Study "Native American Indians" Essays 166-220

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Education of Little Tree Age Research Paper

… Her age, and her frank wonder, allows him to see himself with the same sort of wide-eyed wonder and amazement regarding his heritage.

The age of Little Tree's initial caretakers in the film -- that is, his Granma and Granpa -- is also very important for the construction of identity in The Education of Little Tree. This is true on several levels; first, their age naturally gives them a certain universal authority, especially over Little Tree himself. As the primary parental figures in the film, they (especially Granpa) actively and consciously shape Little Tree's identity by informing him of the Cherokee history and the way they suffered at the hands of the government and the white settlers, and indoctrinating him in the world and community they currently occupy. The impact of their age and wisdom on the impressionable young Little Tree is clearly shown in Little Tree's retelling of his Granma's words: "when you come on something good, first thing to do is share it with whoever you can find; that way, the good spreads out no telling where it will go. Which is right."

Little Tree learns to open himself to others through his grandparents' teaching, and it is the other people he encounters and opens himself to in the film that influence and shape his identity. In addition, the elderly are especially revered in Native American culture, and the respect that Little Tree's Granpa has in the community definitely makes an impression on Little Tree. Their age also reflects the "old ways" of the Cherokee, which are obviously not entirely tenable in the modern world. Little Tree's youth makes him the new hope of the Cherokee people; he must forge an identity that bridges the old ways of the Cherokee and the new ways that the tribe and other Native Americans must get along in the modern United… [read more]


Trail of Tears Research Paper

… Trail of Tears Review

Theda Perdue and Michael D. Green's new history of the Cherokee people, the Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears, was a very interesting read. As a direct descendant of a member of the Cherokee nation… [read more]


Museum Management When the Crisis Breaks Term Paper

… Museum Management

When the crisis breaks, the Museum Director calls a meeting of the Museum Board for assistance in solving problems that have begun to arise. After his appeal, the members of the Board rise to the occasion with various… [read more]


Incident at Oglala Movie by Leonard Peltier Term Paper

… Leonard Peltier: How Justice Miscarried

Leonard Peltier has been in prison at Ft. Leavenworth more than 30 years for a crime he and many supporters say he didn't commit. He was convicted of killing two FBI agents in 1975 on… [read more]


Ghost Dance Religion and the Wounded Knee Massacre Term Paper

… Ghost Dance Religion and the Wounded Knee Massacre

James Mooney writes in The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890 that the essential part of the teaching of the Ghost Dance is the doctrine that the world is old… [read more]


Stereotypes the Human Mind Essay

… Also it is possible to respect this practice as well. Native Americans and their culture possess many righteous and just traditions that should be celebrated and remembered. Not all stereotypes should be considered negative and throwing out the baby with the bath water proves oftentimes to be a mistake. Celebrating a culture is one thing and desecrating it is quite a different thing. This distinction is unfortunately blurred too many times and hurts feelings instead of producing inclusion and cooperation.

Certain stereotypes of the Native American such as their ties to nature, their bravery and their willingness to defend their land should not be ignored, but they should also not be marginalized either. The tendency to see the differences in one another in today's current culture and entertainment seem to have a serious impact on this discussion and perhaps more tolerance and humor should be injected into the conversation. Too often, life is taken too serious and we cannot celebrate and enjoy the cultural differences that are present throughout society.

Local traditions should dictate the sports mascots and representation as much as possible and others that disagree should respect that region's ability to discern what is offensive or not. In these hyper-segmented and mechanistic times it is important to remember that humanity is blend of many different shades and colors and it is okay not to like or to like something or someone. Stereotypes come in handy in many social situations and embracing them allows a sense of welcome and acceptance when minority opinions are being represented.

References

Merriam Webster Online. "Stereotype." Viewed 4 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stereotype.

Merriam Webster Online. Glass Ceiling. Viewed 4 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/glass%20ceiling [read more]


Language Planning in Southeast California Term Paper

… Lina Chong #6270585383

Am

Final project: Language planning in Southeast California

Introduction/Issue Focus

Bilingual education inevitably involves teaching academic content in two languages. While most people think of immigrants learning the English language, the fact that Native Americans are commonly… [read more]


Planning a More Successful Jamestown Colony Essay

… Planning a More Successful Jamestown Colony

When British settlers first tried to colonize the American Continent, they experienced several setbacks that almost cause them to abandon the idea altogether. One expedition was lost at sea on the return trip back to Britain, another vanished completely without any trace in a mystery that has never been solves; and the Jamestown Colony had actually given up already and was preparing to abandon the continent when they finally received long-needed supplies and additional assistance from Britain. In retrospect, much could have been done differently to increase the likelihood of success.

Initial Planning Considerations

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert and his party were lost at sea returning to England from the coast of Newfoundland. His half-brother, Sir Walter Raleigh, made a similar attempt to years later but his group abandoned their plans too, returning to England after experiencing severe food shortages and hostility from the Native American "Indians." The tremendous difficulty of maintaining adequate food stores in the new terrain and climate would have been the principal requirement of a well planned expedition, perhaps second only to adequately skilled navigation and seamanship. Therefore, the task of negotiating the open ocean in the manner undertaken by the Jamestown settlers should never have been left to English "gentlemen adventurers" as was the case at that time. The expeditions should have been led by highly experienced professional seamen or former British Royal Navy officers.

It was also irresponsible to set off to colonize a new continent without carefully planning out a reliable means of sustenance. I would have employed smaller preliminary… [read more]


Discovery Narrative Analysis of William Term Paper

… Bradford attributed the Indians' success in planting, harvesting, and cultivating plants and animals as a 'gift of God.' What he considered as developments in the life of the natives was interpreted as "good beyond their expectation," which include not only… [read more]


Development and Destruction of Native California Essay

… ¶ … Destruction of Native California

(1) How did indigenous people adapt to California's environment? What explains the diversity of Native Californian societies?

Although the environmental conditions are quite different than what can be found elsewhere on the continent, there… [read more]


American Civil War/Sioux Indians Cowboys Term Paper

… They, wisely, feared the worst. Yet, despite their refusal to sign the treaty, Red Cloud went to Washington "wearing a big top hat" and shook hands with Grant, ratifying the treaty into law.

As this was happening, and important ties… [read more]


African-Americans and Western Expansion Research Paper

… This was why it was prepared to secede in 1850, had Congress adopted the Proviso of David Wilmot banning slavery in all the territories annexed from Mexico in the recent war. In 1848, a new Free Soil Party organized to… [read more]


Indian Gaming Term Paper

… ¶ … Indian gaming in the United States. Specifically it will discuss the pros and cons of Indian gaming. Indian gaming (legalized gaming on Native American reservations and lands) began in 1988, and has spread across the country. There are now Indian gaming casinos in a majority of American states, and they account for a large percentage of gaming revenues in the nation. Because these casinos are located on tribal lands, they avoid the regulations of the state where they are located, and operate under Federal Law.

