"Nutrition / Diet / Eating" Essays 1-70

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Health and Nutrition -- Diet Plan Proposal Essay

… Health and Nutrition -- Diet Plan Proposal

The objective of this project is to outline a dietary plan that will enable the subject to reduce excess body weight, lower body fat percentage, and maintain that diet for the long-term. In principle, that requires establishing fundamental principles of healthful nutrition that are effective from the weight-loss perspective but not so drastic or difficult to maintain that the diet will only be capable of being sustained for the short-term, resulting in the typical yo-yo weight loss and gain cycle that is characteristic of fad diets such as the Atkins Plan or South Beach Diet. Ideally, this diet plan will provide more of a lifelong approach to nutrition and ideal weight maintenance than a "diet" in the sense that it is intended only as a temporary solution to solve an acute problem of necessary weight reduction.


This nutritional plan will be based on the several fundamental principles. First, there is no point to any diet that is incapable of being sustained over a lifetime because losing weight and regaining it repeatedly is actually worse than remaining overweight for a longer period of time before finally losing the excess body weight. That is mainly because whenever a person loses a large amount of weight, a substantial portion of that weight is not fat but also muscle and other tissues. However, whenever one regains excess weight, especially in a short amount of time, virtually all of that weight is fat. As a result, a person who repeatedly loses weight and then regains it again actually increases his or her body fat percentage during every phases of that cycle.

Second, a diet that requires severe calorie restriction or the complete (or nearly complete) elimination of entire classes of foods (such as carbohydrates) cannot possibly be sustained over a lifetime. Third, a serious effort to reduce excess body weight and to maintain a healthy body weight cannot be implemented on a periodic…… [read more]

Health Concerns in the Food and Beverage Essay

… Health Concerns in the Food and Beverage Industry

The need of appropriate labeling

Good nutrition means eating food containing the right nutrients and calories that are needed for proper growth and functioning of the body. A healthy person is noted to be active, alert as well as happy. It is important for a nation to ensure that its citizens are well fed in order for the industries to work. A well feed nation is a happy and prosperous one. Issue to do with food safety and security must be addressed in order to realize good nutrition in all the citizens. In this paper we debate on an issue of health value, that is -should the FDA administer regulations on nutritional value offered in menus?

Health concerns in the food and beverage industry

Obesity has increasingly been a concern in the food and beverage industry. This is due to the serious health problems that are caused by Obesity. The ever rising number of obesity patients as well as the level of severity of the condition is noted to be a great concern to various health bodies. In the U.S., obesity has increasingly been cited as a serious health issue. In fact obesity in the U.S. is noted to be among the world's highest rates (Jackson n.d).

In 2010, the Center for Disease Control reported very high number of people with obesity. About 35.7% of American adults are obese while 17% of the American children are obese (CDC 2010). This disease cost the government and the tax payer a lot of money. The direct medical cost attributed to obesity as well as the indirect economic loss for instance is estimated to have been between $51.64-$99.2 billions this figure soon increased to $61 billion and then $117 in the year 2000 (Wellman & Barbara,2002). The obesity related medical expenditure is noted to have reached about $75 billion (CDC 2004).

NIDDK (2010) noted that two-thirds of all adults in the U.S. are either overweight or obese.

EIRIS (2006) noted that law makers, consumers and health groups have increasingly linked the consumption of certain food and beverages with the prevalence of obesity. Changes in the regulatory environment, consumer resistance and litigation are noted to be the key potential risks.

Studies have indicated that even though the number of positive steps taken to prevent obesity is high, the main foods and beverage producers are not doing a lot in the management of the obesity risks. They are noted to never take full responsibility for cases of obesity. Food and beverage manufacturers are noted to general fail to clearly publish the obesity related targets as well as the Performance Indicators (KPIs).This makes it extremely difficult to assess the various strategies as well as achievements taken in this course.

Most food and beverage producers have therefore adopted a proactive approach that entails the application of the following strategies.

1. The development of products that are healthier

2. The reduction of the single portion sizes

3. The provision of… [read more]

Nutrition What Is Nutrition? Good Essay

… (Barverman) Although no specific diet exists to guarantee cancer prevention, studies show a low-fat diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fiber may help reduce the risks. In addition, these dietary recommendations are similar to those for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and weight management.


Good nutrition means eating foods each day that will give us the vitamins, minerals, and other things we need to keep our bodies strong. It means eating foods that give us enough calories to have a healthy body weight. It means getting enough protein to keep our bodies built up and repair any damage it may have.

Poor nutrition is just the opposite, and it can lead to a myriad of health problems. It is important to learn how to eat right to maintain a healthy mind and body. The benefits from good nutrition include possibly living longer, living happier, and being more mentally and physically fit.


Shapiro Kendrick, A., Kaufmann, R. And Messenger, K.P. Healthy Young Children. National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1995.

Null, Gary. The Complete Guide to Health and Nutrition. Doubleday, 1984.

Fuller, Cook. Nutrition: Annual Editions. Dushkin, 1990.

Braverman, Eric R. The Healing Nutrients Within. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1997.

Pfeiffer, Carl C. Mental and Elemental Nutrients. New Canaan Publishing, 1975.

Matsen, John.…… [read more]

Eating and Cholesterol Term Paper

… ¶ … Eating Habits and Developing High Cholesterol Levels

Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading single cause of death in the United States today, and elevated serum cholesterol is widely recognized as being the risk factor responsible for myocardial… [read more]

Eating Disorders Contain a Series of Situations Term Paper

… Eating Disorders contain a series of situations that have a mania with food, weight and appearance to the extent that a person's well being, rapport and daily actions are badly affected. Eating disorders are prevalent and can have an influence… [read more]

Weight Obesity Is a Deadly Problem Research Paper

… Weight

Obesity is a deadly problem. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, "unhealthy weight gain due to poor diet and lack of exercise is responsible for over 300,000 deaths each year." The goal of this informative and instructional project is to improve the overall health and well-being of American children. Rates of preventable problems like obesity are deplorably high, and the root cause of overweight and obesity is poor nutrition. Obesity is a public health issue, a personal health concern, and is also becoming a financial issue given the unnecessary burden placed on our health care system. "The annual cost to society for obesity is estimated at nearly $100 billion," (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2008).

Good nutritional habits begin with education and awareness, and end with changes in lifestyle and practice. Therefore, the proximate goal of the project will be to raise awareness about nutrition and impact public policy related to childhood nutrition. Ultimately, changes in public policy should lead to changes in eating habits. Changes in children's eating habits will in turn lead to reduced rates of obesity.

The purpose of this project is to teach the basics of healthy eating. Healthy eating will be defined in terms of the content of food, the quantity of food, and the context in which food is consumed. We will achieve the purpose of this project by designing a workshop on healthy eating. This workshop will include not just the target population of elementary aged students. Target populations also include the parents of those children, educators, and politicians.

Children who are obese are likely to become obese adults, which spells future health problems. "Studies have shown that a child who is obese between the ages of 10 and 13 has an 80% chance of becoming an obese adult," (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2008). Poor eating habits and a lack of…… [read more]

Carbohydrates and Nutrition Term Paper

… ¶ … Carbohydrates & Nutrition

The term "simple carbohydrates" refers to B. monosaccharides and disaccharides.

Those with lactose intolerance usually can consume all the following except

milk shakes made with skim milk.

You are on a diet, eating less than… [read more]

Nutrition for Adolescent Term Paper

… Nutrition, Health and Adolescence

There are one billion adolescents world-wide, and how effectively they cope with the perils of growing up will be a crucial element in whether humanity can surmount the challenge of the next Century." UNICEF. (Nutrition in… [read more]

Chocolate: Behind Its Bad Rap Term Paper

… Public health officials often suggest that individuals over the age of 40 take a baby aspirin a day to reduce their risk for stroke and heart attacks. In the United States, it is estimated that millions of individuals take aspirin… [read more]

Key Points Term Paper

… Also, additional lab tests from this current evaluation and before he was admitted for the placement of the stent showed signs that would suggest a diagnosis of android obesity, as he had high levels of cholesteral, including an LDL level of 200. Previous lab testing from earlier visits shows a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Triglycerides were also high, at 250. Ultimately, this resulted in a diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Because of these diagnoses, the patient is currently on Atenolol (Tenormin XL) -- 50mg QD, Atorvastatin (Lipitor) -- 10mg QD, Metformin (Glucophage) -- 50mg BID, and Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) -- 81mg QD.

This case presents a clear need for intervention that would establish stronger ppatient education for cardiovascular system health and prevention of future cardiac problems. Currently, the patient has limited knowledge about new treatments and lifestyle intervention choices he can make to improve his overall health condition. This essentially puts him at risk for not applying intervention methods as efficiently as if he were more knowledgeable regarding how they could help his current and future condition. The patient would benefit dramatically from increased knowledge on nutrition, diet, exercise, and other lifestyle interventions. He needs to reduce saturated fats and cholesterol in his everyday diet dramatically. Moreover, increasing his support system would help make him more accountable for his progress regarding the implementation of such lifestyle choices. Joining a support group with his wife would help increase the size and effectiveness of his support network so that his decisions to make lifestyle changes would ultimately be more impactful.


American Heart Association. (2007). Patient-teaching for cardiac nurses. Nursing, 37(10), 14-16.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/healthy_living.htm

John Hopkins Medicine. (2014). High Cholesterol (Hypercholesterolemia). Heart & Vascular Institute. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/heart_vascular_institute/conditions_treatments/conditions/high_cholesterol.html… [read more]

Obesity in Los Angeles County Essay

… Note the similarity in percentages between those with no High School and those at or below the federal poverty level. Also note the decrease in obesity rates as education and income increase (Los Angeles County Public Health, 2003). Further, when… [read more]

Childhood Obesity and Its Affects Term Paper

… Among all teens, low levels of self-esteem were linked with feelings of loneliness, sadness, and nervousness. This often led the obese children to use tobacco and alcohol. Psychiatrists also said that parents who insist on strict diets might be contributing… [read more]

Japanese Live Longer Than Americans? Term Paper

… "It is a staggering fact," she writes, "that in the last decade, soda eclipsed coffee and tap water combined as the American beverage of choice." (Akst, 2003)

Though there is consumption of soda pop in many other cultures including Japan,… [read more]

Outstanding Fact: Americans Love Term Paper

… It is for all of these reasons that a safe and effective diet can work wonders for people struggling with weight issues. A balanced, healthy diet can lead to weight loss, more energy and a much more positive outlook on life. Just by having someone ask you if you have lost weight can take a person with low self-esteem and turn him or her into a person who becomes happy with themselves, how they look, and how they feel.

