"Nutrition / Diet / Eating" Essays

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Pathophysiology of Liver Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (616 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

It is also a part of the metabolic process for digesting lipids and carbohydrates. Since cirrhosis is when the normal liver tissues are replaced by damaged, scarred tissues, this blocks the flow of blood through the organ and prevents the body from functioning normally. Cirrhois leads to stellate cell, which causes the obstruction of blood flow and circulation.

The human body needs DBP which is a vitamin D-binding to bind, to serve and to neutralize extracellular monomeric actin released from necrotic cells (Gressner et. al., 2009). Studies have shown that patients with liver disease such as cirrhosis have decrease levels of DPB, which could "potentially contribute to the thrombophilic predisposition frequently observed in patients with chronic fibrogenic liver disease and HCC" (Gressner et. al., 2009). The binding protein is essential for normal functioning and patients with cirrhosis have a reduction in neoplastic nodules (Stockert & Becker, 1980).

Conclusion

In conclusion cirrhosis is major medical problem which can cause severe health issues, and lead to death. Prolonged alcohol consumption can lead to cirrhosis. The studies have shown that one of the best way to survive this disease is to stop drinking. Cirrhosis causes the circulation problems and causes many physiological effects like splenomegaly, and hemorrhoids. This patient must be treated properly and put in an alcohol addiction program.

References

NDDIC. (2010). Cirrhosis. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Retrieved on December 10, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/cirrhosis/#what

Pluta, A., Gutkowski, K., & Hartleb, M. (2010). Coagulopathy in liver diseases. Advances in Medical Sciences. 55 (1) 16-21

Stockert, R.J. & Becker, F.F. (1980). Diminshed hepatic binding protein for desialylated glycoproteins during chemical hepatocarcinogensis. Cancer Research Center. Retrieved on December 9, 2010 from http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/40/10/3632.short

Verrill et. al. (2009). Alcohol-related cirrhosis-early abstinence is a key factor in prognosis, even in the…… [read more]


Strokes and African-Americans Are Reported Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,072 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

Adults should do moderate to intense exercise for at least 30 minutes on most days of the week. Talk to your doctor before you start to exercise or ramp up your exercise routine.

6) If you drink alcohol, drink only in moderation. Drinking an average of more than one alcohol-containing drink a day (for women) or more than two drinks… [read more]


Handed to Ten Coffee Drinkers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

In fact he wanted to visit the Italian Espresso shop at the corner; however, the place was closed for renovation. Therefore, his scoring could be biased that his expectations were not met.

Although all of the customers pointed out that the hygiene of the washrooms and store can be improved, nine of the customers were pleased and satisfied by Panera Bread's quality and services.

The ultimate aim of these rating questions was to evaluate the quality of the Panera Bread products and services; however, there was no direct assessment for quantity of the products and services which could be also analyzed by rating questions. For example, the price of coffee question would point out a quantity evaluation. Comparing the quality and quantity of the product and services would help Panera Bread to foresee the strength and weakness of the Panera Bread and provide an opportunity to improve.

Analyses of Ranking Questions

The results of ranking question helped to evaluate the costumer's expectations and priorities. The rank was limited in the boundaries of ten in order to be able to analyze the expectations. Each question was analyzed individually on histogram graphs to make a direct assessment about the items on the coffee stand (i.e., which items are necessary, which are not as important). Therefore, the crew would more attention on those items and check more frequently.

Table 2 The items presented on coffee stand. The y-axis represented the ranking whereas x-axis represented the items. The colors are indication the particular customer.

Table 2 showed very consistent results for Low calorie sugar and powder milk. The last preference of all the customers was powder milk followed by low calorie sugar. It may be suggested that the skim milk users prefer 2% milk if there is no skim milk. Skim milk and half milk were two first preferences. Therefore, it is necessary to control the availability of these two products on the stand to keep customers happy.

Table 3 The preference of the customers for the pastry. The y-axis represented the ranking whereas x-axis represented the items. The colors are indication the particular customer.

Customers' bakery expectations…… [read more]


Adolescent Obesity and Drug Abuse Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

" (Fleming and Towey, 2003) The causes of adolescent obesity are stated to include: (1) parental influence; (2) school influence; and (3) community influences. (Fleming and Towey, 2003)

Discipline II & Integration

Drug addiction among adolescents is a problem that requires the benefit of more research as new findings have shed light on the origins of addiction. The work of Nestler (2004) reports that one of the mechanisms that result from drug abuse and that serves to induce relatively long-lasting changes in the brain resulting in the addictive state is the mechanism of regulation of gene expression. In other words, addiction is in reality a disease directly related to the individual's genetics. The two transcription factors are stated by Nestler to be those as follows: (1) CREB (CAMP response element binding protein); and (3) ?FosB, which contributes to drug-induced changes in gene expression. (Nestler, 2004) Both of these are reported as of the nature that are activated "…in the nucleus accumbens, a major brain reward region, but mediate different aspects of the addicted state." (Nestler, 2004) CREB is stated to be the mediator of a type of tolerance and dependence of the nature that dulls the individual's sensitivity to "subsequent drug exposure) as well as contributing to an emotional state characterized by negativity during early withdrawal stages. FosB on the other hand is the mediator of "a state of relatively prolonged sensitization to drug exposure and may contribute to the increased drive and motivation for drug, which is a core symptom of addictive disorders. There is stated to be a need to better understand how CREB and ?FosB, acting together in other various drug-induced nucleus accumbens changes and other…… [read more]


