Study "Native American Indians" Essays 331-385

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Paintbrush and Peacepipe: The Story Term Paper

… McCracken's purpose is to thoroughly document the life of a man and artist whose paintings and writings he believes are essential in recording and preserving our knowledge of Native Americans. His annotated and referenced work is much more formal and… [read more]


Chemical and Alcohol Misuse Problems Questionnaire

… Substance Abuse

Although there has been little assimilation among those Native American citizens living on recognized reservations and the larger society of the United States, it is also true that, today, most of this population does not in fact live on these reservations. In other words, a Native American living within mainstream American society is likely to be exposed to the same drug use cues as representatives of other population types. Those who do live on reservations, however, do not experience these cues in the same manner. Hence, the answer to the question can be said to be two-fold: About two-thirds (i.e. most) of Native Americans live in mainstream society and can be considered assimilated; those who live on recognized reservation sites, however, might be considered to not be assimilated to a very great degree and therefore not exposed to similar drug use cues.

2.

Social forces on the reservation might include the traditions, values, and beliefs promoted by the specific tribe or tribes on the reservation in question. A tribal value of generally avoiding harmful substances like alcohol or drugs, for example, would discourage individuals from indulging, while traditions that promote their use would likely also influence the individual towards experimentation. Since different tribes and communities live on different reservations, substance abuse cues would be highly unlikely to be the same for them.

3.

For the reasons mentioned above, it would not be likely that the traditions and beliefs of a tribe in southern Wyoming would be useful to those in southern New England. They are different populations with different traditions and beliefs. A single form of treatment would therefore not be optimal for all Native Americans; it would be far more useful to develop region-specific treatment methods for these populations. It would be best if such decisions could be made in partnerships between health care professionals and tribal chiefs and leaders. While it would be best of a tribe member from New England could receive treatment connected to his specific region regardless of where in the… [read more]


Woman's Recollections of the Oregon Trail Essay

… Female Pioneer on the Oregon Trail

The period of 1830 to 1860 or so, about the time many pioneers and families were moving west -- some opting to take the Oregon Trail -- the United States was not yet a fully industrialized nation, and the most common way to make a living was subsistence farming. But many people were lured by the promise of opportunity in Oregon. That's where this story begins, as it follows the trek of a female on the Oregon Trail, her initial happiness, her challenges, her breakdowns, her lack of happiness at the end of the journey.

My Story as a Pioneer on the Oregon Trail

We caravanned from Independence Missouri and I readily admit I stowed far too many household items in the wagon that my husband George had purchased. But for awhile our wagon was doing okay, especially in the Great Plains where most of the trail was flat. Our wagon was pulled by two oxen George had bought in Missouri, and they were very powerful, pulling us up steep hills, through bogs, and across shallow streams.

I have to admit I was exhilarated at the beginning. I was thrilled to be setting out on a new path for my life. There were five men in our party, and as an attractive female who wore long skirts and tried to keep my face and hair clean, the men were very interested in me. I did sit on my husband's knee around the evening campfires, so there was no question of my loyalty to George. One problem I had at first was the men would use crude talk and swear words around me; but even though I didn't criticize them for their foul language, in time they began to respect me and were careful about what they said.

My duties were cooking and cleaning up after the men were fed. I also led the campfire singing events; I knew Christian songs from the camps I attended in Wisconsin. One of the men had a harmonica which made wonderful music in the quiet, dark nights around the fire.

Well before we got to the Blue Mountains, we came upon campsites that were unsanitary; people had left their feces and the feces of their animals in campsites, and the ponds could not be considered safe because of the fear of cholera and dysentery. We also passed the fresh graves of adults and children who had died from disease or drowning. Once we… [read more]


Wounded Knee in the Book Book Report

… The major strength of the book is Richardson's apparent passion for the topic on which she writes. Richardson believes that the plight of the Native Americans and genocide of the nations and various tribes is one of the most disturbing aspects of American history and that not nearly enough attention has been given to these events. She places these murders on the same plane of evil as slavery. Although the horror of the war against native tribes has been given attention in recent decades, it is still not viewed with the same level of disgust as slavery. Through books like Richardson's, these atrocities can be given their proper weight and attention in the hopes that they never be committed again.

One of the weaknesses of Richardson's book is the vilification of the Republican party of the period. In no uncertain terms, Richardson makes it clear that the Republican Party, led by President Benjamin Harrison, was directly responsible for the events at Wounded Knee. However, she does not present evidence regarding whether or not the opposing Democratic Party had any responsibility in the war on Native Americans. In this particular instance, it is the Republicans who were in control, but there were still powerful Democrats in the government, in all three branches of the federal government at one point or another during this period. The reason for the focus on the Republicans is because Richardson proves that the Republicans were looking to have new territories admitted as states in order to strengthen the domination of their party. Presenting the Democrat's perspective and what they might have had to do with the situation would have made the book seem less an attack on one party and more of an indictment of political corruption and abuse of power.

Works Cited

Richardson, Heather Cox. Wounded Knee: Party Politics and the Road to an American

Massacre. N.p.: Basic, 2010.… [read more]


Heather Cox Richardson's "Wounded Knee Book Report

… Party politics and the media were essential in this context, taking into account that Americans were influenced to believe that it had been in their best interest to take lands away from natives and to use force whenever it was necessary for them to do so.

The Civil War had had a great toll on the U.S. In general and many politicians were determined to help the country recover by making use of all means available. The fact that natives could be hurt in the process did not seem very important and the authorities largely concentrated on taking advantage of their superior power. Richardson related to how the Republican Party can be associated to the Wounded Knee Massacre. The Benjamin Harrison Administration had a series of political and partisan motivations that influenced it to take up arms against whoever could be exploited with the purpose of helping the country as a whole recover faster.

The Harrison Administration and the Republican Party in general focused on gathering as many followers as possible. This meant that they needed to employ attitudes that would make them more appealing to Western states. As a consequence, the authorities decided to instill fear into Native Americans in Western states with the purpose of having people there acknowledge the important benefits they could reap as a result of their collaboration with Republicans.

Bibliography:

Cox Richardson, Heather, "Wounded Knee: Party Politics and the Road to an American Massacre," (ReadHowYouWant.com, 2010) [read more]


Fire in U.S. History Research Paper

… Forest rangers, immortalized as "ragged young foresters fighting a sea of flame" became so common that a poplar book even showcased one as its hero The Young Forester (Egan 2009). Thanks to increased funding, over the decades, the "forest Service introduced bulldozers, smokejumpers, and planes that dropped tons of flame retardant" as well as roads designed to facilitate transportation into the forest infrastructure during fires (Jamison 2010).

However, despite the undeniable heroism shown by many rangers during the great fires, there was also a great deal of criticism leveled at the policies of the U.S. Forest Service before and after the fires. Poor environmental management by loggers and railroads "whose coal-fired engines kindled many forest blazes" were contributing factors in the spread of the blaze (Jamison 2010). Regarding the Big Blowup's might, according to one historian: "it was a 1,000-year event, a perfect storm of long-term drought, lightning, high wind, and a total lack of trained people on the ground" (Jamison 2010).