Another great benefit of dieting is improving the quality of life. As an overweigh adult there may be many quality of life issues that tend to haunt you apart from the health and self-esteem issues. People look at you funny as you walk down the street. You are told that you have to buy two seats on an airplane because you will not fit comfortably in one seat. You can't play a game of catch with your son because you are out of breath just from bending over to pick up the ball. You hate shopping because they never have anything at the regular stores in your size and you have to go to the big and tall section of Wal-Mart. All of these are examples of how quality of life can be effected daily due to weight struggles. With weight loss you begin to notice that you can play with your son a lot longer then you used to be able to. You aren't getting quite as many strange looks on the street. You finally feel comfortable flying. These are the things that make up every day life. A well maintained diet and exercise program will help you have the quality of life that you longed for.

There are so many dangers when dieting. Eating disorders can develop. Young women have unrealistic views of how they should look and diet in unhealthy ways. A health, well thought out diet can be a miracle for those who really need the help. With the right doctor, a wonderful support group of family and friends, and the desire to take better care of yourself, the right diet and a change in lifestyle is a really wonderful thing.

U.S Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Call to Action

To prevent and decrease overweight and obesity. [Rockville, MD]: U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office…… [read more]

Diabetes Type II in Adults Term Paper

… Diabetes Type II in Adults


Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas to bring glucose to the cells so the body can use it for energy (University of Maryland Medical Center 2008). If this does… [read more]

Digestive System, Chewing, and Mechanical Digestion Essay

… Such reactions can produce muscle loss and put extra strain on the kidneys as the body works to dispose of unused protein by-products" (Hawk 2003). In general, adults should aim to eat a diet composed 40-60% of carbohydrates (Hawk 2003).… [read more]

Role of Nutrition Essay

… Her meat, poultry, fish etc. intake is also adequate and in line with the AGTHE. However, the problems lies in the amounts of dairy and legumes that she consumes. The AGTHE suggests that women falling in the aforementioned age bracket should consume at least 4-7 servings of vegetables and legumes. She doesn't take in any extra foods. But an allowance of 0-2.5 servings of extra foods is given to women in the AGTHE. Being older, at the age of 45, Person B. needs to take up more of the dairy products in order for her bones and teeth to remain strong. Being a teacher, she doesn't require too much energy to carry on through her day. She should thus increase the portions of dairy, and legumes that she consumes. She can also risk increasing her meat and poultry consumption to provide her with necessary proteins.


The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the eating habits of an average Australian. It involved test subjects keeping a record of their typical diets on particulars days. It involved participants from different genders with different occupations and lifestyles. From the results of this case study we can conclude that the eating habits of an individual are affected by their educational background, their line of work, their gender and of course by their individual and separate preferences. We have to note that certain changes must be made in the diet routine of Person A to ensure that he doesn't contract any diet-related chronic disease in the future. This includes more breads, water and vegetables and lesser meat and oils. Person B. should on the other continue with her diet plan as usual and add a bit of snack and poultry to mix it up a bit.

Works Cited

Ageing, D. o. (1998). Australian Guide to Eating Healthy. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/E384CFA588B74377CA256F190004059B/$File/fd-cons.pdf.

Carol Rees Parrish, M.R. (August 2003). Nutritional Assessment: Current Concepts and Guidelines for the Busy Physician.

Institute, M.O. (June 2012). Obesity in Australia.

Institute, N.H. Obesisty. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_gdlns.pdf.

U.S Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). What are overweight and obesity. Retrieved from National Heart Lung Blood Institute: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe… [read more]

Calorie Diet Plans Term Paper

… Nutrition low calorie diet (LCD) is prescribed for weight loss or maintenance. Two sample diets suggested by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) can be considered low calorie diets: one is a 1200 calorie and the other a 1600 calorie diet. Usually a low calorie diet will include traditional foods but made with fewer calories than they usually are. For example, chicken without the skin would be included in a low calorie diet whereas a full calorie diet might allow for the consumption of skin because of its high fat content. A low calorie diet may vary depending on how much weight loss is necessary, the person's gender, or how much the individual weighs.

A low calorie diet is less severe than a very low calorie diet (VLCD). A VLCD may contain 800 or fewer calories per day, many or most of which may consist of meal replacement drinks ("Very Low Calorie Diets"). A VLCD is only recommended in certain situations, such as when immediate weight loss is necessary for health reasons. Extremely obese individuals might benefit from a VLCD but the diet is usually only used under doctor's supervision.

Either of the low calorie diets offered by the NHLBI can benefit overweight individuals and the obese. Severely obese individuals or those with a body mass index greater than 30 may be candidates for the VLCD ("Very Low Calorie Diets"). Moreover, individuals with diseases like diabetes or high blood pressure who also have a high body mass index might want to consider using a VLCD to mitigate problems associated with their condition. However, persons who are overweight but healthy and not obese should rely on one of the suggested low calorie diets to lose weight instead of the more extreme VLCD.

Doctors generally evaluate each patient for suitability for either the LCD or the VLCD. Eating plans like two "Traditional American Cuisine" low calorie plans can help an individual lose weight at a moderate pace, thereby preventing side-effects and encouraging new lifestyle habits. Similarly, the more rapid loss of weight associated with the VLCD may motivate an obese person to continue with behavioral and lifestyle changes…… [read more]

Diet Plan (Anemia) Nutrition Creative Writing

… pretzels, raw broccoli and celery sticks.

Afternoon snack

Yogurt, 12-15 whole grain crackers.


2-3 oz. Veggie, chicken patty or occasional real beef hamburger on a whole wheat bun, spinach salad, 1 cup skim milk, 1 cup brown rice, margarine or butter to taste.


Frozen Yogurt 1 cup (not after 7pm).



8 oz. skim milk, 2 slices whole grain toast with jam and butter, 4 oz. orange juice, 1 hardboiled egg.


1 apple and 2 graham crackers.


6 oz. low fat fruited yogurt, 2 oz. hummus on whole grain pita bread, banana, 1 oz. spinach dip with carrots and snap peas, 4 chocolate chip cookies, 1 cup water.

Afternoon snack

1 cup low sugar cereal with 8 oz. skim milk.


2.5 x 2.5 piece of spinach lasagna, tossed salad with dressing, 1 piece buttered garlic bread, 1 cup water or 100% fruit juice.


8 oz. skim milk, 1 cup ice cream (not after 7pm).



1 serving citrus fruit, ae cup Total raisin bran cereal, 1 hardboiled egg, 1 slice whole wheat toast with 1 teaspoon margarine, 1 cup apple juice.


1 cup nonfat yogurt


3 ounces tuna fish with 1 teaspoon mayonnaise, 2 slices whole grain bread, 1/2 cup carrots, 1 cup water.


1 kiwi fruit

Evening Meal

4 ounces chicken, 1 medium…… [read more]

Atkins Diet Metabolic Term Paper

… Atkins Diet Physiology: Metabolic or Not?

In this study, we examined the effects of a high fat/low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and composition, in comparison to the effects of a calorie-reduced, fat-restricted diet. We conducted this particular study in an… [read more]

Dieting and Eating Disorders Dieting in Obese Term Paper

… ¶ … Dieting and Eating Disorders

Dieting in obese women does not increase binge eating and actually increases self-esteem. These are the findings of the latest study from the Department of Psychiatry, Weight and Eating Disorders Program, run by the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. The study was conducted by Thomas Wadden, Gary Foster, David Sarwer, Drew Anderson, Madeline Gladis, Rebecca Sanderson, RV Letchak, Robert Berkowitz and Suzanne Phelan, and was published in the September, 2004 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Much of the thinking that links dieting behavior to uncontrolled eating is based on research done with moderately overweight people, who were often already showed signs of eating disorders. There was no research to show what effect following different diets would have on women with more weight to lose. The tendency was to believe that restricting caloric intake would create feelings of deprivation and make it more likely for an eating disorder to develop.

The authors of this study set out to investigate whether different diets, with different levels of caloric restriction, would lead to an increase in eating disorders, specifically binge eating. They also wanted to investigate whether being on a diet made women feel more depressed, and lowered their self-esteem. This was an important question for developing the optimal health result. On the one hand, the obese women had a lot of weight to lose. On the other hand, the health benefits of losing the weight could be counterbalanced by negative health impacts, such as uncontrolled eating, or more serious depression.

This research into dieting and eating disorders looked at 123 obese women. The women were randomly divided into three different groups, and each group was given a different diet to follow. One group of women was put on a diet that consisted of 1000 calories per day, in the form of meal replacement shakes, and one meal of a frozen entree and salad. The second group was allowed to eat whatever food they wanted, as long as their total daily calorie intake stayed between 1200 and…… [read more]

Dietary Nutrition Analysis Assessment

… My challenges are the fact that the supplements taste horrible and I am tired a lot making it hard to get motivated. My tiredness is from the diabetes. I ride my bike 30 minutes at least 5 times a week, if not more. The bike says I burn 320 calories each time, give or take. My plate says I burn 916, but I do not believe it. I would like to incorporate a strength training program, such as lifting weights.

I could take my supplements on a schedule with juice or a spoonful of applesauce to cover the taste. My supplements could be taken on a schedule with meals and at bedtime, depending on how many times a day they are supposed to be taken. I could add 15 minutes of exercise every day for two days until I increase my time to one hour a day. I could ride my bike for 30 minutes and then lift weights for 15 minutes for the two days, then 30 minutes after that. I could get up an hour earlier every day to exercise early. Or, I could implement my exercise in the evening around already existing schedules. I could even implement some additional exercises when studying or doing homework. Leg and arm stretches can exercise the muscles while studying assignments. While reading for assignments, I could lay on my back and do leg lifts as I read to exercise my leg and thigh muscles.

