Study "Nursing / Doctor / Physician" Essays 111-163

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Nursing Research There Is a Certain Expectation Essay

… Nursing Research

There is a certain expectation within any academic field that there will be continuous research and development in order to keep the scholarship and acumen up-to-date within that discipline. This is especially true in the medical field, where… [read more]

Nursing Philosophy a Philosophy Essay

… Nursing Philosophy

A Philosophy of Nursing

Like every profession, nursing is both a commonly shared calling and a very personal one. Every nurse shares certain professional standards with all of his or her colleagues, has in common a large number… [read more]

Nurse Anesthetist Anesthesiologists Are Charged Research Paper

… The discrepancy prompted The California Society of Anesthesiologists and California Medical Association to file a lawsuit, in February 2010, calling for a withdrawal of the Governor's opt-out petition. On October 8, 2010, however, the San Francisco Superior Court ruled in favor of the California Association of Nurse Anesthetists and Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in support of California's right to opt-out of the federal requirement. CRNA training enables nurses to work with or without the supervision of a physician in order to protect patient care and safety. Statistically, 65% of all CRNA's continue to work in collaboration with physician supervisors in what is called an "Anesthesia Care Team."

Nurse anesthetists have come a long way since the day that Catherine Lawrence was trying to ease the pain of soldiers in the field. According to the American association of Nurse Anesthetists, CRNA's administer anesthesia to nearly 32 million patients annually throughout the United States in both private and public healthcare venues. They practice their nursing skills in large medical facilities to small community hospitals. They are available at pain clinics or dentist offices, have a respected place in the military and at Veteran hospitals and clinics, and in public health facilities. The pioneering women like Sister Mary Bernard, Alice Magraw, Agnes McGee, and Agatha Hodgins would be astonished at the advancement of technology, surgical practices, and medical achievements that the world has come to know as "normal" due to their heroic efforts and insights.

Works Cited

American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (2007). AANA History: Hand in Hand with Nurse Anesthesia. Retrieved May 26, 2007

Bankert M. (1989). Watchful Care: A History of America's Nurse Anesthetists. New York, NY: Continuum; p. 41

Gaffey, V. (April 1, 2007). Agatha Cobourg Hodgins: She Only Counted Shining Hours . AANA Journal, 75(2), 97-100.

History of Nurse Anesthesia Practice . (2010, May). American Association of Nurse Anesthetists,

Magraw, A (1906), A Review… [read more]

Definition and Role of the Advance Practice Nurse Essay

… ¶ … Advanced Nursing Practice

Defining Advanced Practice Nursing

Advanced Practice Nurses (APRNs) and are licensed Registered Nurses (RNs) who have pursued advanced educational degrees, typically master's level degrees in specialized areas of nursing. Generally, APRNs are more thoroughly prepared than RNs to provide for the comprehensive care of patients across a broader range of needs arising from disease and illness as well as in connection to supporting wellness and general health. The route to becoming a Nurse Practitioner requires first achieving a bachelor's degree and then a subsequent master's degree in Nursing, followed by achieving national certification and demonstrating professional competencies. In principle, the defining characteristic that distinguishes the APRN from the RN is that APRNs are better qualified to provide nursing services autonomously and with less direction from physicians (NCBON, 2011).

The Advanced Practice Nursing Role in Healthcare

Generally, advanced practice nursing comprises four specific roles or sub-specialties: Nurse Practitioner, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist, and Certified Nurse Midwife (Hamric, Spross, & Hanson, 2009). In principle, advanced practice nursing differs from traditional nursing by virtue of the degree that advanced nursing practice emphasizes nursing theory, and the practical application of evidence-based research knowledge directly to the clinical setting (Hamric, Spross, & Hanson, 2009). One of the most significant roles of advanced practice nurses is their responsibilities as liaisons between physicians and patients. In contemporary clinical medicine, patients actually interact with nurses much more than with physicians and rely on them tremendously to inform and educate them. The continual… [read more]

Cultural Diversity and Nursing Care Plan Term Paper

… Cultural Diversity and Nursing Care Plan

A culturally diverse population, like in Hawaii, lends itself to unique problems for healthcare professionals. Culture shapes perceptions, expectations, and behavior (Taylor, Lillis, LeMone, & Lynn, 2008). When different cultures are involved, the perceptions, expectations, and behavior that come with each can impact the effectiveness of care. Consequently, to offer the best nursing care possible, it is imperative to alter a nursing care plan to fit the needs of a culturally diverse population.

Nursing diagnoses have been accused of being culturally insensitive, with terminology including ineffective coping and noncompliance, but those diagnoses may be linked to cultural beliefs and behavior (Walsh, 2004). In addressing these diagnoses, a nursing care plan should take into account the cultural factors that may have brought it about. The care plan should incorporate learning about the cultures, gathering relevant information, and using the information to tailor the care delivered to patients in a manner that works within the patients' culture.

The first step to take in creating a care plan for the culturally diverse is to become familiar with the cultures' beliefs. Some cultures believe in alternative sources of medical treatment. For example, a patient may be seeing an herbalist in conjunction with a physician and may be received an herbal remedy and a pharmaceutical that, together, cause the patient to be overmedicated (Taylor et al., 2008). By being aware that a patient may be seeking complementary or alternative forms of care, the nurse knows what information should be collected in order to provide better care.

It is also important to understand different cultures' opinions on aspects of medicine. A cultural perception about a certain medical practice may cause a patient to be noncompliant with the prescribed treatment (Walsh, 2004). For example, if a culture believes that meditation or prayer should be used over drugs, a patient may choose to forego medicine provided by the doctor, which would appear noncompliant. A nursing care plan could… [read more]

Introduce Pre-Nursing Students to Nursing Later in Their Education Book Report

… ¶ … nursing is a rewarding, but challenging, career choice. The modern nurse's role is not limited only to assist the doctor in procedures, however. Instead, the contemporary nursing professional takes on a partnership role with both the doctor and… [read more]

Art of Nursing Research Paper

… Synopsis of the theorist's view

Even though Henderson's theory has some limitations, it has proven over time to portray some values in the nursing science. More so to the nursing education part, Virginia Henderson's concept has been critical from the historical perspective. The theorist's view and contribution to the nursing literature extending from back in the early 18th century has had a tremendous impact on the nursing research by strengthening the focus on the nursing practice and confirming the value of the tested interventions in assisting individuals to recover (Henderson, 1991).


Henderson, V. (1955). Harmer and Henderson's Textbook of the principles and practice of nursing. New York: Macmillan

Henderson, V. (1956). Research in nursing practice: when? Nursing research, 4 (3), 99

Henderson, V. (1960). International council of nurses basic principles of nursing care ICN,


Henderson, V. (1966). The nature of nursing. New York: Macmillan

Henderson, V. (1982). The nursing process. Journal of advanced nursing, 7 (4), 103-109.

Henderson, V. (1991). The nature of nursing reflections after 25 years. New York: National

League for Nursing.

Hesook, K & Kollak, I. (2005). Nursing theories: conceptual and philosophical foundation.

California: Springer Publishing Company.

Mariner-Tomey, A. & Alligod, M. (2005). Nursing theorist and their work. St. Louis: Mosby,


Nursing Theory and Theorists. (2008). The signature of… [read more]

Nursing Care Plan Essay

… Nursing Care Planning

Background- In contemporary nursing an issue comprising three essential attributes, respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine becomes the template for patient care planning. During the diagnosis and initial opinion period, there are several events that will necessitate the nurse acting on behalf of the patient because of the patient's inability to either act or understand the procedure. (Burkhard,, 2007). Thus, the nurses' role as an advocate is to facilitate, encourage or to enable patients to be involved in all aspects of their healthcare, and when unable to do so, act in their stead. The modern nurse's role is not limited only to assist the doctor in procedures, however. Instead, the contemporary nursing professional takes on a partnership role with both the doctor and patient as advocate caregiver, teacher, researcher, counselor, and case manager. Under the paradigm of quality health care, modern nurses should interpret this as "quality patient care" -- which comprises three important factors -- sound theoretical knowledge of the latest medical procedures, information and innovations; superior communication skills that are multi-culturally based; and the ability to empathize appropriately with the patient and family to buttress the role of caregiver. The necessity for modern nurses is to be far more than ever -- more of a multitasking professional with superior communication and organization skills -- and even more focused on the holistic model of the patient and the manner in which they, the nurse, affects the outcome of the patient's care experience (Brown, 2007). One of the major tools nurses use to adapt these various skills and responsibilities to individual patients is the nursing care plan.