Many critics contend that the total fire suppression policy adopted by the U.S. Forest Service after the Big Blowup actually weakened fire-prevention efforts. Complete fire suppression was the goal, and unlike the Native Americans, the Forest Service refused to practice the use of controlled burning to mitigate the dangers of fires. "Now the folly of fighting backcountry fires is widely accepted and the role of fire in maintaining forest health is understood" ("1910 Fires," U.S. Forest Service History, 2012). However, for many years, the lack of controlled burning led to more, rather than fewer fires. "In 2000 the combination of dry conditions and fuel buildup caused more than 7.2 million acres to burn, primarily in western states, nearly double the ten-year average" (Jamison 2010). Only recently has controlled burning become an integral part of fire-fighting policy.

Works Cited

"1910 Fires." U.S. Forest Service History. 3 Mar 2012. 22 Apr 2012.

http://www.foresthistory.org/ASPNET/Policy/Fire/FamousFires/1910Fires.aspx

Egan, Timothy. The Big Burn. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2009. Exercpted:

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=114248029

Jamison, Michael. "The Great Fire of… [read more]


Death and Dying Essay

… Although people know intellectually that the deceased cannot use the material any more, it proves a psychological balm to the survivors to think that the dead person has this treasured possession. One example of this is mothers who often bury their young children with toys that belonged to the little one. Obviously the dead body has no need of a teddy bear, but it gives some comfort to the living person to bury the item with the child.

The Cocopa tribe is compared to the Hopi in Mandelbaum's research. This latter group, rather than embrace the dead, instead choose to keep as much distance from the dead and themselves as is at all possible (Perspectives 207). There are ceremonies which honor and bury the dead but very few people attend them. Rather than drag out the proceedings and mourn vigorously, the Hopi instead attempt to get the grieving process with as quickly as possible and with little fanfare. For this group it is believed that once a person is dead, their body is no longer a part of that person. Immediately the soul moves on to the next stage of life and the body is empty and of no significance. It is no longer a Hopi person and therefore not entitled to celebration or grief. There are similarities between this type of grief and in other populations of the United States. Some people who lose a loved one just want to bury them and/or cremate them as soon as possible and to then move on. For these people, they are happy for the spirit of the deceased who has potentially gone on to another plane of existence. There is simply no use in grief then because the person is in a better place than they could ever hope to be while still alive.

In comparing the Cocopa and Hope tribes, it is easy to see how various types of people grieve. Often people assume mistakenly that the customs of one Native American tribe will be applicable to all others. This article shows that this belief is untrue. Similarly, human beings can have a plethora of reactions to grief and none is more appropriate than any other.

Works Cited:

"Perspectives on Death: Cultural and… [read more]


Wounded Knee Massacre Term Paper

… Wounded Knee Massacre

The December 29, 1890 events named the Wounded Knee massacred had a profound impact on both the immediate reactions and future developments that were in relation with involvement of the Indian population. In order to better understand… [read more]


Literary Analysis on Hope Leslie Research Paper

… ¶ … Personal Exploration in Hope Leslie

Sedgwick's novel Hope Leslie was far ahead of its own time in terms of how it explored the Puritans' relationship with the Native Americans during the 17th century. Most novels written at the… [read more]


Africa to Out of Beringia Research Paper

… The period of settlement on this side of the land bridge was sufficiently long enough to allow genetic diversification to occur through genetic drift prior to subsequent outward migratory events. During this period, these five ancestral lineages emerged as four… [read more]


Capsule Imagine if You Could Go Back Essay

… ¶ … Capsule

Imagine if you could go back in time, far back to before this country was even born, to speak to real people in the struggle of a newly developing land. We can't, but maybe we can speak… [read more]


Smith's General History Captain John Smith's "Narratives Thesis

… ¶ … Smith's General History

Captain John Smith's "Narratives of Early Virginia" in his General History are much more -- and in some ways much less -- than a simple history of Jamestown and the issues that the early European… [read more]


Colonies the Historical Period Essay

… ¶ … Colonies

The historical period in the New World when the first colonies were being set up in what is now the United States of America can be viewed from many different perspectives. The motives, purposes, and even actual achievements of the people in the early part of the seventeenth century are not always -- or ever -- entirely clear, and even their primary accounts cast leave much room for doubt and interpretation. Some of the colonists were in search of freedom from religious persecution, yet the government they set up was just as persecutory. The great majority of the colonies, perhaps all of them, had a hypocritical reliance on the Native Americans whom they considered savages, while at the same time they were brave pioneers who left behind the comfort and familiarity of their homes to start a new life in a strange land. Even during the time period and amongst the people who lived in and ran these early colonies, many of the motives and goals were often very different. An examination of three primary sources -- Captain John Smith's account of the founding of Jamestown, William Bradford's description of the early days of the Plymouth colony, and John Winthrop's 1630 outline of the Massachusetts Bay Colony -- reveals a common spirit of perseverance and a dedication to democracy that ran amongst the three men and their visions for their colonies, but it also reveals many personal differences that were to have a huge and unpredictable impact on not only the course of history, but also in how it is viewed.

Captain John Smith's tales of the early days of Jamestown are written in the third person, though he still makes himself the lead character. He mentions democracy in describing the election of the first president of the council, but he also seems to distrust such government by the people as it led to his imprisonment for what he claims were baseless political accusations. In addition, he was bared from joining the council for some time. According to his account, he managed to gain favor with his fellow colonists again first through his incredible demeanor while imprisoned, and second for his ability to handle a problem common to the early colonies -- a strange and seemingly vicious native population. More than either of the other two authors, Smith recounts his own personal involvement in every situation, and he seems to have single-handedly won the favor of a large and war-like Native American population. He does not shy away from the harsher details of the account -- many deaths from disease and hunger, and several murders by Native Americans -- but it should be noted that he is not personally responsible in any way for any of… [read more]


Western Genre Thesis

… ¶ … cowboy gets on his horse and rides off alone into the distance. The music picks up. Thus, the typical Western ends. Through the years since the Western first hit the American theaters, it has gone through some permutations. Yet, there still remain some similarities between all examples of this genre, regardless of when they were produced: They took place west of the Mississippi River, there was a strong, quiet type of hero and his horse, and there was some positive lesson about facing the challenges of life. Although the three movies Dances with Wolves, City Slickers, and the Outlaw Josey Wales are very different in their plot, characterization and mode of delivery, they all represent some aspects of the first Westerns and the impact the undeveloped West had on the arriving settlers.

Dances with Wolves, produced in 1990, has many of the Western motifs, but they are presented in with a mindset of the 20th century. Thus, the earlier racism and stereotypes about Native Americans is eliminated and the stark "black-and-white" one-dimensional characters are depicted much more well-rounded. Similar to the first Westerns, however, the hero, Lt. John Dunbar, represents the strong maverick who decides his own fate rather than following the dictates of others. Very indicative of the Western genre cowboy, Dunbar represents the model American ethics of dignity, bravery, righteousness, equality, and respect for others, even the natives and women. He also has the typical skills of a Western hero of shooting and horseback riding. As with Westerns, there were "white hats" and "black hats" heroes and villains, in this case the Pawnees and the corrupt soldiers. In addition are the woman love interest and the comic relief sidekick. Unlike the earliest Westerns, however, Dances with Wolves shows that unethical and criminal savage behavior can be any race or color. Similarly, the bonds that form between people can be between different ethnic groups.