A one day meal plan could be 1/4 cup of low fat cottage cheese with a serving of fruit, such as 1/2 cup of mixed berries, with an eight…… [read more]

Preamble: Josephine Attributes Her Eating Disorder Case Study

… PREAMBLE: Josephine attributes her eating disorder to dislike for the unhealthy food that her mother prepares and to her job as salsa instructor that demands that she regulates her weight. She sometimes eats only one meal per day, forcing herself… [read more]

Justification and Evidence for Nutrition Term Paper

… Two cups of fruit and that of 2-1 / 2 cups of vegetables daily are being recommended for a requirement of 2,000-calorie intake, and this can be changed to higher or lower levels based on the calorie level. This level… [read more]

Nutrition Intake Daily Recommended Servings Term Paper

… 3mg to 2mg. On day one, I consumed 2.496mg of vitamin B6. (banana 0.7 mg + turkey 0.644 mg + salmon 1.152mg = 2.946mg) On day two, I consumed 1.652mg of vitamin B6. (salmon 1.152mg + mahi 0.5mg = 1.652mg) I consumed adequate amounts of this B. vitamin.


Folate (a form of vitamin B9) is important in the production of red blood cells and a healthy nervous system. It is also essential in the production of DNA and brain functioning. It is especially important for women who are going to be having children. The recommended daily intake of folate is at least 400 mcgs to 600 mcgs. On day one, I consumed 186.3mcgs of folate (banana 22.5mcg + turkey 9.8 mcg + salmon 60mg + pasta 94 mcg = 186.3mcgs) On day two, I consumed 153.7 mcgs of folate. (salmon 60 mcg + Rice 92 mcg + salmon 1.7 mcg = 153.7 mcgs) I am not consuming enough folate and should increase my intake of folate-rich foods.


Calcium is needed for proper muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve functioning, and bone health. If your body does not have enough calcium, it will take calcium from bones, which will make them break easily. Not having enough calcium also leads to sleeping problems. The daily recommended intake of calcium is 1000mg. On day one I consumed 34.5 mg of calcium (banana 7mg + Turkey 1.5mg + Salmon 26mg = 34.5mg) On day two, I consumed 434.5mg of calcium. (Salmon 26mg + yogurt 400 mg + Mahi 8.5 mg = 434.5mg) I am consuming far too little calcium, and should probably switch to a more calcium-enriched soy milk, as well as increasing all foods with calcium. I am at a high risk of developing bone density problems if I do not increase my calcium.


Magnesium is needed for healthy bones, cell production, nerves and muscles, and energy production. It is also important for insulin and the absorption of different vitamins. Not enough magnesium can lead to fatigue, nervousness, insomnia, heart problems, and other health problems. The daily recommended intake of magnesium is 310 to 420mg. On day one, I consumed 113mg (banana 43mg + Turkey 17mg + Salmon 53 mg = 113mg). On day two, I consumed 188mg (Bread 80 mg + Salmon 53 mg + Mahi 55mg = 188mg). I am not consuming enough magnesium, and combined with the low levels of calcium intake, I am at an increased risk of developing osteoporosis.


Iron deficiency has been linked to problems ranging from behavioral problems to immune system weakness. The daily recommended intake of iron is between 10mg to 15mg. On day one, I consumed 3.505mg of iron (banana 0.4 mg + Turkey 2.5 mg +Salmon 0.605 mg = 3.505mg). On day two, I consumed 1.755mg (Salmon 0.605 mg + mahi 1.15mg = 1.755mg). I am not consuming enough iron and should increase my consumption of iron-rich foods such as dark…… [read more]

Nutrition and Pregnancy: Eating Right Term Paper

… Some of the guidelines consist of:

Start with a healthy diet

Add about 300 calories daily: To support the growing fetus, increase one usual servings of basic foods.

Fruits and vegetables: Four or more servings a day are recommended.

Breads, rice and pasta: Four or more daily servings are recommended, especially whole-grain or enriched breads and cereals.

Milk products: Four or more daily servings are recommended. Yogurt, cottage cheese, custard and cheese can substitute for milk.

Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans and nuts: Three or more daily servings. One egg equals one serving.

Foods to avoid

Too much caffeine appears to significantly lower birth weight and contribute to anemia in mother and fetus.

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can harm the fetus. Heavy drinkers (four drinks or more per day) can give birth to deformed, underweight babies with fetal alcohol syndrome (Pregnancy, 1999).

Those crazy cravings

Ice cream, fruits, sweets, pickles; expectant mothers often get sudden urges for certain foods, and occasionally giving in to these cravings poses no problem (Pregnancy, 1999).

Some pregnant women develop pica, a craving for nonfood items such as soil, coal and cigarette ashes.

Weight gain during pregnancy woman of normal weight should gain about 30 pounds. Underweight women should gain about 34 pounds, overweight woman only 20 pounds (Pregnancy, 1999).

Recommended gain: 3 to 4 pounds in the first three months, 3 to 4 pounds per month for the rest of the pregnancy (Pregnancy, 1999).

Each year hundreds of thousands of women become pregnant in this nation. For many years the medical community has been aware of the importance of nutrition to a pregnancy and has set guidelines of how it wants expectant mothers to eat. Following the food pyramid guidelines and taking prenatal vitamins assures that the mother is doing everything she can nutritionally to help her baby develop healthily. Exercise in moderation is also a plus when it comes to a pregnant woman. It allows her to stay in shape and healthy which in turn provides the baby with a healthy development environment.

Nutrition and exercise are vital elements to a healthy pregnancy and as each baby comes into the world ready to take their place in society, the proper preparation during their development helps determine how much living they will get to do.


Kerry Hillard, Table For 2/Nutrition News For Baby And One: E-ting Well., Baby Talk, 11-01-2000, pp 83.

John Davenport, A Tragic But Telling Legacy., Newsweek, 09-27-1999, pp 53.

Christopher Weems, Tips To Be Fit: Pregnancy, Exercise & Nutrition., Atlanta Inquirer, 06-29-1996, pp PG.

Author not available, PREGNANCY AND NUTRITION: 'One are what one eat' takes on specialmeaning when eatting for two.., The…… [read more]

Omniverous vs. Vegan Diet Omnivorous Term Paper


Omnivorous vs. vegan

A low-carbohydrate, high protein omnivorous diet vs. A low-protein, low fat vegan diet:

What is superior for diabetics?

The vegan diet has become extremely fashionable, thanks to endorsements by celebrities and Bill Clinton's… [read more]

Healthy Diet Habits: Lifetime Importance Essay

… ¶ … Healthy Diet a Habit for a Lifetime


When one eats and utilizes natural foods, it improves the ability of being at ease with everyday life. This enhances the chances of living a much healthier, happier, and longer… [read more]

Overeating Poor Eating Habits Research Paper

… Overeating and Poor Eating Habits: Learning to Make Healthy Choices

Obesity has reached near epidemic levels in many Western nations, including the United States, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles are further contributing to the incidence of poor eating habits. Young people… [read more]

Overeating Poor Eating Behavior Research Paper

… Overeating / Poor Eating Behavior

Your definition of health

Health refers to the level of metabolic and functional efficiency of living things. In human beings, health means the general condition of the mind of a person. This normally refers to… [read more]

Nutrition the Food Service Industry Term Paper

… Nutrition

The food service industry has long relied on meeting customer needs, in particular with respect to taste and speed of service. However, as tastes change and new trends emerge, the food service industry must change with the times. One… [read more]

Dieting Makes You Fat:" Old Essay

… One very interesting study even determined that adolescents who drank whole 'white' (non-sweetened milk) despite the fact that milk is caloric, had lower body weights than diet soda drinkers. This "suggests that the use of low-calorie soft drinks is a marker for more general dietary behaviors and weight concerns…Adolescents who consumed little or no white milk gained significantly more weight than their peers who consumed white milk" (Vanselow, Pereira Neumark-Sztainer & Raatz 2009). Dieting behaviors, an unhealthy relationship with food, and self-regulation followed by uninhibited eating were all associated with diet soda consumption, versus drinking the non-diet product of milk.

These findings do not mean that public health experts should utterly abandon attempts to regulate and improve the public's eating behaviors. However, it does indicate that health, rather than weight loss alone should be the focus. Furthermore, a fixation on weight can lead to increased anxiety and stress, rather than effective self-regulation. Dieting in the traditional sense seems to be a lose-lose proposition for both the individual and reducing the obesity rate for society overall as well.

Works Cited

Amber, R. Standish, et al. "Dieting And Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors During

Adolescence: Associations With 10-Year Changes In Body Mass Index." Journal Of Adolescent Health 50.1 (2012): 80-86. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 27 Oct. 2012.

Dulloo, A., Jacquet, J., & Montani, J. "How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation." Proceedings Of The Nutrition Society, 71.3 (2012), 379-389. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 27 Oct. 2012.

Savage, JS, L Hoffman, and LL Birch. "Dieting, Restraint, And Disinhibition Predict Women's

Weight Change Over 6 Y." American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition 90.1 (2009): 33-40. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 27 Oct. 2012.

"Theories on yo-yo dieting unwind." Tufts University Diet & Nutrition Letter, 1210 (1994), 1-2.

CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 27 Oct. 2012.

Vanselow M, Pereira M, Neumark-Sztainer D, Raatz S. "Adolescent Beverage Habits And

Changes In Weight Over Time: Findings…… [read more]

Nutrition and Age Related Macular Term Paper

… This is the reason why people with a higher density of macular pigment have a reduced risk of macular degeneration in their old age ("Macular Degeneration Could Be," 2004, p. 13). It is, therefore, necessary to eat fresh or frozen… [read more]

Vegetarianism Many People Tend to Be Drawn Research Paper

… Vegetarianism

Many people tend to be drawn to vegetarianism through different sorts of motives. A section of us are in need of living healthier lives, live longer and prevent ourselves from being obese. Others have turned to be vegetarians because… [read more]

Diet to Achieve Weight Loss Essay

… ¶ … diet to achieve weight loss has become a common thought in the minds of overweight individuals. As the obesity epidemic continues to sicken industrialized nations, people think that crash diets, food deprivation, and starvation are the answer to… [read more]

Health Plan for Life Research Paper

… Though these goals seem relatively easy to do for someone perhaps more experience with a set schedule of diet and exercise, for me they will be quite difficult. Therefore, in this next section, I would like to discuss the actions I will take to meet each goal, and the anticipated setbacks and difficulties that I will probably encounter. According to the section Guidelines for a Healthy Diet, and the food pyramid in this section, an individual should have anywhere from 3-5 servings of vegetables and 2-4 servings of fruit a day. Due to this, I have made these two my goals; however, due to the fact that I am not really accustomed to eat fruit and vegetables so often, this will be quite a struggle for me. Though I will be able to achieve my water goal and my lunch goal, I will have to work hard and constantly remind myself to eat fruit and vegetables instead of other salty or sugary snacks. In order to do this successfully, I will note it in my calendar and will also note it on my fridge so that I can see it in multiple places when I look. [2: Sources provided by customer, document titled Guidelines for a Healthy Diet. ]

Another obstacle might be presented in motivating myself for exercising so many times a day. Indeed, now I exercise only 2-3 days a week, but due to my new schedule I will have to be very organized indeed about my exercise, and vary it as well. However, my main motivator for exercising (just as it is for diet), will be not having chronic diseases and illnesses that are related to an inactive lifestyle, such as chronic disease, such as obesity and cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Thus, my main source of motivation in this respect will be the health risks that could ensure from the non-application of the above stated goal model with respect to both exercise and diet, but especially with regards to exercise. [3: Sources provided by customer, document titled Nutrition, Fitness and Physical Activity.]

