes became much more like the French had been in their policies of tolerating native cultures. After 1763, the British government attempted to contain colonial settlers to the areas east of the Appalachian Mountains, leading to a major contributing cause cited by colonial leaders as a reason for their revolt against the British Crown.

Bibliography

Canterbery, E. Ray. The Making of Economics: The foundation. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific

Publishing Company, 2003.

Cochrane, William W. Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis . Rochester, MN:

Univ Of Minnesota Press, 1993.

Merchant, Carolyn. "The Theoretical Structure of Ecological Revolutions." Environmental Review. 111.

no. 4 (1987): 265-274.

Francis Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac: And the Indian War After the Conquest of Canada,

(London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1984).

Parmenter, Jon William. "Pontiac's War: Forging New Links in the Anglo-Iroquois Covenant Chain,

1758-1766." Ethnohistory. 44.… [read more]


New Netherlands in 1602 Essay

… All the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers was granted to Charles' brother James, Duke of York and Albany.

In 1664 Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into New York Harbor with four ships and 400 soldiers to impose the English claim. The citizens of New Amsterdam were unwilling to fight and on September 8, Stuyvesant surrendered. Soon after, on September 24, Fort Orange fell. New Netherland and New Amsterdam became known as New York and Beverwyck, the settlement that grew up around Fort Orange, was renamed Albany.

The loss of the New Netherland province led to a second Anglo-Dutch war during 1665-1667. This conflict ended with the Treaty of Breda in August of 1667 in which the Dutch gave up their claim to New Amsterdam. However, within six months, on January 23, 1668, the Dutch made an alliance with the English and Sweden against the French king Louis XIV, who was trying to capture the Spanish held areas in the Netherlands.

In May of 1670 Louis XIV made a secret alliance with Charles II and in 1672 he made another separate treaty with Sweden. Then on March 17, 1673 Louis and Charles joined together in a war on the Dutch. During this war, on August 7, 1673, a force of 600 Dutch soldiers under Captain Anthony Colve entered the Hudson River. The next day they attacked Fort James taking the fort on the 9th. The British governor, Francis Lovelace was absent so the surrender was made by Captain John Manning. When Lovelace returned on August 12th, he was arrested and put in jail. With the fall of the for the Dutch had retaken New York. They then took control of Albany and New Jersey.

These gains were temporary, as the lands were restored to the British at the end of the conflict by the Treaty of Westminster on February 9, 1674. The British governor, Major Edmund Andros, arrived in Manhattan on November 1st and gave the Dutch a week to leave. On November 10, the transfer was completed and Governor Colve and his soldiers marched out of the province. From that point the British controlled both the city and province of New York.

Conclusion

The Dutch failed to maintain control and establish a permanent presence in New Netherland because, unlike other colonies which were based in religious foundations, this territory was settled for economic gain. The Dutch had no real incentive to relocate families into the new territory. Settlers in New Netherland put up little resistance to the challenges brought by the English, and displayed little resolve to fight for the company that ran their affairs, nor the political entities that exploited them. When, inevitably, claims to the territory did arise from the English, the Dutch and their colonists lacked a moral principle on which to base their resistance.

Works Cited

"Colonial America, The Dutch in New York." United States History. (NDI). 17 July 2011.

"Dutch Colonies." The National Parks Service. U.S. Departmeent of the Interior. (NDI). 17 July… [read more]


Sociology Research Paper

… While Native Americans consider their cultural values to be some of the most important things in their lives, the contemporary American society has come to use certain native elements as a means of promoting particular merchandise. Native Americans symbols have come to represent everything that they are not supposed to. Things did not change when particular individuals have tried to raise public awareness, as "Native Americans' pleas to eliminate this practice have been met with such strong resistance by individuals who seem thoughtful, well educated, and not particularly racist" (Delacruz, 2003). Some might be inclined to believe that the American society respects Native American heritage by using native symbols to promote certain things. However, the truth is that this does much harm to Native American communities, as they feel that their culture is being deteriorated and their most respected values are being ignored by the American society. Weakened by centuries of persecution, Native Americans have almost gotten accustomed to being discriminated on a daily basis (Delacruz, 2003).

The large number of African-Americans presently residing in the U.S. does not make things less severe when considering discrimination against black people. Lack of jobs, poor education means, harsh discrimination put across by other citizens, and poverty in general are among the main factors preventing African-Americans from successfully integrating society. One can actually claim that the general public has become used to promoting African-American stereotypes and that it is perfectly normal for this minority to be discriminated. Ever since the end American Civil War and the Reconstruction period it became obvious that it would take very long before society would actually get actively engaged in considering African-Americans equals.

Works cited:

Collins, Patricia Hill, Black Sexual Politics: African-Americans, Gender, and the New Racism (New York: Routledge, 2004)

Delacruz, Elizabeth M. "Racism American Style and Resistance to Change: Art Education's Role in the Indian Mascot Issue," Art Education May 2003

"Reverse Racism and White 'Guilt'," The Washington Times 12 May…… [read more]


Sociological Concepts Stone, Edward T. "Columbus Article Review

… Sociological Concepts

Stone, Edward T. "Columbus and Genocide." American Heritage (October 1975).