The plot and… [read more]


Henry Hudson Thesis

… Henry Hudson and His Travels: The Explorer's Life, Routes, Destinations, And Intended Destinations

Little is known of the early life of Henry Hudson, the English navigator and explorer during the great, Elizabethan age of exploration. Hudson is most famous for… [read more]


World Religions Religious Experience Is a Foundational Term Paper

… World Religions

Religious experience is a foundational aspect of human development and various people around the world have different and yet similar religious and spiritual experiences that make them a part of humanity. Many profound works of intimate individual experiences… [read more]


Lewis Hine and the Building of America Term Paper

… Lewis Hine and the Building of America

Lewis Wickes Hine, whose photographs of the building of the Empire State Building, among others, taken beginning in 1930, depicted workmen perched nonchalantly on the steel beams so far up in the sky that one could not discern what was below them, pictured how America was built. Hine was a photographer who loved to catch a face just beginning to smile or to look up in awe. His portraits of Americans just arriving in Ellis Island, wandering the streets of New York or working up a sweat in coveralls, showed the seamier and more realistic side of life in the 1930s (Troncale 2007 1).

In his photographs covering the building of the Empire State Building, Hine showed how young and old had to work hard for their dollar in loose-fitting coveralls, their faces glistening with sweat, oil and iron dust. This was the reality of the day when young men would gladly risk their lives, without benefit of grappling hooks and lines, as they walked and climbed steel beams and wires to put together the tallest building in the world (at that time). They might have been immigrants or Native Americans, but they worked together, as one can tell from their portraits, as a team, talking with a system of hand gestures, as there were… [read more]


Texas History Term Paper

… Galveston

David G. McComb is a historian who focuses primarily upon the history of Texas and regions there within. He was born in Houston, Texas and spent virtually all of his childhood there. Periodically, he made trips to Galveston with his Boy Scout troop, his family, and with his friends -- today it is a popular local tourist location. McComb attained a bachelor's and then a Ph.D. In History, and began teaching history at the University of Houston. Currently, he is a professor emeritus of history at Colorado State University. Although most of his published works have in some way related to the history of Texas, he also possesses an interest in broader historical topics, such as the history of technology. Within his Galveston: a History he attempts to bring these two interests together by explaining how technology, in particular, has played a role in the vast transformation of Galveston from the wilderness the first European explorers encountered to the bustling vacation spot it is today. The books that McComb has published include, Sports in World History, Texas, a Modern History, Big Thompson: Profile of a Natural Disaster, Houston, a History, and Travels with Joe.

Overall, Galveston: a History is a linear chronicle of the development of the city. As such, McComb is largely concerned with contrasting different periods of time in the city's history with earlier periods of time, as well as identifying the cause and effect correlations that have transformed to city through the years. He admits that since one of his areas of expertise is the history of technology, some of these aspects of the tale of Galveston have been emphasized perhaps more than if they had been handled by another author: "The history of Galveston, therefore, is a narration about the development of the city. There is a bias toward technological events, but there is also an attempt to explain how people working in the Gulf Coast environment gave Galveston its distinct character," (McComb 3). Essentially, this book is about the transformation of this once remote and sparsely inhabited island -- prior to European colonization -- over several centuries and many generations. Although the book is certainly about change, McComb attempts to emphasize the notion that the city of Galveston has retained a character very unique to it and, accordingly, this characteristic of the island remains a key component of its appeal today. Another apparent theme of the book is that Galveston's history has been varied. It is a small island off the coast of Texas, and because of its natural geographic configuration, it has received a taste of virtually every bit of American history. From Native Americans who covered themselves in tattoos, to French and Spanish explorers, to pirates, to American traders, to abolitionists, to the modern day inhabitants, Galveston has been touched by virtually every major group of people who made their lives in the New World. This variety, perhaps more than anything else, according to McComb… [read more]


Waterlily by Ella Cara Deloria Term Paper

… ¶ … Waterlily by Ella Cara Deloria [...] how Waterlily changes throughout the book, and Waterlily's main relationships. Waterlily is the main character in this book about early Native American life, and it follows her life from birth to the… [read more]


Black Elk's Religion Term Paper

… Black Elk's Religion member of the Oglala Sioux nation, Black Elk was nine years of age when he had a mystical vision that spoke to the future well-being of his own tribe and that of all living things (Wink 2000).… [read more]


Mrs. Mary Jemison Narrative Term Paper

… Colonial America

Acculturation through an Adopted American Indian's Perspective: An Analysis of "A narrative of the life of Mrs. Mary Jemison" by James Seaver

For years, colonial American society held the view of American Indians as savages whose barbaric traditions and ways illustrated life leading to stagnation and eventual disintegration of the early periods of civilization. As America moved towards progress and development, American Indians' stubborn attitude of holding on to their heritage became an impediment to the Americans, who planned America to be inhabited by a civilized, and not barbaric, society. The autobiography of Mary Jemison's life as a captured prisoner and eventually, an adopted member and "daughter" of the American Indians demonstrated how, despite the popular view that the American Indians are "savages," the conflict between the new American settlers and Indians is not a clash between the old and new societies and human economies, but rather, a clash of two radically different cultures.

The culture clash between the white Americans and American Indians were evident in the kind of society that each culture maintains: while white Americans are primarily individualists, putting premium on the self before other people, American Indians are collectivist, valuing cooperation and unity more than individual achievement or success in life. Thus, for white Americans, the ways of the Indians, who worships Nature and participate in violent, yet socially acceptable traditions of human sacrifice and engaging in tribe wars are considered 'barbaric,' reminiscent of the old ways of human civilization that had failed to develop over time. The savage nature of the Indians was demonstrated early on in Jemison's recollection of her and her family's… [read more]


Chief Seattle's 1854 Oration Tone and Enduring Essay

… Chief Seattle's 1854 Oration

Tone and Enduring Strength within Chief's Seattle's 1854 Oration

Among the most vivid, stark, and poignant recorded works are Native American narratives and speeches of the 19th century. Often, they depict in detail the lives, customs, and involuntary changes that took place, as a result of white American encroachment, within various Native American tribes, including the Suquamish of the Pacific Northwest, of which Chief Seattle was head at the time of his speech. Chief Seattle's 1854 Oration therefore reflects many poignant realities and unwanted changes within Suquamish tribal life, and by association, many other Native Americans' tribal lives, after invasions, by white Anglo explorers and settlers, of territories that the Suquamish and others had inhabited for centuries. The enduring power of Chief Seattle's 1854 oration is that its poignant tone expresses, and its descriptive content and specific examples illustrate, just how completely the coming of white American settlers to Native American territories, like those of Seattle's the Suquamish tribe, destroyed, then and forever afterward, the sacred traditions, practices, and freedoms of his own people.