The Nursing Care Plan- A typical nursing care plan outlines the actions, medications, and medical plans that the nurse will use to provide appropriate patient care. It is an intermediate stage of the nursing process, and focuses on guiding the ongoing and fluid process of nursing care and evaluation. The idea nursing care plan has six major parts: 1) It focuses on actions which are designed to solve or minimize the existing problem; 2) It is a product of a deliberate systematic process; 3) It relates to the future; 4) It is based upon identifiable health and nursing problems; 5) Its focus is holistic, and 6) It focuses to meet all the needs of the service user (Barrett,, 2009). Essentially, the plan allows a nurse to individualize appropriate care procedures that prevent overlap, omissions, and allow the nurse to assume the hub role of care when there are multiple physicians involved (Doenges, 2002). The plans have one primary purpose, though. That is to provide cogent and appropriate directions for the nursing staff surrounding an individual's care. To accomplish this, there are essentially 10 steps to the care plan:



Identify Strengths

Identify Risks… [read more]

Doctor of Nursing Practice Essay

… ¶ … DNP program is different from a traditional PhD program.

One of the distinguishing features of the advanced practice nursing discipline is the emphasis which is placed on clinical proficiency. This differs from many of the medical disciplines where educational and professional development center more directly on research aspects of any particular field. This principle has seen an elevation in importance with the 2004 initiation of the process by which Advance Practice Nursing (APN) programs begin their evolution into Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs. According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), "On October 25, 2004, the member schools affiliated with the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) voted to endorse the Position Statement on the Practice Doctorate in Nursing. This decision called for moving the current level of preparation necessary for advanced nursing practice from the master's degree to the doctorate-level by the year 2015." (AACN 2010)

The result would be the creation of a new doctorate program for the nursing profession that in some ways parallels aspects of the PhD program for nursing and which, in other ways, differs considerably. Perhaps the most significant difference between them is the capacity in which the DNP program projects itself for continuing professional development and education. Its emphasis on the practical aspects of engaging clinical nursing make it an approach particularly well-suited to ongoing improvement and expansion of professional qualifications. By contrast, the PhD functions more in the formative capacity, helping individuals to establish core mentor-mentee relationships and to gain in the fundamental knowledge specific to one's intended area of study and work. So denotes Cramp (2005), who reports that a PhD program "prepares nurse scientists with focused areas of research expertise and is designed to allow students to work one on one with experienced senior researchers. Students are matched based on research interest on admission with a College of Nursing professor who is a graduate faculty fellow." (p. 1)

The DNP, instead, reflects the rising prominence of clinical nurses who are equipped with advanced skill and knowledge sets. Quite to the point, Cramp makes the case that while these aims reflect a core difference between nursing PhDs and nursing DNPs, both subsets of the nursing profession are likely to possess greater and more extensive education than is the traditional Medical Doctor (MD). That said, all indications are that the nursing profession is coming increasingly to demand a level of educational development and practical qualification that converge in the Doctor of Nursing Practice initiative.

2. Discuss your educational and professional goals, short-term and long-term, and address how earning the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) will help… [read more]

Nurse Practitioner Women's Health Term Paper

… Nurse Practitioner -- Women's Health

The nursing profession has steadily grown throughout the years. Nurses have gone from providing basic patient care under the supervision of a physician to being able to diagnose and prescribe medications to treat certain illnesses independent of supervision. Nurses that practice without the supervision of a physician are usually nurse practitioners. They treat acute and chronic illnesses such as hypertension, flu, coughs and colds, and other healthcare issues. They can also specialize in a field of medicine such as women's health. Women make up half of the population and studies have shown that women seek healthcare at a higher rate than men do and respond differently to treatments as well as providers ("Women's Health," 2009). As such, the Women's Health Nurse Practitioner (WHNP) is an important and growing field. WHNPs provide basic healthcare to women who may otherwise not have insurance or are underinsured. They also provide services to patients who are fully insured but cannot afford to take time off of work because of the limited office hours of their primary care physician, or they do not have the time to wait for long periods of time just to get in to see their doctor.

The WHNP plays an important role in the healthcare issues that women may face. Not only does this profession require specific training, it also requires a certain skill set. The WHNP must be a person that not only possesses the clinical training necessary, but she must also be able to relate to the patient on a personal and social level. Women are now at a high risk for heart disease, thyroid problems, gynecological problems and other health issues and these health concerns are growing at an alarming rate. Women need to be able to discuss their healthcare issues and concerns with someone who is knowledgeable and supportive. In many instances the WHNP is their… [read more]

Motivation of Becoming a Physician Assistant Admission Essay

… Physician Assistant

My original motivation for pursuing a medical career goes back to the unexpected loss of my mother in 1995. She was the victim of medical malpractice due to the errors of her physician. Prior to that, I had never realized how vulnerable ailing patients are to mistakes in the medical field. A few years later, I had a comprehensive annual medical checkup that was conducted by a physician assistant. During our conversation, I inquired into the nature of that occupation and into the specific requirements for qualification for employment in the field.

My physician assistant explained that in many ways the profession provides many of the same rewards as those associated with employment as a physician; on the other hand, it requires considerably less sacrifice of the grueling schedules and responsibilities that are typically the most difficult aspect of becoming a physician. Because the training is so much shorter than the training to become a physician, the path to becoming a licensed physician assistant is not as expensive and does not necessarily entail a substantial financial investment and all of the subsequent obligations with respect to paying for it over time. My understanding is that new physicians routinely take on debt greater than their first several years of salary just to finance their pre-requisite academic training.

In my case, some of the most important benefits of the opportunity to enter the medical field as a physician assistant include the shortening of the amount of time between the initial decision and my actual ability to contribute to the medical welfare of patients and other healthcare beneficiaries. In particular, I am extremely motivated to bring quality medical services to rural areas of the… [read more]

Bioethical Issues in Nursing and Health Care Case Study

… Bioethics and Nursing

Patient is a 59-year-old man, overweight and hypertensive, with a history of alcoholism. Patient has been diagnosed with end-stage renal disease, but refuses to adhere to diet, medication, and abstinence from alcohol. Jane Martin, APRN, is concerned about her roles and responsibilities concerning Patient.

What are Jane's professional responsibilities to Mr. Tate?

As a licensed professional, Jane's responsibilities are to use her skills and to the best of her ability do whatever is necessary to assist in Patient's continued treatment. Under NRS 632005, the State of Nevada specifically indicates that nurses should assist in maintaining the health, safety, and welfare of their patients. Further, the practice of professional nursing 632.017-18, indicates care of the ill, injured or infirm. As a nurse, Jane is responsible for carrying out the doctor's orders to the best of her ability. She is not responsible for Patient's adherence to protocol or instructions, but she is responsible for informing (even if on a continual basis) Patient of best practice instructions, and letting him know that she is also responsible for notifying her superiors that he is not participating appropriately in his care.

Jane's role is, however, not as a diagnostician. Her role within the care system is to assist and provide professional care for the patient. It is also not her role or responsibility to introduce her own sense of morality or justice in determining what the best use of advanced care, medications, or procedures might be. Since Patient is "of sound mind," and mobile, it is her responsibility to take her concerns over the Patient's health to the proper authority.

With whom could Jane Martin discuss her ethical concerns regarding Mr. Tate?

Jane should… [read more]

AHRQ Accountability of Nursing Professionals Paper: Select Thesis


Accountability of Nursing Professionals Paper: Select one patient safety practice from the AHRQ resource, and identify and explain how the nursing professional is accountable in relationship to implementing change based on the evidence for practice. Include a patient care… [read more]

Job Performance of a Nurse Research Proposal

… ¶ … Nursing is undergoing continuous and significant change. The changes are the result of economic, psychosocial, educational, and psychological factors that have forced these changes and applied pressure to the health profession. With all this change and the prospect of universal health care, the cornerstone of proper patient care will be the nurse. What role will the nurse play in the future and what will his or her job responsibilities be?

This study is needed to answer the problem of what that role of the nurse will be in this future "unknown" program of "healthcare for all" and what importance the nurse does and will play. Will the nurse be "lost" in the bureaucracy of a giant machine?


This study will review the important role the nurse has played in our private healthcare system to this day, the job responsibilities and discuss why it is so important that this significant role continue in the future. It will also review the nursing process and discuss its impact on patient care and the crucial role it must continue to play.


What must be accomplished is the establishment of proof of the significance of the nurse's role through research, example, and hypotheses. This study must examine the evidence of the past to show that the future, though changed in structure has no less a need for the important function and expanding job responsibilities of the nurse.