The author describes in painful detail the extent to which Christopher Columbus and his men were guilty of the forced enslavement, murder, and by even the most forgiving contemporary moral standards, genocide for their treatment of the native Indian populations of the Americas. According to the article, the fact that we celebrate Columbus and some of the other European explorers such as Cortez as "heroes" is a continual denial of the moral atrocities committed by the European explorers against the native peoples of the so-called "New World." The author regards those crimes as on par with those committed by the most notorious modern madmen such as Adolph Hitler because the total number of victims of European explorers during the Age of Exploration dwarfs even the millions of innocent civilians exterminated by the Nazis during Word War II.

Stone describes that the very first reaction of Columbus upon being greeted by the Arawak Indians was to note that they were timid and completely at the mercy of the superior firepower of the Europeans because they had no weapons of any consequence. He wrote that they were cowardly and that a single one of the Europeans could frighten hundreds or even thousands of the natives to flee. One of his first actions upon landing in 1492 was to invite five native men onto his ship under false pretenses of a greeting ceremony. They were immediately taken prisoner and shipped back to Spain for the purpose of using them to learn what riches might be available for plunder on their home islands.

Thereafter, Columbus's men systematically exploited the native Indians by forcing them to work searching for the gold that Columbus believed (erroneously) to be hidden in great quantities in the Americas. The Spaniards set out quotas of gold that all native males had to produce daily and they brutally murdered or mutilated those who failed to produce, typically by chopping off their hands. Columbus's men engaged in wanton brutality including rape and murder without any purpose, such as by testing the sharpness of their swords on people or using them for target practice for their weapons.

Eventually, Columbus realized that his expectations of finding material wealth on the American Islands were unrealistic.

To produce the wealth that he desperately needed to repay his investors and provide the queen with riches, Columbus turned to shipping back the natives in large numbers to be used as slaves in Spain. Initially, as many as half of them died during the voyage because the conditions of their confinement in the olds of his ships were so harsh.

Stone explains that the period that Europeans regard as the "Age of Exploration" was actually a time of homicidal genocide from the perspective of the victims of European imperialism in the Americas. Throughout the entire period, as many as 20 million or more individuals from the native populations originally encountered by the European explorers were killed and… [read more]


Museums Term Paper

… The many different Native American artists featured in this museum present a different light upon Native Americans by exploring their groups artistic side instead of just how they went about their daily business. While both subjects are interesting, their differences are represented by these two museums interpretations of Native American life.

Question 2

The relationship between these two museums is defined by its subject matter, Native Americans. It is quite obvious after observing the different exhibits from both of these places that they have a different interpretation of Native American life. Besides the differences in scope and size that these examples provide, there is also a different tone of respect and celebration as well. The NMAI seems to have fully dedicated itself to the Native American story and is justified by its over 800,000 artifacts stored at the museum. This is not to say that the American Museum of Natural History's representation of a specific part of Native American life is useless, it is just that the breadth of the examination is smaller within the larger scope of each museum's mission.

These museums are also related because of their geographical proximity to one another. Although New York City is a very large and complex place, there should be room for many educational museums dedicated to Native American life. While these museums are not that close to each other, anyone interested in Native American history or anthropology would probably be served better by going to the national Museum of American Indian due to the scope that it focuses on and the amount of information available there. It is not possible to gather as much information as you would need a couple days at the national Museum of American Indian where at the American Museum's wing of Eastern Woodland Indians, after an hour or two most of the information can be fully digested and you may proceed to the next display or exhibition.

Question 3

In our first example it appears that the museum's audience is targeted to a group of people who are interested in learning about a variety of different subjects. The National Museum of the American Indian however is dedicated 100% to the Western Hemisphere's native people and the targeted audience are those who are seeking more in-depth information about this particular subject and desire to spend more time and effort investigating this topic. I feel that these sites are both interesting and helpful, but do not substitute the real experiences of actually visiting the places where American Indians and other Native Americans actually lived and experienced their lives. Museums and their exhibits are find substitutes for this and provide solid educational tools to help gain understanding and learning to those who wish to use this information to carry on new and pertinent studies.

I believe that these museums do a fine job presenting their subject and they do reach their audience in both cases. The artistic influence at the National Museum of American Indians seems to dominate over… [read more]


Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux Research Paper

… (Anderson 1986) Even when they won in court, many times the decisions were simply ignored by the local officials, with the result being that Native Americans ended up being cheated out of their land, their culture, and many times their lives.

Gary Clayton Anderson attempted to paint a more realistic, more accurate picture of the settling of the west by including the point-of-view of those who had been ignored for too long, the Native Americans. His book Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux presented the conflict from the point-of-view of one of those actually involved: Little Crow, a Sioux. By exploring the life of one of those intricately involved, Anderson also presented the reader with a glimpse into the lives and culture of the Native Americans; thereby also presenting the reader with the conflict from the point-of-view of the Sioux. As Anderson stated in the introduction of the book, "…it is about an important, intelligent, and tragic figure in history whose political career (1846-63) vividly illustrates the compromise, dilemmas, and often impossible situations that evolved in dealing with whites in the nineteenth century." (Anderson 1986)

One of best aspects of Anderson's book was the fact that he discussed the different tribal factions on the Native American side. Not only were there differences between tribes, but also between factions within the same tribe. Native American politics were just as convoluted and complex as any other group; with conflicts, alliances, and strange bedfellows. With the constant encroachment and incidents of violence, Anderson presented Little Crow's, and by extension the Sioux people's as a whole, anxiety, fear, anger and resentment at the actions of the Americans.