This 1854 speech by Seattle (1786-1866) is perhaps the best-known of all recorded Native American works. Today, Seattle is remembered for (and his 1854 Oration reflects the factuality of) his keen intelligence; clear-mindedness; diplomacy; oratorical brilliance, and efforts to compromise with whites in order to preserve (as well as possible, at least) the lives of, and peace for, his own people. Today, Chief Seattle's 1854 oration offers us a view of both the heavy heart and the pragmatic mind of Seattle, and the Suquamish tribe of the time, for whom he spoke on that day.

Seattle first states: "Yonder sky that has wept tears of compassion upon my people for centuries untold, and which to us appears changeless and eternal, may change. Today is fair. Tomorrow it may be overcast with clouds." And, as he then wistfully admits: "[Whites] are like the grass that covers vast prairies." By comparison, though, "My people are few." As he then adds:

The great, and I presume -- good, White Chief sends us word that he wishes to buy our land but is willing to… [read more]


Navajo Mythology Term Paper

… In addition, the Navajo believe that everything in the universe is here for a purpose, and has its' own place in the scheme of things. They believe harmony with the environment is of utmost importance, and that much of the… [read more]


Fools Crow by James Welch White Man Term Paper

… ¶ … Fools Crow by James Welch [...] White Man's Dog/Fools Crow's transformation or rite of passage. The rite of passage is an important event in the lives of the young male Blackfeet, and Fools Crow is no exception.

White Man's Dog's first rite of passage occurs during the first raid on the Crow's, when Yellow Kidney puts him in charge of a group of young men who will steal horses. Before the raid, White Man's Dog is a lonely bachelor, but after the raid, he is more respected by his people because he has successfully brought back horses, and he has killed a Crow, even though it was a youth. More importantly, he establishes he is a leader, and a visionary who somehow knows that Yellow Kidney will return to the tribe. He is a seasoned warrior now, and his status changes from boy to man, but he still has to mature further, as the other rites of passage in the book indicate.

White Man's Dog also apprentices to Mik-Api, the tribe medicine man, and this is another rite of passage toward manhood for him. In fact, it is with Mik-Api that he begins to realize he has begun the journey to manhood. He thinks, "No one had called him dog-lover since the raid on the Crows" (Welch 51). Mik-Api sends him to free the trapped wolverine, and it is during this journey that the wolverine visions come to him, and he converses with the Raven. He helps him through the painful Sun ceremony too, the ceremony that scars him forever and gives him another wolverine vision

When he marries Red Paint, it is another rite of passage because he leaves his father's lodge and makes his own home. This is a rite of passage in many cultures, and it is no different with his people. Now, it is possible for him to be a father, and that is a further rite of passage, and another journey toward being a man. Each step in the journey helps White Man's Dog learn about himself and his people, and makes him stronger and surer of himself. That is the real reason for the… [read more]


New West Term Paper

… ¶ … Lasso the Wind: Away to the New West by Timothy Egan. Specifically, it will contain an application and analysis of revisionist theory in the book, and Egan's perspective of the "New West." Revisionist theory is any theory that… [read more]


Solstice Ceremonies Term Paper

… On the afternoon of the day before the solstice an appointed man prepares a fire as the sun sets. The images of the war gods are brought to the kiva, and a night of prayers and offerings ensues (The Curtis Collection).

On the day of the solstice, each household plants prayer sticks in the fields. These are intended for specific ancestors and deities. No fire is allowed outside the houses for ten days (The Curtis Collection).

Today, the ancient Zuni traditions of celebrating the winter solstice remain alive. In modern New Mexico, the Zuni reservation makes up 640 square miles, and still celebrates Shalako, part of the 48-day-long winter solstice ceremony (Hoxie). At Zuni Pueblo, the sun priest sets the date of the winter solstice festival (Roberts). The most important holiday of the year for modern Zuni in western New Mexico remains the winter solstice festival of Shalako. Tribal paintings that include those depicting the winter solstice festival are being painstakingly repainted (Keith).

In conclusion, the Zuni celebration of the winter solstice is an enduring testament to the spirituality of the Zuni people. The Zuni ancestors once lived in the southwestern United States over 5,000 years ago, only to disappear about 600 years ago. Today's Zuni likely carry within their culture some remnants of this ancient civilization, and in their modern recreations of the winter solstice ceremonies they enact traditions that may be thousands of years old. As such, the Zuni celebrations of the winter and summer solstice provide a fascinating glimpse of ancient American Indian culture.

Works Cited

Database Article

Keith, Katherine Drouin. Zuni murals connect two cultures. (Zuni kachinas in Catholic mission). National Catholic Reporter, March 26, 1999. LookSmart Database. 21 March 2004. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1141/21_35/54343098/p1/article.jhtml

Internet Resource

The Curtis Collection. Zuni Solstice and Harvest Ceremonies. The North American Indian, Volume 17. 21 March 2004. http://curtis-collection.com/zunisolsticeceremonies.html

Book

Roberts, David. 1997. In Search of the Old Ones. Touchstone Books.

Specialized Encyclopedia

Hoxie, Frederick E. editor. 1996. Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Houghton Mifflin… [read more]


Accounting-History Albanese, Catherine L. "Savage Term Paper

… The physical, military difficulty of establishing control over the frontier took on theological tones in the context of these meetings and became justified in Christian terms.

Albanese is thus not simply an historian of events. She is also an historian of religious ideas, and deconstructs the rhetoric and ideology of the figures of the day, more than she reflects economic and political pressures that were created over the course of the conflicts that ultimately resulted in a 'settled,' or white dominated American West. The author clearly comes from a feminist and literary background that influences her perspective, yet ultimately the article is an important addition to understanding of the ways that the West was 'truly' won and the effects of the so-called Second Awakening upon the frontier ideology. [read more]


Worldview of People Term Paper

… Their worldview was small, as their world consisted of the area where they made their homes, and the land surrounding their homes. When these areas were invaded, whether by whites or other tribes, they fought to hold on to what they felt was theirs. Their lifestyle totally changed when they were forced to leave their homes and live on reservations. They were forced into a culture and a society that was not theirs, they could no longer participate in their spiritual rituals and supernatural beliefs, and so, many Native Americans still have not acclimated to our white culture. Their worldview is different from ours, and they are still trying to adapt to a culture which was never theirs. This shows how the political and spiritual beliefs of one group can clash with another, and sometimes, they will never be able to blend together.

Bibliography

Carmody, John Tully, and Denise Lardner Carmody. Native American Religions: An Introduction. New… [read more]


River of Traps: The Power Term Paper

… "Water rushed into fields, bringing life to life. My purposes ran with the flowing" (48).

Water in these mountain regions could also hold a supernatural awe for its inhabitants. In his novel, The Crossing, Cormac McCarthy describes the fear that mountain waters inspire:

He spoke of the rapids in the river... And the rain in the mountains in the night and the way the river went howling through the narrows like a train... If they spoke to one another, no words formed in the air for the awful noise in that nether world. (407)

At age 82, Romero decides to be baptized, and Woods photographs the ceremony. The rugged Romero of earlier photos is altered. He is water-soaked after his baptism.

He seems both fragile and submissive, his eyes half-closed as if in prayer.

Romero died five years after the baptism. In River of Traps, deBuys writes what could have been a fitting epitaph:

Take away the man, and you take away the ditch,

Take away the ditch, and you take away the water

Take away the water, and you take away the man.