Next, I would like to describe how I would measure my success. It is important to notice here that another motivator would be looking forward to measuring this success. This can be done by recording weight, but also by analysing general well-feeling and differences in physical feelings from prior starting the diet and exercise. I would also like to note that it is important that I will both exercise and follow my diet, for one will not work without the other. Thus, success will also be measure through how well I can follow both. Another measure of success will be my daily diary. For this, I could use an electronic application on my phone, which can help me record and measure my daily intake of food and my physical activity by counting calories for me. Such applications can be downloaded on most smart phones. I will also keep a written diary, recording how I feel… [read more]

Eating for A's: A Delicious 12-Week Nutrition Book Report

… Eating for a's: A Delicious 12-Week Nutrition Plan to Improve Your Child's Academic and Athletic Performance

Alexander Schauss, Arnold Meyer, Barbara Friedlander Meyer

Year Published: 1991

Publisher: Pocket Books

Thesis Statement and Literary Introduction

This book report reviews the work of noted author and doctor, Dr. Alexander Schauss, et al., in his work "Eating for a's: A Delicious 12-Week Nutrition Plan to Improve Your Child's Academic and Athletic Performance." This book was originally published in 1991, in collaboration with Barbara Friedlander Meyer and Arnold Meyer. In this report, an overview of the book's general concept will be given, followed by a background of "why" the book was written. Additionally, the particulars of the program will be highlighted, touching upon the week by week guidelines of the dietary changes that the program requires. Salient concepts are then discussed, drawn from the major ideas that the author incorporates into the book, including scrutiny of the conversational tone the authors take with the intended reader, a note on children's intake of sugar, and the relationship between the diet, the brain, concentration, and improvements in academics and athletics. Finally, this report will offer a conclusion as well as a comment on the efficacy of these types of approaches espoused by nutrition books such as "Eating for a's."

Concept and Background

At a glance, the concept of the book "Eating for a's" is founded on the idea that a diet that is both complete and rich in nutrients will improve a child's academic and athletic performance. The basis for this hypothesis that the author(s) used for the book lays in the outcome of the largest nutrition study ever conducted, involving 800,000 students of all grade levels and demographic profiles, in 803 schools. The study was…… [read more]

Nutrition and Cancer Thesis


There are many studies which suggest that nutrition is inextricably linked to cancer rates and many of those studies with their findings will be reviewed during the course of the present study. Reports of… [read more]

Sports Nutrition Proposal Contemporary Sports Nutrition Consumers Thesis

… Sports Nutrition Proposal

Contemporary sports nutrition consumers not only include bodybuilders and hardcore athletes, but also "weekend warriors," and soccer moms, according to Pete Maletto (2008), senior food scientist. "Nutrition Business Journal (NBJ), Boulder, CO, estimates that the $22 billion sports nutrition industry will experience sales growth of more than 5% a year over the next five years and approach $29 billion by 2013" (¶ 2). Maletto (2008) reports that approximately 20 years ago, protein powders, weight gain supplements, and amino acid tablets ranked as the most popular products sports nutrition enthusiasts were things like weight gainers and protein powders, and maybe for the really cutting-edge folks, amino acid tablets. Today, total nutrition sales, which include health foods, vitamins, and numerous related products, reportedly exceed $90 billion annually. Sports nutrition, however, encompasses more than food and supplements, Tracy R. Ray, and Rachel Fowler. (2004) point out in "Current issues in sports nutrition in athletes." The sports nutrition "field" also spotlights "the energy, nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, special nutrient needs during training, competition, and recovery, and the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids" (Ray, & Rachel, 2004 Fowler, ¶ 1).

In light of current considerations relating to sports nutrition, the researcher proposes to explore this "field."

Hypothesis: When an athlete or other individual increases his/her knowledge about sports nutrition, then he/she will simultaneously begin to improve his/her physical potential.

Health Campaign: Athletes and other individuals who need to improve their physical potential need coaches, trainers, and mentors knowledgeable about sports nutrition. These coaches, trainers, and mentors need to teach, train, and target appropriate information toward helping those they coach, train and mentor.

Additional points from the five articles used for the above one page synopsis:

Greg Shaw, Greg Cox, and Janelle Barnard (2007) report in "Sports nutrition: case studies 2":

Keeping pace with daily fuel requirements to sustain quality exercise, while creating an energy surplus to allow for muscle mass gain is a major challenge for most athletes. (Answers section, ¶ 1)

The article "Sports nutrition vital for athletes" (2005) stresses: "Most athletes do not consider sports nutrition as part of their training."

In "Definition and Outcome of a Curriculum to Prevent Disordered Eating and Body-Shaping Drug Use." Diane L. Elliot, Esther L. Moe, Linn Goldberg, Carol a. DeFrancesco, Melissa B. Durham, and Hollie Hix-Small purport: "Coaches have been referred to as the missing link in health promotion, as their contact with student athletes is estimated at 150 to 200 hours during a sports season."

Mark J. Tallon, PhD, is chief science officer of NutriSciences, a London-based consultancy firm specialising in health-claim substantiation, product development and technical writing, states: "A study conducted by AC Nielsen in the UK in 2006 reported that 60 per cent of consumers preferred to get health benefits not from fortified foods, but from foods that are as natural as possible."

In "Current issues in sports nutrition in athletes," Tracy R. Ray, and Rachel Fowler (2004)… [read more]

Nutrition as a Means of Increasing Productivity Within a Workplace Research Proposal

… Nutrition as a Means of Increasing Productivity Within a Workplace

Nutrition: Current Dynamics and Economics

With the changing dynamics and demands of the business world it is important to alter the necessities provided to the employees. One of the recent… [read more]

Diet and Activity Plan Thesis

… Diet and Activity Plan

What I have learned

Beginning this class, I believed that my diet and nutrition habits were acceptable because I know that eat healthier than many of my contemporaries. In addition, at 6'3" and 210 pounds, I… [read more]

Weight Loss and Detoxification Essay

… Weight Loss & Detoxification

Nutrition Today:" Transcript

Weight loss and detoxification -- Dr. Anne-Louise Gittleman vs. Dr. Elon Haas

Interviewer: Dr. Gittleman, you call your diet plan the 'Fat Flush Plan,' and Dr. Haas, you say that detoxification can lead to weight loss. How is it possible to flush fat from your system? I always thought the only way to lose fat was to shrink your fat cells through diet and exercise. Surely if you follow a low-calorie diet and you expend more energy than you take in you will lose weight, regardless of whether you are following a detoxification program.

Gittleman: My program is not just a low-calorie diet program. That is a misnomer. It is meant to address the misconception that most people have about weight gain. Weight gain is not caused by eating too much and exercising too little.

Interviewer: It isn't? But isn't your plan a low-calorie diet? According to one diet review site, the diet you prescribe during the first phase of your plan, the Two-Week Fat Flush only contains 1,100 calories a day, which is followed by the Ongoing Fat Flush where dieters eat 1,500 calories a day, well under the prescribed 2,000 FDA recommended allotment for women and the 2,200 calories a day suggested for men.

Gittleman: I believe weight gain is caused by eating the wrong type of foods, not eating too much in general. Eating too many processed foods leads to water retention, liver toxicity and excess insulin production. The average, modern diet is very nutrient poor, given that unless people are careful they find themselves eating mass-produced, animals, dairy products, vegetables, and refined grains. People are too busy and stressed out today to eat properly, which also encourages fat storage because of elevated hormonal levels, and the modern fear of eating fat actually leads to an unbalanced diet that leads to more fat production. Environmental toxins, artificial dyes and preservatives, even prescription drugs slow the metabolism. That is why during the first phase of my Fat Flush Plan, I have my patients take flaxseed oil and fatty acid supplements. During the first phases of the detox, they eat no carbohydrates although good, unrefined carbohydrates are re-introduced later in the diet.

Interviewer: Dr. Haas, do you agree with this approach?

Haas: I do agree that people lead toxic lives today, filled with too much sugar, smoking, drinking (coffee and alcohol) as well as too many processed foods. I also think that fasting, like what is advocated with the famous 'Master Cleanse' diet can be helpful. In fact, I think that doing the week-long Master Cleanse of lemonade, salt water flushes, and maple syrup is ideal as a seasonal biannual occurrence, in the autumn and in the spring (Haas 2008:6). I am most concerned about allergenic responses and symptoms of toxicity because of allergic reactions to environmental chemicals.

Gittleman: Weight loss cannot be overlooked, because obesity is a clear symptom of exposure to toxic chemicals in the environment. Weight loss is an… [read more]

Basic Human Nutrition Term Paper

… Nutrition

From a nutrition perspective (not an ethical one) please explain whether a vegan diet or an omnivorous diet is best for our health. Be sure to address benefits, pitfalls and possible solutions for the pitfalls of each diet.

No two vegan or omnivorous diets are equal because no two individuals will eat the same foods whether vegan or omnivorous. Also, the effects of vegan vs. omnivore diets will be differ depending on the individual, his or her current state of health and his or her genetics. Therefore, it is impossible to determine absolutely whether one diet is preferable from a nutritional standpoint. Both can be beneficial when proper nutritional guidelines are followed. Balance is a key to solid nutrition whether vegan or not. Vegans must take care to acquire enough vitamin B12 and calcium from their diets. Protein is itself relatively easy to consume from vegetarian sources but animal products do offer nutritionally available calcium, B12 and other essential nutrients that are tougher to find from plant foods or even from dietary supplements. Therefore, vegans should supplement their diet when possible and take care to consume those nutrients that might be missing. Vegans do have distinct advantages over their omnivorous counterparts in terms of less cholesterol consumption. Also, vegans would tend to gravitate toward healthier food choices in general: those that are less processed.