In the past, it was rare to read a history book which presented the Native Americans as real people instead of stereotypical savages scalping and murdering innocent white women and children. Gary Anderson broke this mold and presented the Sioux as a real people, with a real history and culture, who have real feelings and responses to real acts of aggression. If you want a story about the savage Indians attacking the peaceful settlers and the good cavalry coming to the rescue, do not look here. However, if you want an accurate, involved, depiction of Sioux culture and their reaction to the underhanded and immoral treatment by the whites, then Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux is what you want.

References

Anderson, G.C. Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux, St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Press. 1986. Print.

"Bingham Hall: Dakota Conflict 1862 New Ulm Minnesota" Bingham Hall: New Ulm Bed and Breakfast Lodging. Web Apr. 1, 2011. www.bingham- hall.com/DakotaConflict1862NewUlmMinnesota.html.

Hoover, Herbert T. "Review of Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux" Digital Commons. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1988. Web.
"Indian Removal Act (1830)." Web Apr. 1, 2011 http://acedemic.udayton.edu/race/02rights/native10/htm.

Takaki, Ronald T. A Different Mirror: a History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little Brown. 1993. Print.… [read more]


Dead Man's Walk Essay

… The reason for their fervor is that the American Indians are intent to save the land that they believe is rightfully their own from any enemy, no matter what his skin color or his nationality.

As Buffalo Hump is about to throw his spear at Call and get his revenge, he sees a dark woman on a white mare. The scene shifts to a flashback of the warrior as a young child, listening to the same elderly woman from the beginning of the film. She is again sitting by the fire, signing without speaking, while a voiceover narrates her actions. The old woman informs the young version of Buffalo Hump to "Beware the dark woman on a white mare." This image, she says, "will be the end of the Comanche people." Upon seeing her, Buffalo Hump backs away, not injuring any of the group, although they all see him and comment on his behavior. Rather than attack, Buffalo Hump backs away on his horse and lets the white men go free. Despite his anger and rage, when he sees the dark woman from the elder's vision, he has no choice but to obey her. Even though he is listening to an order given many years ago, his heritage demands that he honor the decree of the old woman.

The Native Americans in Dead Man's Walk are supposed to be the villains of the story. However, it is evident from the motivations for their actions that they are only trying to defend themselves from invaders and revenge themselves on those who have done them wrong. With this in mind, it is obvious that the only thing that separates them from the white men is the color of their skin. That factor alone is what determines who is the hero and who is the villain of the…… [read more]


Immigrant and Ethnic History Essay

… Ethnic Studies -- Indian Removal Issues in American History

Describe the way of life of the Choctaws and the Cherokees in early 19th century America society. What were the Advantages and the Disadvantages in 19th century American society? Had they… [read more]


Peace Keepers of the Northeast Research Proposal

… Peace Keepers of the Northeast: The Iroquois Indians

The Iroquois Indians were a large group of various indian tribes who resided along side the Genesee River, the Mohawk River, and the Lake Ontario regions in New York around 1600. Iroquois… [read more]


Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Term Paper

… Witness the hostility toward illegal aliens and the drastic measures, like a border fence, to keep them out of the country. That concept was born in the early attitudes of western immigrants, and it continues today.

Racial prejudice was alive and well in the American West. The treatment of Chinese workers, blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans shows an attitude of "scapegoatism" and racism that is hard to ignore. The whites were ready to blame everyone for any misfortune, because they came West with high hopes of finding wealth and security, and many were sorely disappointed. They needed someone to blame besides themselves, and it was easy to blame someone they did not understand or care to understand.

This book is an excellent assessment of many aspects of western history that many historians have overlooked. The author does an excellent job of researching her topic and presenting it to readers. I do believe the author proves her case, and shows that the people of the West were really conquerors, rather than pioneers, and that the frontier was actually a myth that history has perpetuated. The book is interesting, and if there is any flaw, it may be that the author may have some prejudices of her own that she highlights in the book, such as her feminist viewpoints about women that sometime show through. Otherwise, it is a good history book and a lively viewpoint.

