"Nutrition / Diet / Eating" Essays

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Weight Discrimination the Damaging Potential Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (303 words)
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Weight Discrimination

The Damaging Potential of Weight Discrimination

The United States has always been plagued with discrimination and prejudice. The Democratic principles of our nation have not always protected those who did not fit into the norm. Racism and homophobia are typically what one thinks of when we think of discrimination; however, people who are overweight are ridiculed and discriminated in much more public and overt ways.

Weight Discrimination is learned just as is other forms of racism and homophobia. We, as a society, teach our children to dislike those who are not the ideal weight or color. People with weight problems cannot hide what causes them to be ridiculed. Unlike homosexuals, "All fat people are 'outed' by their appearance," (Coleman 202). Blatant and public assaults, both verbal and physical, are more accepted in cases of weight discrimination. Overweight people deal with overt discrimination on a daily basis. Children and adults…… [read more]


Chronic Sleep Deprivation and Health Brody, J Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (877 words)
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Chronic Sleep Deprivation and Health

Brody, J.E. Personal Health: At Every Age, Feeling the Effects of Too Little Sleep; the New York Times. (October 23, 2007).

All mammalian species have a need for regular sleep and while it is clear that sleep provides a restorative function, scientists do not yet understand its precise biological function (Siegel, 2005). Numerous prior research studies have established the link between sleep deprivation and impaired attention and daytime mental acuity, but more recent evidence has suggested that chronic sleep deprivation is directly related to heart disease, diabetes, and obesity, in addition to playing a role in depression and behavioral difficulties (Brody, 2007). Combined with the fact that chronic sleep deprivation is considered a social epidemic throughout modern American society, the link between it and some of the most prevalent major health issues makes understanding the precise functions and mechanisms of sleep even more important than previously suspected (Siegel, 2005).

Circadian Rhythms:

All mammals sleep in patterns that correspond to their species, whether they are active during the day (diurnal) or at night (nocturnal). These circadian rhythm cycles are controlled by the sun and vary significantly both among different species as well as in each species at different periods of development. Human infants, for example, sleep for approximately 16-18 hours per day, although rarely for periods of more than 3-4 hours at a time. By three months of age, human infants automatically begin to sleep more at night and by the age of six, natural patterns emerge that make some of us "night owls" and others early risers (Brody, 2007).

According to the experts, children need more sleep than adults, and the vast majority of us regularly sleep less than we need because of our daily schedules and responsibilities. The need for sleep actually increases shortly before and during puberty, which makes the problem even worse, because during puberty, adolescents begin producing melatonin, the sleep-inducing hormone, at approximately 1:00 AM, which is three hours later than in adults. The fact that multimedia entertainment and Internet access is available 'round the clock seems only to add to the temptation to stay up long into the night (Brody, 2007).

Sleep Deprivation in Modern American Society:

study of nearly 70,000 school-age children between 6 and 17 conducted in 2003 revealed a rate of chronic sleep deprivation that suggests that as many as 15 million students under the age of 18 get much less sleep than they need. Another study involving

7,000 students in Minnesota monitored the benefits of changing school start times from 7:15 to 8:40 and determined that later school hours enabled students to reduce their…… [read more]


Aromatherapy the Health Claims Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,155 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Aromatherapy

The health claims associated with Aromatherapy have long been contested by the medical community. The interesting aspect of the phenomena is that even when in conflict with conventional medicine, and with claims in a contested position, aromatherapy continues to expand in use and sales. "Health Foods Business estimated that the total of aromatherapy products sold through health-food stores was about $59 million in 1996 and $105 million in 1996." (Barrett MD, 2001, (http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/aroma.html) This is also not inclusive of the number of aromatherapy like products that are sold through alternative routs, such as through practitioners of natural medicine, on the internet or in the offices of massage therapists. In short the growth of the industry has seriously lined some pockets, despite the substantial range of unfounded claims that are associated with it.