Therapeutic Hypothermia in the Treatment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Detrimental factors such as arrest time, resuscitation time, reperfusion severity, and core body temperature play vital role in determining neuronal functional recovery. Cooling of the patient's body can mitigation these negative effects in this chain of events and the prevention or minimization of the effects of the size of infarct as well as improvement of myocardial savage, reduction of left ventricular remodeling and more optimized long-term left ventricular function and a decrease in mortality of patients with cardiac arrest as cited by Kelly and Nolan (2010). Hypothermia benefits include neuroprotective protection. The series of steps related to ischemia and reperfusion are temperature dependent. Therefore, if the body is at cooled condition, the deleterious effect of these interlinked events has the potential to be controlled in nature. The goal of treatment of cardiac arrest patients is to prevent or to minimize the effects of infarct size, improve myocardial salvage, reduced left ventricular remodeling and better long-term left ventricular function with overall decreased mortality rates.

The neuroprotective effect of hypothermia includes a decrease in cerebral metabolism, barring the release of excitatory amino acid, reduction of oxygen free radical production and lipid peroxidation, a decrease in CSF platelet activating factor (PAF, and inhibition of cytoskeleton breakdown. Other benefits include enhancement of membrane stabilization, electrolyte redistribution, and normalization of intracellular water concentration and intracellular pH (stabilization of the blood-brain barrier). Further aided is restoring normal intracellular signaling, protein synthesis and gene expression by lower body temperature during cardiac arrest Furthermore, with therapeutic hypothermia can reduce the cardio toxic effect through induction of epicardial reflow, reduction of myocardial metabolic need and maintenance of intracellular high-energy phosphate reserves. (Bessman, 2010)

Induced therapeutic hypothermia are cardioprotective and neuroprotective effect as related to reduction of infarct size, anoxic brain injury and mortality; and reduction in risk of arrhythmias, a decrease in complications. There are risks associated with hypothermia including effects on multiple organ systems however; these risks can be greatly reduced in proper treatment and high-quality intensive care therapy. The use of pharmacological agents is indicated in therapeutic hypothermia and include such as sedatives, analgesics, and neuromuscular blocking agents. (NMBAs) It is evident that therapeutic hypothermia has provided advances in the treatment of cardiac arrest and specifically in terms of the cardioprotective and neuroprotective effect of the use of this method for treatment individuals with cardiac arrest incidents. It is important that hospital nursing staff be educated, trained and prepared to administer therapeutic hypothermia in the care of individuals with cardiac arrest and who…… [read more]


Obesity in Children Birth Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,331 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

(Singh and Kogan, 2009, paraphrased)

A study was conducted in Scotland and reported in the work of Cecil, et al. (2005) as having the objective to determine the prevalence of obesity among a cohort of Scottish children based on socio-economic status. Scottish children were recruited from 47 schools in Scotland. Findings reported in the work of Cecil, et al. (2005) state that when obesity levels were examined in the lower and higher income groups that the prevalence of obesity "was much higher in the lower-income group when compared with the higher-income group." (p.1) Cecil, et al. (2005) reports that both boys and girls from the lower socio-economic income group were more likely to be obese than girls and boys from the higher socio-economic income group. (paraphrased)

The work of Gibbs and Forste (2013) reports that children who are breastfed are at a reduced risk of developing obesity during their childhood. However, the children who need this protective factors against developing childhood obesity are the children less likely to be in receipt of this protective factor. There has been shown in studies that a negative association between breastfeeding and lower socio-economic status exists. Gibbs and Forste (2013) report that there are "various mechanisms through which breast milk can influence infant weight gain" and specifically information proffered by recent studies which show that "bioactive substances contained in breast milk benefit infant growth and body mass." (Gibbs and Forste, 2013, p. 3) In addition it is reported that infants who are breastfed "are better able to regulate their feeding or to be more satiety-responsive compared to bottle fed infants." (Gibbs and Forste, 2013, p.4) It is also reported that research shows that breastfeeding mothers report "less restrictive feeding behaviors and lower levels of control, which is linked to healthy infant weight." (Gibbs and Forste, 2013, p. 4)

The study of childhood obesity is significant in its important since obesity is known to increase the risk for various diseases including heart disease, stroke, glucose intolerance, as well as some forms of cancer. Obesity results in increases in blood pressure and cholesterol which results in cardiovascular disease and stroke incidence. (Gearhart, Gruber, and Vanata, 2008,. p. 5)

Summary of Literature Reviewed

The literature reviewed in this study indicates that obesity is higher among children from lower socio-economic status households when compared to obesity rates among children from higher socio-economic status households. Higher rates of obesity are noted among those who are ethnic minorities and that these rates of obesity are not gender-specific among children from lower socio-economic status households. Higher rates of obesity result in the development of cardiovascular disease and other health complications later in life. Various factors are reported as being contributors to development of obesity in children.