References

Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the…… [read more]


Women Art Thesis

… Women in Art

Living Art: Female Native American Artists and Their Living Artistic Expressions

The artistic representation of the various cultures of Native American peoples represents more than just aesthetic value. It also represents a connection to life and the… [read more]


Ancient Burial Site Thesis

… Ancient burial site - Outline

Native Americans have been oppressed over the last four centuries by the European colonists coming to rob the new continent of its riches. The settlers have come up with various schemes in order to motivate… [read more]


Libraries the Role of Library Media Centers Thesis

… Libraries

The Role of Library Media Centers in a Native American Community

Nearly two million Americans identified themselves as Native American during the United States census in 1990. One third of those people reside on over 300 Indian reservation while… [read more]


John Wesley Powell and His Work With the Bureau of Ethnology Thesis

… Classification of Native American Tribes Into Cultural Families

Native American Considerations

Contrary to some citizens of the West who considered the Indians to be savages, John Wesley Powell saw the Native Americans as people. Powell perceived these people as part… [read more]


Small Pox Plague in 1779 Essay

… Smallpox Plague In1779

In you own words: how did the smallpox plague of 1779 affect the Native American population? Where did this plague begin? Evaluate how the plague influenced future events.

While today European domination over the Americas might seem like a historical inevitability, this was not the case, neither from the perspective of the native inhabitants or the colonists. Although the colonists may have possessed military technological innovations the Indians did not, frequent trade between the two peoples had leveled this inequity. Many of the tribes had grown strong and wealthy because of the fur trade. Also, some of the Indian tribes were skillful at politically manipulating different groups of whites against one another, although this ability greatly deteriorated after the French-Indian wars. Still, the ultimate death-knell of Indian power was the smallpox epidemic. The immunological profile of smallpox was that a sufferer either died, or emerged from the pox with complete immunity. However, this was a relatively new disease to the Americas, and the Indians had built up no resistance to the pox.

The powerful Northeastern Six Nations…… [read more]


Civil War Summary of Part III Essay

… Civil War

Summary of Part III "A Land of Contrasts:" the Boisterous Sea of Liberty:

Even in the colonial era, the distinguishing characteristic of America was the diversity of its population" (Davis & Mintz 87). Although America's diversity is often conceptualized as a recent development, the relatively decentralized control of the Americas early in colonial history made the land, in its own way, perhaps even more pluralistic than our own extant union. Settlements emerged in different areas, all of which possessed very different demographics and manifested very ways of life. There was no centralized government or national authority to speak of, paving the way for the creation of a loose confederation of states of America rather than a single union. America at its conception was marked by regional, ethnic, religious, and national diversity.

America, as soon as European colonists began to penetrate its borders, became a mosaic. Almost all of the nations of Europe wished to enrich themselves with the New World's abundant natural resources and by trading with its native inhabitants. All of Europe was well aware of the great power that would be gained by the nation that eventually dominated the colonies. Colonists also sought to settle in the region for a variety of reasons, some seeking freedom from the state religion in the case of the Puritans and Quakers, or freedom from the European class system and economic limits on wealth and property in the case of the early settlers in Jamestown, Virginia. The Native American population itself was just as diverse, and included both warlike and pacific tribes, hunter-gatherers and farmers and fishers.

Another common misconception about early American pluralism pertains to religious tolerance. According to the Boisterous Sea of Liberty, early American society was characterized neither by complete tolerance or intolerance towards religious liberty, rather attitudes towards religious liberalism varied from state to state. A common misconception about early America is that it was entirely intolerant in the Puritan model, or conversely that it embraced a conception of religious freedom along the lines of the later Founding Fathers. In fact, the truth was something betwixt and between. Some colonies enforced strict religious ideology, others were more liberal, and others did not care and contained settlers more focused upon economic enrichment. The diversity of religion in early American society spanned the Dutch Reformed Church in New York, to Church of England Virginians, to Puritan New Englanders in Massachusetts.

Economic expansion because of more liberal governance in the colonies was most manifest in the cities with ports. These cities were also the most diverse -- Dutch New York has been called America's first pluralistic society, much as today New York is celebrated for its international composition. Early New York contained Protestants of various denominations, as well as Catholics and Jewish residents. Despite its name, New Amsterdam was never a mirror image of the Dutch founders. The city was always only half Dutch -- it was populated by the French, Scandinavians, Germans, Brazilian Jews as well as "various… [read more]


Reciprocity Inside and Outside Iroquois Confederacy Essay

… Reciprocity Inside and Outside Iroquois Confederacy

How does Fixico's explanation of "reciprocity" in his book, the American Indian Mind in a Linear World, apply to the world of the Iroquois as explained in Daniel K. Richter's book, the Ordeal of the Longhouse: The peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization, in their relations inside and outside of the Iroquois confederacy? Be sure to evaluate reciprocity's outcome by the early 1800's.

In his book the American Indian Mind, Native American author Donald Lee Fixico paints an inspiring but generalized portrait of the idea of reciprocity between fellow Indians, and the ways that Indians conceptualize the past and future as a continuum. However, in many arenas of Native American history, such as that of the Iroquois League, while common ritualistic understanding of time may have united the different clans, economic and political interests could also divide tribes internally as well as create antagonistic relationships with other tribes. The Iroquois were best known "for their ferocity in war; power more than peace characterized their dealings with outsiders" (Richter 31). There was a paradox amongst the Iroquois in particular: a cultural ideal of internal peace and mutual reciprocity combined with the actual practice of seemingly incessant war against outsiders.