In one article touting the benefits of Aromatherapy the impression is given that essential oil therapy is so effective to its users that there is no need to understand its origins, the manner in which it is made or utilize a trained individual to apply it. (Russell, ND, (http://aromatherapy-guide-to.com/printview.aspx?articleid=350064)the same earticle, though it does not go through a list of unfounded claims, expresses that "...oils are absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream as well as directly through the nasal passages to the brain." (http://aromatherapy-guide-to.com/printview.aspx?articleid=350064)it would seem strange to any one with common sense that an element(s) with such amazing ability does not need to be understood fully before it is suggested that it be introduced to the bloodstream or the brain. Though the blood brain barrier makes, direct brain absorption doubtful, it is likely absorbed by the olfactory circulation and sense and then if there is any effect on the brain it is through these mechanisms, not as a direct elemental addition to the brain. The work, attempts to stress that the only needed validity to such treatment is the proof that "We have all entered a room and smelt a distinct aroma that has made us feel good or totally uncomfortable." (http://aromatherapy-guide-to.com/printview.aspx?articleid=350064)Though anecdotal evidence is fine for the development of products that are not claimed to cure diseases a list offered by one company includes: "depression, sex-drive problems, bronchitis, athlete's foot, high blood pressure, cystitis, head lice," as diseases that can be cured by essential oils. (Barrett MD, 2001 (http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/aroma.html) All this is being said without legitimate scientific studies that equate the chemicals, and their administration style with any therapeutic effect. Though there are at least two essential oils, as they are called which are linked to therapeutic effect, tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil, which are used as ingredients for over the counter products, both in an outside the scope of "natural" remedies, there are many others that have little evidence supporting therapeutic advantage.

There is a clear sense that regardless of the lack of scientific evidence for their therapeutic effects essential oils, can and do affect mood, as scent is one of the strongest senses and is strongly linked to mood and memory,… [read more]


Hans Krebs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (717 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Hans Kreb

Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, the Nobel-prize winning Medical Physiologist, was born in 1900, the son of a surgeon in Hildesheim, Germany. As a child he was educated in the local school and when he was 18, went to the Universities of Gottingen, Berlin and Freiburg-im-Breisgau. He got his M.D. degree in one year from the Third Medical Clinic of the University of Berlin and went on to study chemistry in Berlin. He was a professor's assistant in Berlin-Dahlem until 1930.

After working in hospitals and clinics in Germany until 1933, he went to England, to take a post at Cambridge, where he stayed until 1935. He married Margaret Cecily Fiedhause in Wickersley in 1938 and had 2 sons and a daughter. He lectured in Pharmacology and Biochemistry at the University of Sheffield until 1945, when he became a professor and Director of Medical Research at Oxford.

His area of research was in various aspects of intermediary metabolism, such as the synthesis of urea in the mammalian liver. He also researched synthesis of uric acid, the purine bases in birds, the oxidation of foodstuffs, the active transport of electrolytes and the relationship between the generation of adenosine polyphosphates and cell respiration. As a result of his research, he wrote several books, including one on energy transformations in living things, which was published in 1957 in collaboration with H.L. Kornberg (Krebs 1964 5). This book discusses complex processes that provide living organisms with phosphate through the citric acid cycle or what is known as the Krebs cycle (Nobel 1953).

After winning many honors, in 1947, 1954 and 1958, he was knighted in 1958. He also received honorary degrees from the University of Chicago, Frieburg-im-Breisgau, Paris, Glasgow, London, Sheffield, Leicester, Berlin (Humbolt University) and Jerusalem. He died on November 22, 1981, at the age of 81.

Han Krebs received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1953. In a quote from his Nobel Lecture in December of that year, he explained his attraction to the study of how living organisms survive, including how cells oxidize sugar.