The pros of Indian gaming are many. Many Native American tribes that have invested in Indian gaming are seeing spectacular results. Their casinos generate the type of income they have never seen before, and many wise tribes are diversifying that income into other investments, building resorts, golf courses, restaurants, and other businesses to support the casinos and diversify their investments. This increased income is spread throughout the tribe, so tribe members can afford better housing, and other amenities. In addition, many tribes earmarks profits to educate their young people, which could not occur when tribes were poor and underfunded.

Income is not the only benefit the casinos bring to Native tribes. They bring opportunities for employment in the casinos and other business ventures, and they often bring other developments to the area, such as shopping and other venues that did not exist in the area before. They bring more opportunities for the residents, but at what cost?

However, there are many cons to Indian gaming, as well. Of course, the casinos and influx of people change the culture and landscape of the area, and usually not for the better. They use much more energy, and they are expensive to build and maintain, which means the tribe will need to borrow money to begin the venture, and pay it off in a… [read more]


American Revolution, Production of Staple Products Grew Term Paper

… ¶ … American Revolution, production of staple products grew, economic risks decreased, transportation improved and individual merchants and small companies experienced reduced costs through improvement of economies of scale (McCusker & Menard, 22). Contrary to the Colonial Period, with the… [read more]


Blackfeet Nation Indians Term Paper

… Obesity is another healthcare concern. Over one-third of all Indians are overweight. This can be attributed to a change in eating habits in the last 30 years. Native Americans may also have a genetic predisposition to diabetes. Indians are more likely to have diabetes than any other racial group in the world (Broussard).
Language and Preservation of Culture
Darrell Kipp returned to the Reservation 20 years ago to reconnect with his culture and was surprised to learned that there were few fluent speakers of Piegan, the Blackfeet language. Those that did speak the language were more than 60 years old (Nijhuis). This prompted Kipp and a few fellow Indians to found the Piegan Institute. This organization is nonprofit and works to restore and preserve Native American languages. The institute opened the Nizipuhwahsin, or

Real Speak, Center in 1995 to immerse students in the Blackfeet language. These students are the "first young fluent speakers of the Blackfeet language in a generation (Nijhuis)." The Center not only is preserving the language, it is teaching children their culture and helping them clarify their indenties (Nijhuis)
When Indian children attended school off the Reservations, they were told to speak only in English and after time they became ashamed of their native language. The parents and grandparents stopped speaking the language because they were afraid their children would be punished for using it. This almost wiped out a 10,000 year-old view of the world (Nijhuis).
Sovereignty and Government
More than 500 tribes are sovereign under the Constitution, including the Blackfeet Indians. Because of this, state regulations concerning banking don't apply, though federal laws about unlawful transactions are enforced (Ritter). The Tribal Government of the Blackfeet Indians is the Blackfeet Tribal Business Council. A democratic election is held every two years to choose nine councilmen who manage and supervise tribal property and business affairs (www.blackfeetnation.com).
Fighting the Government

Elouise Cobell is a Blackfeet accountant and banker who has filed a class-action lawsuit that states the US government owes $12 billion for "mining, logging and other development on millions of acres of Indian land (Wilkinson)." The suit hinges on the inability of the US Interior and Treasury Departments to produce written records concerning money owed from the Individual Indian Moneys trust fund with 500,000 native Americans, both living and dead, named as plaintiffs (Wilkinson). With most Indian communities suffering from poverty, a win

in this case would help their economic status tremendously. The Interior Department has declined comment at this time concerning this matter and the government has resisted a settlement. The government recently stated they have a new plan to straighten out the trust-fund books, but the Indians and some officials don't hold out much hope it will work.
Conclusion
The Blackfeet were once the most powerful Indians north of the Missouri River. They were known for being a high-spirited, easygoing tribe who could become hostile when challenged. They were revered by pioneers, traders and other tribes for their fearless warfare (Lopach).
Today they are some… [read more]


Race and Ethnic Inclusion Research Paper

… Since the time of the American Revolution, groups have been struggling to be included (Hyter & Turnock, 2006). One sees this in the way the colonies were first created and how they adjusted to provide options for some people but not all. People were divided by race, ethnicity, social class, gender, and many other categories. Today, most people are less divided in those ways, at least from a societal and/or employment standpoint.

The argument in the book is that the American Revolution was significantly more than just a group of people who decided to break with their roots in England. While that was important, it was more than just a change of scenery. There were huge political, economic, and cultural reasons why the colonists moved to the U.S. from England, and those all needed to be addressed to better understand the Revolution itself.

The main point of the book was to showcase the formative years of the U.S. Quarreling colonies were the beginning of something that became a more tight-knit if somewhat unruly republic, and that evolved into the huge society that makes up the United States today. It was a very radical time, and many of the books written about it downplay that too much, which means the reader misses out on the complete experience of the United States' creation.

Like all books, this one has strengths and weaknesses. The main strength is how the book focuses on the radical wildness of that time in history. That is very important, and something that is often overlooked. The weakness the book possesses is that it spends too much of its energy on class conflict and -- in some ways -- makes the radical nature of that time period out to be more than it was. People who read the book will need to draw their own conclusions on the accuracy of the radicalism.

Gordon S. Wood is a history professor at Brown University. He is a winner of the Pulitzer Prize and the Bancroft Prize. Wood is a frequent contributor to The New Republic and The New York Review of Books. His views on history have been applauded by some and discounted by others, but it is clear that Wood believes in the opinions he holds and is deeply fascinated by history.

Bibliography

Berlin, Ira. 1998. Many thousands gone: The first two centuries of slavery in North America. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Davison, K.N. (2005). The mixed race experiment: Treatment of racially categorized individuals under title VII. Law journal library, 12: 161-164.

Gasorek, Dory. 1998. Inclusion at Dun & Bradstreet: Building a high-performing company. The Diversity Factor 8(4).

Hyter, Michael C. & Turnock, Judith L. 2006. The power of inclusion: Unlock the potential and productivity of your workforce. NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Kerber, Linda K. 1998. No constitutional right to be ladies: Women and the obligations of citizenship. New York: Hill and Wang.

Miller, Frederick A. & Katz, Judith H. 2002. The inclusion breakthrough: Unleashing… [read more]


Indian Problem Essay

… Indian Problem

What was the Indian "problem" [latter half of the 19th C.], and how did the U.S. government go about solving it? Successful? Not successful? Explain

In the second half of the nineteenth century, American Indians were viewed as "savages" and alien to American culture. Americans therefore viewed them as a "problem" that needed to be solved. There were two main ideas on how to deal with this problem. On the one hand, there were hard-liners, especially in the military and among those who lived in the frontier, who believed that the best solution was to exterminate American Indians in totto. On the other hand, there was the second option, propagated by humanitarians and religious groups, which was to thoroughly Americanize the Indians and help them integrate into the mainstream society. After a series of battles called "Indian Wars," which eventually decimated the military power of Native American groups, the relatively humanitarian idea of solving the Indian problem prevailed.