It is the conclusion of this brief and initial study that the study of childhood obesity and the comparison of the development of childhood obesity among lower socio-economic status children as compared to higher socio-economic status children is a significant problem and that research should… [read more]


Gum Chewing Following Cesarean Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Most of these experiments have found that gum chewing stimulates the cephalic-vagal system which then triggers a response in the gastrointestinal tract and hormones are released as is the production of more saliva and juice from the pancreas. These in turn lead the body to return to normal functions of the bowel and the digestive system. In the article "Gum Chewing as a Strategy to Reduce the Duration of Postoperative Ileus," authors Lafon and Lawson (2012) researched various qualitative experiments including several meta-analyses where other researchers examined multiple experiments. They found that almost unilaterally, gum-chewing produced the same positive effects as postoperative food consumption in terms of the body's reactions without the postoperative complications or discomfort that comes from consuming food immediately after a surgical procedure. Generally speaking, patients who chewed gum postoperatively had a better rate of progress than patients who were not given gum to chew. In one study that Lafon and Lawson site, patients who underwent laparoscopic GI surgery chewed gum for 5 to 30 minutes three or four times a day and had astounding results. Their first occurrence of flatus was 12.6 hours sooner than the control and the time that they stayed in the hospital was a day less than the control group. Lafon and Lawson determined that gum-chewing is highly cost efficient, it is safer than other fast tracking methods and is tolerated well by most patients involved in experiments. Chewing gum lessons the time it takes for normal function to return to the bowels and lessons the amount of time patients need to stay in the hospital. This makes the cost of treating patients following procedures far less expensive and decreases the likelihood for medical complications.

Works Cited

Harma, M.I., Barut, I., Arkian, I.I., & Harma, M. (2009). Gum-chewing speeds return of first bowel sounds but not first defecation after cesarean section. Anatolian Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1-3.

Lafon, C., & Lawson, L. (2012, April). Gum chewing as a strategy to reduce the…… [read more]


Teenagers Usually Exhibit a Mixture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

At first, the children only register shock, envy, and disbelief. They also feel an acute sense of shame when they enter F.A.O. Schwartz. These feelings catalyze their coming of age, especially Sugar. Sylvia, although she feels angry, does not fully comprehend the bigger picture like Sugar does. But the narrator does notice that when she and Sugar bump into each other accidentally, they "don't laugh and go into (their) fat-lady bump-stomach routine." Sylvia is aware of their dawning maturation.

It is Sugar who first becomes aware that the exorbitant prices are a reflection of deeper societal issues. She tells Miss Moore, "this is not much of a democracy if you ask me." This realization transforms her relationship with Sylvia, who is "disgusted with Sugar's treachery." Because Sugar is now unwilling, or unable, to participate in their childish antics, Sylvia is left out. She comes of age slower than Sugar does, even as she realizes that "somethin weird is goin on."… [read more]


Backyards Can Be an Expression Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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One is apple, one apricot, and one plum. If we head south, a fig tree stands proudly displaying its wares. Plump, beckoning figs still stick to their branches. I gingerly pick one, making sure it is fully ripe. When I bite through its succulent skin I am rewarded with an explosion of seed-laden sugar. My now sticky mouth grins as I complete the circumambulation of the backyard.

On the west side of our ample lawn, hedges and blackberry bushes brag about their brambles. Spanning the entire length of the west fence, the bushes invite me to sample the candy-like treats. Cautiously I reach through the tangles and pick a handful of juicy blackberries; their juice runs all over my hands and stains my palms a deep shade of purple. The sweetness makes my smile broaden, and when I turn to my left I catch the eye of a curious squirrel. He cocks his head and readies himself to run, lest I prove to be an enemy. The skittish creature leaps away when I make the slightest move, and I follow him around the side of the house.