I felt greatly attracted by the problem of the intermediary pathway of oxidations. These…… [read more]


Effects of Organic Amendments on Growth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Soil Amendments and Yellow Bean Production

Effects of Organic Amendments on Growth of Phaseolus vulgaris

Compost is an important element in organic production systems. The use of compost can reduce waste and improve plant yields in a farm production. This study examined the effects of four soil amendments on the growth and yield of phaseolus vulgaris (yellow beans). The results… [read more]


Pathophysiology of the Metabolic Syndrome Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,177 words)
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Metabolic Syndrome

In the United States, metabolic syndrome will soon become a more significant risk factor for heart disease than cigarette smoking. Elements of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are associated with glucose intolerance and eventual progression to Type 2 diabetes. Associated elements include hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypercoagulability states and vascular inflammation. The cardiovascular system is the primary body system involved in metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have a constellation of conditions which are defined below: (Definitions based on current World Health Organization definitions for metabolic syndrome)

Hypertension - Current antihypertensive therapy and/or BP > 140/90

Dyslipidemia - Plasma triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/L (150 mg/dL) and/or HDL <.9 mmol/L (35 mg/dL) in men and < 1.0 mmol/L (< 40 mg/dL) in women obesity - BMI > 30 and/or waist/hip ratio >.90 in men and >.85 in women glucose intolerance or diabetes

Not clinically a disease, the metabolic syndrome is rather a constellation of medical conditions. The syndrome has 3 possible etiological factors - 1) obesity and disorders of adipose deposition 2) insulin resistance and 3) independent factors of hepatic, vascular and immunologic origin that mediate specific elements of the syndrome. Other factors of the syndrome like aging and hormones have been implicated in the condition as well. Obviously, the mechanism of the disease is not entirely understood. The resistance to insulin stimulated glucose appears to have an effect on biochemical responses, thereby increasing metabolic risk factors.

Obesity is considered a significant factor in metabolic syndrome, especially abdominal obesity. The adipose tissue releases factors which exacerbate the cardiovascular risk factors, such as nonesterfied fatty acids, cytokines and adiponectin. These elements overload the muscle and liver with lipid, increasing insulin resistance. Adiponectin and cytokine excess may cause a proinflammatory state and may correlate to a prothrombotic state, both of which can increase incidence of cardiovascular disease.

Insulin resistance may be even more important than obesity in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance rises with higher levels of body fat. Insulin resistant muscle is overloaded with lipid, thus causing a diversion of lipid to the liver and atherogenic plaque. Triglyceride levels are elevated. Insulin resistance is also thought to be associated with increased blood pressure, although the actual mechanism is not entirely clear.

Several elements have been associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. These factors include:

Atherogenic dyslipidemia

Apolipoprotein B

Small low density lipoprotein

Low high density lipoprotein

Inflammatory cytokines also appear to play a part in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) and interleukin (IL)-6 are both produced in large amounts by adipose tissue. Proinflammatory cytokines increase hepatic lipogensis and may also elicit a systemic acute-phase response (Manson, et al., 2005). The TNF impairs insulin stimulated glucose uptake in cells and also decreases lipoprotein lipase activity (lipoprotein lipase is an enzyme which hydrolyzes lipoproteins like chylomicrons, into smaller fat units). Acute phase reactants like fibrinogen, white blood cells and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels are also found to be associated with metabolic syndrome (Juahan-Vague &… [read more]


Metabolism Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (655 words)
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Metabolism, Cellular Respiration, And Photosynthesis

Explain how ATP is used to power cellular reactions?

Cells require ATP as a source of free energy. ATP is capable of supplying energy for both heterotrophic and photosynthetic cells. It acts as a donor of high-energy phosphate to form high-energy. ATP is continuously consumed and regenerated from processes that need and give high-energy phosphates. Heterotrophic cells, through an exergonic process, get the chemical form of free energy through the catabolism of nutrient molecules and in turn it uses that energy to make ATP from ADP and Pi. ATP then donates some of its chemical energy to endergonic processes in the cell like the metabolic intermediates synthesis, macromolecules synthesis from smaller precursors, transport of substances across membranes against concentration gradients and mechanical motion.