The sense of what Fixico might call "reciprocity" that kept the Iroquois League together was mapped even onto the physical space of the tribe: "the organization of physical space...embodied an ethic of sharing and reciprocity between kin groups" (Richter 21). This stood in profound conflict with European proprietary notions of space. The Iroquois "possess hardly anything except in common," a French missionary marveled, based upon his observations of the tribe (Richter 22). Even meals amongst many of the tribes and clans were regularly eaten in common. "Relationships among people rested on the alliances of spiritual power that came from reciprocity" (Richter 29). The principles of inter-clan reciprocity even "required members of another kin group to 'cover' the grief of the bereaved by conducting funeral rituals, providing feasts" and any potential leader had to build his influence both outside and inside village councils through "the mechanisms of kinship obligations, personal persuasion, and reciprocity for gifts and favors bestowed. Even within his own lineage, a headman had to lead primarily by example" (Richter 33; 44)

Yet the Five Iroquois nations as conglomerate of clans with a common culture were eventually torn apart by rivalries when they came in contact with European nations. Despite the formation of the Iroquois League, and this apparent early bonding because of antagonism to the Europeans, rivalries over trade, relations with European traders, as well as exposure to European diseases formed the League's undoing. The Iroquois were able to maintain their confederacy for only a relatively brief time, although this did enable them to function as power brokers in the region in a significant fashion. Europeans brought goods that made war more deadly, as well as enhanced the quality of the Indian's life only momentarily with new types…… [read more]


Colonial America the Experiences in Early Essay

… Colonial America

The experiences in early Colonial America are best described as violent, contentious, and socially fragmented. However, this is not a mutually exclusive point-of-view. While we can surely believe that not every day was bad and every experience negative, we can understand that relations with the colonists and the Native Americans was tense at best. Certainly, ideas were exchanged and each group of people contributed to the other in areas of education and survival but overall, the experience was more dreadful than anything else. As expansion took place, the Native Americans grew increasingly territorial and resorted to whatever means they felt justified to maintain control of their communities, even if that meant murder. As stated in the article about the Chesapeake colonies, we know that Native Americans "murdered serverall of our bretheren and put them to the most cruell torture" (Rushforth 101). Colonists were rightly concerned for the lives as tension between the two groups grew. Even in Bacon's Rebellion, the Natives were treated as…… [read more]


Juvenile Justice Policy Removal From of Violent Juveniles From Home Thesis

… ¶ … Violent Juveniles Removed from Homes

The legal relationship between the Americans and Native Americans has long been one that ensured the European descendants of the earlier settlers had and would retain legal domain over the territory and lands… [read more]


Anthropology Native American Term Paper

… ¶ … Hopi Tribe of Northern Arizona. Specifically it will discuss how livelihood issues are being addressed on the reservation (casinos, natural resource harvesting, land right, etc.). The Hopis are a unique tribe, in that they have lived in the same location for literally thousands of years, and their reservation is totally surrounded by the much larger Navajo Nation. Traditionally, the Hopis lived throughout the Northern Arizona area, and spread into parts of California and Southern Nevada, as well. Their language is based on Shoshone, and they are thought to have migrated to their present home about 500 B.C. from Mexico.

Initially, the Hopis were hunter-gatherers, but they began subsistence farming about 1200 years after they migrated northward. Settling in the area of the Three Mesas in Northern Arizona, they built villages, and learned how to grow small, blue ears of corn without any irrigation other than runoff from the mesas themselves. They are still known for this "dry" form of agriculture, and you can still see the cornfields as you travel the mesas of the Hopi reservation.

The Hopi society is based on matriarchy and clans. One Hopi historian writes, "Hopi society was matrilineal, which meant that the mother determined field inheritance and social status. Women owned the field, but only the men of their clan worked in them" (McNair). The Hopis still live in their ancient villages on First, Second, and Third Mesa, and the oldest village (sometimes called Pueblos) is Old Oraibi, which was first inhabited in 1050, and is still inhabited today. While there are many modern homes on the reservation, the oldest villages still maintain the pueblo character of ancient Pueblo villages built of stone and mud, and layered on top of one another several stories high. If you have seen ancient cliff dwellings in the Southwest, the villages are reminiscent of them.

The Hopis have a complex belief system, based on their cornfields and the growing season. They believe in over 300 different types of Kachinas, or spirits, and they hand carve the Kachinas out of cottonwood roots and other woods, and then decorate them with paint and handmade clothing. These Kachina dolls serve as toys for young girls, but they are also extremely popular with tourists who visit the mesas. Many of the Kachinas also participate in the elaborate dances and religious ceremonies held throughout the year. Many of the ceremonies, not surprisingly, deal with rain and other crop issues. Men participate in these ceremonies, often performing elaborate dances in costumes that replicate the Kachinas, such as the Eagle Dance, the Blue Star Dance, and one of the most famous, the Snake Dance.