Omnivores need to beware of eating too much processed foods, which are cheap and easy to consume but which are detrimental to overall health and well-being. When meats and other animal products are consumed with moderation and from fresh, organic sources when possible, an omnivorous diet offers a wealth of nutritional benefits. Omnivores who choose their foods wisely, avoid processed or fast foods, and who eat high-quality animal products in moderation are likely to enjoy good health.

2. Indicate TWO reasons why manufacturers hydrogenate their lipid-rich products. Provide ONE example of a hydrogenated food product, as well as a suitable healthy non-hydrogenated substitute for that product.

Manufacturers hydrogenate their lipid-rich products for several reasons, such as to make a lipid-rich vegetable oil solid at room temperature and easier to spread on breads or for baked goods. Another key reason to hydrogenate lipid-rich products is to lengthen shelf life, as hydrogenated fats deteriorate slower than if the same fat was not hydrogenated. Margarine is a common example of a hydrogenated food product, and its most suitable alternative spread is butter, which although high in saturated fat is wholesome and not hydrogenated. If animal fat is to be avoided, then olive oil is a suitable alternative to margarine for spreading on bread.

3.What is meant by the statement folate can mask a B12 deficiency? Be sure to describe the relationship between folate and…… [read more]

Nutrition Plan Get Healthy Plan Combination Term Paper

… Nutrition Plan

Get Healthy Plan combination of positive eating habits and an active physical lifestyle are tantamount to a long and healthy life. Those who conscientiously pursue a sound, nutritional diet and regularly engage in athletic activities will significantly improve… [read more]

Diet Analysis Since the Conception Term Paper

… Diet Analysis

Since the conception of the food pyramid by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) in the 1960s and its inception in 1992, "the familiar, black triangle, found on the majority of boxes of foods at the supermarket,… [read more]

Current Controversial Legislative Proposals Related to Foods and Nutrition Term Paper

… Obesity and Fast Food

Fast Food And Obesity

The rate of increase in obesity in America is morbidly high. According to many studies and well documented causes of obesity, it was found that obesity is directly correlated with higher consumption of fast food items. One recent report indicates that "Fast food emphasizes primordial preferences for salt and fat...This may promote overeating."(CNN) There are several other reports citing similar results. This indicates that obesity is indeed connected with fast food consumption which leads to only one logical conclusion: we must urge fast food companies to either increase the nutritional value of their food items or make them less dense in terms of fast contents and calories. As Jeffrey et al. (2006) report: "...nutritional analysis of products sold in "fast food" restaurants indicates that they are typically high in energy density, which provides a plausible mechanism through which they might promote excess energy intake"

It is thus important that fast food consumption be restricted in people at risk. But as long as this type of food is easily available, it is impossible to restrict people's intake. For this reason, we need to have legislations that would help instill a sense of social responsibility in these companies. Since the proliferation of fast food cannot be controlled through ordinary means, it would only be in the best interest of people if lawmakers and judiciary urged companies to become more responsible in the food they prepare and the people they cater to. There must be a law limiting the fat content in fast food and this kind of food must not be served to kids who are most vulnerable to developing had eating habits since they do not know about nutritional value or lack of it thereof.

It is interesting to note that while these fast food items are hugely popular among teens and young adults, they have very little nutritional value, if ay at all. This means that while a certain portion of their regular calorie intake is coming from consumption of fast…… [read more]

Mcdonald's Diet Plan Term Paper

… This will be complimented by a game that encourages consumers to learn more about nutrition, and the nutritional content of McDonald's food. By collecting scratch-off game pieces with the correct answer to different nutrition questions, return business to that increases financial revenue for the company will also be encouraged in a healthy manner.

Lastly, the woman who lost weight on the diet will be featured in a series of advertisements, stressing that real people can lose weight on McDonald's. The woman's life as a busy soccer mom will also come into sharp focus -- the consumer will gain the added value of time and money, without sacrificing its health

McDonald's thus can reposition itself in the fast food market once again against competitors such as salad-selling Wendy's or Burger King's new veggie options. It can show that it is still a caring, family friendly company that brings families closer together and gives them more time to spend together, time not spent over a hot stove.

Works Cited

Konrath, Jill. (2005) "How to Write a Strong Value Proposition." Sideroad. Retrieved 27 Aug 2005 at http://www.sideroad.com/Sales/value_proposition.html… [read more]

3-Day Diet Plan to Lose Term Paper

… However, should a dieter wish to have a snack, he can have a combination of 1 sugar-free gelatin and 1 fruit, or 1 sugar-free gelatin and 1 vegetable, to eat. Fruits that contain vitamin C would be useful because it can help in quickening of the digestion process. Different kinds of fruits must be taken for every snack. This is in accordance to what we previously mentioned that a food variety can create a positive reaction to our digestive system.

In general, the 3-day diet contains basic nutritional foods. This diet plan has just enough amount of foods to allow a dieter sustain a day without having to lack energy for his body. For breakfast, the juice, coffee, or tea provides the body with an instrument to digest the foods that the body will take for the day. The slice of toast and peanut butter is a good source of carbohydrates. The cheese, on the other hand, provides the bones with just enough calcium without having the need to take milk for the 3-day diet. Milk should be avoided in the 3-day diet because it is a rich source of fat and calories. The apple and banana that are suggested for breakfast can provide more nutrition to the body that helps in the digestion process.

For lunch, the tuna, which is a kind of sea foods, is another important type of food that we everyone must eat. Hence, this is included in our diet plan. Again, it must be noted though that just enough amount should be eaten during the course of diet. Part of lunch is a source of carbohydrates such as the crackers and toasted bread. Black coffee or tea is again a part of our diet meal for lunch to help one's body digest the food he eats.

For dinner, part of the diet includes proteins. Protein is a very important nutrition that our body must not lack. Even if a person is on a diet, protein must not be excluded in the body's food intake. This is because protein is a good source of energy that our body consumes. Moreover, fruits and vegetables, which are good sources of nutrition in liquid form helps a faster digestion. And finally, low-fat vanilla ice cream is an important part of our 3-day diet because it creates a caloric reaction that also helps in our food digestion.



Retrieved on May 15, 2005, from the Internet.…… [read more]

Nutrition the Familiar Food Pyramid Term Paper

… Nutrition

The familiar food pyramid, introduced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1992, consists of the six basic food groups. In the first are fats, oil, sweets and sugars; in the second are meats and other protein sources; milk… [read more]

Atkins Diet America Term Paper

… 5 mg, 1.7 mg and 20 mg respectively. [Healthnotes INC] Atkins dieters derive these and other minerals from the prescribed multivitamin supplement 'Basic #3 Formula'. It is to be noted that the Atkins diet program is not self-sufficient and hence the dependence of supplementary vitamin dosages is a life long necessity.

Atkins Program strongly recommends regular aerobic exercises (5 times a week) as a general rule. Weight bearing exercises are also indicated to strengthen the bones and improve the muscle tone. Since chances of cholesterol buildup are a bit higher in the Atkins diet, regular aerobic and weight bearing exercises are part of the diet regimen. The recommended plan is to start with aerobic exercises and include weight training later on once the endurance level is increased. Most of the recipe information pertaining to the Atkins nutritional approach program is freely delivered on the internet. There are a variety of Atkins brand products, lunch and dinner products and different supplementary products to choose from. So the individual may either follow the recipe and prepare the food at home or buy Atkins brand products. Hence, cost of following the program may depend on the choice of the dieter.

Risk Factors

There are definitely health risks associated with the Atkins diet program. The fundamental change in food composition and consequent metabolic process carries a risk of electrolyte imbalance in our body. As Gail Frank, PhD, nutrition professor at California State University states, "Fruits and berries are much more indicative of early man's eating pattern than eating only protein, and we haven't changed all that much physiologically."[Charlotte E. Grayson]. High protein diet is known to cause the condition of acidic urine, which depletes calcium from the body. The result of calcium loss is a bone degeneration condition known as Osteoporosis. Developing kidney stones is another major risk for Atkins dieters. [Kathy Goodwin] It is also well-known that animal proteins are toxic in nature compared to vegetable and fruit sources and hence Atkins diet is not a healthy approach [Dan Rutherford] Further, the assumption that increased carbohydrates is the cause for overweight condition may itself be ill founded, as for instance, Japan as a nation where carbohydrates forms the major diet, has a very low obesity rate.


Atkins diet has created a revolution in weight management. There is no question of doubt that the diet has great success as an effective weight management program and even improved certain health aspects. However, a diet that is continuously dependent on supplements and which drastically limits the intake of natural foods such as fruits and vegetables is seriously questionable. Fruits not only supply vitamins but also include a variety of Phytochemicals, which are essential for bolstering the immune system and preventing chronic diseases. Though Atkins weight management program is a definitive way to loose quick pounds it entails potential health risks. Recent research findings that single vitamins are not easily assimilated by the body only adds to our concern of living on a supplemented diet. An… [read more]

Vegetarianism Verses Meat Eating Diet Term Paper

… Yet most meats, when cooked, produce an array of benzenes and other carcinogenic compounds. Cancer is infinitely easier to prevent than cure.

Vegetarian diets often contain fewer calories than diets that include meat. This type of diet also contains less saturated fat and smaller amounts of a fatty substance called cholesterol than most meat-eaters do. Lower dietary levels of saturated fat and cholesterol result in lower levels of cholesterol in the blood. Medical research indicates that a high level of cholesterol in the blood is associated with heart disease. Some studies have shown that vegetarians in the United States are healthier and live longer than other Americans.

You can get all the needed vitamins and minerals from a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products or eggs. Nondairy calcium sources include tofu processed with calcium sulfate; green leafy vegetables such as collard greens, mustard greens, and kale; and calcium-fortified soymilk and orange juice. Your body absorbs heme iron, which is found in meat, better than non-heme iron, found in plants. However, eating foods high in vitamin C during the same meal increases the absorption of non-heme iron (Murphy, 2002). The addition of yeast and tempeh should also be included in the diet to prevent a deficiency in the vitamin B12. Most vegans take vitamin B12 tablets to obtain this nutrient. A dietician can tell you if your diet is too low in vitamins and minerals. Advice will also be given on how to correct your diet if it does not have enough vitamins and minerals (Sorgen, 2002).