The major policy adopted in the latter half of the nineteenth century was to send American Indians into reservation camps and educate their children in the boarding schools designed to "uplift" and "civilize" them. An Army Officer named Richard H. Pratt opened one of the first of these schools in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1879. The purpose of the school was to teach American Indian children the English language, Christianity, American way of life, and assimilate them through education. The school in the first year accepted 50 Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Pawnee Indian children. On the order of Pratt, the children had their hair trimmed, required to speak English, and avoid "any displays of tribal traditions, such as Indian clothing, dancing, or religious ceremonies. Pratt's motto was 'kill the Indian and save the man'" ("Tragedy of Plains Indians," n.d.). The motto… [read more]


Stannard American Holocaust Essay

… ¶ … American Holocaust' (1993), David Stannard claims that a genocide happened to the indigenous inhabitants of North and South America on a huge scale by the early inhabitants of America inhabiting this land following Columbus' discovery.

For four hundred years, from the Spanish assault against the Arawuk people in 1490 to the Sioux massacre by the U.S. Army in the 1890s, 'savages' endured deathly plagues imported by white people, racism, slavery, bigotry, cruelty, and mass murder that, countless times wiped out significant numbers of their population. Under the aegis of imperialistic expansion, so-called pious Christians and Europeans (English, French, Dutch, and Spanish) wiped out scores of natives.

When Columbus landed on the isle of the Americas in 1492, it is estimated that there were over 8 million native inhabitants. By 1496, from one third to a half had been decimated by murder, slavery, disease, and torture until by 1535 they were extinct.

Come the onset of the 20th century, and approximately 150 million 'savages' had been wiped out by "modern" Europeans on the basis that they were an ungodly, inferior race.

Hitler was said to have based his extermination program on the "Indian problem." In the 1930s, eugenics projects included systems where Native Indians and African-Americans were specially singled out surgically neutered and castrated. One such program was the Vermont Eugenics Program. In the 1960s the Bureau of Indian Affairs was found to be using saline solution instead of vaccines on native Indians, experimenting on Native Americans, and neutering native women during C-sections so that they would lose their childbearing capacities.

Most controversially, Stannard maintains that this underhanded genocide still continues today with uncovered uranium deposits on Navajo lands in the American Southwest that causes genetic damage to the inhabitants, and American financial non-profit resources that abstain from helping or extending themselves to the natives.

Ward Churchill, another historian, describes the decimation… [read more]


Divided Ground the Book Term Paper

… The author also introduces many other historic characters that had a hand in the division of the tribal lands, and shows how the colonists simply took what they wanted when treaties and promises stood in the way. The author writes of one treaty that negated cleverly negotiated Native American land leases. He writes, "State and colonial leaders declared imminent and inevitable their acquisition of Indian land, diminishing aboriginal title to a temporary possession" (Taylor 2006, 10). Later, President Washington signed a bill that "invalidated any purchase of Indian land, whether by a state or an individual, unless conducted at a treaty council held under federal auspices" (Taylor 2006, 242). While this invalidated the kinds of purchases that divided the Six Nations, the government continued to grab land, ignore treaties, and move Indian Nations throughout its history, and this book chronicles only one of those tragic events.

References

Taylor, Alan. 2006. The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the… [read more]


East From Indian Country Term Paper

… The proclamation was an attempt to allow the colonists and Natives to co-exist peacefully, but there was too much animosity on both sides for that to ever occur. The author also discusses Thomas Gage, the new commander in America who seemed to approve of killing Indians, or at least not prosecuting those who did kill Indians (Richter 213).

The author also notes that there were several references to Native Americans in many of the country's revolutionary documents, such as declarations from Congress that worried about inciting Indians to violence, and Thomas Paine's "Common Sense," which asserted the Natives wanted to destroy the colonists. The chapter concludes with several battles and skirmishes after the Revolutionary War, and the new, anti-Indian policies of the new leaders in Washington, especially President Andrew Jackson, who was particularly anti-Indian.

References

Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country.… [read more]


Indian Diplomacy the History of European Settlement Essay

… Indian Diplomacy

The history of European settlement of the American continents is unfortunately one of subjugation. The Indian nations that had occupied and cultivated various areas of the land since prehistoric times found themselves negotiating with white invaders for terms on which they could keep -- and eventually would lose -- their land. This is often seen as a problem only between the early United States government and the Indian tribes, but in fact the problem goes back even farther, to the time when many European nations were competing for "New World" resources.

The Indian people as a whole were doing quite well when first "discovered"; many tribes had complex cities and social structures, while also loving in greater harmony with nature.

The Spanish had focused their attention on South and Central America early on, decimating entire populations with warfare and disease, heedless of any possible rights the Indians might have in their quest for gold and other wealth.

This came to typify the way European settlers and military commanders would deal with the Indian populations they encountered.

In the north, the Indians dealt more with the French and Dutch, and eventually the English. The first two groups dealt started as effective trading partners and were more in competition with each other, which led to better deals for the Indians as each nation attempted to offer them more in return for their cooperation.

Eventually, however, increasing competition led to a disregard for any Indian rights, and diplomacy was thrown out in favor of brute domination. Conflicts like the French-Indian war showed how little Indian welfare was thought of; the fight was really between the British and the French (with certain Indian tribes fighting on both sides) for control of the land and resources that these Indians had occupied for centuries.

The Indians did not practice politics in the same way as the Europeans, and so any efforts at diplomacy were doomed to failure because of the Europeans' greed and manipulation.

Identifications

Joseph Brant: Mohawk… [read more]


Political Culture of Race and Racism Essay

… Race

Both Ward Churchill and Jean-Paul Sartre analyze the phenomenon of colonialism. Focusing on different specific instances, Churchill and Sartre offer harsh critiques of the dominant culture. Churchill comments on the American holocaust: the massacre of 90% of the indigenous… [read more]


U.S. History Indian Giver Essay

… ¶ … Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World by Jack Weatherford. Specifically it will contain a book report on the book. Weatherford's thesis for writing this book is clear. He wants people to know that Native Americans, in both North and South America, and been forgotten and misrepresented with it comes to history. This book proves this point in many areas, from food to our basic democracy, and it is an engrossing book that acknowledges the importance of Native Americans in so many ways.

This book includes dozens of instances where the Native Americans influenced culture, society, and even capitalism in the world. The author begins with a discussion of South American gold and silver, mined by Natives, which led to the beginning of capitalism and the industrial revolution in Europe. The silver and gold helped fund countries and fuel competition, both necessary for the industrial revolution and capitalistic tendencies. The book is absolutely full of examples like this, that seem perfectly logical when reading about them, but would not necessarily be the first thing people would think of when thinking about Native Americans.