You leave only the sound of the river." (107)

Works Cited

Bix, Cynthia. Art of the State of New Mexico. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.

Publishers, 1998.

Grant, Michael, and Till, Tom. A People and Their Landscape. American Southwest. San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press, 1992.

Kittredge, William. Southwestern Homelands. Washington D.C.: National

Geographic Society, 2002.

McCarthy, Cormac. The Crossing. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.

Harris, Alex, and… [read more]


Peak, Cahokia Was the Largest Term Paper

… The houses of Cahokia were different than the ones we live in today. The houses and buildings were built using wooden poles covered with walls made of woven grass and the roofs were thatched with grass. Today, we use concrete and steel, along with many other materials that the people of Cahokia did not have.

However, there are some similarities between their housing system and ours. Some of their buildings were small houses that sheltered one family. Others housed multiple families. This is similar to the concept of housing today, where we have single-family homes and apartment buildings. The people of Cahokia also used public buildings to hold many people for ceremonies and meetings, just as we do today.

In Cahokia, the houses were arranged into rows around a central plaza, similar to my city's downtown area. In this large area, people built their temple and had their other important public buildings. The people of Cahokia held their religious ceremonies here and played various games here. Today, we have shopping malls, arcades, churches restaurants and bars for similar reasons.

One of the greatest differences between my life and the lives of the Native Americans of Cahokia is our means of transportation. When these people lived in Cahokia, there were no cars, trains or buses. There weren't even any horses. The Native Americans who lived in this region either traveled by river or by foot.

Conclusion

While today's society is much more involved than that of the people of Cahokia, there are many similarities that can help us relate to the people of that time. Their materials may have been more limited and lives less evolved than mine, but it is easy… [read more]


Just This Past Week Term Paper

… White's explanation of Island County's history is built upon the argument that the environment that made the lands unique is that very same that made it a perfect victim of its inhabitants. When it was most predominantly inhabited by Native Americans, practices such as burning forests and prairies to the ground to make way for farming were actively manned. And this was a prelude to the further execution of deforestation by the European influenced logging industry that would disturb a wide range ecological concerns, from the health of nearby bodies of water to the residency of many species of animal. Likewise, the area, White explains, has undergone a series of transformations at the behest of agricultural demands, animal gaming and the tourism industry. Fundamentally, the purpose of White's exploration is to deepen not just our understanding of that specific part of the world, but also our understanding of the numerous ways in which human beings will shape, and in turn, be shaped by their natural environment.
And as White does so, he points out an important fact about historical perspective. That is, whether intentional or accidental, whether for better or worse, the environment will reflect certain undeniable truths about its dwellers. The implication then, and the underlying importance of viewing history through an environmental eyepiece, is that a society may be better understood through investigation of its relationship to its natural world.
Bibliographies:
1. Heilprin, John. "Bush Dismisses EPA Report on Global Warming." The Philadelphia Inquirer. 5 Jun. 2002.
2. Lichatowich, Jim. Salmon Without Rivers: A History of the Pacific Salmon Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999.
3. West, Elliott. The Way to the West: Essays on the Central Plains. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.
4. White, Richard. Land Use, Environment and Social Change: The Shaping of Island County,… [read more]


Seminole Indians the Name Research Paper

… In general circumstance and progression they are about on a level with their neighbors and kinsmen of the Creek Nation. In common with the other tribes they were party to the agreement for the opening of their lands to settlement, and their tribal government came to an end in March 1906 (Seminole Indian Tribe History, 2011).

In the late 1950's, a drive among Indian tribes to arrange themselves and draft their own charter started, this came as a consequence of federal legislation which permitted Indian reservations to act as units separate from the state governments in which they were situated. After surviving the first half of the 20th century by way of agriculture and by selling crafts, people saw that organizing as a constitutional form of government would be an optimistic step. The Seminole tribe enhanced their self-government by taking on a constitutional form of government. This permitted them to act more autonomously. "For the next two decades, little was seen of Florida Seminole. At least not until trading posts opened in late 19th century at Fort Lauderdale, Chokoloskee and other places, that's when some Seminoles began venturing out to trade" (Seminole History, 2012).

Works Cited

Murray, D.J. n.d. "The Unconquered Seminoles." Web. 5 February 2012. Available at:

http://www.abfla.com/1tocf/seminole/semhistory.html

"Seminole." n.d. Web. 6 February 2012. Available at:

http://www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/reports1/seminole.htm

"Seminole History." 2012. Web. 5 February 2012. Available at:

http://www.flheritage.com/facts/history/seminole/

"Seminole Indians." 2012. Web 5 February 2012. Available at:

http://www.indians.org/articles/seminole-indians.html

"Seminole Indian Tribe History." 2011. Web. Available at:

http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/seminole/seminolehist.htm

"Seminole Nation." 2011. Web. Available at: http://www.seminolenation-indianterritory.org/ [read more]


Status of Canadian Aboriginals Research Paper

… ¶ … Nations People (indian Act)

Indian act

Inuit people (Indian Act)

The Aboriginal peoples of Canada history span far beyond colonialism. This population consists of indigenous people who settled long ago in present-Canada. The aboriginal people of Canada consist… [read more]


Iroquois Confederacy Essay

… Iroquois Confederacy

Following a peace treaty with France in 1701, The Iroquois Confederacy, which had been allied with the British through much of the 17th century, took a newly neutral role. As the controllers of the passable territory between English Seaboard settlements and French Settlements further inland near the St. Lawrence Valley, the Iroquois were geographically positioned as a natural diplomatic entity between the two dominant European powers in North America. During Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), the Confederacy sent a delegation to London to negotiate a peace between England and France. The delegation was received by Queen Anne in 1710, who was so moved by the visitors that she commissioned their portraits from John Verelst. Verlest's portraits are among the first paintings of indigenous people.

The fur trade was one of the most significant reasons for the colonization of the northern seaboard and Great Lakes region of North America. Once the trade had been well established and was itself a reason for a growing population of Europeans in North America, land became the next most significant commodity. Both fur and land were at the heart of many of the conflicts between the French, British and Iroquois Confederacy leading up to the American Revolution. On their side, the Six Nations needed guns and steel weapons to defend against attacks from European settlers. Dutch and British settlers were willing to trade these items for fur, the trade of which was predominantly controlled by the French.

The Covenant Chain was treaty between the Haudenosaunee and the British Colonies, which was in place between them from 1676 until it was broken by the British in 1753. This alliance served to protect both the British and Iroquois from the French, and helped to establish the regional authority of the League of Six Nations among its own member tribes. Despite the British having broken the treaty, the Iroquois Confederacy still sided with the British during the French and Indian War (1754-1763). The Confederacy believed that a British victory would help reaffirm old treaties regarding colonial expansion and the land rights of the Confederacy. At the conclusion of the war, however, there existed no political buffer (ie: French trading interests) to British expansion. In essence, siding with the British only ensured the ultimate displacement of the Iroquois Confederacy by way of a renewed influx… [read more]


Primary Document Analysis Term Paper

… ¶ … groups during the reconstruction area that particularly had tough times: Negroes of the Indian Territory and Colored Women. The passage of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 freed African-Americans in southern states. Following the Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment… [read more]


Trail of Tears Term Paper

… ¶ … Native Trail of Tears

I am a Cherokee woman; you may call me "Many Tears." I walked 850 miles during the Cherokee Removal in 1838, after white soldiers forced me from my home. It seems our ancestral lands in what the white men call Georgia were in the way of the white man's progress, and so our people were uprooted at gunpoint and led on foot to new homes in "Indian Territory" (what is now called Oklahoma). We suffered many hardships and indignities on this journey. I myself lost my husband and two children during the journey.