Review of Literature

The areas of literature surveyed will be the importance of nursing and some of the past history of the profession, the key ingredient of why nurses are so important in any health system -- patient care and communication, the "nursing process," nursing theory and practice, current job responsibilities of the nurse,… [read more]

Nursing Conceptual Model Develop Your Own Research Proposal

… Nursing Conceptual Model

Develop your own conceptual model

Nurse conceptual model: Nurse 'burnout'

The most common reason nurses cite for entering the profession is their desire to help others. However, because nurses are often placed in the position of caretakers,… [read more]

Philosophy of Nursing Has Undergone Many Changes Essay

… Philosophy of nursing has undergone many changes since its early beginnings. Nurses are known for their desire to help and serve humanity by helping to alleviate their suffering. Selflessness and a commitment to others is a key characteristic of the… [read more]

Nursing Leader's Perceived Role in Nurse Recruitment Research Proposal

… LR Explor/The nurse leader role in recruit.

Nurse Leaders as Recruiters

Nurse leaders serve an integral role in the field to demonstrate skill in recruitment of future nurses. To do this they must work within existing systems as well as… [read more]

Implementing the Clinical Nurse Leader Role in the Women's and Children's Department Research Paper

… Clinical Nurse Leader Role

Implementing the Clinical Nurse Leader Role in the Women's and Children's Department

The recently emerging role of Clinical Nurse Leader has come under extreme scrutinty by both the promoters of the position and the detractors. Developed… [read more]

Nursing When Florence Nightingale Noted That Nurses Essay

… Nursing

When Florence Nightingale noted that nurses, not doctors, should teach nursing she emphasized the uniqueness of the profession. Nursing is not a watered-down version of doctoring. Nor is nursing practice something doctors learn in medical school. It is a nurse, not a doctor, who sits by the patient's bedside. It is a nurse, not a doctor, who helps patients bathe, read, and eat while they heal. Doctors and nurses provide wholly different services to patients. Their professions are related and ancillary but they are not so similar to render doctors able to teach nurses how to practice the art and science of caring. Therefore, only a nurse knows how to counsel and mentor other aspiring caring professionals.

Nightingale knew this, which is why she remains one of the most important figures in the history of the profession. Florence Nightingale may have in fact given birth to nursing as a professional enterprise: defining it in contrast to what physicians do. Physicians have long overshadowed nurses… [read more]

Advance Nursing Practice Term Paper

… Advanced Nursing Practice

As healthcare in the United States becomes a more complex and crucial societal element, it will become increasingly important for providers to gain different levels of specialization and education. One area that is growing as a result… [read more]

Nursing Communications Attn: Professor Re: How Oral Term Paper

… Nursing Communications

ATTN: Professor

RE: How Oral and Written Communication is Used in Nursing

Dear Sir:

My technology involves helping people in a healthcare setting as a nurse. I help people by providing them with healthcare assistance and guidance in the way of oral communications, physical help and emotional assistance (Fitzgerald, 2001). I also provide guidance to family members in need of support when associated with the patients I work with. In the current market there is a shortage of nursing staff, so the demand is high for qualified nurses with strong business communications skills (Fitzgerald, 2001). I will use oral and written communication in many ways in the nursing field, including when participating in collaborative efforts between myself and the patients I work with, and the physicians and other healthcare personnel I must associate with. Oral communication skills are helpful for building rapport (Locker, 2006) in a nursing setting. Written communication skills are important for documenting information and notes regarding one's interactions with the patient, physicians, family and other pertinent information.

While I do not have any experience working as a nurse, I have always had strong writing skills. Past instructors including Dr. Macioci stated that I was, "An exceptional English Student" suggesting I am quite well-versed in the language. By learning how to combine my experience and talent with the written word with the skills I learn in oral communication, I will be able to build rapport with the people I work with and write in a way that is understandable, clear and concise, which will be of utmost importance to the physicians I work with in the field (Sass, 2000; Johnstone, 1999).

Nursing is a field that is essential in healthcare. Nurses work one-on-one with doctors, patients and other administrative staff to ensure the safety and livelihood of patients and other people they may provide support for.… [read more]

Exploring the Role of Emergency Room Nursing Term Paper

… Emergency Room Nursing

Exploring the role of emergency room nursing

Introduction of emergency room nursing in Canada and the rationale for choice:

The emergency room nursing is governed under the aegis of Emergency Nursing Association -- ENA which is the… [read more]

Stem Cell Research and Nursing Professionals Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research and Nursing

Nursing professionals and medical experts predict that modern nursing has a complex future that it has to come to terms with. This is mainly due to the modern technological advancements in the field of medicine,… [read more]

Critical Care Nursing and Role of the Critical Care Nurse Term Paper

… Nursing

Critical Care Nursing and the Role of the Critical Care Nurse

Recently, while working in a critical care unit, I had the privilege of attending to the needs of Ms. X, a patient who had recently undergoing open heart… [read more]

Healthcare Nursing Term Paper

… Nursing: Patient-Centric Communication

There are probably no skills that are as critical in nursing as are communication skills. The nurse is generally responsible for giving the patient instructions on medications, follow-up and other very critically important care information. Ineffective communication… [read more]

Philosophy of Professional Nursing Term Paper

… ¶ … nursing philosophy. It explores several elements of nursing including illness, personal beliefs, and patient care. It then provides a blueprint of the writer's philosophy when it comes to the field and practice of nursing.

As a nurse, I… [read more]

Nursing the Differences Between a Lpn Term Paper

… Nursing

The Differences between a LPN and an RN in a Home Healthcare Setting

Although both nursing professionals perform functions that are critical to patient care in the home healthcare clinical setting, the licensed practical nurse and the registered nurse both have distinct responsiblities and specific delinated and limited capacities, according to both the law and the nurses' respective demands of professional ethics and their profession's chains of command. The registered nurse acts as the guide and definer of a patent's treatment, in absence of the physician. The licensed practical nurse assists the registered nurse in observing the patient and administering the treatment under the supervision of the registered nurse. Unlike the LPN, the RN is registered with a professional organization and must obey the organization's ethical codes and legal strictures, and must maintain certain levels of competency to comply with evolving standards. The licensed practical nurse has evidence that he or she has passed an exam to standards, and is professionally licensed to dispense care. (Carter, 2005)

The Nurse Practice Act of 2004 justifies these different levels of allowed competency on the part of the LPN and the RN based on the rigors of testing and the levels of education required of the different nursing professionals. Because he or she has a professional degree, unlike the LPN, the RN has the ability to make decisions regarding treatment as well as to dispense and give care, a critical aspect of the home healthcare setting, where a doctor may often be absent. The RN has a unique responsibility to manage a patient's long-term treatment, rather than to merely administer to the immediate demands care of a specific patient under like the LPN. (Carter, 2004) Thus, unlike an LPN, an RN can act as a director and a decision-maker in the home healthcare environment as well as an observer, advisor, and caregiver. In fact, in some it settings, the RN may be assigned to making on-site treatment decisions, while assisted by an LPN. (Carter, 2004)

The practice of nursing by a licensed practical nurse or LPN is thus defined as the performing of selected tasks and sharing of responsibility under the direction and decision-making of a registered nurse or RN. The LPN, unlike the RN, functions mainly within a framework of supportive and restorative care, health counseling and teaching, case finding and referral, collaborating in the implementation of the total health care regimen and executing the medical regimen under specific and guided rather than independent directions. (Carter, 2004) The RN can aid the physican in the diagnosis of the patient, remit specific orders about how the patient's treatment, medication, and care ought to progress according to the goals set at the onset of the treatment, and make decisions regarding patient care that alters such goals and treatment, provided these decisions are vetted by the physican responsible for the patient in the home healthcare setting. The RN can manage… [read more]

Nursing Professions Mexico in Ancient Term Paper

… On an average, the basic qualification for a 'general' nurse is a middle school education, which is also known as 'secundaria', which goes through to the ninth grade. After finishing this basic education, these women are required to undergo a… [read more]

Nursing Profession Term Paper

… Enrollees of the program must have a BS degree in Nursing. Their primary task is to collaborate with health professionals and physicians.

s noted by Dr. L Ford:

"extensive knowledge base not only about basic cognitive levels and developmental milestones but you also have to know what equipment is appropriate to use for children of different ages and sizes."

Practice Patterns- NPs practice are being conducted in several areas of needs, where their skills and knowledge are much needed. As mentioned in the article, PNPs presence are now in far flung rural areas, prisons and correctionals, schools and other institutions. Their expertise is not anymore bounded in the field of maternal and childcare.

Such that the basic practice of PNP had some resistances initially with medical associations, doctors and nursing organization, it managed to push through with the program.