Another Hopi expert writes, "The religious dances also feature men wearing masks to portray these Kachinas, with the snake dance as the final ceremony" (Smith). Many of these dances are open to the public, but there are restrictions on photographing, recording, or even sketching the villages and the ceremonies. These ceremonies continue throughout the year, and most are held in… [read more]


Cherokee the Impact of Intolerance of Tribal Term Paper

… Cherokee

The impact of Intolerance of tribal religion on the Cherokee over the last 150 years

The Cherokee are one of the largest North American indigenous tribes. They are linked to the Iroquoian linguistic family and the Southeast culture area.… [read more]


California Frontier Term Paper

… California Frontier

The novel Indian Survival on the California Frontier by Albert Hurtado focuses on the story of how the native American Indians have survived from the catastrophe of living in a desperate time during the nineteenth century where a lot of societal problems such as starvation, diseases, and crimes hunt the Indian population. Hurtado portrayed in the novel a lot of challenges that the native Indians of California had faced to survived from the devastations during the middle of nineteenth century.

Within the novel, the cultures and perspectives of the California Indians were revealed in that despite of their problems from the society's treatment, specifically that of the white Americans, they still emerged as strong people who did not let their status in society become just victims of the rapaciousness of the white Americans (Yalepress Online). Instead, they also played the role of becoming influences in the American history.

The main…… [read more]


Labor and the Growth of the Northern Colonies in America Term Paper

… Labor and the Growth of the Northern Colonies in America

The growth of colonies in the North America started in the sixteenth century. All attempts of king Jacob II to organize trade companies (such as Moscow or West Indian) in… [read more]


Subcultures of Nebraska Term Paper

… Teaching in Multi-Ethnic Classrooms

Experts in education talk about "cultural competence," or the need for teachers to understand the cultures their students come from (Battle et. al., 2002). It's an important concept in education, because The United States is becoming… [read more]


City Upon a Hill Term Paper

… ¶ … City upon a Hill is associated with the sermon given by John Winthrop in 1630. This sermon, according to many experts, was delivered before the Puritan colonists actually landed in New England. Winthrop sees the establishment of a… [read more]


Origins of Scalping Revealed Term Paper

… Origins of Scalping Revealed

The European origins of Scalping

The common perception of the North American Indian that has remained dominant in popular culture is that they were the originators of the horrific practice and ritual of scalping.

Before the… [read more]


Racial Genocide Term Paper

… These brutal forced marches, sometimes in the dead of winter, were nothing short of horrific, and today would be labeled a war crime (Indian pp). The most famous of these marches has come to be known as the Trail of… [read more]


Ethnic and Religous Term Paper

… This is why hostilities and conflicts on this subject, between white Americans and Native Americans, continue to run very deep.

In order to have the best lands, and to feel safe from many of the Native American tribes, whom they considered to be dangerous savages, starting in the 17th century, Anglo settlers forced Native Americans off the lands they had inhabited, cultivated, and hunted upon, for centuries. Instead, they forced them onto reservation lands for Indians only, where the quality of the land was not as good and the location less desirable overall, for either Indians or whites. But the Indians were forced to stay there, build schools, there, etc. From the eighteenth through the 21st centuries, this had been an ongoing conflict, and the issue still comes up of expanded land rights for Native Americans.

3. Do casinos represent an ethnic dilemma for Native Americans?

I think that casinos, like alcohol and other things in American life that are considered to be dangerous activities and/or moral vices, probably do represent an ethnic dilemma for Native Americans, in today's world, even though casinos are very profitable. The good part about gaming is that Indian gaming has made many formerly very poor Indian tribes very rich. But gaming of any sort (Indian or non-Indian) is also associated with problems the Native Americans themselves are not any more immune to than anyone else, such as compulsive gambling, or smoking and drinking while gambling, second-hand smoke in gambling places, spending too much money on gambling, corruption of children and adolescents through gambling. Therefore, Indian gaming is a two way street. No benefit, economic or otherwise, comes without a price. In terms of revenue to Native American tribes from Indian gaming, the money is helpful, but gambling itself and the various problems associated with gambling, as a livelihood or just an activity, cannot possibly be helpful.

Then, in addition to other negative stereotypes of native Americans that have long existed, those Native Americans have a new stereotype to contend with, that of being money grubbers, or people who cheat others of their money in order to themselves benefit from gambling profits. So yes, I think it is a unique ethnic dilemma for Indian tribes involved in gaming or thinking of becoming involved with it. It is one of the most profitable enterprises in America, and the Indians certainly deserve some financial opportunities, after having their lands taken away from them, and so much else. At the same time, though, Indian gaming cannot help but cause various ethnic dilemmas for Native Americans, based on the…… [read more]


Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee Book Report

… ¶ … Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West by Dee Brown. Specifically, it will evaluate, analyze, and synthesize the strengths of Native Americans in the face of adversity. This book has become a… [read more]


European Colonization of the Atlantic Coast Term Paper

… ¶ … European Colonization of the Atlantic coast and neighboring lands was a very complicated process which can not be regarded as simply positive or negative. This is a very uneasy historical problem which influenced American history and changed the… [read more]


Colonies in Early America Differences Between Chesapeake Term Paper

… ¶ … Colonies in Early America

Differences between Chesapeake Colonies and New England Colonies

The Chesapeake colonies - Virginia and Maryland - were called Chesapeake colonies because they bordered on the huge Chesapeake Bay. There were of course many variations in the ways of life - and basic philosophies which motivated people - between the Chesapeake settlers and New England settlers, according to Mary Beth Norton's text, A People & A Nation: A History of the United States.