Explain how ATP is generated during cellular respiration through the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. How do glycolysis and the citric acid cycle figure into the process?

Food stuffs like fat, carbohydrate and protein are digested and absorbed to form fatty acids + glycerol, glucose, and amino acids respectively. Glucose undergoes glycolysis producing pyruvate. This is then degraded to the acetyl group of Acetyl-CoA which enters the citric acid cycle producing reducing equivalents (2H) which are then collected by the respiratory chain for oxication and coupled generation of ATP. ATP generated from anaerobic condition of glycolysis is only 2 compared to glycolysis under aerobic conditions with an ATP yield of 36 to 38.

The chemiosmotic theory on the other hand postulates that: the energy from oxidation of components in the respiratory chain generates hydrogen ions that are ejected to the outside of a coupling membrane in the mitochondrion. It means that there is an electrochemical potential difference that resulted from the asymmetric distribution of the hydrogen ions and this difference is also used to drive the mechanism responsible for the production of ATP.

Explain the process of ATP generation during noncyclic photophosphorylation?

In the noncyclic photophosphorylation, photons are absorbed…… [read more]


Injections of Phosphatidylcholine Solubilized With Deoxycholate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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Injections of Phosphatidylcholine Solubilized With Deoxycholate Have Been Shown to Reduce Localized Accumulations of Subcutaneous Fat

Cutaneous injections of phosphatidylcholine solubilized with deoxycholate are one of the more popular treatments in Europe for the reduction of unwanted subcutaneous fat deposits. The popularity of these treatments has sparked the interest of U.S. pharmaceutical companies. However, at the present time, this compound… [read more]


Maple Tree Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,522 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Maple Tree

The term maple is the common name for a family, Aceraceae, of trees and shrubs in the soapberry order, Sapindales. The Aceraceae has two genera. The first is the Acer, the maples proper and the box elder, and the second is Dipteronia. Most of the maple trees are deciduous, shedding their leaves every year at the end of… [read more]


Whey Protein and Immune System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (595 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Whey Protein and the Immune System

The collection of globular proteins that can be separated from whey, a by-product of cheese manufacturing from cow's milk, are known as whey protein.

It is typically a mixture of beta-lactoglobulin (~65%), alpha-lactalbumin (~25%), and serum albumin (~8%), which are soluble in their native forms, independent of pH. Whey has the highest protein quality and biological utilization rate known of any protein ("Whey Protein"). One of the significant benefits, of whey protein, is its support of a healthy immune system.

There are three basic categories of foods often referred to as macronutrients: fats, carbohydrates and protein. Protein is derived from animal products, including animal by-products such as: eggs, milk and cheese.

This protein is necessary for a healthy body because it is comprised of amino acids, the building blocks of organs, muscles, neurotransmitters, and many other parts of the body necessary for health and survival.

Greeks used the word proteous, which means primary or taking first, for this nutrient. Proteins are primarily stored in muscle tissue (Oshman & Oshman).

The proteins that are eaten are broken down into amino acids. These amino acids are then utilized in a variety of ways.

New proteins are synthesized that build up structures such as internal and skeletal muscle tissue. Excess proteins are used as fuel and can even be stored as fat.

However, the quality of proteins is determined by its bioavailabilty, how efficiently the body can utilize the protein and amino acids for building muscle.

The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score, or PDCAA, of whey protein is a nearly perfect PDCAA score of 1.0 (Oshman & Oshman).

According to the U.S. Dairy Export Council and Dr. Paul J. Cribb, whey proteins not only help build a strong body, but also have a positive…… [read more]


Exercise and Metabolic Response Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,186 words)
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Physiology - Effects of Moderate Exercise on Metabolic Responses and Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER)

"Effects of Moderate Exercise on Metabolic Responses and Respiratory Exchange Ratios (RER)."