Passing a small tool shed, I squeeze past newly planted flowerbeds filled with roses, chrysanthemums, irises, and cannas. The soil beneath their feet glistens and sparkles: like gold it speaks of richness. I can almost hear the nutrients being sucked up the stems of the glorious flowers, whose colors dazzle my already awe-filled eyes. Each time I tread through my backyard, I notice something new, something that reminds me of how lucky I am. I steal one last glance, scanning the entire yard, before heading back through the patio door. As I get ready to slip into the bubbling hot tub, I glimpse the bright blue wave of a crested jay. Its greeting soothes me as much as the caress of the chlorinated, body-temperature water. Closing my eyes, I can feel the warm expanse of my enchanting backyard encircling my body. Ahhh.… [read more]


Iron an Essential Nutrient Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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III. Results

Table of Observations (individual plants #3473):

Start (Day 0) Day 7 Day 14 Day 21

Control Plant:

stem height 2.3-6.0-20.0-41.5 leaf color some dead spots N/C N/C N/C young leaves) leaf color N/C N/C N/C N/C old leaves) leaf necrosis N/C N/C N/C N/C young leaves) leaf necrosis N/C N/C N/C N/C old leaves)

Fe-deficient Plant:

stem height 5.0-5.5-9.0-12.0 leaf color some dead spots N/C whole leaf young leaves) chlorosos chlorosis leaf color N/C N/C N/C N/C old leaves) leaf necrosis N/C N/C N/C N/C young leaves) leaf necrosis N/C N/C N/C N/C old leaves)

Stem height results (individual plants #3473):

Start (0 day) Day 7 Day 14 Day 21

Control Plant:

stem height 2.3-6.0-20.0-41.5

Fe-deficient Plant:

stem height 5.0-5.5-9.0-12.0

Graph of stem height results (individual plants #3473):

Stem height results (class average):

Start (0 day) Day 7 Day 14 Day 21

Control Plant:

stem height 5.2-12.9-23.7-43.4

Fe-deficient Plant:

stem height 4.9-12.2-20.1-32.1

Graph of stem height results (individual plants #3473):

IV. Discussion & Conclusion

Data Summary:

For the individual plant and for the overall class data, the Fe-deficient plant had reduced stem height as compared to the control plant. While both plants started with some dead spots on leaves, the Fe-deficient plant had whole leaf chlorosis present at the 14 and 21 day mark while the control plant did not.

Conclusion:

The plant that received all essential nutrients except Iron had reduced growth, effected leaf color and leaf chlorosis, as compared to the control plant that had all essential elements including iron. This proves the hypothesis and shows that Iron is an essential element required for normal growth in tomato plants.… [read more]


Pet She Was Bigger Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (381 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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I could swear Moose could understand what we were saying half of the time; I could see her ears move and twitch depending on the flow of conversation and her eyes often spoke volumes. She sensed emotion: when one of us was sad, she would offer comfort and cuddling; when we were joyous, so was she. Well-behaved and obedient, Moose never caused us any troubles. She came when she was called and she rarely gave us a reason to punish her. As a result, she was extremely well-fed but she luckily never got fat, probably because of her high energy levels and ability to burn off calories. Moreover, she got plenty of exercise because she loved being outdoors, running around parks or fields.

Her legs were elegant and long, as was her entire body; Moose was so beautiful that strangers often gave her unsolicited compliments. Her favorite game was Frisbee, and we made a point to take her out whenever possible. Moose's brown eyes lit up every time we wiggled the keys because she sensed an outing was coming. Moose embodied joy and love; she had no equal in the…… [read more]


Nutritional Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Consumers must be aware of this as well as the controversial benefits of non-pasteurization and the company has an ethical as well as a legal responsibility to assure customers they are not putting themselves at a risk they do not wish to take -- much as cigarettes are available but clearly labeled.

Lastly, from a philanthropic stance, even if the law does not provide a clearly basis for an ethical decision regarding pasteurization of the products in question, the company's stance as a health company means it must say more than 'buyer beware.' Presumably, the company stands opposed to the murky ethics of large conglomerates, and in addition to paying more for the product, the consumer hopes to purchase additional health, safety, and freshness that cannot be obtained in a bottle of Mott's Apple Juice, for example.

Thus, legally, the company must release data if it believes its product is causing harm to the public and from a pure economic basis the company must hold the best interest of its stockholders as a potential cause of consideration. But even if one grants that legally and economically the company must and need not cause health scare regarding its most popular goods, it cannot market a potentially toxic product with questionable health benefits, particularly a health food geared to children.

Conclusion and Recommendation

The company must clearly release warnings as to the potential risks of non-pasteurization as to the potential benefits. Of course, many products individuals ingest as food may be hazardous, from Japanese blowfish, to aspartame to (until recently), ephedrine. But all such products were and are not marketed as health foods for children. The consumer must be aware of the potential side effects as well as the potential benefits of such products. Thus, the company may continue to market the products, but only with proper warnings in a balanced standpoint from an ethical standpoint of choice, and should, from an economic standpoint, perhaps consider adding other products to its health food line that do not depend upon pasteurization as a marketing strategy. The positive implications of the recommendation are that the company will be less legally and ethically liable, though the negative economic implications of the recommendation in the short-term are clear -- critics might say all products have an implied risk. However, if the company does not do as outlined above and more deaths from non-pasteurized goods occur, without proper warnings from the company, then the 'health food company' will surely fold, to the economic benefit of neither owners, shareholders, employees, nor those individual consumers who still wish to purchase such products.… [read more]


Cholesterol Decreases Mortality Cardiovascular Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Data will be collected by registered nurses or MDs, in all cases. Questionnaires, blood tests, and medical examinations will be standardized. At each two-year period, mortality rates and causes of death will be assessed.