There are many benefits to eating a vegetarian diet. There is no nutrient necessary for optimal human functioning that cannot be obtained from plant food (Refior, 2002). Animal foods are higher in fat than most plant food, particularly saturated fats and plants do not contain cholesterol. The foods that are allowed on this diet are low in saturated fat and are beneficial for the prevention of cancer. A vegan will also more likely have lower levels of cholesterol, which will help to reduce the possibility of a stroke or heart attack. While some may think this type of lifestyle is difficult to maintain, there are many recipes and options available to prevent dining boredom while living a healthy lifestyle.

Works Cited

Brody, Jane. "Vegetarianism." World Book Online Americas Edition, Retrieved December 5, 2002 at http://www.worldbookonline.com/ar?/na/ar/co/ar582020.htm

Garell, Dale. (1991). Nutrition. Chelsea House Publishers, New York.

Lawrence, H. (2001). "The Macrobiotic Diet in Cancer." The Journal of Nutrition. (131)

Lykins, Terri. (1994). "Vegeterians get Less Fat, More Fiber by Avoiding Meat, Poultry.

Knight-Ridder Tribune News Service.

Murphy, Dee. (Feb., 2002). "The Great American Meatout." Current Health, (28) 23.

Refior, Tiffany. Retrieved December 5, 2002 at http://vegetarian.about.com

Sorgen, C. (2002). "The Raw Meal Deal." http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1671.53588

Yount, Lisa. (1991). Cancer.…… [read more]

Nutrition for the Older Patient Essay

… Nutrition for Adults Over Fifty:

Supporting healthy aging

The fundamental principles of good nutrition -- eating within one's calorie limit, plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, and regular exercise -- remain constant regardless of the stage of life. However, there are certain age-specific recommendations for older adults regarding diet and exercise which are important to keep in mind to maintain a healthy body and attitude. For example, older adults have trouble absorbing the critical nutrient B12: eating more foods rich in B12 such as fish, chicken, and moderate fat dairy products are recommended (Jaret 2013). Dairy products are also an abundant source of calcium, a vital component in guarding against osteoporosis, which afflicts many elderly adults, particularly women. "Other good dietary sources of calcium include kale and broccoli, as well as juices fortified with calcium" (Jaret 2013). Vitamin D can facilitate the absorption of calcium. Hip fractures and broken bones can be particularly detrimental to older adults, given the difficulty of rehabilitating from a serious injury and also the psychological blow to their physical confidence. Older adults may also need more fiber and water than their younger counterparts to facilitate healthy elimination.

Metabolic rate slows with age, reducing calorie needs. People who have struggled with their weight throughout their lives may experience additional challenges while even those who maintained a healthy weight may struggle to keep pounds off. Obesity is just as if not more detrimental to the health of the elderly. "Obese elders have an increased risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease" and metabolic slowing combined with increased difficulty in exercise can compound this (Getz 2013). Weight loss must be managed carefully, however, given that older patients are already losing muscle mass naturally as a consequence of aging and dramatic weight loss inevitably results in some loss of muscle as well as fat. Also, for some adults, eating too little rather than too much may be the more serious issue if illness, mobility, or even economic factors are interfering with their ability to consume adequate amounts of calories.

However, it is important not to solely focus on diet alone in terms of strengthening…… [read more]

Stress and Nutrition Term Paper

… d.). Ingesting caffeine may also lead to irritability and difficulty sleeping, both of which can make stress worse. Other foods that are problematic for triggering a strong response to stress are sugar and carbohydrates (Seaward, n.d.). These are, however, commonly found in foods that people like to eat when they feel stress. That creates a serious problem for them, because they are exacerbating the problems they already have by consuming foods that increase their stress response (Khansari, et al., 1990). That can lead these people to have anxiety attacks, generalized problems with anxiety, or simply an elevated stress level that can be very hard on the body over time. Those who are allergic to specific foods should also avoid those foods, as they can trigger a bad reaction that can increase stress, as well.

According to Seaward, there are four stress domino factors. These are nutrient depletion, more nutrient depletion, stress-trigger foods, and a suppressed immune system (Seaward, n.d.). When a person becomes stressed and does not eat properly, a number of nutrients are lost. The longer the stress goes on the more nutrient depletion is seen, because the person starts to lose the building blocks he or she needs in order to allow some nutrients to attach to other nutrients and be properly absorbed by the body (Seaward, n.d.). The stress-trigger foods are then often eaten because the person does not feel well, and wants the psychological comfort that these foods can bring. While that makes sense from a mental health standpoint, it is actually a dangerous proposition because it only makes the already bad situation much worse (Seaward, n.d.). This leads to a suppressed immune system that is very unhealthy, and that can cause a person to fall victim to everything from a common cold to life-threatening ailments (Seaward, n.d.). Breaking the cycle as soon as possible is very important, and stress reduction is needed to do that.


Khansari, D.N., Murgo, A.J., et al. (1990). Effects of stress on the immune system. Immunology Today, 44(26): 170-175.

Seaward, B.L. (n.d.). The domino effect. Authenticliving.com. Retrieved from: http://www.brianlukeseaward.com/downloads/DominoEffect.pdf… [read more]

Obesity in Preschoolers Essay

… , 2012). Most preschoolers (60%) consume too much fat in their diets, and only about a third (34% of boys and 33% of girls) consume the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables each day (Cariun et al., 2012). Nearly a quarter (24%) of young people eat too many high-fat, low-nutritional value foods, particularly fried foods, candy, soft drinks and cookies (Cariun et al., 2012).

As a child, the only punishments used to compel me to eat the proper foods was being forced to remain at the table on occasion until I at least tried new foods (a time-consuming enterprise on many occasions). Rewards consisted of going to A&W for ice-cold root beer and hot dogs or making homemade peach ice cream on hot summer nights at the grandparents (this was the best ice cream and time ever). Overcoming picky eating habits can be a challenge for many parents, but parents can help promote healthy eating habits by ensuring their preschoolers eat breakfast and are provided with the above-listed recommended daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, dairy and oils.


Cariun, C., Taut, D., & Baban, A. (2012, March). Self-regulatory strategies for eating behavior in children and adolescents: A concept mapping approach. Cognitie, Creier,

Comportament, 16(1), 49-54.

Daniels, S.R. (2006, Spring). The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47-51.

Doong, J.Y. & Shariff, Z.M. (2008, April). Growth status of low-income preschool children and the relation of birth weight to short stature and overweight. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 90(2),…… [read more]

Pros and Cons Omega-3 Fatty Acids Article

… Mediterranean diets are also different from the standard American diet in that they have fewer foods high in omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-6 fatty acids are also essential but they tend to promote rather than reduce inflammation. "The typical American diet tends to contain 14-25 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids, which many nutritionally oriented physicians consider to be way too high on the omega-6 side. The Mediterranean diet, on the other hand, has a healthier balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids" (Ehrlich 2011). Foods high in omega-6 include vegetable oils such as corn, soy, and sunflower oil as well as most nuts. Many highly processed foods contain these types of oils.

It should be noted that the key is having the right balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids: one type is not 'good' while the other type is not 'bad.' Another problem with the idea that omega-3s are better than omega-6s is that people may overdose on omega-3 supplements, which can cause problems on its own. For example, "people who eat more than 3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day (equivalent to 3 servings of fish per day) may have higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke, a potentially fatal type of stroke in which an artery in the brain leaks or ruptures" (Ehrlich 2011). And "a study by scientists at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle linked eating a lot of oily fish or taking potent fish oil supplements to a 43% increased risk for prostate cancer overall, and a 71% increased risk for aggressive prostate cancer" (LeWine 2013). High doses of omega-3s may inhibit blood clotting, so people who bruise or bleed easily should use high-dose supplements with extreme caution and only under physician supervision. Patients on blood-thinning medications like warfarin (Coumadin) and aspiring should also be very cautious about dramatically increasing omega-3s in their diet (Ehrlich 2011).

For most of us, the best way to ensure that we are getting enough omega-3s and the right balance of omega-6s with omega-3s is to increase the amount of fatty fish we eat in our diets and to minimize our consumption of processed foods which contain vegetable oils. Just like during the fat free craze, food marketing companies are now jumping on the omega-3 bandwagon and many are supplementing their breakfast cereals and peanut butters with fish oil and other sources of omega-3. Supplements and fortified products, though, do not seem to provide the same benefits as natural sources and for some consumers may pose risks because of the potential for overdoses. As with everything, the key to incorporating omega-3s into your life is balance.


Ehrlich, S. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids

LeWine, F. (2013). Fish oil: Friend of foe? Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from:

http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/fish-oil-friend-or-foe-201307126467… [read more]

Breast Feeding the Relevance Research Paper

… If for example not nearly enough calcium is absorbed at morning meal then a mid early morning treat of cheese may be provided to off- set the distinction. Young children will likewise become 'stuck' on a particular food and not… [read more]

Self-Aware of Their Eating Habits Research Paper

… From this point-of-view, there can be little concern regarding moral issues in the use of animals to help people, if proper attention and care is given to the needs of the animals as well.

3. Bonobos through their way of behaving, walking, and mostly understanding human language, do resemble to human behavior. Although there are still a lot of studies to be concluded to actually consider them as being the ancestors of human evolution, it is important to view the way in which these animals can exercise their learning capacities and how they can evolve. At the same time, it represents an exercise for the human mind as well because it allows humans to better interact with perhaps the most resembling to human kind animal.

4. Sexual evolution is essential for every primate because it represents the connection between past generations and future ones. It is in the nature of every animal and human to reproduce on a natural way. This is largely because the sexual reproduction depends on a variety of aspects that attract mates and pairs. For most animal species, the reproduction depends on finding the mate with the best characteristics particularly because of the need to reproduce as best as possible and to transmit the best genes to the next generations.

5. Tumai, as the Skull was named, is possible to have been a biped and represent indeed the link between the animal and the human species. The evidence presented by the scientists are sufficiently compelling to lead to such a conclusion, from the shape of the skull to the teeth that proved certain eating habits to the shape of his eyes that determined a vertical position of the head in order to look straight.