The purpose of this study (Kaoru et al. 109) was to determine if a significant relationship exists between metabolic responses, in this case respiratory exchange ratios (RER), and exercise duration. The aim is to discover the level of exercise required in order to combat insulin resistance, which can be a significant problem for individuals who require such treatment. Insulin resistance must be counteracted by increasing the utilization of fatty acids in the blood stream as well as in adipose tissue (109). While the authors admitted that endurance-level exercise has been positively correlated with increased utilization rates, there has been less evidence to support the notion that variable amounts of exercise could have a similar effect.

The hypothesis of the study is that fatty acids are available for energy even following short-term exercise (109). In other words, the authors designed this study to test the notion that fatty acid utilization could be increased even following lower levels of physical exertion and exercise. If this proved to be the case, then it would open up an incredible wealth of exercise methods and regiments for counteracting insulin resistance.

The subject in the study included nine individuals who were untrained, and yet still healthy. Of the nine, two were women and the remaining seven were men. The mean age was 23 and the mean BMI score was 20.6 (110). Participants were directed to come to the study after an overnight fast. After some initial blood work and measurements were taken, the participants each took part in thirty minutes of moderate exercise to achieve a heart rate of roughly 120 beats per minute. After the exercise trial, further measurements were taken and subsequent blood work also taken (110).

The results of the study were relatively straightforward. The mean RER was 0.89, with a mean heart rate of 115 beats per minute. The blood tests revealed that, on average, plasma glucose (PG) and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) decreased after the test. Simultaneously, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels actually increased (112). In this study, then, moderate exercise for thirty minutes actually increased fatty acid utilization. This means that some benefit can be discerned toward fighting insulin resistance with only light to moderate exercise at shortened intervals. The authors of the study did concede that the dominant metabolic substrate was still carbohydrates, but that the low-level exercise regimen nonetheless had a positive effect on fatty acid utilization (113).

The implications and conclusion of these results are evident, as the authors concluded. Insulin resistance can be lowered even when the subject only utilizes a short-term, repetitive, regular, and low intensity exercise regimen (113). The potential applications for patients who have difficulty managing their insulin levels are obvious should the results of this study stand up to verification.

Part Two: Critique

This critique consists of a reasoned evaluation of the scientific merit of… [read more]


Reality Differs From Expected Results Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (501 words)
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¶ … reality differs from expected results, the following experiments were conducted,.

The first experiment was initiated by filling two small glasses with slightly different liquids. The first glass was plain water from a refrigerator, the second glass was the same. The only difference between the first and the second glass was that sugar was added to the second.. I then took a mouthful of the sugar water concoction and held it in my mouth, slowly swishing it back and forth until it became warm and plain tasting. At that time, I spit the remainder of the liquid into the sink.

A immediately took the first glass in my hand and drank from it. Even though there was not sugar added to the liquid in this particular glass, it still tasted somewhat sweet. I held the liquid in my mouth for a short time and the sense of sweetness slowly dissipated.

In the second of my three experiments, I rubbed my finger over a coarse piece of sandpaper. It felt very rough to my touch, and I would rate the coarseness (on a scale of one being the lowest, and ten being the highest) as a 6. After setting the sandpaper aside for a few moments, I again picked it up and ran my finger over the same general area of the piece once more. After doing so, my sense of the coarseness of the paper changed. I would rate the sandpaper on the second touch as a 4.5-5.0 out…… [read more]


Borba (Skincare Products) ID 55501 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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It is such a hot commodity it has created a $46 billion market. In some countries, bottled water has even eclipsed beer consumption, and it could well overtake carbonated soft drinks as the world's No.1 beverage (Ubercool [U], 2005). The previous statement is one that proves what a hot commodity bottled water really is. The fact that Borba can be added to one's bottled water or beverage of choice and enhance that beverage is an added bonus. Things to do include continue to market that this is a product that should be added to your water but can be added to one's favor beverage. It is important to recognize that the owner of Borba took a hot commodity item (water) and made it even more "healthy." By using a product such as water that is the best drink for you and adding vitamins, minerals, and other ingredients that are good for you skin and body he has secured a spot in the industry not only as a trend setter but as a pioneer in the ingestion of beauty products on this particular level. Another important fact is portability. Sephora [S] (2005) reported that it is possible to take your BORBA (tm) to go with these convenient lyophilized liquid activated powders designed to help the skin regenerate its natural support system, removing toxins and improving the overall clarity of the skin. To use: For best results, simply dissolve one packets into 16 ounces of water or your favorite beverage, and drink two bottles daily for 28 days.