As noted previously, data from each facility will be collected at two-year intervals. Results from each separate facility will be forwarded for analysis to the central study headquarters. Data will be analyzed at central study headquarters by researchers specifically trained for this purpose. Given the large amount of data collected (10 facilities with 1,000 participants, for a total of 100,000 subjects), data will be collected and stored in a centralized computing environment.

Several statistical approaches will be taken to analyze the data. Data will be analyzed at each two-year interval, and an interim research report will be generated. Further, ten years of data will also be analyzed at each ten-year anniversary of the study. This report will also be available. In addition, data will also be analyzed cumulatively, with analysis including all data reported to the study.

Results

This study is expected to reveal a positive correlation between cholesterol intake and mortality. Further, it is anticipated that the study will reveal some correlations between mortality and other variables such as dietary needs, race, and gender. Similarly, it is anticipated that this study will draw relationships between cholesterol intake and variables such as gender, geographic location, and race.

The large initial sample size is anticipated to result in adequate numbers of subjects for statistical analysis. However, it is anticipated that sample size will dwindle as the study progresses, due to factors such as mortality and participant drop-out. One of the potential limitations of this study is that sample size may eventually be reduced to a size where comparisons of mortality cannot be conclusively linked to variables such as race, geographic location, or specific dietary needs.

Conclusion

This study is anticipated to make a major contribution to the existing body of evidence that currently links heart disease and cholesterol by correlating decreased cholesterol consumption to increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. Given the large sample size in this longitudinal study, this study will also be able to draw a number of correlations between cholesterol consumption, mortality, and other variables such as age, gender, dietary needs, and geographic location.

References

Centers for Disease Control. 2004. Preventing Heart Disease and Stroke. 21 June 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/bb_heartdisease/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control. 2004. Heart Disease and Stroke: The Nation's Leading Killers. 21 June 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/aag/aag_cvd.htm… [read more]


Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes Water Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,347 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

It is very possible that genomic and phenotypic factors (discussed later in this work) combine along with protectants such as trehalose. Different media concentrations induced E. coli to generate different compounds. Researchers induced the E. coli production of glycine betaine by varying the NaCl concentrations and the consequent osmotic stress. Glycine betaine has been implicated in desiccation protection for several… [read more]


Economics of Obesity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,375 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

, 2009). These medical conditions may not be solely caused by obesity; for example, while obesity is the biggest predictor of developing type II diabetes not all diabetics are obese and not all of the obese develop diabetes. The same can be said for other obesity-related diseases like hypertension and heart disease.

In fact, the high failure rate of obesity interventions and the high associated costs of treating obesity-related diseases suggest that there should be a paradigm shift in the treatment of obesity. Greater efforts and expense should be concentrated on prevention in order to help reduce the overall money spent on obesity-related health care expenses. The growing availability of bariatric surgery and the associated reduction in obesity-related illnesses gives rise to the belief that bariatric surgery while expensive initially, may be a cost-effective means of reducing obesity-related health care expenses. This belief may not be true. Maciejewski and Arterbum devised a longitudinal study examining health-care costs for obese patients who had undergone bariatric surgery and compared them to costs for obese patients who had not undergone surgery. They found an increase in health costs in second and third years following surgery, and similar health care costs in the subsequent years of the study (2013). They concluded that bariatric surgery does not reduce overall health care costs in the long-term (Maciejewski & Arterbum, 2013). However, their conclusion seems faulty. The costs of obesity increase as a person ages, as age is also a risk factor for many obesity-linked diseases, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. Their study only followed patients for a six-year period after surgery. One would anticipate higher health care costs in the period immediately following surgery and for an indefinite period afterwards, as most patients who receive such surgery receive significant monitoring from their doctors. In addition, while losing the excess weight, it might be expected that patients with chronic managed diseases, such as hypertension, would require greater doctor supervision because of the medication changes necessitated by fluctuating weight. It appears that a more reasonable study would have followed patients over a longer period of time, but given that weight loss surgery has only recently become a widespread medical treatment, there may be insufficient subjects for that type of longitudinal study in the United States.

What these analyses make clear is that there are substantial financial costs associated with obesity that are both linked to the health impacts of obesity and to non-health related factors. Moreover, the decision on how to spend money for the treatment or management of obesity is a complex one that must consider impacts that go beyond finances. For example, the exploration of the costs of bariatric surgery may suggest that it is not a simple cost-saving measure. On the other hand, if the surgery results in non-health related financial benefits, such as a reduction in workforce pay disparity or educational opportunities, then the recipient may reap individual financial benefits even if their overall healthcare costs are not lower. Moreover,… [read more]


BMI Math Equations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

The same height can then be used to examine the weight ranges associated with the different BMI ranges for a person with a height of 67 inches. The first BMI range is: 1730 would then be Obese>[30/703]* 672. The inequality that results is: Obese>192lbs. There is no limit to the last inequality, so that the possible solution approaches infinity. These numbers could be misleading because they only consider two physiological factors, height and weight, without any consideration of bone density or muscle mass; highly muscular individuals and individuals with very slight frames might fall outside of these guidelines and still not be in a healthy weight range.