We were forced to leave our homes in late fall. Soldiers came and forced us to leave. I left all of my possessions behind, including my baskets, cooking pots, and blankets. Many of my people on the trail were barefoot, and many had left their blankets behind. The soldiers guarded us as if we were prisoners; there was no hope of escape. We slept on the ground without fires for warmth. My youngest son was the first to die. He had the white man's disease pneumonia, and one night he went to sleep under a wagon and did not awaken. We huddled together for warmth, but it was not enough. Disease and starvation plagued the journey, and snow and ice followed us until we arrived at our destination in March of 1839. My oldest son died… [read more]


Bury My Heart at Wounded Term Paper

… The dance spread through the reservations and by December, Indians were dancing in the snow from dawn until far into the night. The government saw this as a threat, not a religious rite. Sitting Bull arrest warrant was issued, and as he prepared to leave, was accidentally killed.

Next came Big Foot's warrant. As he traveled toward Red Cloud's protection at Pine Ridge, he became ill and had to travel by wagon. Before reaching Red Cloud, Big Foot was met by soldiers, who then proceeded to escort him and his people to the cavalry camp on Wounded Knee Creek. At camp, they were disarmed, but as one young deaf Sioux resisted from pride, a skirmish ensued, followed by a single shot, then immediately followed by the firing from hundreds of soldiers who had been stationed around the camp. When the firing ceased, Big Foot and more than have his people were dead or seriously wounded. Those still alive were loaded onto wagons and taken to Pine Ridge.

With a blizzard approaching, the dead were left where they had fallen. Those brought to Pine Ridge, mostly women and children, were given shelter from the blizzard in an Episcopal mission, with hay scattered down for bedding. It was four days after Christmas. Above the pulpit a banner read, Peace on Earth, Good Will To Men. In just twenty-one years of experiencing white contact, the Great Sioux Nation lost over 90% of their land base.

Work Cited

Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee.… [read more]


Tecumseh and the Shawnee Prophet Term Paper

… Along with this bracing message, the Shawnee Prophet echoed another powerful refrain: the vision of an intertribal confederacy that would embrace all Indians everywhere. Tecumseh, his brother, was the man who came closest to making it happen.

During Little Turtle's War he led the Shawnee forces and he would not accept defeat although his signature is missing from the Greenville treaty. More importantly, Tecumseh thought of himself as an Indian first and a Shawnee second. Like his brother, he was inspired by a vision of Indian Unity, a single Indian nation embracing all of eastern North America, from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.

In 1808 the Prophet and his brother, Tecumseh, started a town on the Wabash River (in Indiana). They named the town Tippecanoe but it was more commonly known as Prophetstown. Many Indians came to live there to share the dream of one united Indian nation. Many settlers were concerned over what they saw as a mass Indian uprising forming on the western frontier. About this time Tecumseh's plan of forming a confederacy of the tribes of the Northwest, and attacking the white settlers, began to be apparent. The idea of a confederation of the Indian tribes in a vain attempt to check the progressive strides of civilization to the west was not original with Tecumseh. It had been nurtured as the favorite hope of Pontiac, Little Turtle and other leading spirits of the Indian race. Their object was the accomplishment of one purpose -- to stay the advance and spread of white settlements.

The Prophet visited Governor Harrison at Vincennes, where he remained a considerable length of time, his object being to converse with Harrison. In the course of these interviews The Prophet impressed the governor that he was honest in his intentions, but ere long the general came to regard him again as crafty, cunning and unreliable. He came to the conclusion that The Prophet and Tecumseh were plotting against the United States government, and in the event of a war with England they would exert their influence toward forming an alliance of the Indians.

In 1811, Tecumseh was away from Prophetstown and had warned his brother not to fight a battle with the whites while he was gone. The Prophet did not listen and ordered a surprise attack on William Henry Harrison's troops that were stationed nearby. Harrison's troops were prepared for the attack and easily defeated the Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe. Prophetstown was left unguarded and the American troops burned it to the ground. July, 1810, Governor Harrison sent a letter to The Prophet at Tippecanoe, the object of which was to point out the folly of his conduct and give him assurance of the friendly intentions of the United States government.

The War of 1812 brought Tecumseh his most powerful ally the British Empire, and battlefield victories that culminated, astoundingly, in the capture of Detroit. But after the Americans regrouped, the British not only fell back, they fell apart, lying… [read more]


What Is the History and Culture of the Apache? Essay

… ¶ … apache were oppressed as a race did they fight back? forms of racism/discrimination they received and what culture did the apache uphold? (any rituals?) this is a cultural criticism essay.

The Apache have been unfairly considered an aggressive and feud-like tribe by many but it may be more likely that their aggressive tendencies have been stimulated by intolerant, non-understanding neighbors and by mismanagement of civil authorities in the modern century.

Whilst it is true that from the time of the Spanish colonization of New Mexico until as far recent as twenty years ago, the Apache have achieved notoriety for their warlike disposition, raiding white and Indian settlements alike, and penetrating as far as Jalisco, Mexico, most serious recent outbreaks are likely more to misunderstanding of the Apache and bigotry on the hpart of civil authorities. The most significant recent hostilities were those of the Chiricahua under first Cochise, and later Victorio, who, together with 500 Mimbrenos, Mogollones, and Mescaleros, were forcefully relocated (in 1870) to the Ojo Caliente reserve in west New Mexico. .

The Apache history is one of continuous resistance against a mightier people who attempted either to compel them to follow their ways or, seeing them as alien -- to expel them to regions that the Apache oftentimes find too confining or hostile to them. The repeated story with the Apache, from the 1800s onwards under teddy Roosevelt is that they are seen as unAmerican or unWestern and therefore a primitive people that are barely deserving, if at all, of respect since they are inferior to the more cultured White folk. Some of this attitude still exists today although it is less overt and forceful and the Apache have become more resigned to their situation.

The most important hostilities in the Apache history of discrimination occurred with Cochise, who fled with his band from restoration limits in the 1850s. They were forcibly removed to Tularosa, but 1000 fled to the Mescalero reserve on Pecos River. Again they were captured and returned to Ojo Caliente. In the meantime, some other reservations were abolished leading to decimation in the tribe and to many fleeing to Mexico.

The removal of Indians from their ancestral home was Roosevelt's testing of a policy of concentration, and again in 1877, April 1877, Geronimo and other chiefs fled their restoration but were captured and returned to San Carlos.