Another example is the many different foods they have contributed to world cuisine. For example, the Incas grew potatoes, something Europeans had never seen before, and they grew corn, like the Natives in North America. These foods, and many others, like tomatoes, peppers, and others found their way to Europe and were introduced to European tables. Weatherford writes, "The monarchs and Adam Smith knew what the peasants would soon learn: a field of potatoes produces more food and more nutrition more readily and with less labor than the same field planted in grain" (Weatherford 67). Today, we take the potato for granted, rarely think about its' origins, and cannot quite imagine life without it, but the author makes it quite clear, it is just another of the many ways Native Americans continue to influence our culture and… [read more]


Federal Indian Policy Essay

… Federal Indian Policy

One of the first government policies on the Native Americans was the Trade and Intercourse Act of 1790, which said that no Indian lands could be sold unless the government authorized the sale. A second Act was passed n 1793, which allowed government agents to live with and watch over individual tribes. One author notes, "Under this authorization appeared the permanent Indian agents, assigned to particular tribes or areas, who became indispensable in the management of Indian affairs" (Prucha 1984, 161). Another Act in 1802 dealt with issues such as whiskey sales and other items on the reservations, among other items, and Congress was formally nominating Indian agents during this time. Another author note, "Other Trade and Intercourse Acts provided federal compensation to injured Indians, but made no attempt to regulate conduct of Indians among themselves in Indian country" (Editors 2009).

In 1824, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was established to help deal with Indian affairs. During Thomas Jefferson's presidency, more Indian tribes were moved from their lands to barren and unprotected areas out west, which Jefferson said "protected" them from the white… [read more]


Facing East From Indian Country by Daniel Richter Essay

… ¶ … East from Indian Country, by Daniel Richter

"Native Voices in a Colonial World"

Richter, Donald. Facing East from Indian County. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003, pp. 110-188.

According to Facing East from Indian County by Donald Richter, one of the difficulties of assessing white and Indian relationships during the colonial period is the fact that there are so few Native American accounts surviving, in comparison to the many documents and personal narrative by whites. Those that do remain, such as that of the 'Apostle to the Indians,' a converted Native American, are written either by whites in a Native voice, or by Natives in a language in which they were imperfectly fluent. By the time a large amount of Native accounts were published, European cultural dominance had become so strong many Indians spoke English as their first language and were at least nominally Christian (Richter 173). Given this evidence of cultural eradication, problems remain trusting the veracity of accounts of Native-white relations regarding such experiences as conversion, particularly given the highly stylized and controlled literary and ideological conventions of the time.

One notable difference, though, Richter notes between tales of Indian and white conventions is the emphasis on sins of actions, rather than sins of the heart in Native American conversion tales, probably because "seventeenth century Puritans relentlessly hammered home the sinfulness of… [read more]


Early American History Thesis

… ¶ … American History

"a Model of Christian Charity."

Although John Winthrop's, "A Model of Christian Charity" suggests that God has many reasons for setting some apart as wealthy and others poor, his reasoning seems more like he is trying to reassure himself than convince others of a truth he holds. This can be seen in his invocation of God in the first sentence, which seems to suggest his own insufficiency. Furthermore, he consoles himself by stating that no person is better or wealthier than another based on a common need, and that this is only the case for the glory of God, not mankind. Finally, Winthrope's discussion of God's law as a mediator of this condition, suggests he is not satisfied with it. Thus, it cannot be assumed that Wintrhop's "A Model of Christian Charity" questions his faith, but this essay clearly suggests that Winthrope is not happy with the inequality of society, and seeks to rationalize it.

Week 3: Frontier Planters Petition...against the Indians

In this petition, addressed to Judge William Barkly, the Indians' actions are described as barbaric and horrific. They have burned some alive, killed others, and are torturing the planters' community. The tone of this piece… [read more]


Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership Second Edition Term Paper

… Indian

The historian R. David Edmunds'1984 biography entitled Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership is a cool, factual overview of the events of the 1812 wars in Ohio between the white settlers and the Native American residents of the area. It is also a compelling biography of one of the rebellion's greatest leaders. This uprising was unique in that it united many Indian tribes and was characterized by less tribal infighting than many previous conflicts between whites and natives. Edmunds attempts to present a cool, factual account of the life of Tecumseh, one of the most influential leaders of the rebellion, and the customs and culture of Tecumseh' people, the Shawnee.

Unlike some other historians of the period, Edmunds does not attempt to defend the rhetoric of Tecumseh, nor idealize the Indian population. He takes an ethnographic approach, drawing what is available from oral literature about Tecumseh and using this surviving data to give cultural context to the man's life. However, Edmunds does not take the opposite tact either, like one historian, focusing on the Indian warrior's most polarizing rhetoric, such as "burn their [the white's] dwellings -- destroy their stock -- slay their wives and children, that the very breed may perish...whence they came, upon a trail of blood, they must be driven!" (Love, 2002, p.1) Despite such heated words to his own populace, Tecumseh was an effective negotiator with the American government, more so than many of his contemporaries.

Such vehement words to the Indian tribes were necessary, Edmunds suggests, to create a sense of a common enemy. This is another example of how Edmunds neither demonizes Tecumseh nor turns him into the ideal of the 'pure' native American. Tecumseh was a canny diplomat, with a clear political mindset. He could deal with whites, yet spur his own people onto victory. By portraying Tecumseh in this manner, the achievement of Tecumseh becomes even more impressive, in the eyes of a contemporary reader. Achieving the unity of all the Indian population of the area, however temporarily, was a considerable feat, and only possible by a skilled tactition like Tecumseh. The Native American's ideal of unity between diverse, yet commonlly oppressed peoples still survives in the current… [read more]


Jesuit Relations: Natives and Missionaries Term Paper

… They could not help but scorn the people that would eventually destroy their culture, even if they did not recognize all that meant or entailed. The Indians were wise enough to try to hold on to their lands, and they… [read more]


Counseling American Minorities Term Paper

… ¶ … Counseling American Minorities, Sixth Edition (2003) by Donald Atkinson

Counseling American Minorities Sixth Edition (2003) by Donald Atkinson offers much insightful, potentially useful information for current and future counseling practitioners, about culturally aware and sensitive approaches to counseling… [read more]


Iroquois Indians the Position Term Paper

… " This is the record as given by Herriot. They became a leader among all the tribes of Indians through their warlike nature and victories in battles. Even in 1649, they destroyed two Huron villages and scattered the group to the winds and then totally destroyed another village which had six hundred villages.

Ultimately this led the villages to go and present themselves for a settlement to the Anglo-Americans. As per the historians, there was a dread of the Iroquois and it "had such an effect upon all the other nations, that the borders of the river Ontaouis, which were long thickly peopled, became almost deserted, without its ever being known what became of the greater part of the inhabitants." Today the situation has changed and most of them are idle and just remain drunk most of the time and only small sections retain that activism. There are some who have learnt about their history from elders who had been told of the glory and pride of the nation. When the matters of today are told to them they are very sad as they are not in a position to change it. There is some satisfaction among them when they are told about the ancient prophecy that is known by most of them. "The man of America will, at some future time, regain his ancient ascendancy, and expel the man of Europe from this western hemisphere." (The Life and Writings of Dewitt Clinton) Well that is probably the dream with which that nation faces tomorrow.