Using set notation to describe the category of people who are probably overweight, one begins by looking at the range provided in the solution: 160 lbs < Probably overweight <192lbs. X is the set of all people who are probably overweight for all people who are 67 inches…… [read more]


Critical Thinking Standards: Depth Paul Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (477 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC, 2013) validated my assumption; however, a more careful reading of the webpage revealed the contributing factors were much more complex than the NPR news story discussed.

Not only are too many calories and too little physical activity contributing factors, but the entire environment the child inhabits can influence whether being overweight or obese is in the child's future. For example, the health quality of the foods consumed will have an impact because sugary drinks and high-calorie foods will increase calorie consumption even if the amount of food consumed is within normal limits. Some children, especially those living in inner-city neighborhoods, may have ready access high-calorie, unhealthy foods, but not to low-calorie healthy foods. This 'food desert' phenomenon forces children and parents to frequent fast food restaurants and convenience stores because grocery stores are too far away to be convenient. The outcome of not questioning the depth of my question, therefore, was spending more time completing the essay and dealing with many more contributing factors than I had originally planned

References

CDC. (2013). Overweight and obesity: A growing problem. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/problem.html.

Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2008). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts and Tools. Special Edition, 28th International Conference on Critical Thinking, Berkeley, California. Retrieved from https://www.amherst.edu/system/files/media/Paul%2520and%2520Elder-Miniature%2520Guide%2520to%2520Critical%2520Thinking_0.pdf.… [read more]


Lipids and Protein Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Chylomicrons are lipoproteins, that are designed for the movement of lipids in the circulation. Because they are particles, they are too large to enter typical capillaries. Instead they enter lacteals, lymphatic capillaries that connect into the center of each villus.

Proteins

The breakdown of dietary protein by the human digestive system results in producing amino acids, which, in turn allows for the building blocks for essential compounds in your body such as cell proteins, hormones, enzymes and genetic material. The human mouth doesn't have enzymes to digest proteins, so they don't begin digestion until they reach the stomach. When proteins reach the stomach, the cells produce acid and an enzyme called pepsin, which work in tandem to continually break down the protein into much smaller proteins and some single amino acids. Next these amino acids travel to the small intestine, where they are bombarded with another set of enzymes secreted from the pancreas and intestinal wall cells. These enzymes continue the work of the pepsin enzyme of the stomach, breaking down the proteins into single amino acids. These amino acids are then transported across the intestinal wall cell and travel through the bloodstream, supplying amino acids to the different parts of the body.

The cells located in the stomach are programmed to secrte a gastric juice in the presence of proteins that contains an enzyme called pepsinogen. When this is mixed with the hydrochloric acid it is converted into pepsin aiding the breakdown of the proteins. This combining with the acid activates the pepsin. Pepsin is optimal because of its pH value and the ability to mix with the other gastric juices to provide a substance that can be accepted by the body.

Also included in the chemical digestion process are the brush border enzymes. These enzymes are used to increase the surface area of the food so they can be more easily accepted by the body. These enzymes include amniopeptidases, malatase, sucrose and lactase. These products are then distributed to the rest of the body through the blood stream.… [read more]


Aspects of Diabetes and Thyroid Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sulfonylureas should not be used during pregnancy or patients who are likely to get pregnant because they are potentially teratogenic. Sulfonylureas can be used safely with other oral drugs like metformin or glitazones.

Thyroid

Summarize the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones

Biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones begins with the thyroid gland trapping iodine, which is essential for forming thyroid hormones.… [read more]


Evaluating the Clinical Significance of a New Cholesterol Treatment Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

calculate and interpret the following measures of clinical significance as directed for each section.. I want to see calculations and work. Use the articles and my lecture for help

A RCT was conducted on a sample of 1,230 subjects to evaluate the effect of a new drug on cholesterol levels compared to a standard "statin" drug. The subjects were followed for 12 months. While the primary end-point outcome was the effect on LDL & HDL cholesterol of subjects, the investigators also performed tests to compare the incidence of hepatotoxicity experienced by the subjects in each group. There were 620 subjects in the new drug group and 610 subjects in the statin group. Twenty-three subjects in the new drug group and 43 subjects in the statin group experienced hepatotoxicity. ***DO NOT ROUND UNTIL END, the NNT, of MATH EQUATIONS. Use the complete number, for each completed calculation from the ER result to the EER result to the CER result to the RR result to the RRR result to the ARR result to the NNT, to calculate each answer using each of the formulas. Then go back and round off the %s to a whole number. Please write legibly throughout.