There were other stories like that, notably in… [read more]


John Smith Founding the Virginia Research Paper

… Other critics who include historian Milton (2001) have mentioned that Smith's earlier writings could have been exaggerated and far from the truth citing the issue on Smith writing a letter to Queen Anne for her to treat the daughter of… [read more]


Jesuits and Hurons in New France the Mission Essay

… Jesuits and Hurons in New France

The Mission To The Hurons

The objective of this study is to answer the questions as follows:

Jean de Brebeuf, a French Jesuit missionary, spent two decades living and working with the Huron. Based… [read more]


Jamestown Colony Was Founded as an Entrepreneurial Term Paper

… Jamestown colony was founded as an entrepreneurial enterprise, sponsored by the King of England in 1606. In search of gold as well as new water passages to the Orient, members of the English gentry established the Virginia Company and sent… [read more]


Eskimos Are, as Robert Marshall Term Paper

… Eskimos are, as Robert Marshall states "a Mongol race, with the straight black hair, slant eyes, and dark irises which characterize that great division of the human family. They occupy a strip of country for the most part at the… [read more]


Aboriginal Literature Float the Oral Term Paper

… Aboriginal Literature Float

The Oral Literature of the Native Indians: Poetry and Song by the Teton Sioux, Pawnee, and Papago

Native Indians were considered the earliest inhabitants of the large territory that is now called North America, comprised of Canada… [read more]


Navajo Code Talkers Term Paper

… Set in World War II in the Pacific Theater. In the movie, two American soldiers are paired up with two Navajo code talkers with the former being charged with protecting the latter. One of the plot twists in the movie is that one of the code talkers is being dragged away by the Japanese but one of the Americans responds by killing both the Navajo and the surrounding Japanese with a grenade to protect the code (IMDb, 2014)

Conclusion

References

Erickson, M. (2012, November 7). Navajo Code Talker to receive degree from KU 60 years after departure / LJWorld.com. Navajo Code Talker to receive degree from KU 60 years after departure / LJWorld.com. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://www2.ljworld.com/news

/2012/nov/07 / navajo-code-talker-recieve-honorary-degree-ku/

IMDb. (2014, July 2). Windtalkers. IMDb. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0245562/

NCT. (2014, July 2). Navajo Code Talkers | Interviews, Videos & More. Navajo Code Talkers.

Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://navajocodetalkers.org/

Navy. (2014, June 29). Navajo Code Talkers cryptology. Navajo Code Talkers cryptology.

Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq61-2.htm

Parker, R. (2014, June 4). Chester Nez,… [read more]


Wounded Knee During December 29 Book Report

… Among them is older Sherman who continues with his military work, at first made famous at the time of Civil War, also against the Indians of the West. He even acknowledges his second work as having" done more good for our country and for the human race than he did in the civil war." John, his younger brother is a fashioned legislation that has helped to drive forward American business enterprise, and this is the main credit his republican party receives and one that has changed the American West and the entire population.Whaterver were their intention, as many would have said, the way politician do in the process of doing their work, was to built a better America.

During the late 19th century that was to mean grabbing as much bigger piece of land as possible so that the white settlers wants could be satisfied as the white settlers seeks a piece of the American Dream. Additionally the meaning was fueling the economic progress.

Both cases experience unfortunately Sioux to be in the way. Whatever was also being done by the politicians, which is forcefully argued by Richardson to mean trying to stay in power. For Harrison and the Republicans meaning increasing their Congressional majorities, to keep secret of keeping precedence in 1892, using the new Western state creation with voters sympathetic to the Republic party, within areas such as Dakotas. Indeed, that just confirms to use where Sioux lived as well as where their treaties with the government of U.S. And had given them assurance that they could continue to treaties that was to protect their lands. Richardson argues that these forces come together to imply government policies that facilitates progressive reduction of Sioux lands, which promoted conflict, in addition to massacre at Wounded Knee.

Conclusion

Richardson in rewriting this cautionary tale must have realized the commonalities with the politics of today and polemics. Generally this book reveals the relevant of history in identifying lessons that we had supposed to have learned far before, and which what we have not learn imperil… [read more]


Black Elk's Journal the Offering Journal

… The world runs harmoniously when we demonstrate tolerance for others. History ha shown that whenever the rights of one nation are compromised, it results in bloodshed and revolution. Civil war and French revolution are such examples to advocate this argument.

Chapter 8: The Fight with Three Stars

"The next day the dancing began, and those who were going to take part were ready, for they had been fasting and purifying themselves in the sweat lodges, and praying. First, their bodies were painted by the holy men. Then each would lie down beneath the tree as though he was dead, and the holy men would cut a place in his back or chest. (Niehardt 74)."

This ritual of Black Elk tribe demonstrates how the deep spiritual connections to the higher powers makes human susceptible to hurt themselves. I remember watching a documentary about Iraq where thousands of Muslims gathered on a big ground and began hurting themselves with the help of sharp knives. Similar thing has been observed by Hinduism and Buddhism as well. Causing physical harm to one's self is common in many religions and I guess Black Elk's tribe was not different than us.

Work Cited

Niehardt, John, G. Black… [read more]


Aboriginal Rights -- Treat Term Paper

… Family, in other words, is tied into the services and needs of the family, and family cannot be separated from health, economic issues and community. Family is the whole community concept, more so than the nuclear family as generally identified by the Europeans. Moreover, Aboriginal family entails the Medicine Wheel, the mental, emotional, spiritual and physical aspects of life. The Indian Act changed the "family-based societies to ethnic-based regional collectives" in order to assimilate the Aboriginal peoples. Meanwhile the Eurocentric family is based on nuclear family issues. For example, sixteenth and seventeenth century Europeans see "father" in terms of "…authority and control of the family" (Dickason, 1992, p. 16). In Indian terms, "father" is "protector and provider, who could be influential but who lacked authority" the way European culture gave authority to the father in a family (Dickason, 16).

In conclusion, the key issues in terms of Aboriginal and First Nation Peoples include establishing self-determination and nationhood, which of course they have been attempting to do for decades without full success. Clearly First Peoples wish to carry on -- as much as possible -- the cultural traditions of their forbearers. "…They do not want to lose those characteristics that make them Aboriginal" and yet they don't expect to return to "…some vanished traditional lifestyle" either (Dickerson, et al., 2009). What many First Peoples strive for is to "…live in two worlds," Dickerson explains; they wish to have "…one foot in modern Canadian society and the other in Aboriginal society" and it's "important that they try" even though they may not full succeed. They want to be responsible for themselves and have more to say about their education, housing, healthcare, economic opportunities and "criminal justice is crucial to this goal" (Dickerson, 2009).