Research Findings- According to a recent article on the 40th Anniversary of PNP studies shows that the practice of the pediatric nursing practitioners are well accepted by patients and physicians alike. This attributes to the credibility of all nurses who qualified in the training being conducted to for the PNP program.

Practice related Proposal for the PNP Role- The PNPs basic role is centered on pediatric care. The suggested proposal with these regards is the undertaking and care of children in the custody of the local social service unit. This proposal will serve as a practice ground for new PNPs who passed the program.

Issues pertaining to the health care of children within local social service units will then be partially resolved thus making good use of the acquired knowledge of new PNPs. Local officials and medical practitioners will surely agree on such term of practice.

Performance criteria in this role-

Hereunder are the specified criteria:

1. The practicing PNP must be able to grasp knowledge on the patients psychological status, behavioral patterns and emotional imbalance, if in this state.

2. The background of the PNP must be very well suited for the assigned patient, thus not compromising the welfare of the patient.

3. The extent of knowledge in child care and family dynamics must be above average. This is to ensure that both physical and psychological needs of the patient would be met.

Evaluation- The prescribed evaluation must come from a neutral observer, a basic knowledge in healthcare and partially or impartially concerned with the patient.


History of Nursing.

Quan, Kathy. The Florence Nightingale Pledge.

History of Nursing. sdn=nursing& [read more]

Leadership -- Nursing Discover Term Paper

… "Nursing -- leading, following, and giving." The new face of nursing has changed, from one in which nurses were viewed as mere attendants to doctors, to one in which the unique place of nurses is now acknowledged. As health care grows more financially strapped in America today, yet increasingly necessary for an aging population, nurses have become front line fighters for quality healthcare. Today, the nursing profession must show more leadership than ever before. Also, the idea of having a mission statement of leadership is especially important in today's environment given the increasingly vocal role as patient advocates many nurses must play in a bureaucratic health care environment. Private nurses may be paid to act as advocates in some understaffed environments, while nurses in the public health care system must ensure that patients receive referrals with all due speed and that other aspects of managed care do not interfere with patient care. The empowerment to act as a leader as well as a follower and facilitator of care is something that all nurses must remember, although, if not immediately respected by all doctors, patients, family members and staff members, they might be apt to forget -- but cannot forget, given the pressing needs of their patients and organizations.

Works Cited

Kaminsky, M. (1998). "Voicing voicelessness: On the poetics of faith." American Journal of Psychoanalysis. 58, pp.405-416.

Neuman, B., & Fawcett, J. (Eds.) (2002). The Neuman Systems Model. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Raingruber, Bonnie. (Jan-Mar 2004) "Meanings in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Nursing." The Journal of Child and Adolescent Psycatric Nursing.

Wendt, D.A., & Vale, D.J. (1999). "Managing quality and risk." In P.S. Yoder-Wise (Ed.), Leading and managing in nursing. Second Edition. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, pp. 173-189).

Whitman, Walt. "When I Heard the Learned Astronomer." Retrieved on 15 Jul 2005

Yoder-Wise P. (2003). Leading and Managing in Nursing. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. [read more]

Nursing Nurse Practitioner Role: Current Term Paper

… Reading the Grossman / Valiga book is a terrific exercise in learning and in challenging me to become more informed; but without the extra stimulus resulting from the article by Dr. Ketefian, the director of postdoctoral studies at the University… [read more]

Nursing Pus, Bodily Fluids, and Oozing Blood Term Paper

… Nursing

Pus, bodily fluids, and oozing blood: most little children know instinctively that what comes out of our bodies is often "gross." Yet as nurses we are obliged to deal with all of life's discharges and dirtiness. Especially now, nurses are responsible for more than just moral support for patients. It is we who come into direct contact with communicable diseases and other dangers ranging from needle pricks to contaminated blood. More and more, nurses deal with dangers other than those related to illnesses. Job-related stress and strain is taking on all persons in the medical profession. Nurses are called on to work extraordinarily long hours, for example, and are given increasingly more difficult responsibilities related to medical technologies. Moreover, nurses are being involved more frequently in malpractice lawsuits than ever before. In his article "On the Defensive," Todd Stein notes, "Today, as nurses take on more of the physician's medical duties, they are increasingly exposed to a physician's greatest fear - the malpractice lawsuit." Because of all these reasons, my dream of becoming a nurse has been relatively difficult to fulfill. Friends and family have often vocally opposed my desire to enter the nursing profession because of the various mental and physical dangers involved. Although nurses generally get paid well, we are undervalued as professionals, especially when considered next to doctors. My decision to become a nurse was therefore deliberate and well-thought out. I have had to take considerable amounts of time off and have invested time, effort, and money into schooling so that I can realize my dream. Nursing, in spite of its dangers and drawbacks, is an admirable profession because it involves healing, kindness, and compassion.

Like many nurses, I am drawn to the profession out of a deep desire to help others heal and prosper. Nurses can directly impact the lives of their patients by properly attending to their needs, both physical and mental. Unfortunately, many aspiring nurses like me meet with the daunting comments from friends and family members, comments that could potentially discourage someone from pursuing the career in earnest. For example, when I graduated from high school, many people advised me against a career in nursing. In spite of these obstacles I invested a huge amount of energy, time, and resources into going back to school to manifest my dreams.

In order to be a successful and effective nurse, we must be empathetic and patient, as well as physically and mentally strong. Being a nurse is more than just giving someone their medication or about getting paid; nursing is about giving and caring. According to Virginia Henderson, nursing does not consist of merely following physician's orders; it entails "assisting individuals to gain independence in relation to the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery ("Virginia Avernal Henderson"). In other words, nurses actually help the infirm to heal themselves; in essence, nurses empower patients. In order to do so, nurses must be preeminently powerful ourselves. Understanding the true… [read more]

Neo-Natal Nurse Term Paper

… In addition, because I am a black female, I feel that I could relate to black babies in areas where there are few black nurses, and I feel this would be a help to the families, as well. As of 2003, only 4.9% of nurses in the United States were African-American, and the number of neo-natal black nurses is even smaller. I feel I have much to give to the field, and could help create an environment that was more supportive for children and their families in the black community.

As a high school student, I have been committed to my education, and my future. I hope to attend nursing school when I graduate, and specialize in neo-natal nursing. I have a BLANK (ADD HERE) GPA, and will graduate in the top numbers in my senior class. I feel I have much to offer to nursing school, and I hope you will accept my application to attend school beginning with the Spring Semester 2005. Thank you.


Author not Available. "Minority Nurse Statistics." 2003. 15 Oct. 2004.


Author not Available. "Neonatal Nurse." 2004. 15 Oct. 2004.… [read more]

History of Modern American Nursing Term Paper

… Ultimately, once upper class females gravitated to the nursing profession, pioneers in the United States followed the example of Florence Nightengale, who managed to help reform British military hospitals by appealing to friends in high places in government. Consequently, nursing began to take shape as a bona-fide skilled occupation in spite of, rather than because of the attitudes and sentiments of American physicians of the late nineteenth century (Starr, 1984).

The Modern Nursing Profession:

Barely a century since women were still completely excluded from the medical profession altogether, nursing has grown into an essential component of modern medicine. Today it is inconceivable to imagine either a modern hospital or even the private medical practitioner's functioning without nurses performing the myriad necessary and vital functions at which they excel by virtue of their advanced training.

Nursing education now requires a four-year undergraduate degree as well as specialized training and practical experience in specific areas of medicine. By the end of the twentieth century, Registered Nurses earned the additional option of continuing their training to become Nurse Practitioners, who routinely perform many tasks of primary care medicine, formerly limited to Medical Doctors. As modern medicine continues to be shaped by the economics of HMO's, the nursing profession is poised to assume a larger and larger role in the modern practice of medicine.


Caplan, A.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Starr, P. (1984) The Social Transformation of American Medicine.

New York: Basic Books

Wertz, R.W., Wertz, D.C. (1979) Lying-In: A History of Childbirth… [read more]

Clinical Nursing Professionals Require Self Term Paper

… They share their personal experiences and expect to share their beliefs as well. Thus the holistic nature of the field of nursing has put tremendous pressure on the nursing professionals.