References

Iroquois Creation Myth. Retrieved from http://www.uwec.edu/greider/Indigenous/woodlands/Tom/Religion.htm Accessed on 25 June, 2005

Johansen, Bruce. E. Forgotten Founders. 1982. Retrieved from http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/FF.txt Accessed on 25 June, 2005

The Futures of Indigenous Peoples: 9-11 and the Trajectory of Indigenous Survival and Resistance. Retrieved from http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-hallfenelon.pdf Accessed on 25 June, 2005

The Life and Writings of Dewitt Clinton. Retrieved from http://www.history.rochester.edu/canal/bib/campbell/Chap07.html Accessed on 25 June, 2005 [read more]


Cheyenne Indians and the Ghost Term Paper

… The dance lasted for days and consisted of slow shuffling movements accompanied by singing and chanting, but no drumming or any other musical instruments, with men and women alike participating.

After Wovoka held the first dance in 1889,-word spread quickly… [read more]


America: Nation of Paradoxes Research Paper

… '

Thus, America emerges as a paradox: on one hand, it is conceptualized as a land of freedom, even by many immigrants themselves who may have faced initial prejudice. But while some groups have been able to fully assimilate and 'become white' such as the Irish and Italians, because of a variety of cultural and historical forces, African-Americans and Native Americans have found themselves excluded from the promise of America. Their struggles of integration and cultural preservation may have been different but both highlight the problematic claim that America is 'the land of the free.' The question always arises: freedom for whom?

Works Cited

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey. "Unguarded Gates." 1895. Print.

Hawk, Walter Echo. In the Courts of the Conqueror. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum, 2010.

Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American century." Demography (pre-2011) 42.4

(2005): 595-620. ABI/Inform Complete. Web. 19 Sep. 2014.

Hopkins, Pauline Elizabeth. "Chapter XV. Will Smith's Defense of His Race." Contending

Forces. Norton Anthology of American Literature. 7th ed. Ed. Nina Baym. Vol. C. New

York: Norton, 2007. 748-52. Print.

Lazarus, Emma. "The New Colossus." Web.

Nelson, Bruce, and Katrina Srigley. "Divided we Stand: American Workers and the Struggle for Black Equality." Labour.50 (2002): 334-6. ProQuest. Web. 19 Sep. 2014.

Vanderpool, Tim. "Lesson no. 1:… [read more]


Believe That "The Crying Indian Book Review

… Whereas Europeans created a complicated and complex society, the Indians were simple. Morton portrayed Indians like children, believing them to be happier but also less ambitious. The pilgrims were interested in intellectual pursuits; Indians in nature.

What do the Columbia River dams have to do with "The Crying Indian"?

The Columbia River dams are integral to the Crying Indian campaign because they are hallmarks of environmental degradation via consumerism in America. The dams were used by multiple industries, to divert power to the canning companies and the beverage companies that had become overtly wasteful. This is why they are directly related to the "Crying Indian" campaign that was sponsored in part by these very industries that were destroying nature.

Why does Strand believe that anti-litter ad campaigns are so problematic?

Anti-litter ad campaigns are problematic in that they do not get the root of the problem, and in many ways they promote consumerism. They suggest that it is ok to live in a disposable society, as long as you dispose of trash properly. What these campaigns should be doing is to help consumers use reusables instead. Yet the beverage industry and especially the container industry does not want consumers to use reusable bottles or containers. These ad campaigns also help consumers avoid taking responsibility for their actions, and help companies also avoid taking responsibility for their actions. The consumer is told that they are in charge of keeping America beautiful, while still buying disposable items, and the companies can hide behind their ad campaigns while still promoting unethical behaviors. [read more]


Colonialism and Its Consequences Forcing Research Paper

… Colonialism and Its Consequences

Forcing Assimilation through the Guise of Education

Looking back at some of the justification used for the brutal treatment of native cultures during the period of colonialism really makes no sense from a modern perspective. In… [read more]


1820-1850 Is Seen Essay

… Jackson's presidential success was essential in making people think that he would assist the masses in benefiting as a result of the country's international triumphs. "Once again, the forces of privilege had been driven from Washington. Once again, a champion of democracy would occupy the White House and restore liberty to the people and to the economy. America had entered, some Jacksonians claimed, a new era of democracy, the "age of the common man" (231).

One of the most surprising things about Jackson is that he was a passionate supporter of economic inequality and social separation. The fact that he and his close advisors had most managed to experience economic success on account of their own talents influenced them in thinking that they were very different from the rest of the American aristocracy.

It appeared that the main goal of Jackson and his friends were to guarantee that other American citizens had the opportunity to go through the same process as they did as they became wealthy. Jackson and people like him were generally unwilling to allow Eastern aristocrats to control affairs in the country and to prevent the rest of the population from experiencing shared success.

Jackson was determined to denounce the nullification law and insisted that anyone who dared to implement it could be accountable for treason. He even went as far as to propose "a force bill authorizing the president to use the military to see that acts of Congress were obeyed" (243).

Jackson was determined to remove Indians from territories in the vicinity of American states and he believed that by moving them to the West he would make it possible for Americans to settle further to the West on territories previously belonging to Native Americans. His actions have had terrible consequences on Indian populations as they were forced to travel westward to territories that they nothing to do with and as they were poorly equipped to travel great distances. "Between 1830 and 1838, virtually all the "Five Civilized Tribes" were expelled from the southern states and forced to relocate in the new Indian Territory, which Congress had officially created by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834" (245).

Jackson was actively involved in cancelling the Second Bank of the United States' federal charter for a series of reasons mainly related to how particular individuals were provided with the opportunity to exploit both the government and the nation's finances. Given that Jackson intended to provide all people with equal powers to experience progress, he acknowledged that the federal charter was actually meant to assist wealthy individuals in becoming richer. His involvement was practically meant to assist western and southern states in having the opportunity to progress similar to how northern states were progressing. The seventh president was reluctant to allow the country's rich families to continue to exploit the masses without providing them with the privileges that underprivileged individuals were entitled to.

It is difficult to determine the exact role that Jackson played in the change happening… [read more]


Spade Walking Down to Examine Term Paper

… He places himself deep into their confidences in order to bring them to justice, even compromising his reputation with the police department. Spade demonstrates the commitment and righteousness of the best police officers, but his loner personality and unconventional methods virtually prelude him from working in a formal organization.

High Noon illustrates the moral component of the loner hero. Kane's moral heroism is an outgrowth of his individualism, his willingness to resist the dictates of society. Just as Hawkeye is willing to live among the Indians and resist the British overlords in order to protect his community, Kane is willing to defy conventional wisdom and even the wishes of his townspeople in order to uphold the law against the Miller gang. Kane risks his life to uphold law and order in his former town, even though he receives no appreciation or support while doing so. Kane is also a very stoic man, willing to put his feelings aside in order to get the job done, to do what is right. He is even willing to part ways with his beloved, strong-willed, and ultimately loyal wife.