6. The scientific community is rather united because all information appears throughout the world and information must be shared for the advancement of science of human kind. This is why when a discovery is made it is shared among all scientists and the knowledge of all of them contributes to evolutionist theories. The advancement of science can only be done through communication and sharing of knowledge.

7. Cloning is a rather debated subject from both a moral and ethical perspective. However advanced science is at this point and will continue to evolve in time, it should be limited to its benefic effects on human kind and not interfere with the natural way of civilization. Should cloning be accepted for medical reasons, such exercises may become uncontrollable and negative effects of science may eventually end up harming civilization rather than helping it.

8. This has been a very interesting course that helps in providing a more complex view of the past and ancient times of human kind. It enables the accumulation of information about human ancestors as well as geographical conditions in order to better understand where people are coming from. Also, through the information acquired in this course, there is a clearer understanding of the tremendous evolution human kind has made along… [read more]

Producing a Healthier Biscuit: Evidence Essay

… A healthy body weight is an important factor in the general promotion of health and reducing cancer.

Other dietary nutrients may be more significant in reducing the risk of cancer. For example, "dietary guidelines that target obesity as well as fat and calcium intake could be more important than fiber (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health). The one conclusive association regarding the health benefits of fiber is that it does reduce constipation, which is important for general digestive comfort and the prevention of other gastrointestinal diseases. "This laxative effect accounts for the role of dietary fiber in conditions such as hiatus hernia, diverticular disease and hemorrhoids" (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health).

Current dietary fiber intakes of Australians

"In Australia, the National Nutrition Survey of 1995 indicated that 45% of dietary fiber comes from breads and other cereal foods, 10% from fruit and 30% from vegetables" (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health). The majority of fiber of Australians thus already comes from soluble fiber in the form of bread products. Like most persons in the industrialized world, Australians have been criticized for having insufficient fiber in their diets, and urged to increase the amount through increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

Whether or not there is strong evidence for benefits of more dietary fiber in Australian's diets

The Australian Ministry of Health suggests that every woman consume at least 25g of fiber in their diet and every man consume at least 30g in his diet (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health). However, any health claims regarding the benefits of increased fiber must be made cautiously. The association between a high fiber diet and lower rates of diabetes and cholesterol may be related to a correlation, rather than causation, between the types of persons who eat high-fiber diets and better health outcomes. Or it may be related to the fact that fiber is useful in weight control and thus has a beneficial effect in an indirect fashion. Fiber does have benefits in increasing satiety and also for its laxative properties. Having fiber in the diet is clearly important to some degree, but despite the official figures released by the Ministry of Health, there is no clear indication that the 25-30g fiber per day is adequate to ward against cancer and many chronic diseases (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health).

Almost all biscuits will contain some form of sugar and carbohydrate, and making health claims for a biscuit is problematic in this respect. Eating biscuits as a health food may not be suitable for all persons, such as diabetics or people seeking to lose weight. Even if there is a trace amount of fiber in the cookie, it is unlikely to be as significant as in a piece of fruit, vegetable, or even a bowl of cereal. Thus, creating a 'healthy biscuit' rather than focusing on taste and the 'treat' aspect of eating a biscuit may be a dubious proposition. A whole wheat oatmeal biscuit could be tasty and higher… [read more]

Eating Disorders According to Himmel Essay

… Finally, genetics might be more similar than different. For instance, Day, Ternouth & Collier (2009) point out that anorexia, bulimia, and obesity might share a similar genetic component.

Eating disorders include anorexia and bulimia, and both of these are classified as psychological disorders. Obesity is usually not classified as a psychological disorder. With anorexia, the person may be a perfectionist who uses food as a means of self-control. With bulimia, the person goes to two extremes of binging and purging. Neither anorexia or bulimia symptoms may be present in a person with obesity. Some people with anorexia never overeat, and therefore, anorexia has a completely different manifestation than obesity. Anorexic people are usually skinny, because the ideal physiology for the person is skinny. Obese people are, by definition, not skinny at all. With both eating disorders and obesity, the person may become obsessed with body image and has a distorted body image. In fact, this same factor can be shared among obese people. Some obese people have a distorted body image, by believing that their weight is just "big bones." Therefore, the underlying factor of distorted body image may be shared in common. There are also psychological risk factors that eating disorders have, such as low self-esteem, frequent exposure to media images for dieting, and a history of abuse. These risk factors are shared in common between obese people and those with eating disorders (Day, Ternouth & Collier, 2009).

There are similarities and differences between eating disorders and obesity. The three most important similarities between eating disorders and obesity include the genetic component, distorted body image, and psychological issues leading to a dysfunctional relationship with food in some way. The three main differences between eating disorders and obesity include the manifestation of the behaviors in the body (skinny vs. fat), the fact that many obese people might not have a psychological problem and could only have a biological issue, and finally, the different types of self-image issues. The main difference in self-image is that anorexia and bulimia lead to a feeling that one is too fat; whereas with obesity, the person might not believe that they are fat when they really are. There are many similarities and differences between eating disorders and obesity, including responses to treatment. Eating disorders and obesity sometimes respond to the same types of treatment interventions, such as the Twelve Step Program. Many experts believe that it is more important to focus on the similarities between eating disorder and obesity than the differences.


Day, J., Ternouth, A. & Collier, D.A. (2009). Eating disorders and obesity: Two sides of the same coin? Epidemiological Psychiatry 18(2): 96-100.

Himmel, S. (2009). You must be hungry. Psychology Today. 18 Sept, 2009. Retrieved…… [read more]

Dietary Analysis Creative Writing

… Overall the protein levels over the course of the three day period seem to indicate that the standard American diet includes far too much meat, and too little vegetables and fruit. The Dietary Reference Intake for protein, by contrast, is estimated at 5 1/2 ounces -- so obviously a sandwich with a name like "Double Quarter Pounder" should be an obvious red flag in terms of its needless dietary excess. This was one easily noticed way in which my own diet could be improved -- the replacement of much of the meat intake with more vegetable and fruit would bring my diet substantially closer to the Dietary Reference Intake levels for all of these types of food.

It is worth noting, however, that if just this one sandwich is a clue to a culture of overeating, it also demonstrates that there are certain aspects of this diet which are healthy. Obviously overeating is not a good policy, but it does also seem to rule out the prospect of most kinds of vitamin or mineral deficiency -- there was no risk of my diet, as it exists, failing to meet the target for most of the vitamins and minerals listed. Again, to make reference to the McDonald's hamburger which was the single most outrageous item in my food record, it is worth noting that this one burger contains in itself twice the recommended daily dosage of Vitamin B12. Obviously an excess of Vitamin B12 is not dangerous (in the way that the excess of fat calories or cholesterol in the burger would be) but it also indicates that the diet basically consists of overkill. If I were to give myself a solid prescription for improving my diet, though, it would probably consist in trying to cut down substantially the level of meat intake -- perhaps even to the point of vegetarianism. However, with such a radically curtailed dietary palette, it would become important to watch the vitamins and minerals -- it is possible that the risk of shortage (which is not currently there, basically because of the level of overeating indicated by my records) would arise with a vegetarian diet, though.

It is also worth noting that the eating patterns might also be improved here. My dietary record indicates three meals a day, but very often the dinner comes substantially later than the lunch -- often later at night, which is why there is "fast food" on there. It is worth suggesting that more frequent and smaller meals would probably improve a lot of things about this diet -- it seems like the buildup of hunger may very well prompt the overeating which is the most significant problem in my dietary records. It's also worth noting that this would be an easy and convenient way of getting the greater amount of…… [read more]

Which Approach Is More Effective for Weight Loss a Low-Carb Diet or a Low-Fat Research Paper

… Low-Carb Diet or a Low-Fat Diet

Which approach is more effective for weight loss: a low-carb diet or a low-fat diet?

[Cincinnati State Technical and Community College]

When people plan to choose to lose weight, one of the most difficult decisions that they make is to choose the diet type. There are two main kinds of diets; diets that are low in carbohydrates, which are often referred to as the low carb diets and low fat diet. Restriction of carbohydrates is often referred to as the Atkins diet, and low fat diets are the ones that retract the intake and consumption of high fat food (Rulifson, 2008, p. 281).

Most of the studies have shown that low fat diets may be one of the best for losing weight and having a healthier body. but, then again, there are a number of studies that have argued just the opposite. Although there are a number of studies that have shown that there is a great reduction in the boy levels of cholesterol and fat using low fat diet, these studies have not shown any reduction in the rate of death from high fat and cholesterol levels.

Low fat Diets

Low fat diets have been proposed by Dr. Mitkins, Weightwatchers, and Macrobiotics. These three lobbies have proposed some of the most important low fat diets that have been shown to be effective against controlling blood fat thus accelerating weight loss. However, in these cases, it has been shown that people, who use low fat diets, become seriously ill in the later stages (Kim, Yang, Kim, Lee, and Kim 263). This is the plan that has been regarded as being difficult for most dieters as this plan cannot be continued for a longer period of time.

There is no doubt about the fact that fat in the diet gives an individual a more "full" feeling. With the use of fats, it has been seen that there is a great reduction in the time that the stomach takes to empty. In the following figure, three main kinds of diets have been compared; Mediterranean diet, low carb diet and low fat diet. These diets have been compared in their efficiency in aiding and accelerating weight loss. It can be seen that low fat diet has accelerated weight loss as compared to other two diets (Flynn).

Source: http://graemethomasonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/low-fat-vs.-mediterranean-vs.-low-carb.png

Low Carb Diet

This kind of diet has claimed that if carbohydrates that include sugar, fruits, grains, and vegetables are limited, weight loss can be triggered. Some of these diets include South Beach diet, and Atkins Diet. These diets suggested that if carbohydrates are limited, or if balanced proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate is used, it can trigger weight loss. The goal of any diet should be to ensure longevity and health (Lutz and Allan). In these cases, it has been mentioned that if diets are low in fats and essential vitamins, there are chances that there will be acceleration in heart and bone diseases (D'Arrigo).