Works Cited

Dickason, Olive Patricia. (1992). Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Dickerson, M.O., Flanagan, Thomas, and O'Neill, Brenda. (2009). An Introduction to Government and Politics: A Conceptual Approach. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

Module 7. Aboriginal and First Nations Peoples and Social Policy.… [read more]


Inuktitut in Modern Inuit Communities Term Paper

… Thus, the compulsory education meant that the ancestral language, Inuktitut, partially hidden and forgotten, because it was in boarding school and could not be spoken. As in remote communities but there were no schools, had many young Inuit visit boarding… [read more]


Social Policy and Aboriginal Peoples Term Paper

… The Canadian authorities were previously uninterested in the cultural identity of aboriginal individuals and did not hesitate to have native children lose connection with their culture by forcing them to enroll into normal educational institutes that did not provide them with the treatment that they needed. Residential schools gradually de-Indianized children and made them lose touch with their cultural values. The time that children spent in these schools had a devastating effect on them, as they became confused and no longer able to differentiate between who they were and who their teachers wanted them to be. It was not until the early 1990s that society eventually comprehended that residential schools were wrong and that it was very important for Indian children to be raised in accordance with their cultural values. The Canadian government finally admitted that native children were left with severe traumas consequent to attending residential schools. Because they were enabled to govern how their children are educated, aboriginal communities developed programs meant to assist each child depending on his culture and on the basis of his or her abilities to process information (Monture, 3).

Works cited:

Monture-Angus, Patricia. "Journeying Forward"

Belanger, Yale D. "Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada"

Belanger, Yale D. "Future Prospects for Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada"

Hart, Michael Anthony. "For Indigenous People, by Indigenous People, with Indigenous People"

Wherrett, Jill. "Aboriginal Self-Government"

"Miapukek First Nation Self-Government," Retrieved… [read more]


Colonial America Which Early Jamestown Figure Research Paper

… ¶ … Colonial America

Which early Jamestown figure makes the best role model for modern America: John Smith, Pocahontas, or Powhatan? Please briefly answer the question with a solid (approx. 150 words) yet short paragraph. Make sure you provide some examples from any readings, movies, etc. that support your reasoning.

Captain John Smith (1580-1631) was an English explorer, soldier, and eventually an author who is best remembered as helping to establish the first permanent English settlement at, what became known as, Jamestown, Virginia. He was one of the leaders of Jamestown between 1608-1609 and is also famous in myth because of his association with the daughter of a Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy, Pocahontas. In most recent popular culture, Smith was one of the main characters in the Disney film Pocahontas and the sequel (1995), voiced by Mel Gibson. Smith, played by Colin Farrell, is also central to the 2005 film the New World.

Despite previous historical attempts to debunk the veracity of Smith's encounters with the Powhatan and specifically Pocahontas, most contemporary historians believe most of it was rooted in fact. Certainly, based on the writing style of the time, Smith's accounts may have been exaggerated, but his bravery, tenacity, and dedication to ensuring those under his charge were well cared for marks him as a leader to emulate. Despite the colonialist bent, after all the English were the "invaders" at the time, it appears that Smith was "not only fair, he was surprisingly kind and humanitarian. He treated the Indians as he treated whites…tortured [none], executed none, and saved Indians when others wanted to slay them" (Lemay, 1991, 116). In fact, as a leader, Smith never forgot about class struggle, and he believed that the Indians were not… [read more]


Hoobler, Thomas and Dorothy Hoobler. Captain John Term Paper

… Hoobler, Thomas and Dorothy Hoobler. Captain John Smith: Jamestown and the Birth of the American Dream. New York: Wiley, 2005.

The colony of Jamestown in Roanoke, Virginia, often remains a shadowy period of American history in most American's understanding of… [read more]


Dieri, Bevenda, Cherokee Structures Term Paper

… This use of human sacrifice would suggests a more concrete belief in the need for ritual, physical practices than the Cherokee and an investiture in the elements of the ritual, as opposed to the space and time of the ritual's practice, and the power of the practitioner's gifts and words, as was common to Cherokee invocations.

However, one must remain skeptical of these assessments, given the frequent biases of accounts of aboriginal life. What is clear is that the Australian Aborigines, one of the oldest recorded civilizations, do differ in their cosmological understanding of the world in relation to the Cherokee in that they posit a creator did give birth to the land. "Most Aboriginal people believe that all life as we know it today (human, animal, or plant) is part of a vast and complex single network of relationships which can be traced directly back to the great spirit ancestors of the Dreamtime." This is characteristic of the worldviews of both the Dieri and the Bevenda

Thus, in the Aboriginal worldview, although there is no singular creator as such, clearly there are creating forces with separate existences to either humans or animals. Animals do not function prominently in the aboriginal mythological structure as in the Cherokee. Rather, the natural world is a result of the actions of the metaphysical beings whose actions created the world. But these beings are not accessed through the powers of specific, shamanistic individuals. Rather than endowing certain individuals with an ability to access the dreamtime, certain places are conferred with a particular potency. Through sacred space, rather than sacred rituals, "in this dreaming lies the sacredness of the earth."

The Cherokee's transitory way of sustaining themselves in the plains provide an ideal support of shamanistic theological structures, while the aboriginals less transitory way of life thus sustains a worldview that allows them to live in particular sacred places. The ritual objects for the Cherokee are less important than the rituals themselves, and the individuals who make use of these rituals. Although like the aboriginal tribes, the Cherokees do not create a strong rift between sacred and profane life, the aborigines were far more likely to imbue humans rather than animals with cosmological significance in the form of their ancestors, and to give real 'power' in their theological understanding to objects, rather than merely to objects in the context of rituals. This may be due to their more territorially bound way of life, and the fact that they were not dependant upon such a narrow range of animals for sustenance as the Cherokee. However, beyond such speculation about these distinctions it is more important to remember the existence of these distinctions, and the unique differences territory and history create in the lives of diverse native peoples.

Works Cited

Cherokee Religion." Citied Mooney, 1995, pp.239-240. Accessed on January 14, 2003 at http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/nam/cherok.html.

Dreamtime.' Accessed on January 14, 2003 at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Dreamtime

Noss, David S. A History Of World's Religions. 10th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 1999

Cherokee… [read more]


Historical Events in 1877 Term Paper

… At that time, Dull Knife was nearing 70 years old and so sickly that some did not recognize him. Throughout the winter and spring, he had to be hidden among the Sioux because the soldiers continued to look for him.… [read more]


Inuit Youths in Contemporary Society Essay

… ¶ … Weather Permits -- Commentary

The documentary If the Weather Permits presents the plight of the native Inuit Eskimo Aboriginal people of Northern Canada. On one hand, the introduction of elements of modern society, including modern technology, has improved their lives. On the other hand, the same changes have damaged other aspects of their traditional life style in ways that may outweigh any of the benefits of modernity.

The Importance of Traditional Lifestyles to Aboriginal Peoples

Generally, Aboriginal and other native peoples have societies that are based on ancient traditions, rituals, customs, and ways of life. Their cultures reflect the cumulative knowledge and traditions of all of their previous ancestral generations who lived before them. The Inuit People have traditionally lived in very harsh winter climates, hunting seal and other arctic wildlife and making sure to consume or use as much as possible of their kills, largely out of a cultural belief about the importance of having respect for the animals whose sacrifice is necessary for their continued subsistence.

Changes Attributable to Mixing with Modern Society

Since the encroachment of modern society on the traditional Aboriginal Inuit People have experienced significant social changes, many of which are not necessarily beneficial to them. Since the middle of the 20th century, modern governments have established settlements near the traditional territories of the Inuit. In many instances, they have required that the Inuit live on those established settlements instead of maintaining their traditional nomadic way of life across their entire traditional territory.

Ironically, the improvement in healthcare (in particular) that has been available to the Inuit in the last half century has… [read more]


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