#3Conclusion and recommendations for future actions -- Water is our first defense against illness and disease. Many of us are dehydrated and when you are dehydrated, there are hosts of illnesses that can befall you. Water can relieve symptoms of disease and aid in a cure. Here are a few conditions that are the result of chronic and prolonged dehydration: migraines, depression, and loss of libido, high cholesterol, early onset diabetes, asthma, migraines, angina, heartburn, and arthritis. Therefore, doesn't it make sense that vitamin infused water can help the skin and the body? Borba Nutraceuticals thinks so.

The idea of smart water has been on the market for sometime now in the form of vitamin waters and flavored energy boosters. Borba waters appear to be taking a slightly different approach by introducing their product as part of the nutraceutical industry (LaRose, 2005).

Although the line of Borba products appears to have dermatological backing, there is no evidence of actual testing that has taken place to determine the significance of said product. There appears to be significant data stating the benefits but there are few if no places to locate nutritional information. The product states that it is packed with vitamins and minerals but there is no indication of what vitamins and minerals may or may not be present. This should be considered in future advertisements. There is a lack of overall advertising for said product. Borba should increase their advertisement in order to, increase… [read more]


Childhood Obesity and Asthma Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (784 words)
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¶ … childhood obesity and asthma; is asthma more prevalent when obesity is a presenting factor?

The following is the abstract from one of the sources that I would propose to use in my research. von Kries, Hermann, Grunert, & von Mutius (2001), stated in adolescents and adults, an association between obesity and asthma was found in females. Does this sex-specific association already exist in young children? METHODS: Questionnaire data on 9357 5- and 6-year-old German children were collected in 1997 in two rural regions in Bavaria. The diagnosis of asthma, hay fever, and eczema was ascertained with the ISAAC core and other validated questions. Overweight was defined by a BMI of >90th and < or =97th percentile and obesity by a BMI of >97th percentile. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of doctor's diagnosed asthma in girls was 3.5% (95%, CI 2.9-4.1%) for normal weight, 5.8% (95% CI 3.2-8.4%) for overweight, and 10.3% (95% CI 5.3-15.2%) for obesity, whereas no relation to weight was found in boys. Hay fever and eczema were unrelated to weight in girls and boys. The adjusted odds ratio for asthma in girls was 2.12 (95% CI 1.22-3.68) for overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 1.13-4.82) for obesity. CONCLUSIONS: A sex-specific association with doctor's diagnosed asthma was also observed in girls at school entry. Since this association was confined to doctor's diagnosed asthma in the absence of other atopic conditions, and no association with other atopic manifestations was found, we hypothesize that this association is related to factors other than atopic sensitization.

This article gives further support to my hypothesis: The article throws light on the relationship between asthma and obesity. Health care providers have explained this association as evidence that children with asthma are less likely to engage in physical activity and therefore, more prone to gain weight. The findings have important health implications in the battle to control the epidemics of both asthma and obesity in children. Further, longitudinal epidemiological studies are necessary to confirm to identify all causes of childhood asthma epidemic (Phelps, 2004).

Shaheen (1999),Discusses the increasing body of epidemiological evidence concerning the association between obesity and asthma in individuals. Risk factors for childhood asthma; Possible importance of a more sedentary lifestyle in developed countries; Environmental causes of asthma.