Patricia Benner in this regard has very eloquently outlined the importance and the nature of nursing care. In her book she illustrates that a novice nurse begins with learning and learning develops when the theoretical framework is put to practice. Skills, practical abilities as well as dexterity all counts when a nurse is engaged in performing the clinical duties. Yet success however does not come in application only but rather on how the nurse utilizes external knowledge from the surrounding to polish their skills. Senior nurses for example are required to demonstrate competencies in the areas of organization, coordination, team arrangements as well as monitoring the process of care. They may take a leadership role and thereby give support to the health care institutions. To even further, their careers these nurses can even become specialized in certain clinical areas through advance studies and research. The concept of holistic nursing for example has become an extension of the nursing field as a result of intuitive nursing knowledge and skill development. From a personal experience, I feel that excellence in nursing has not been achieved as there are still more areas to explore especially in clinical practices that are outside the organization such as home care delivery, managed care etc. As a nurse at a rehabilitation clinic I personally have experienced that patient care is more effective at patients' own home as they are more relaxed, psychologically at peace and are not forced to be vigilant of the medical practitioners who are treating them. The role of the nurse is enhanced because s/he would be acting as the friend, mentor and medical assistant by making appropriate and knowledgeable decisions for them. Thus excellence in nursing practice still has a long way to go and practitioners can be expected to explore, exploit and specialize in their field.


Benner, PE (1984). From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, Calif: Addison Wesley… [read more]

Nursing Specialties Although Nurse Anesthetists Term Paper

… According to Allied Consulting, these professionals can even earn more than some physicians or about $180,000. Shortages are greatest in U.S. locations with large populations of seniors and aging patients and in those states having more stringent laws for CRNAs. In some places, for example, they cannot perform specific duties without an anesthesiologist being present. Some states such as Florida want to license anesthesiologist assistants (AAs) to do some of the CRNAs' tasks due to the employment shortage. Many of the CRNAs are naturally against such legislature and may consider leaving the state if the law passes.

CRNAs make high salaries because they have a number of major challenges. "A person needs a shift in mindset when moving from a staff nurse position upward to this advanced, autonomous role," says a CRNA from Mt. Sinai Hospital in Miami Beach. "Nurses frequently rely on a doctor to give orders and assume ultimate responsibility. As a nurse anesthetist, I write orders for other people to implement and determine that an intervention is necessary. When something goes wrong, it's a matter of life or death." Another CRNA challenge is explaining the risks of anesthesia. Although the practice is almost 50 times safer today than 20 years ago, there are still some risks that the… [read more]

Nurse as Patient Advocate Persons Term Paper

… Mary Brophy (2001) discusses the role of nurse advocacy in the neonatal unit. The doctors and nurses are acting in the best interest of the infant. However, they also must not forget the infant also has a family who also… [read more]

Role of Nursing in Child Growth Essay

… Role and Responsibilities of a Pediatric and a Child Health Nurse

In 1986, nursing competency campaigns were initiated in Australia with regards to institution of the Australian Nurse Registering Authorities Conference. The 1990 agenda of the National Training Board ensured development of country-wide plans for different professions' competency. Pediatric and child-health nurses refer to registered nurses with superior clinical knowledge and abilities necessary for providing specialist care. Ten nursing criteria have been defined by Australia's National Nursing Organizations; the criteria were derived from a 1992 convention of the International Council of Nurses, Geneva. Some criteria are as follows: nursing specialty advocates overall ethical purposes and functions; specialty is included in the Australian nurse registration requirement, and specialty denotes a nursing practice area which includes knowledge and skills (ACPCHN, 2006).

Role and the responsibilities of a Pediatric and a Child health nurse.

Competencies established by the Australian Confederation of Pediatric and Child Health Nurses (ACPCHN) are a cause for debate, when it comes to nurses' roles and responsibilities. These were viewed as positive for pediatric nursing professionals, and a means to promote nursing's professional side in the realm of pediatrics (ACPCHN, 2009). Nursing competencies denote standards based on which progress of nurses is graded for retaining or obtaining Australian nurse registration (Nursing and Midwifery board of Australia, 2006).

Pediatric nurse practitioners (or PNPs) are key healthcare personnel responsible for providing childcare. They come under the sector of advanced-practice nursing; this designation necessitates advanced training in a particular discipline following RN training completion (Registered Nurse) and completion of an Australian certification exam. In recent times, PNPs' role in providing childcare has come to the forefront, in view of pediatric subspecialty doctors' projected shortage. PNPs possess certifications and training different from neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs), and thus, have been recommended as experts who can offer healthcare facilities to the increasing number of children afflicted with chronic diseases. PNPs working in the field of subspecialty care will more likely work for some part of their career in inpatient settings, compared to primary care PNPs. However, over 50% of PNPs working in subspecialty care have worked primarily with outpatients. The above finding indicates that a significant variation exists among and/or within individual subspecialties, in terms of PNPs' jobs. Staff studies often group primary care providers into the following specialties: pediatrics, family medicine and internal medicine. This grouping leads to misrepresentation of the organization's unique nature and childcare financing (Freed et al., 2010).

Role of nurses in keeping children safe

Public Health Nurses (PHNs) role in childcare is improving healthcare and outcomes of foster children.… [read more]

Nursing Transition Essay

… Personal Reflection on Transition to Nursing

Transition is a difficult period for amateur nursing graduates (NGs), many of whom are making their first move to qualified clinical practice within the hospital surroundings (Duchscher, 2008). In this paper I will discuss… [read more]

RN and Lpn Compared Essay

… On the other hand, LPNs have completed a minimum of a year of nursing education or certificate. Many LPNs complete an Associate of Applied Science or AAS (Nursing Licensure).


Statute 65-1136 states that an LPN may perform only limited intravenous fluid therapy and only as supervised by an RN (KSBN, 2014). Even then, an LPN may do so if she has passed the appropriate intravenous fluid therapy examination, completed the pertinent course, and passed the approved therapy examination (KSBN).


Statute 65-1165 states that an RN shall supervise all nursing procedures assigned to an unlicensed person (KSBN, 2014; NCBon, 2014). These procedures include the administration of medication. The extent of the supervision will be determined by the RN after assessing certain criteria. These are the patient's health status and physical and mental stability in receiving nursing care; the simplicity of complexity of the procedure delegated and to be performed; the nature and level of the training and competence of the unlicensed person to whom the task is delegated; and the closeness and accessibility of the RN to the unlicensed person at the time the procedure is performed by the latter (KSBN, NCBon).

An RN may delegate certain activities to LPNs and unlicensed individuals according to these criteria for activities, including technical tasks (NCBon, 2014). These tasks include the administration of medications through the assigned or permitted routes. These medications include oral, powder or liquid medications or as injectibles via any routes. Before these technical tasks are delegated to the LPN or an unlicensed person, they are made aware of the laws, standards, policies and procedures, which cover or regulate the administration of the medication. If applicable laws, rules, standards, policies and procedures allow the administration of the medication, all nursing laws and rule necessarily apply (NCBon).

In delegating tasks to an LPN or unlicensed person, the RN retains and maintains overall accountability in the administration of the tasks and their coordination (NCBon, 2014). She also assumes responsibility for the decision of delegating the tasks and the process; evaluates the patient's status and needs, designs a care plan, measures the competence of the personnel to whom the tasks will be delegated. The LPN or unlicensed person, on the other hand, expresses acceptance and an understanding of the delegated tasks, undertakes them correctly and as directed, acquires clarification and/or training if needed, and promptly reports the results of the tasks to an RN (NCBon).


Greenwood, B. (2014). RN duties vs. LPN duties. Chron: Hearts Newspapers. Retrieved on October 21, 2014 from

KSBN (2014). Nurse practice act -- statutes and administrative regulations. Kansas Board of Nursing: Retrieved on October 21, 2014 from

NCBon (2014). Delegation and assignment of nursing activities. NC Nursing Board.

Retrieved on October 21, 2014 from

Nursing Licensure (2012). LPNs vs. RNs. Nursing Licensure. Retrieved on October 21,

2014 from

SL Page (2013). LPN vs. RN -- what are the differences between an LPN and RN? SL

Page: Registered Retrieved on October… [read more]

Nursing Metaparadigm in Nursing Theories Essay

… The relation of the theory to health is that it defines the concept or metaparadigm based on the patient's ability to operate independently based on the fourteen components. Moreover, nurses should emphasize health promotion and prevention and treatment of illness. While good health is a challenge affected by various factors, it can be achieved through a person's capability to meet these needs independently ("Virginia Henderson's Need Theory," 2012).

In relation to nursing, the Need Theory helps and promotes the patient in life activities and the realization of independence. Therefore, the nursing practice is geared towards making the patient complete and independent since these professionals perform therapeutic plans for individualized care as designed by physicians.

The philosophical foundation for the theory is an integrated approach to scientific study that takes advantage of the profession's wealth and complexity. In essence, nursing process should not involve isolating art from science but should be based on competence. According to Henderson, the conceptual model of nursing is a humanistic approach that focuses on treatment or care for the sick, incapable or dying individuals. As a result, her theory emphasizes on necessary actions for nurses to provide such care.