First of all, the English settlers in Virginia did not get along with the Native Americans (Indians) as well as settlers in New England. Authority within Indian tribes (in particular Algonkian tribes) was based on agreement within the tribe community, a consensus arrangement, whereas English power was autocratic.

Also, "...The English refused to accept the validity of Indian claims to traditional hunting territories" (26), and the English "showed little respect for traditional Indian ways of life." As a result of this lack of understanding and lack of respect for the Indians, and of the fact that the Virginia colonists were expanding their tobacco fields deep into Indian territory - trying to convert the Indians to Christianity in the meantime - the Indians attacked on March 22, 1622. Some 347 colonists were slain, about one-fourth of the entire settlement.

And though the Indians were eventually repelled, and beaten back, this savage attack helped assure that the Virginia Company did not profit from all the growth of tobacco: "The Virginia colony reeled from the blow but did not collapse" (26).

Meanwhile, following this economic failure of tobacco, Virginia, in a sense, became an economic laboratory of King James I: he created a "royal colony" out of Virginia in 1624, appointed his own officials to govern the colony. Virginia became a "headright" system as each new arrival "was promised a land grant of fifty acres" (27); to the wealthy, it offered the chance to establish "vast agricultural enterprises" which in many cases were worked by indentured servants. Those English servants "accounted for 75 to 85% of the approximately 130,000" (28) migrants to Virginia and Maryland.

According to the Gary B. Nash text, Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early America, a male indentured servant "could tend about 1,000 to 2,000 tobacco plants" (53), which would be worth about 100 to 150 British Pounds per year. The indentured servants (who had signed contracts in England committing to a certain specified number of years of servitude) were brought to Virginia "by the shipload" and "auctioned off at the doc to the highest bidder" (53). And the "more servants" the landowner could purchase, "the greater the crop he could produce; larger crops brought more capital with which to purchase land and additional servants."

The New England Colonies' primary reasons for settling were unlike the Chesapeake settlers, who, according to Norton's book, were "little affected by religious motives" (30), while the New Englanders' religious beliefs were "a primary motivating factor."…… [read more]


Epidemics and Smallpox in Colonial Term Paper

… The clearing of forests for new farmlands caused environmental hazards.

The effects of these epidemics transcended North American borders. As early as the 16th century, Europeans began transporting slaves from African colonies. The Europeans, particularly the Portuguese and Spanish colonists,… [read more]


Women the Specific Attitude Term Paper

… The man, on the other hand, was said to be an loaf, who all day long sat in the shade of the lodge and smoked his pipe, while his overworked wives attended to his comfort. In actuality, the woman was the man's partner, who preformed her share of the obligations of life and who employed an influence quite as important as his, and often more powerful.

The statuses and roles for men and women varied considerably among Native Americans, depending on each tribe's cultural orientations. In matrilineal and matrilocal societies, women had considerable power because property, housing, land, and tools, belonged to them. Because property usually passed from mother to daughter, and the husband joined his wife's family, he was more of a stranger and yielded authority to his wife's eldest brother. As a result, the husband was unlikely to become an authoritative, domineering figure. Moreover, among such peoples as the Cherokee, Iroquois, and Pueblo, a disgruntled wife, secure in her possessions, could simply divorce her husband by tossing his belongings out of their residence.

Native Americans established primary relationships either through a clan system, descent from a common ancestor, or through a friendship system, much like tribal societies in other parts of the world. In the Choctaw nation, " Moieties were subdivided into several nontotemic, exogamous, matrilineal 'kindred' clans, called iksa." (Faiman-Silva, 1997, p.8) The Cheyenne tirbe also traced their ancestry through the woman's lineage. Moore (1996, p. 154) shows this when he says "Such marriages, where the groom comes to live in the bride's band, are called 'matrilocal'." Leacock (1971, p. 21) reveals that."..prevailing opinion is that hunting societies would be patrilocal.... Matrilineality, it is assumed, followed the emergence of agriculture...." Leacock (p. 21) then stated that she had found the Montagnais-Naskapi, a hunting society, had been matrilocal until Europeans stepped in. "... The household either is of the nuclear type or is extended to include relatives of one or both parents...." (Dozier, 1971, p. 237)

Works Cited

Dozier, E.P., (1971). The American Southwest. In Leacock, E.B., & Lurie, N.O. (Eds.),

North American Indians in historical perspective. Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc.

Faiman-Silva, S. (1997). Choctaws at the Crossroads. Lincoln: University of Nebraska

Press.

Leacock, E.B. (1971). Introduction. In Leacock, E.B., & Lurie, N.O. (Eds.), North

American Indians in Historical Perspective. Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc.