A. For each group, calculate the following: Event Rate, EER, CER, RR, RRR, ARR, & NNT. Put the formulas, your calculations, and results in the table provided below. Show your work and how you calculated each.

Number of Subjects with Hepatotoxicity event

Event Rate (ER) = 66/1230

0.0536585365853659=

5%

Relative Risk

(RR)

EER / CER

Relative Risk Reduction (RRR)

1-RR

Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR)

CER-EER

Numbers Needed to Treat

1/ARR

Experimental Event Rate (EER)

EER=

23/620=

0.03709677419935484

Control Event Rate (CER)

CER=

43/610=

0.0704918032786885

0.03709677419935484/0.0704918032786885=

0.5262565642234055

1-0.5262565642234055=

0.4737434357765945

0.0704918032786885-0.03709677419935484=

0.0333950290793337

1/0.0333950290793337=

29.94457641059051

% of patients developed Hepatotoxicity

4%

% of patients developed Hepatotoxicity

7%

RR= %

53%

RRR=%

47%

ARR=%

33%

NNT=

30

B. Interpret the MEANING (sentence structure appropriate here that you would say to someone regarding each of these; listen to lecture to help) of each of the measures of clinical significance you obtained specific to the above scenario: Event Rate, EER, CER, RR, RRR, ARR, & NNT. Be sure to use your calculations above in your narrative response below. Each Interpretation is 10 points.

ER:

The event here within the population is quite low, only at 5% of the 1,230 participants overall. Thus, out of 1,230 people, only 5% experienced hepatotoxicity during the trial. Ultimately, this means that modern cholesterol treatments do have a relatively low chance of causing liver damage due to chemical intervention of the ability for the liver to clear our chemicals in the body. Still, there is…… [read more]


US Mexico Sugar Dispute Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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International Business

Recently, the United States and Mexico signed an agreement with respect to duties on Mexican sugar. The deal signaled an end to a trade dispute that had threatened to escalate had it not been brought to resolution. The deal introduced a price floor for Mexican sugar in the United States, in exchange for the U.S. dropping its threat to introduce anti-subsidy and anti-dumping duties. The dispute over Mexican sugar, of which 1.9 million tons were shipped to the United States in 2013, was going to affect a large number of companies on both sides of the border. Major sugar buyers like Coca-Cola, Hershey, General Mills and Mondelez were all going to be affected by restrictions on Mexican sugar imports, given that the U.S. is a net importer of sugar and Mexico is a major supplier to big U.S. buyers. The trade dispute was initiated by U.S. sugar companies, who sought protection against lower priced Mexican imports, and thus there is a considerable legal dimension to the deal as well. Both legal and commercial dimensions, as well as economic, will be discussed (Graham & Hughes, 2014).

Background

US sugar companies, struggling to compete fairly on the basis of competitive advantage, used their lobbyists to initiate a trade dispute with Mexico over alleged dumping of Mexican sugar on the U.S. market. Dumping is defined in the context of international trade as selling a good in a foreign market for less than the cost to produce it (WTO, 2014). The anti-dumping agreement of the WTO, to which both the U.S. And Mexico are signatories, does not mandate the behaviors of individual companies but does affect how governments can react to dumping. The WTO's anti-dumping agreement allows for anti-dumping measures to be applied where such dumping causes injury to the domestic industry (WTO, 2014).

The sugar industry, as with many agricultural commodities, is subject to protections in most producing countries (Wingfield & Bjerga, 2014). As a staple foodstuff, sugar producers are afforded political favors as a means of maintaining food security. As a net importer, the U.S. is rightly concerned about the ongoing viability of its own sugar industry. The U.S. sugar industry, however, provided more accusations than evidence in its bid to seek political remedy against Mexican sugar producers. The Mexican sugar industry is dominated by cooperatives, rather than corporations. Small scale farming and milling are the norm and the industry is generally viewed to be inefficient (Buzzanell, 2010).

The Mexican government has provided price floors for sugar growers as part of its Sugarcane Law of 2005 (Ibid). The Mexican industry relies heavily on itinerant labor during harvest times, which reduces costs for producers, and the cooperatives are generally strong and influential with government.

NAFTA

The WTO agreement on dumping is not binding in a legal way. The parties agree to the terms, but dispute mechanisms are not provided in situations like this, and the individual countries need to manage their own dumping disputes. In the case of the U.S. And… [read more]


Rise of the Nazis Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … God & The Holocaust

Black Earth

Black Earth: The Holocaust as History and Warning

The Holocaust was certainly one of the defining moments in human history that offers many lessons to humanity that are perpetually being researched to this day and providing new insights into nature of humankind. For many years, historians considered the Holocaust a unique moment… [read more]


Opposition to World War II and Military Challenges Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,173 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Obstacles to Innovation During Peacetime:

Technological and Tactical Limitations during the Interwar Period

World War I was called the war to end all wars in the popular press. As a result of the devastation it caused, after its conclusion there was substantial resistance amongst the American populace to becoming involved in future wars. This manifested itself not only in resistance to joining the League of Nations but also to investing in military technology and research into tactical developments. The Versailles Treaty was designed to neuter the Germany military threat for all time, but this merely created a sense of overconfidence regarding the potential threats to the U.S. posed by its enemies.[footnoteRef:1] A combination of a focus on economic problems at home, resistance to invest in a meaningful fashion in the military, and a lack of technological and tactical vision created conditions which allowed a second war to end all wars to fester. [1: John Kuehn, "Perspectives from Great Britain, Japan, and Germany," (U.S. Army Command and General Staff School Command and General Staff Officer Course CGSOC), 79]

World War I was a time of great innovation in military technology. "Virtually all of the major changes in military capabilities that reached full flower in World War II had begun to emerge at the end of the Great War: combined-arms tactics, submarine war, strategic bombing, and even carrier warfare had all appeared in nascent form by November 1918." [footnoteRef:2] To continue to meet the potential threats posed by a future war characterized by such technological developments required an investment unparalleled in previous times of peace and in terms of attitude, military "officers stood in stark contrast to the majority of their countrymen, who believed that the United States would never again be involved in a foreign war." [footnoteRef:3]In general, the presumption amongst the U.S. Naval and Marine forces was that threats from the Pacific would pose the greatest danger while the Army "felt the Germans would make another run at dominating Europe. They felt that the United States would inevitably become involved again in Europe." [footnoteRef:4] But their projected estimations of how such wars would evolve inevitably fell short. For example, "the sheer distances to Europe and Japan and the capabilities available, even in the late 1930s, made it difficult to envision a specific enemy. The result was the creation of generic opponents ... against whom the capabilities under development would work" which failed to take into consideration the ultimate real needs of the European and Asian fronts.[footnoteRef:5] [2: Williamson Murray, "Transformation and Innovation: The Lessons of the 1920s and 1930s," (Institute for Defense Analysis, 2002), 4 ] [3: Murray, "Transformation and Innovation," 5] [4: Murray, "Transformation and Innovation,," 5] [5: Murray, "Transformation and Innovation,"6]

Overconfidence also contributed to a general lack of preparation which was "particularly true of American judgments of Japanese tactical competence, where racial stereotypes clearly figured in the overall American view of their future Pacific opponents."[footnoteRef:6] However, the unwillingness of Congress, subsequent American presidents, and most critically the… [read more]


World War I Revisited Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Battle of Gallipoli was a pivotal military encounter in World War I. It largely pitted the military leadership of LTC Mustafa Kemal, who oversaw the forces of Turkey, against a widespread opposition of the Allied Powers including troops from Britain, Austria, New Zealand, India, and other countries. Gallipoli is on the shores of Turkey and was attacked by the Allies on the morning of April 25, 1915, in hopes that they could catch Turkey by surprise (Goodall, 2015, p. IV), capture Constantinople, and eventually take Turkey (which had fairly recently joined the Central Allied powers (out of the war). Plagued by insufficient knowledge about the terrain and substandard intelligence, the Allies quickly lost whatever advantage they had hoped to gain by surprise and found themselves engaged in trench warfare with the Turks until December. The superior military abilities of Kemal and his knowledge of the situation helped to actuate the Turkish forces in such a way that the Allied efforts were eventually rebuffed, and Istanbul remained unconquered.

Perhaps the most salient way in which Kemal was able to rebuff the Allied forces due to his knowledge of the military situation in which he found himself took place during the first few moments of the Allied landing when he evinced a valued propensity to lead his men well. The Allies, of course, were attempting to leverage their surprise landing for all it was worth and, initially, members of the Turkish force were willing to retreat at their sudden appearance in Turkey. However, Kemal was able to abate any efforts towards retreating on the part of his forces and convince his men to stay and fight while reinforcements were called for. He was able to do so by reinforcing the conviction that his men had in their deity (Allah), and in the fact that they were defending their Turkish homeland, which soon purged of Armenians 2. His ability to lead this particular morning was tested by the fact that his men knew that a large phalanx of soldiers of disparate nationalities and entities to supply them was approaching. However, Kemal had resolved to stave off these foes, and he was able to impart his leadership ability in such a way that he got his men to form a similar resolve. Lesser leaders might not have been able to convince their men of their ability to win in such a situation -- especially since at the outset of the invasion, the Turkish forces were vastly outmanned. However, Kemal was able to convince his men via his superior leadership qualities, and they were able to successfully hold off the Allies until additional Turkish reinforcements could arrive.

Another trait that enabled Kemal to hold his ranks and prevent the Allied from occupying Istanbul was his ability to understand the situation he faced and exploit that knowledge to his advantage. Specifically, the Turkish leader understood the advantages that the terrain surrounding Gallipoli presented for his defensive position 3. That terrain includes sheer cliffs, high peaks and… [read more]