Henderson's Need Theory is applicable in various settings in nursing practice in order to provide adequate and effective care for sick, incapable or dying patients. The theory would be beneficial for nurse professionals or practitioners who work in rehabilitation centers. However, these nurses need to understand the essential needs of people so that these individuals can live normal and productive lives.


Nursing is a profession that is based on various theories, concepts, and models that govern actions undertaken to promote, sustain and recover a person's health and well-being. There are various nursing theories that focus on different aspects of nursing practice and nursing metaparadigms such as Orem's Self-care Deficit Nursing Theory and Henderson's Need Theory. The commonality of these two nursing theories is nursing since they attempt to define the role of this basic concept. However, the theories differ with regards to definition of a patient in need and how nurses should intervene as well as when its necessary for nursing to support patients. An example of a theory that is applicable to nursing practice, especially in rehabilitation centers, is Virginia Henderson's Need Theory.


Cruz, R. (n.d.). Fundamentals of Nursing Practice. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from

Henderson, V. (1991). The nature of nursing: a definition and its implications for practice, research, and education: reflections after 25 years. New York, NY: National League for Nursing Press.

Lake, R. (n.d.). Four Basic Concepts in Nursing. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from

"Virginia Henderson's Need Theory" (2012, February 4). Nursing Theories: A Companion to Nursing Theories and Models. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from

"Virginia Henderson -- Nursing Theorist." (n.d.). Nursing Theory. Retrieved October 12, 2014,


Wanchai, A., Armer, J.M. & Stewart, B.R. (2010, October). Self-Care Agency Using

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Among Breast Cancer Survivors. Self-Care and Dependent-Care Nursing: The Official Journal of… [read more]

Nursing Jobs Essay

… Sanitation jobs were demanded: windows had to be kept clean in order to keep rooms light, and the air had to be kept pure and fresh. Nurses had to make sure rooms were well-ventilated (today, that is the job of the ventilation technician). They had to make sure fires were burning in the sick-room so as to keep it warm. Most importantly, a nurse was not supposed to "talk." Gossip among nurses was discouraged.

In the post-1945 period, nurses began to exercise more voice in the way nursing was practiced. Various associations had been founded and by the 1990s nurses were exercising political clout to influence the way hospitals conducted operations. The jobs of nurses became more specialized and individualized. In fact, today nurses often lack the time to practice the basic job of "comforting" and talking to patients (BMJ Quality and Safety, 2013). This basic job is even given its own title -- psychoeducational care -- as are many jobs in the nursing practice today. Micromanagement, bureaucracy, and technological increases have turned nurses into little more than administrators. Some functions remain the same: tending to bandages, IVs, medication delivery, routine check-ups -- but computer systems also do the monitoring.

Nursing jobs, however, are opening up in terms of setting. While most registered nurses apply to work in hospitals, some nurses take to becoming independent contractors -- like midwives or alternative care physicians. In this way, they can escape the bureaucratic setting of today's wards and get back to providing the "care" and "comfort" that nurses in the Old World used to do, when nursing was still a charitable vocation.

Reference List

BMJ Quality and Safety. (2013). Registered nurses often lack time for nursing care activities. News Medical. Retrieved from

Rinehart, M. (1931). Beyond Bed Pans. History Matters. Retrieved from

Sundstrom, A., H. (1998). From the Decline/Dark Ages to the Rebirth/Renaissance of Nursing. Angelfire. Retrieved from [read more]

Personal Nursing Philosophy Nursing Autobiography Term Paper

… Again, I prefer the RAM model because it incorporates many of the different perspectives and ideals that are embedded in different models into a practical approach to health that focuses mainly on the patient.

6. How do I integrate role and change theory into my professional practice and how may these theories be applied to the organization in which I practice?

In the modern health care environment, changes is eminent and never the exception. Change can stem from many levels and perspectives. The role of the nurse in this process is crucial as they are in the frontlines of the patients care. They often act as the mediator between the patient and the doctor and their input can dictate the type and quantity of care given and received. There is the level of the patient which will often have to embrace change in order to improve their health.

The level of the nurse requires continuous skill development as technology and knowledge continues to progress. Furthermore, there is also an interpersonal component to nursing that requires that nurses are open to learning about other cultures and individual patient needs and how to effectively communicate under many different circumstances. The role of education in a nurses' career never stops and they must continually be open to change; both as a change agent and an advocate of change for their patients' health concerns.

Works Cited

Andrews, H., & Roy, C. (1991). The Adaptive Model. Norwalk: Appleton and Lange.

Denler, H., Wolters, C., & Benzon, M. (2013). Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from Education:

Farlex. (2011). The Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Farlex:

Nursing Theory. (2011). Sister Callista Roy. Retrieved from Nursing Theory:

Schin, S., Benkert, R., Bell, S., Walker, D., & Danford, C. (2006). Social Justice: Added Metaparadigm Concept for Urban Health Nursing. Public Health Nursing, 73-80.

Thorne, S., Canam, C., Dahinten, S., Hall, W., Henderson,… [read more]

Learning in Nursing Essay

… At its core, ways of knowing is the overall acquisition, interpretation and filtering of knowledge from the world around this. In the nursing prism, this would include book learning, practice learning and experiential learning. Each has their own place but one can often never replace the other. For example, reading how to do a suture is one thing but doing it is another. Doing it under pressure is a third thing altogether. As far as empiricism vs. interpretive paradigms, there is much to be said for both. The empirics are about what one can sense including from sight and hearing. However, not everything can be gleaned from that nor should anyone assume that this can or should be the case. Sometimes, it is about interpretation and other ways of getting information other than what can be proven at the time. Even so, empirical information should always take precedence over interpretations unless there is a very good reason why not. As such, the empirical paradigm is what the author of this paper favors but interpretation and its time and place such as with psychology and psychiatry.

Lastly, it should be stated that all of the above facets and factors in nursing contribute the lexicon and practice of nursing, each in their own way. Any expansion of knowledge or sharing of knowledge both in a professional and/or an educational setting, especially when speaking of an industry and field like nursing, is beneficial as it is a check and balance as well as a general learning experience that should be savored and utilized rather than shunned and rejected. While not everyone in the nursing sphere is aware of the give and take as well as the interaction of all of these paradigms and learning models, they should be. This is especially true when speaking of nurses that are RN or beyond and anyone that seeks doctoral certification because anyone that can be or will be teaching the nurses of the future should know the form and function of these models so that they can prepare the nurses and other medical professionals of the future. However, these models and ideas should also be applied inward and with one's own potential and future in mind. Being reflexive and limited in the learning and methods that can and should be used to improve one's skill set and way of learning and practicing is never a good idea. Learning should be cooperative and consulting in nature and there should be a focus on results-based learning outcomes as well as creating and maintaining consistency from person to person, especially in the same environment. Rules need to be flexed or broken sometimes but that should by far be the exception, not the standard.


Learning is a process and an art and nursing is certainly no exception. However, with nursing and medical practice in general, attention to detail and facts is extremely important as lives are often literally on the line. Knowledge has to be at the ready when… [read more]

Long-Standing Epidemic Research Paper

… On the hospital management's part, employee policy on workplace violence, which is supposed to protect employees, should be strictly implemented. If there is no such policy, one should be promptly adopted. The Management and organizations should not tolerate this very destructive practice at a zero-tolerance level. But under all circumstances, nurses should stand united in this fight and regain their time-honored reputation of care-giving and compassion, possible only in an atmosphere of harmony (Sauer).


Lateral violence is a shocking phenomenon that has only recently gained wide attention and alarm because of its costly consequences to healthcare in general. Studies say that about 50% of nurses, especially newcomers, are victims of physical hostility by fellow nurses and of verbal abuse at 62%. Burnout is the identified as the major cause of it. Approaches have been recommended with zero tolerance as an overall target. But until they become effective, it must be conceded that LV is real, chronic and serious.


Embree, J.C. And White, A.H. (2010). Concept analysis: nurse-to-nurse lateral violence.

Vol. 45 # 3, Nursing Forum: PubMed. Retrieved on May 29, 2014 from

Mitchel, A., et al. (2013). Workplace violence among nurses: why are we still discussing this? Vol. 4 # 4, Journal of Nursing Education and Practice: Science Education.