The Big Sleep is another film noir that demonstrates the stoic determination of the loner American hero. Marlowe is a world-weary, hard-boiled private detective who seems to have worked one too many cases. However, underneath Marlowe's callous exterior is a calm, inquiring man with a sense of duty and a respect for the truth. Though a moral and sensitive human being, he is able to steel himself and calmly wade through the morass of depravity that accompanies his line of work without flinching. Just as Hawkeye the woodsman calmly wades through the wild, dangerous forests of Indian territory in Western New York, Marlowe makes his way through the seedy underworld of Los Angeles, relying on his wits and experience as a detective to… [read more]


Captain Smith by Pocahontas Antonio Term Paper

… Greenough's sculpture therefore represented the defense of virtue, civilization, progress and white womanhood against the allegedly savage and mindless violence of the Indians. In reality, of course, they were the ones defending themselves from constant attacks and encroachments on their… [read more]


Cherokee Removal Book Report

… Cherokee Removal

The "Trail of Tears": Historical Background

In the spring of 1838, U.S. troops began to round up people of the Cherokee nation and imprison them for eventual removal from their land. With the exception of a few Cherokee… [read more]


Indigenous People Had a History or Culture Before Europeans Arrived Thesis

… indigenous people had a history or culture before Europeans arrived

The book that Camilla Townsend wrote, "Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma," goes deep into the colonialism period of the state of Virginia and depicts the life of Amonute, an indigenous… [read more]


Gut Reaction to This Reading? Term Paper

… ¶ … gut reaction to this reading?

This reading underlines the complex nature of the society of the Algonquin tribe, despite the fact that much of our knowledge of the tribe has been lost. The European colonists were not interested in recording the native religious beliefs and sociological practices, except in a judgmental fashion or to the degree which they impacted European designs upon the land. Although hardly 'perfect' or politically correct in its construction -- Native American tribes were just as gender-divided as the societies of conquering European nations -- the colonists did not perceive that native belief systems were just as intricate as their European intellectual culture, and that native customs were ultimately better-suited to living in harmony with the land of the New World.

Q2. Explain how the Algonquin Indians saw their relationship with the land, the crops they grew (especially corn) and the animals they consumed?

The Algonquin saw their relationship with the land was one of reciprocity. They treated it well, with sustainable agricultural practices and moderate hunting of game, in the hopes that it would give them food from season to season. Animals had divine significance, and thus over-hunting was not justified, given that the animal gave its life as a gift to the tribe. In contrast, the Europeans saw the land as something to be disciplined, tamed, and imposed upon. Civilization was synonymous with the Christian faith in the European mindset -- they believed they had to convert the natives, as part of their moral duty (although it was also economically advantageous to do so). The Indian religion saw nature as a living entity that must be respected. Corn was not seen as an animate object but it was seen as a gift that could be withdrawn, if the god that gave it to humans was not… [read more]


American Dream Is the Idea That Anyone Essay

… American Dream is the idea that anyone, provided he or she works hard enough, can succeed in America. It is an idea that has brought many immigrants to the shores of the nation, and fueled many new businesses, acting careers, and professional aspirations. It is what drives many new arrivals to America to toil nearly nonstop, with the hopes of making themselves wealthy. It is what motivates many parents to spend money they can ill-afford to educate their children at the best schools. Yet the definition of the American Dream, as beautiful as it may be, has proved to be a lie for many who have worked hard, and striven for success, yet failed in the wake of insurmountable social obstacles.

The history of the American Dream can be traced to the colonial era, before America was officially founded as a separate nation. The early settlers of Jamestown in Virginia hoped to make a profit, growing cash crops in the New World. The New England Pilgrims hoped to create a 'shining city on a hill,' a religious society that reflected their concept of an ideal community. Members of the lower classes of Europe, as well as religious minorities fleeing persecution flocked to America's shores, in an attempt to escape the social and financial limitations of an older, tradition-bound society. America's possibilities seemed endless -- endless land to cultivate, and endless freedom. The American Dream was defined, in their eyes, as making a clean break with the old, and beginning again.

However, defining the American Dream in terms of prosperity and freedom can be problematic, given that much of the new wealth that was created was fueled by depriving others of their freedom. Africans were enslaved to create the wealth of the plantation economy of the South and the… [read more]


Peoples of Eastern North America and the American Democracy Essay

… American Democracy

Contact between Europeans and Native Americans undoubtedly shaped the course of New World history. Political alliances enabled strategic partnerships for trade as well as land settlements. Pre-existing rivalries between the French and British were played out on New World grounds, and the indigenous peoples served critical roles. Moreover, as Johansen points out, European settlers witnessed Enlightenment values in practice among Iroquois Confederacy government. It was as if the Iroquois offered a concrete vision of what the future of the United States might look like. Therefore, the indigenous people of North America did in fact shape the formation of the United States.

The indigenous people of North America quite literally shaped the formation of the United States by determining which colonial power(s) had access to which specific territories. For example, a British alliance with the Iroquois enabled military victories that determined geo-political boundaries (Johansen). The alliances formed between European settlers and the indigenous peoples were indispensable, because without aboriginal knowledge of the land it would have been impossible to navigate through forests and rugged mountains (Johansen).

On the other hand, encounters with the indigenous populations of North America did not change the imperialistic worldview that Europeans brought with them. European historians have projected and conjectured about the pre-contact history of the indigenous peoples (Price and Fineman). Similarly, European accounts of contact with the aboriginal peoples vary from "romantic" to derogatory (Fagan). The "noble savages" in all their alien diversity were put on ships to the Old World and put on display like circus animals (Fagan). Considering the genocidal effects of contact, the Europeans had a far more devastating, meaningful, and long-lasting effect on Native Americans… [read more]


Conflicts and Amity of the Algonquian Indians and Settlers Thesis

… ¶ … conflict and amity of the Algonquian Indians and the incoming settlers. The Algonquian Indians were one of the most numerous tribes of Indians living in North America before English settlers began arriving. They lived from Virginia northward into… [read more]


Racial Issues Between White Americans and Native Alaskans Term Paper

… Alaska Racial

One of the interesting things about stereotypes and prejudice based on racial issues is the relativity. Asian-Americans or blacks write about how difficult it is being raised in an all-white small-town community. Yet, the opposite is true as… [read more]


Changes in the Sacred Landscape Dealing With the Black Mesa Coal Mine Term Paper

… Black Mesa Mine

The Black Mesa Coal Mine is in Northern Arizona and is owned by the Peabody Coal Mining Company, which leases the land from the Hopi and Navajo tribes under an agreement from 1964. there are actually two… [read more]


American Experience Term Paper

… American Literature

The End of Savagery: The Abolition of Traditional, American Indian Societies to pave way for the White American's "New World" Society

America between the 18th and 19th centuries experienced a transition from being a traditional to a gradually modernizing society. With increased capabilities to be more mobile and travel other territories all over the world, the Western nations -- European nations, in particular -- sought to discover new societies and territories wherein they can establish new societies, extensions of societies that they already have in their own respective countries. With the objective of expanding their power and influence around the world, these Western nations found success when they discovered the territory they called the "New World," the territory that is now known as the American nation.