Collection… [read more]

Food Practice Essay

… The mushrooms were from China. The tofu was made in the United States, presumably with American soybeans. Also in the dish there were Sichuan peppercorns from China, American-grown ginger, garlic, spring onions, one American tomato, soy sauce, black bean paste… [read more]

Eating Behaviors in First Year Research Paper

… (Anderson et al., The freshman year…, 2003) The vast majority of weight gained during freshman year is gained during the first semester. During the fall semester of the American academic year, there are a great deal many holidays in that… [read more]

Nutrition Gastric Surgery Article Review

… Nutrition

Bariatric Surgery and Nutritional Consequences

The prevalence of obesity is on its way up and is often associated with a number of co-morbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, sleep apnea, pulmonary dysfunction, ischemic stroke, knee arthrosis, gallbladder disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and certain types of cancer. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most successful long-term treatment for morbid obesity, reducing obesity-associated co-morbidities (De Luis et al., 2009). But for all the good that it brings it can lead to serious nutritional deficiencies in those who undergo it.

Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a mixed and complex operation that has shown the best long-term results regarding weight loss. BPD can be considered a very good bariatric operation. It is well-known that as difficulty increases in bariatric surgery, effectiveness also increases, but risk of secondary effects and possible complications may also go up. A good knowledge of this technique in early follow-up and of its possible complications is important for the patients. The severity of the postoperative nutritional deficit depends on several factors, including the preoperative nutritional status, the type of bariatric procedure performed, the incidence of postoperative complications, the capability to modify eating behavior as well as conformity with regular follow-up and prescribed vitamin and mineral supplementation (De Luis et al., 2009).

In a study done by De Luis et al. (2009) the researchers set out to describe clinical results and nutritional complications in morbidly obese patients with BPD. The results showed a high loss of body weight and an improvement in the prevalence of co-morbidities in patients having undergone BPD. However, blood levels of a number of micronutrients and vitamins decreased during the follow-up and different rates of deficiencies were detected.

Loss of weight in the patients was important, amounting to 29.3% at 6 months and 61.5% at 3 years of follow-up.

The most frequent side event found was incisional hernia, related to open surgery and high BMI. In previous studies, the incisional hernia rate has ranged from 5 to 30%. Glycemia, plasma lipid levels and blood pressure became normal 6 months after BPD, while patients were still overweight. All the patients could quit their hypoglycemic and hypolipemic drugs. With other type of bariatric surgery, such as gastric bypass, depending on the intestinal length, the normalization of these parameters is lower. This type of surgery has been shown to have a direct effect on glycemic status (De Luis et al., 2009)

In is well-known that bariatric surgery often leads to patients experiencing long-term side effects that negatively influence their metabolism and quality of life. These side effects include: vomiting, diarrhea, osteoporosis, anemia and malnutrition. All of these side effects either lead to nutritional deficiencies or are consequences of such deficiencies. Bariatric surgeons have long wanted to find an operation that result in steady weigh loss that was simple, had only minimal risk and gave the patients the freedom to consume most foods in order to maintain nutritional sufficiency (Vassallo et…… [read more]

Eating Disorders Understanding the Reason Research Paper

… Some of those being a step parent joining the family, or the addition of a new member such as a sibling into the family (LeGrange, Lock, and Loeb, 2009).


In this retrospective example one group of women a year… [read more]

Obesity Among Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia 14 18 Aged Essay

… Saudi Arabia Obesity: Adolescent Girls

Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Although the patterns of obesity differ between developing and developed countries, obesity rates are generally on the increase worldwide. According to… [read more]

Obesity Among Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia Essay

… Adolescent Obesity in Saudi Arabia

Obesity in Saudi Adolescent Girls

Obesity is a serious health problem in any population, but it is of special concern in younger individuals. The longer a person is obese, the longer that person has potentially… [read more]

Eating Disorders Research Proposal

… However, one common criticism of this and other studies of eating disorders is that even the designation between 'full blown' and 'subclinical' eating disorders can feel somewhat arbitrary. The DSM-IV has extremely specific, numerical criteria for what constitutes an eating disorder -- such as binging and purging at least twice weekly over three months for bulimia. Rates of clinically-identified bulimia would be much higher if the limits were raised to once a week (Ford 2003). The requirement of amenorrhea or cessation of menstruation for anorexics is an irrelevant diagnosis for males and can result in lower diagnostic rates for boys and men for the disorder. Additionally, even young women who are on the pill and artificially menstruate because of hormonal supplementation alone may be excluded simply on this basis (Ford 2003).

It should also be noted that even though eating disordered literature and hospital admissions focus on anorexia nervosa, and to a lesser extent bulimia, Bing Eating Disorder (BED) affects around 2% of the population, at a comparable rate to other EDs. The degree to which there has been an increase in BED is even more difficult to measure than anorexia, given that BED was only identified as disordered behavior and classified in the DSM very recently. The rapid increase in obesity does suggest, however, that the disorder is increasing given that being overweight is one of the primary symptoms of the disorder.

Perhaps the most significant finding has been in twin studies, comparing manifestations of all of the major eating disorders in twins. One study of the Australian Twin registry found that 59% of variance is genetic and 41% is non-shared environment related regarding eating disorders (Ford 2003). This supports the notion that the media, including dieting literature, cannot be entirely blamed for the rise in eating disorders. Conversely, however, it also underlines that subclinical and clinical symptoms can be environmentally related, given the clear impact of non-shared environmental factors in eating disordered behavior.

No clear causal factor has emerged as 'the' reason for the increase in eating disorders; rather it seems that a constellation of genetic and environmental factors can contribute to the development of EDs. However, the evidence does suggest that a preoccupation with thinness and past engagement with 'extreme' dieting behaviors does increase the risk of an individual's likelihood of exhibiting ED-related behavior, even if the full-blown illness is not manifested. One of the most comprehensive studies to date was the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health on 14, 686 female adolescents. The study subjects were "randomly selected from the National Medicare database, with over-sampling from rural and remote areas, [and] responded to a questionnaire seeking dieting and health information…High frequency of dieting (rather than dieting per se) and earlier dieting onset were associated with poorer physical and mental health (including depression), more disordered eating (bingeing and purging), extreme weight and shape dissatisfaction and more frequent general health problems" and one in five women with a BMI below 18.5 (underweight) admitted to going on a diet… [read more]

Nutrition During the Infancy and Toddler Hood Essay

… Nutrition During Infancy and Toddlerhood

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2010) adequate nutrition during infancy is essential for lifelong health and well-being. Malnutrition can be linked to 35% of the disease burden for children under five. Adequate infant and toddler nutrition is vital to improving child survival and promoting healthy growth and development. The first two years of a child's life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period will lead to reduced morbidity and mortality, to reduced risk of chronic diseases, and to overall better development. In fact, optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are so critical that they can save the lives of 1.5 million children under five every year.

Pediatric Nutritional Recommendations

Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, development and health (World Health Organization, 2010). Thereafter, to meet their evolving nutritional requirements, infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods, while continuing to breastfeed for up to two years or more.

Cow's milk is not recommended during the first 12 months of life (Allen & Myers. 2006). However, fortified cow's milk is an important dietary component of a toddler's diet because of its high-quality protein, calcium, and vitamins A and D. Calcium is involved in bone growth, tooth development, and muscle contraction, and it may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure and body fat. One study showed that children who consumed milk with the noontime meal were the only group to meet or exceed 100% of the daily Dietary Reference Intake for calcium (i.e., 500 to 800 mg). Two or three servings of milk or dairy products per day are recommended to meet these requirements. Some toddlers are poorly weaned from an all-milk diet and consume more than the recommended number of servings; this "milk diet" is high in fat and total calories and inadequate in iron.

Dangers of Malnutrition

The World Health Organization defines malnutrition as the cellular imbalance between supply of nutrients and energy and the body's demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions. Malnutrition affects virtually every organ system. Children are most vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition in infancy and early childhood. Malnutrition is globally the most important risk factor for illness and death, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide.

Energy is essential for all biochemical and physiologic functions in the body. Dietary protein is needed to provide amino acids for synthesis of body proteins and other compounds that have various functional roles. Micronutrients are essential in many metabolic functions in the body as components and cofactors in enzymatic processes. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), first described in the 1920s, is observed most…… [read more]

Nutrition Analysis a Food Diary Was Kept Essay

… Nutrition Analysis

A food diary was kept for a three-day period for the purpose of determining nutritional quality of the daily diet and making recommendations for improvements to support a healthy lifestyle. The subject of the nutrition analysis is a twenty-eight-year-old female in good health standing five feet one inch tall and weighing one hundred forty-five pounds. Analysis of the diet and averaged results yield the following information about food consumption:

Actual Consumption

Recommended Consumption

Total calories (Kcals)

Protein (gm)

Carbohydrates (gm)

Fiber (gm)

Total Fat (gm)

Saturated Fat (gm)



Cholesterol (mg)


Vitamin a (mcg RAE)

Vitamin C (mg)


Vitamin E (mg)



Thiamin (mg)



Calcium (mg)

Phosphorus (mg)


Magnesium (mg)

Iron (mg)



Zinc (mg)



Selenium (mcg)


Potassium (mg)

Sodium (mg)


The average calorie count for the three-day period was nearly double what is recommended. The subject will steadily gain weight without a reduction in calories and/or the incorporation of calorie-burning activities into the daily routine. If the subject walks for an hour a day at a moderate pace of four miles per hour, it is possible to burn 400 calories a day. Other activities could easily be incorporated into the day (e.g., taking stairs instead of an elevator, parking the car further from the destination and walking) so that the subject could reduce net calorie intake without having to make as many cutbacks on food intake. The calorie requirement for this individual is relatively low because of her height, age and gender; a daily multivitamin would also help her meet nutritional needs without upping food intake over recommended levels.

The subject consumed nearly twice the recommended amounts of protein and carbohydrates. Since both contain four calories per gram, the subject could make significant cuts in protein and carbohydrate consumption to reduce calories. She consumed, on average, fifty-five more grams of protein than needed per day; eliminating the extra protein could save 220 calories a day. Eliminating excess carbohydrates could save 512 calories. These savings would bring the average daily calories consumption down to 1,373, only 303 calories above recommended intake. Walking less than an hour would offset the difference.

The subject's intake of fiber, at an average of fourteen grams, was nearly half of what is recommended. The subject could boost fiber intake significantly by consuming certain fruits and vegetables. One avocado, for example, has 10-13 grams of fiber. They are also high in fat; the subject's fat consumption is currently within acceptable range but she is not looking to add additional calories, so avocados should be limited to once or twice a week. Other vegetables high in fiber are sweet potatoes, carrots…… [read more]

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