Retrieved on May 29, 2014 from

Reed, J. (2014). Reducing lateral violence: a humanistic educational approach. RN

Journal: |Times Publishing LLC. Retrieved on May 29, 2014 from -- educational-approach

Rowe, M.M. And Sherlock, H. (2005). Stress and verbal nursing: do burned-out nurses eat their young? Vol. 3 # 3, Journal of Nursing Management: PubMed. Retrieved on May 29, 2014 from

Sauer, P. (2012). Do nurses eat their young? truth and consequences. Vol. 38, Issue 1,

Journal of Emergency Nursing: Elsevier. Retrieved on May 29, 2014 from

Sheridan-Leos, N. (2008). Understanding lateral violence in nursing. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing: High Beam Research. Retrieved on May 29,… [read more]

Nursing Organizations Term Paper

… Professional Orgs

A family nurse practitioner can expect to have a number of options for where to work. This role utilizes the training and education to provide a wide range of holistic health care services, and in that there are employment opportunities in many different types of health care environments (Van Pelt, 2012). Thus, the role might bring me to a hospital or a clinic, or a care home, and these can be both for profit or not for profit. I expect that I will work in a hospital, but whether it is profit or not-for-profit I do not know yet. In this role I will be helping people in primary care settings working alongside physicians in particular because of the emphasis on front line care (Lague, 2008). Most of the jobs in this field are therefore in hospitals, but as noted there are a number of places for employment in this growing field.

In the hospital setting, I might work in an emergency ward, or in post-surgery care, but definitely in a primary care role. These two roles are among the more common for a nurse practitioner, and put you on the front lines of providing care to people who have active health problems that they need help with. The role is likely going to be quite demanding, especially when I am new, as there is a steep learning curve not only for the different technical aspects of the job, but also for the development of the human, caring side as well. I anticipate having to put all of my skills and training to use in this high intensity setting.

A board that will support my role in this type of organization is the Nevada State Board of Nursing. This board provides the licensure for the nursing profession in the state of Nevada, so in that regard they are critical to my career. Moreover, this board also provides the oversight function and is responsible for governance of the nursing professional beyond licensure.

One of the key laws… [read more]

Family Nurse Practitioner: Role and Setting Term Paper

… According to the authors, this is particularly the case given that the physical and emotional health of military women ought to be supported not only before (or after), but also during and following deployment. For this reason, the authors suggest that FNPs be flexible and dynamic in the execution of their mandate.

In the final analysis, the Family Nurse Practitioner role comes across as being an exciting and fulfilling specialty. However, after reviewing literature on this role, I have learnt that to succeed as a FNP, one ought to appreciate the relevance of collaborative, family-centered care. This is particularly the case given that as Nursing License Map points out in an opinion piece titled Family Nurse Practitioner Roles, "a family nurse practitioner, while having a wide range of skills and training, does not work completely alone." To be successful, a FNP, as Nursing License Map further points out ought to work closely with other stakeholders including, but not limited to, fellow health care professionals. Nursing License Map also identifies, and describes, the other numerous roles of FNP as being to educate, to diagnose, to treat, and to collaborate. A comprehensive nursing licensure info source, Nursing License Map is sponsored by Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies. It can, therefore, be classified as an expert opinion article.


Agazio, J., Hillier, S.L., Throop, M., Goodman, P., Padden, D., Greiner, S., & Turner, A. (2013). Mothers Going to War: the Role of Nurse Practitioners in the Care of Military Mothers and Families during Deployment. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 25(5), 253-262.

De Milt, D.G., Fitzpatrick, J.J., and McNulty, S.R. (2010). Nurse Practitioners' Job Satisfaction and Intent to Leave Current Positions, the Nursing Profession, and the Nurse Practitioner Role as a Direct Care Provider. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 23(1), 42-50.

Nursing License Map (2014). Family Nurse Practitioner Roles. Retrieved from [read more]

Is There a Need for Professional Organizations? If Yes, Why? If No, Why Not? Term Paper

… The NLN specifically promotes excellence in nursing education while the ANA is a generalist organization devoted to promoting knowledge about the nursing profession and improving nursing care.

This raises the question as to whether the proliferation of nursing organizations is good for the profession. Overall, it would seem that the current balance between having two, widely-know and widely-respected generalist organizations and a wide range of specialist associations conveys a nice balance between the need for a common nursing language and set of professional standards with the corresponding need to balance out these demands with the requirements of specializations. For example, different nursing specialties may have different, particular ethical quandaries that may need to be addressed by those with specific past experiences in the field. Also, there may be some conflicts between different nursing perspectives: for example, the point-of-view of a nurse in a surgical specialty may be at odds with a nurse who comes from an area of practice that focuses on treating disease through non-surgical means. "Societal changes and increased demands on the nursing profession" created the need for greater specialization (Matthews 2012). Specialty organizations are defined by "mission and vision statements that are specific to their specialty interests, goals, and purposes" (Matthews 2010). It would simply not be feasible to have a single organization address all of these different needs.

While the existence of an umbrella association like the ANA is helpful, as healthcare grows increasingly complex, the need for specialization is likely to increase rather than abate. Even the ANA itself admits that "the rapidly changing healthcare environment's demands, including the call for certification of nurses for specialty practice, created the need to develop consistent, standardized processes for recognizing specialty areas of nursing practice, approving specialty nursing scope of practice statements, and acknowledging specialty nursing standards of practice" (Recognition of a nursing specialty, 2010, ANA). More and more nurses are likely to seek advanced degrees and specialization because of the career possibilities this opens up for them, the chances for increasing their salaries, and also because of the need to meet different demographic shifts, including the aging of the population and the rise of chronic conditions such as diabetes.

The proliferation of specialist organizations does not obviate the need for associations like the ANA to provide general information and support to all nursing professionals. It has an important role in increasing cohesion in the profession. However, for many nurses the ideal is membership in the ANA combined with membership in a specialist association. This maximizes networking opportunities and ensures them access to the full range of services offered by both generalist and specialist nursing professional institutions. Nurses can also benefit from membership in state-specific nursing associations that address the particular issues germane to their region (Morales 2012). Nurses from historically-discriminated groups may find professional support and guidance in issues unique to them in their own professional associations. Ideally, a nurse should have a strong network of support and limiting that support to a singular organization might result… [read more]

Postoperative Pain Management Assessment Research Proposal

… The study revealed that nurses' poor communication with parents and the nurses' deficient knowledge about pain and its management were the obstacles to its effective management. Better education in the nurses and open communication with parents would eliminate these obstacles (Simons and Roberson). And Yuceer (2011) stresses the holistic approach to postoperative care by nurses in improving the efficiency of pain management. This approach includes insuring the most appropriate evidence-based assessment and treatment; monitoring of pain and its complications; education of the patient and his family; documentation of the steps of pain management and fulfilling the recognized standards of postoperative care (Yuceer).

Regular updates by refresher courses, sustained pain education, continuing evidence-based educational programs, more accurate pain assessment, opinion leaders and other change agents, better nurse education plus improved communication with parents, and a holistic approach can make postoperative pain management more adequate.

Conceptual Framework

This consists of nurses' knowledge and attitude towards pain management and the theory of Brenda Conrad. This combination is grounded on the belief that the nurse stands at a unique and pivotal point in supporting and promoting the highest possible health level in the patient and in providing him with quality life. It shapes all the goals of nurse assistance towards patient recovery, independence, adjustment and treatment. In meeting the patient's needs, the nurse must possess adequate knowledge and skills in pain assessment and management and supportive attitude to complement it. Underlying nursing care is a solid knowledge base from which is drawn genuine care and concern for the patient's welfare holistically. These are the components of the quality improvement program on postoperative pain management. The program is directly aimed at upgrading nurses' knowledge and skills in managing postoperative pain. It assumes that regular or constant upgrading of nurse education will make postoperative pain management more adequate.

Methods and Procedures

This study will use the acute pain service or APS in evaluating the quality improvement program in a 1000-bed hospital, especially through the nursing, anesthesia, and surgery departments. It will establish quality indicators and use quality tools, conduct nurses' knowledge about postoperative pain and use a visual analog scale or VAS in assessing pain intensity. It will involve both nurses and physicians who have some familiarity with evidence-based guidelines on postoperative pain. Three consecutive surveys will be conducted to monitor the entire activity. It will also involve 2,589 surgical inpatients.


The acute pain service improved the level and quality of postoperative pain relief. The service included pain assessment by a visual analog scale or APS, a standard multimodal pain treatment, and continuous quality evaluation. It involved a required team of surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses.


Carlson, C.L. (2009). Use of three evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices by registered nurses. Vol. 10 # 4, Pain Management Nursing: Medscape.