As the white conquerors set to establish their colonies in the New World, a radical change was implemented, wherein the territory's early and original inhabitants, the American Indians, faced competition and conflict against the conquerors. As the European conquerors lived in the New World, a corresponding program of eradicating the traditional societies established by the American Indians was implemented. Similarly, annihilation of tribes who disagreed or disapproved of the Europeans' plans to conquer their new territory was also supported and encouraged.

These dynamics that occurred during these periods are mirrored in the works of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Washington Irving, and James Fenimore Cooper. In the literary texts that they authored, the short story "Young Goodman Brown," "The Devil and Tom Walker," and "The Last of the Mohicans," respectively, all have expressed their disapproval and criticism of the radical eradication of American Indian societies as the white man set out to establish his own colony -- eventually, a new society and nation -- in the New World that is America. In these works, the theme of preservation of early traditional cultures -- in this case, the preservation of American Indian cultures and societies -- is dominantly illustrated and analyzed. That is, in the face of accelerated progress and development, the authors remind their readers that one must not forget ("eradicate") the heritage from which a nation traces its roots from.

Hawthorne in the short story "Young Goodman Brown" effectively showed through symbolism the white man's "persecution" of the American Indians, considered as barbaric and savage in their ways and traditions. The story symbolized American Indians as the "devil," once referring to the devil as 'devilish Indian.' The prejudice is apparent in Goodman's attitude, as he set out to find in the forest the 'devil.' His objective of searching the devil in the forest is interpreted as the persecution of the White Man against the American Indian.… [read more]


British Empire in Colonial America Term Paper

… American History

Although the early British colonies in the New World generally exhibited similar cultural characteristics, transplantations in Virginia, Maryland, and Massachusetts Bay developed distinctive traits. Differences between the Virginia, Maryland, and Massachusetts Bay colonies stemmed from several ideological and geographic issues. For example, New England-area settlements depended less on agriculture for economic growth as on timber, milling, and fishing, whereas southern colonies including both Virginia and Maryland relied on the region's fertile soils for the development of plantation farming and cash crops. Slavery sustained the economic growth of the Massachusetts Bay, Virginia, and Maryland colonies, for even though New England did not develop plantation cultures like those in the south, a thriving rum trade drove the market demand for new slaves from Africa. Unlike in Virginia and Maryland, Massachusetts colonialists did not purchase African slaves for their own use but rather, traded slaves as commodities in exchange for molasses produced in the West Indies ("An Outline of American History").

Ideology, both religious and political, provided another key difference between the Massachusetts Bay colony and the Virginia and Maryland colonies. Puritanical culture reigned supreme in Massachusetts Bay, and in spite of proclaiming a love of liberty and freedom of religion several hysterias broke out in New England including the persecution of Quakers. In Virginia and Maryland, new settlers whose religious beliefs or cultures differed from the English elite's sought refuge in the interior lands. As a result, scores of settlers in the southern colonies lived in near-isolation, far removed from the political controls of colonial governments and of the British Crown.

However, freedom and independence remained the guiding ideologies of all the British colonies including Massachusetts Bay, Virginia, and Maryland. Pulling away from the Crown, colonial governments nevertheless based their local leadership systems loosely on the British models. Crown representatives served in gubernatorial roles but a lackadaisical, free market-driven policy enabled the colonial governments to evolve on their own. The so-called "salutary neglect," championed by Sir Robert Walpole, allowed the colonies to develop thriving business and trade markets independent of Crown control. In addition to salutary neglect, the Glorious Revolution also spawned an independent spirit among colonial settlements. After the deposition of James II, the colonies exhibited a spirit of political liberation, fed by the humanist theories of John Locke that championed the rights of the individual over the supremacy of any government. The Glorious Revolution also directly led to the official unification of the Massachusetts and Plymouth colonies under one rubric: the Massachusetts Bay. Local colonial governments developed along the lines of the British parliamentary system but… [read more]


Reception, Perception and Deception Term Paper

… On the one hand they were restrained by their overriding interest in creating the Union, by their concern for property rights, and by their visions of race war and miscegenation. On the other hand they embraced a revolutionary ideology that made emancipation inescapable" (Internet source). From the perspective of the enslaved, the British concept of slaves as a market commodity had gone one step further from the idea of slaves as human. In the American colonies slaves were thought of as not much more than animals - farm animals of a certain value, to be sure, but animals nonetheless. Equiano explains the process by saying: "I will not suppose that dealers in slaves were born worse than other men... But the slave-trade... debauch [es] men's minds, and harden [s] them to every feeling of humanity" (80).

Daniel K. Richter points out that the Native American culture was treated in many of the same ways as the slave population. The English, having come as permanent settlers, were not interested in establishing trade or intermixing with the Native Americans. They were utilized by the Dutch and French as a means to survival and integrated as opposed to the English process of assimilation. They intermarried and established trade relationships with the natives while the English chose to view them as 'savages'.

The relationship between the French and the Native American was much stronger than between the English and the French and so it made sense that the Indians would side with the French during the Seven Years War and other altercations of which the English took part. The native Americans were, for the most part, curious as well as willing to assist the newcomers with materials and ideas.

By the time of the American Revolution, the colonists had usurped the concept of first inhabitant and had, basically, erased the existence of the Native American from their mind and plans for the future. They became like the buffalo - at once a wealth of resources and a nuisance that needed to be eliminated. It is as Freehling suggests, "If men were evaluated in terms of dreams rather than deeds" (Internet source), the perspective of the European colonists could be better understood.

A person who is aware of the past and is forced into brutal slavery can only be expected to react with indifference and resistance, if there is spirit in the man as well as intelligence to know that there are other ways to live. The assumption that people of any color can be whipped into submission and then bred to maintain that submission is without logic or merit. The indifference to humanity and the perspective of the material consumption is certainly at odds to the ideals upon which the United States was founded.

Works Cited

Equiano, Olaudah. "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano." In The Classic Slave Narratives, ed. Henry Louis Gates. New York, NY: 1987.

Freehling, William W. "Founding Fathers and Slavery." American Historical Review, (1972): at http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/uhs/APUSH/1st%20Sem/Articles%20Semester%201/Artiles%20Semester%201/Freehling.htm

Richter,… [read more]


Removal Act of May 28 Term Paper

… Despite heavy historical argumentation, it appeared to all that their opponents were impressed with historical arguments, which another interpretation or another emphasis merely turned around.