Moore, J.H. (1996).…… [read more]


Lewis and Clarke Expedition Term Paper

… Horse were very widely by the Shoshoni tribes as it was important for transportation especially in the rough terrain's of the Rocky Mountains. The Hidatsas were the main rivals of the Shoshone tribes and in the clashes that occurred women… [read more]


Visions New Lands? Old Ideas Term Paper

… Sickness and ill fortune are visible signs of the presence of evil spirits. The spirits must be exorcised by carefully repeated rites. One mistake in a ritual, and the entire spell is ruined. Such attention to detail speaks to a much more closely regulated society. The categorizing of spirits as either good or evil is indicative of a world with clear boundaries. There are limits to man's conduct, rules that even the gods must follow. Transgression of these rules is wrong. Morality has found a place in the natural world.

And as if to carry the ethical theme even further, the Iroquois creation myth revolves almost entirely around the setting of boundaries. The Maiden is conceived through an illicit relationship. Her father's demise teaches the man-beings the rituals of death. The burial case is placed high in a tree on a separate plane from the mortal world. The fact that the Maiden can speak to her father even after his death is a source of wonder to the man-beings because it transgresses all the normal laws of existence. Even the instructions that the dead man gives his daughter are peculiar and involve the breaking of barriers both social and physical. The Maiden must journey out of her native land, cross a river, and then undress in front of the strange man who will be her husband. She will let the dogs - his slaves - lick the corn mush from her naked flesh. Everything she does is literally outside the bounds of normal social intercourse, up the tree or across the river. In this Onondaga myth, the ways of the divine are mysterious and otherworldly. There seems little connection between man and god.

Yet, this distinction between human and divine is carried still further in the tradition Judeo-Christian Story of Creation as found in Genesis. God is an entity entirely apart from the natural world. He exists outside it and even before it is brought into being. It is his divine will alone that creates every physical thing and every living thing. The universe is carefully ordered according to an inscrutable (to humans) divine plan. The sun moves in its course, the moon through the night sky. Herb yielding plants bring forth seed because God has decreed that they must. And at last into this perfect creation, God places his greatest creation of all - man. However, man too is separate from the rest of created nature. The world was made for him, and is to be ruled by him, just as God rules the cosmos as a whole. Here we have the story of a people accustomed to strict laws, and to established authority. There is a clear ranking among beings, a script to be followed; regulations to be obeyed. Adam and Eve are eventually cast out of Paradise because they have disobeyed God, transgressing what appeared to them at the time an arbitrary decree. "Touch not the fruit of the tree of knowledge..." In the Judeo-Christian world, there… [read more]


Archaeological Artifacts Repatriation Essay

… In 1990, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) obligated federal museums and collections to restore to Native American tribes skeletal remains, grave goods and sacred objects - including those excavated or collected as early as the mid-nineteenth… [read more]


Comprehension and Miscomprehension Between French and Micmac Essay

… Comprehension and Miscomprehension Between French and Micmac

The French and Micmac cultures that met and, to a certain extent, merged early in the 17th century could not have been more dissonant. As such, the manner in which representatives from each regarded one another is also considerably at variance. This fact is revealed through a prolonged analysis of the interpretation of the practices of the Micmac by France's Father Jean de Brebeuf, and the interpretations of the customs of the French by an unnamed Native American leader. The principles differences with which they view one another's culture has to do with the fact that the most important facet of the Native American leader's interpretation is the degree of cultural autonomy his people have and that the French seemingly do not, whereas de Brebeuf makes it quite clear that whatever similarity to the French culture the Micmac exhibit is commendable and moral, while those that are different are immoral and in most cases wrong.

Due to these differences that influence the way each of the representatives from these cultures view the habits of one another, it is not surprising to see that each is highly judgmental if not outright critical of the other. In the case of the Native American leader this is quite understandable, as the basis for this text is to refute the traditional view that European culture is vastly superior to that of Native Americans. The cultural autonomy that is at the heart of the leader's poor opinion of the French habits stems from the very fact that it is the French, and other Europeans, who are making immense efforts to seek the Micmac and other tribes of Native Americans, and their lands. The Native Americans, despite their willingness to engage in trade, are not the ones actively seeking it and, as such, are demonstrating a hegemony and solidarity that the Europeans, who routinely seek such a society with Native Americans, simply do not have. The following quotation demonstrates this point. "…we find all our riches and all our conveniences among ourselves, without trouble and without exposing our lives to the dangers in which you find yourselves constantly through your long voyages" (Foner 19). This quotation indicates that the leader esteems his people's self-contained practices, and considers the comparably needy culture of the Europeans (of trade, of forcing their religions on others, etc.) as inferior.

De Brebeuf primarily attempts to understand aspects of the Micmac's culture by comparing it to his own. As such, all similarities between the two are regarded by the religious leader as benign, while all differences are viewed with condescension and, on occasion, even outright repugnance. This fact is most demonstrably viewed in the priest's writings regarding the religious practices of this group of people, which is polytheistic and certainly at variance with the monotheistic Christianity professed by de Brebeuf. The following quotation indicates that the priest actually bases value…… [read more]


Minorities in the United States Essay

… Minorities in the United States

Discuss the importance of Native American sovereignty in the 21st century to both the indigenous populations as well as the general population of the U.S.A.

The United States is one of the most important democracies… [read more]

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