Retrieved on April 11, 2014 from

Guardini, I.., et al. (2008). The effectiveness of continuing education in postoperative pain management: results from a follow-up study. Vol. 39 # 6, Journal of Continuing

Education in Nursing: PubMed… [read more]

Professional Nursing Associations: Benefits and Rationale Term Paper

… Today, the number of nursing professional associations in the U.S. alone exceeds one hundred. To this end, one may ask; is it necessary to have all these? Wouldn't one organization acting as the voice of the entire nursing fraternity be sufficient? The subsequent subsections attempt to explain why an umbrella organization would not adequately meet the purpose of a professional association.

Unity in Advocacy: it is important to note that each of these associations "speaks for nurses and nursing based on their mission and vision statements that are specific to the specialty's interests, goals, and purposes" (Matthews, 2012). Moreover, the different specialty groups educate healthcare administrators, policy makers, and the public on different issues (Matthews, 2012). When they collaborate, they put the healthcare sector in a better position to advance knowledge to the different stakeholders on almost all aspects of healthcare (Mason, Leavitt & Chafee, 2013). If this were to be left to one organization, some crucial aspects would be neglected.

Membership Value: professional associations are able to further enhance communication with members. This is "one of the many benefits of involving a variety of organizations in collaborative efforts" (Matthews, 2012). One of the most important rewards for professional association membership is the privilege to participate in association advocacy (Porter-O'Grady, 2011). Moreover, the value of membership increases with the provision of an increasingly secure intra-member communication network (Porter-O'Grady, 2011). Both the privilege to participate in advocacy and the capacity to secure the association's information decreases with increasing membership, which implies that one large organization would be less effective than many small associations working towards a common goal (Porter-O'Grady, 2011).

Professional Development: besides enhanced communication with members, professional associations usually "solicit scholarly manuscripts of relevance to members and publish the latest advanced knowledge in a specialty area" (Matthews, 2012). Having a single organization would imply having a larger membership, spread out across diverse specialties. Owing to the high degree of specialty diversity, it would be difficult for the organization to focus on a particular specialty and work towards professionally developing the proportion of its membership that aligns with that particular specialty, and then do the same for all other specialties (Matthews, 2012).


There is power in numbers; when people and associations collaborate in one voice, they put themselves in a better position to advance stronger and more powerful ideas, and can then advance their causes better than they would have done in their individual capacities. It is this ideology forms the basis of professional associations. Nursing has, over the years, evolved from being just a study course, to being a profession characterized by numerous professional associations on the national, as well as the international scale. Such associations are, in their numbers, important not only because of the benefits they bestow upon their members, but also because of the education and knowledge they advance to policymakers, healthcare practitioners, and the public, regarding their respective specialties. There is need, therefore, for every licensed practical nurse to join a professional nursing organization.

On… [read more]

Family Centered Nursing Care Term Paper

… Because nurses understand the value of patients and their uniqueness and individuality, providing informational support to their family members also helps to honor those patients and give them the best opportunity for a successful outcome for their disease or condition. Honoring a patient and his or her wishes is vitally important at a part of Provision One, as well. Patients who are capable of stating their wishes should be allowed to do so, and those wishes should be respected. Nurses who treat patients and who hold to Provision One properly know that every patient should be treated with all of the respect and care that any human being would want and deserve.

Another study done on a similar issue was based on describing the experiences of families who were providing care on a physical level to relatives who were critically ill and receiving the support of bedside nurses (Mitchell & Chaboyer, 2010). This study shows another sub-issue of the Provision, in that nurses are duty-bound to treat patients and their families with care and respect, regardless of the medical problems of the patient. The study involved 10 family members, phone interviews, and a research design that was qualitative in nature, in order to determine whether those who had to care for sick family members with the help of a nurse felt they were getting the information they needed from that nurse (Mitchell & Chaboyer, 2010).


Overall, it can be seen that family-centered care is an excellent way for nurses to become better focused on the ideas behind Provision One of the Code of Ethics. Having respect for human dignity and creating good relationships with their patients (and those patients' families) are very important aspects of nursing. Regardless of the nature of the patients' health problems, they all deserve to be treated fairly. Additionally, they should all have the opportunity to determine what kind of treatment they want and when they decide that they have had enough treatment if there is nothing else that can be done to help them. These kinds of issues should be decided by the patient and respected, both by the nurses and by the patient's family. When the nurse has a good relationship with colleagues, the patient, and the patient's family, that patient is going to get the best care possible.


Bailey, J.J., Sabbagh, M., Loiselle, C.G., Boileau, J., & McVey, L. (2010). Supporting families in the ICU: A descriptive correlational study of informational support, anxiety, and satisfaction with care. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 26: 114-122.

Mitchell, M.L. & Chaboyer, W. (2010). Family Centred care -- A way to connect patients, families and nurses in critical care: A qualitative study using telephone interviews. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 26: 154-160.

The Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses: Interpretation and… [read more]

Nursing Time Management Strategies Term Paper

… However, this sense of attending to physical nursing needs is only one component of providing effective patient care. While nurses must attend to patients' physical needs, they must also be mindful that they need to address patients' psychological components and make that time spent with patients seem meaningful, even if it is briefer than they would like. "Psychological nursing time is conceived as that internal to providers and recipients of nursing care. It is subjective, perceptual, and elastic. Psychological nursing time is influenced by the history, experience and expectations of the participants. It is what participants experience as nursing and how they experience it" (Jones 2012). Physical and psychological nursing time are interrelated -- on one hand, patients often feel as if they are receiving better-quality care if the nursing staff maintains a physical presence near them but if their needs are not met, additional bedside time alone will not rectify this issue.

Sociological measures of nursing time reflect the fact that even nurses with superior time management skills are still heavily influenced by the assumptions and standards of the environments in which they practice. "Examples of time structures that influence nursing care include established work shifts, standardized medication times, standardized procedure sequences, and hours of operation for ancillary departments" (Jones 2012). No matter how well-organized she may be, every nurse has a finite allotment of how much time she can allocate to different duties. Thus, physical, psychological, and sociological time senses are always continually interacting.

These articles provide useful guidelines in nursing practice in terms of how they define what is and what is not within every nurses' scope of control. Teaching time management techniques to recent hires seems to be a valuable investment, given the substantial impact time allotment can have upon patient care. Simply because a nurse has technical skills does not necessarily mean that she knows how to prioritize tasks. Also, every institution has different standardized operating procedures which may require shifts in nursing techniques. A large hospital may have the luxury of greater specialization for nurses regarding care while a small practice may require nurses to assume a far wider range of duties, which means that they have no one to defer to when dealing with an urgent case.

Nurses must also understand the different factors which must be balanced when evaluating their use of time. Spending actual physical time with the patient cannot be ignored or underestimated. However, given that nurses' time is not unlimited, stressing the need for 'quality' of interactions is also vital. And patients must feel as if psychologically, the nurse is emotionally present, available, and meeting their needs. Finally, nurses must be realistic about the extent to which they can be an ideal nurse, given the sociological constraints which affect them. Communicating to nurses the different dimensions of 'nursing time' can better enable then to allocate their time and use effective time management strategies.

A final lesson from these articles is the need for nurses to take the time to… [read more]

Nursing Burnout Research Paper

… The correlation between long shifts and development of burnout among nurses has been clearly highlighted in the article therefore patient care can only be improved if nurses are allowed better working conditions such as being allowed to go immediately their shifts are over, being allowed off days and given vacations and working normal shifts without unnecessary overtimes.

The article can be applied to individual nursing experiences in various ways first of all it can be used as a guide to a nurse on how the length of their shift can adversely affect their performance. Therefore after reading this article a nurse can be able to understand how long shifts can affect them and their work thus make sure that they work shorter shifts. Secondly the article can be applied by a nurse on how they are supposed to that patient who is in their care. This is because it highlights how it can affect their communication with the patients and care they give them. Therefore it can help them see the importance of working shifts of appropriate hours and hence will be better off handling and giving care to patients. Finally the article is useful as it highlights proper conditions that nursing leaders should put in place for nurses. This will guide a nurse on what conditions they know are appropriate and those that will not lead to development of burnout.

The article has clearly brought out the correlation between longer working hours and development of burnout among nurses. This has been achieved through examples of research that has been carried out on the has also laid out the appropriate working environment that nursing leaders should strive to create in order to prevent burnout among nurses.


Polikandrioti M., ( 2009). Burnout Syndrome. Retrieved March 24, from 2014

ScienceDaily, LLC., (2012). Long shifts lead to nurse burnout and dissatisfied patients. Retrieved March 24, from, (2010). Preventing Burnout. Retrieved March 24, from 2014 [read more]

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