The debates ended with the bill being passed by the House with a close vote… [read more]


Indian Land Claims Research Paper

… Iroquois Land

One of the most interesting legal questions in modern property law relates to claims by the Iroquois that the government, both the United States government and state governments, engaged in an illegal taking of their land and seeking… [read more]


Healthcare Strategy Term Paper

… Strategic Management

Values are described as guiding principles because they are close synonyms. Values in the dictionary are "the ideals, customs, institutions of a society toward which the people of the group have an effective regard" and principles are "a… [read more]


Biblical Argument William Apess Essay

… edu). Rather than the Native Americans being the ones who violate the Bible, it is the white race that abuses the Bible.

Although the white race assents to virtuous conduct they consistently inflict abuse upon a race to which they should treat as neighbors. Apess recalls the Biblical passage (from the Gospel of John) that "By this shall all men know that they are my disciples, if ye have love on to another" (John xiii: 35). By discriminating against Native Americans the white race violates one of the most fundamental adages of the Bible. He notes that "females are left without protection, and are seduced by white men, and are finally left to be common prostitutes for them, and to be destroyed by that burning, fiery curse…rum" (tamu-commerce.edu). Since God prohibits racism and judges people on the basis of their conduct rather than their race, the white race is actually the transgressor.

The other main Biblical argument Apess uses against racism is that Jesus himself was not white, such that the white race discriminates against non-whites even while they worship a deity whose race is not their own. Apess writes that "Jesus Christ being a Jew, and those of his apostles certainly were not whites" (tamu-commerce.edu). While it could be argued that Apess works within a relatively narrow definition of the white race, his point remains that a hierarchical taxonomy of races is an arbitrary determinant of how to treat others, and that Jesus ultimately judges people on the basis of their behavior rather than any inherent racial privilege. According to Apess, everyone is a descendent of Adam and Eve and a member of the human species, which is the only "race" that should come into consideration. People should always treat others fairly and to determine one's conduct on the basis of race is to violate the writings in the Bible.

William Apess's Biblical argument against racism draws from the overarching belief that there is only one race (the human race) and that people are judged on the basis of their behavior rather than their skin color. Through revealing the Jesus was not white Apess exposes the arbitrary superficiality of racism, and by invoking the Gospel of John Apess advocates the need for people to treat their neighbors with compassion. He thus manages to invoke the sacred text of the white race in order to prove the immorality of racism.

Works Cited

Apess, William. "An Indians Looking-Glass for the White Man." Faculty. Texas A&M University-Commerce. 14 Nov. 2012.

Apess, William. "A Son of the Forest." On Our Own Ground: The Complete Writings of William Apess, a Pequot. Amherst: University of… [read more]


Trace the Events Essay

… Meanwhile the British expected the U.S. To invade Canada (so they made preparations for war) and multiple Native American tribes rallied around charismatic Indian leaders Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh, who urged their peoples to resist American orders to abandon their traditional lands. Battles broke out between Indians and American troops and the when the British began helping the Indians battle U.S. troops, a percentage of American leaders decided an attack on Canada to pay back the British would be appropriate (210).

Another dynamic that led to war with Britain was the fact that American settlers agitated for control over Florida (which was controlled by Spain); Spain and England were allies, and going to war with England "…might provide a pretext for taking Spanish territory" (210).

The House of Representative elections of 1812 were pivotal to the launching of war with England as voters "…elected a large number of representatives of both parties eager for war with Britain" (210). Among those war-mongering elected officials were Henry Clay (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun (South Carolina). Clay, as Speaker, appointed members he knew to be eager for war -- in particular, war to seize Canada from England -- to the Committee on Foreign Affairs (211). On June 18, President Madison "…gave in to the pressure" from the House and approved a declaration of war against Britain (211). Madison was very concerned about the threats to American vessels engaged in trade with Europe, and since Britain was hostile to the idea of Americans trading with France -- and of Americans gaining power on the high seas -- Madison reluctantly agreed to go to war.

What were the major outcomes of the war? As a result of Treaty of Ghent, the British gave up their demand for an "…Indian buffer state in the Northwest" and in time through additional negotiations the British agreed to allow full trade with American ships (213). The Treaty of Ghent also supposedly provided that the Native Americans would get back their tribal lands (that had been taken during the war); albeit, the Indians never did get their land back. The Treaty also called for a "mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes" and in time the Canadian-American boundary became the "…longest 'unguarded frontier' in the world" (213).

In conclusion, the War of 1812 did not go well for the new American nation, and it was a terrible blow to Native Americans who witnessed the killing of their peoples and the stealing of their ancient tribal lands. Still, with the addition of the Louisiana Purchase, America was now a much bigger nation,… [read more]


Hawaiian History Essay

… Like many Native writers, she glorifies and idealizes indigenous cultures over those of the West in ways that always infuriate white conservatives, and asserts that pre-conquest Hawai'i was "antithetical to the European developments of Christianity, capitalism, and predatory individualism as any society could have been" (Trask 4). She is correct about that as well, no matter that many white Americans persist in believing that all three are a positive good and must be 'shared' with the rest of the world whether they want them or not. Her history is actually a non-Christian version of Paradise Lost or the fall from Grace and expulsion from the Garden of Eden, only this time due to the greed of American capitalists backed up by imperialism and gunboat diplomacy. Although tourist brochures today still describe Hawai'i as an island paradise, for Trask the reality is poverty and exploitation of the Natives, racism, high prices, water depletion and "a soaring crime rate, as impoverished locals prey on flauntingly rich tourists" (Trask 3). Moreover, the Hawaiian Islands are still a base for American imperialism and one-fifth of the residents are connected with the military.

This book is not simply a recounting of the miseries and horrors of colonial history, but a call to political activism to help Hawaii break free from the American Empire. Of course, self-determination will prove difficult to achieve at this late date since Native Hawaiians are now only about 20% of the population. Appealing to the goodwill of American whites has not usually been a successful strategy in history, although this might exist among a minority of them. To achieve their goals, however, Native Hawaiians would have to build links with other minority groups and indigenous peoples in Hawai'i, on the mainland as well as internationally. Neither the U.S. government not the local elites are ever likely to grant independence to Hawai'i under the present circumstances, even if they were sympathetic. After all, that might set a precedent for other states to secede from the Union or at least make the attempt as they did in 1861-65. Beyond question, the annexation of Hawai'i in 1898 was highly unethical and a violation of international law. This could also be said of the annexation of Guam and Puerto Rico, although they have never been formally admitted as states. Trask's impassioned advocacy is based on historical fact, although whether she will ever be able to obtain her political goals of autonomy and self-determination for the Native Hawaiians seems problematic at best, even under the 'liberal' administration of a black president who was born in Hawai'i.

WORKS CITED

Trask, Haunani-Kay. From a Native Daughter:… [read more]


Barbados Culture Research Paper

… From their point-of-view, slavery conditions had been greatly ameliorated and humanized in the 18th Century, and the harsher punishments were almost never applied in 1816. By that time, 92% of Barbadian slaves were creoles, and almost all the other leaders… [read more]


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