This article reports on the challenges facing a planned national study on children's health in the U.S.…… [read more]


Homeostatic Scientists Are Now Discovering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Finally, they help the body to strengthen its immune system, by producing proteins that act as antigens which in turn cause the body to develop large amounts of antibodies. Besides these findings, a clinical study performed by Dr. Goldberg, a Clinical Epidemiologist, Physician, and Clinical Nutritionist, revealed that sixteen out of seventeen test subjects participating in the study displayed a marked improvement in health after consuming foods rich in HSO's.

Today, various natural health food stores sell products containing HSO's labeled Primal Defense. The HSO's are integrated into these products through a bio-fermentation process known as Poten-zyme, which lasts up to about three to six weeks. More and more health care practitioners today are recommending these products to their patients because of the potential cure behind them for various immune and gastrointestinal ills.

Works Cited

Goldberg, Paul. "From tragedy to triumph: one man's journey back to health ... importance of Homeostatic Soil Organisms in prevention of immunological and gastrointestinal diseases." Oct. 2003. Vegetarian Times. July 20, 2005: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0820/is_314/ai_109023546… [read more]


Popcorn - Purdue University Research Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (329 words)
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According to them, unpopped kernels have leaky hulls that prevent the moisture pressure buildup needed for them to pop and lack the optimal hull structure that allows most kernels to explode. Based on this new finding, popcorn breeders can more easily select the best varieties of popcorn or create new ones that have superior hulls that yield fewer or no unpopped kernels.

Already, popcorn manufacturers are expressing interest in Purdue's research, paving the way for old maid obsolescence. Currently, more than seventeen billion quarts of popcorn sold each year in the United States. The elimination of old maids may not significantly impact this already high level of demand, but it will certainly contribute to even higher enjoyment of this popular snack as it moves one additional step closer to perfection.

Bibliography

About Popcorn." Available:

http://www.pcs-chromex.com/popcorn/aboutus.html (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).

Scientists Solve Unpopped Popcorn." CNN 22 Apr. 2005. Available:

http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/science/04/21/popcorn.secret.ap/(Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).… [read more]


Chen, Ho, Lam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (571 words)
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Common side effects reported with dietary isoflavone supplementation included abdominal distention, constipation, breast disorders, and menses-like bleeding. However, the incidence of these events was not significantly greater than the incidence observed in the placebo group.

Overall, the hypothesis statement in the introduction was very vague and not indicative of the study results. First, the authors speculated that soy isoflavone supplementation would prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. However, the supplementation strategy did not show benefit in bone mineral density, only bone mineral content. Second, stratified analyses showed that these effects were only observed in subjects who presented with bone mineral content values below the sample median. Thus, the authors' hypothesis was incorrect because only one of the two measured variables showed a benefit and this benefit was only observed in a subset of the total sample.

This study has several practical implications to daily life. Menopause is characterized by rapid losses in bone mineral with a subsequent increase in fracture risk. Osteopenia and osteoporosis affect approximately 10 million women in the United States alone. Several interventions exist with the primary aim to delay postmenopausal bone loss including dietary calcium intake, exercise, and medications such as exogenous estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. The current study suggests that a dietary supplement, namely soy isoflavones, has a modest benefit in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. Future trials should study the effects of these compounds in subjects of different ethnic origins, with varying daily dosages, and in combination with medications.

Reference

Chen, Y.M., Ho, S.C., Lam, S.S., Ho, S.S., & Woo, J.L. (2003). Soy isoflavones have a favorable effect on bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women with lower bone mass: a double-blind, randomized, controlled…… [read more]


Malnutrition and Starvation Are Common Problems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (331 words)
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Malnutrition and starvation are common problems in sub-Saharan Africa, and can lead to permanent disability if they occur early in life. A lack of food and nutrients can interfere with the functions of individual cells and tissues, and the nervous tissue is among the most sensitive to irreversible damage during development.

The term malnutrition generally refers to Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), which occurs as a result of "the cellular imbalance between supply of nutrients and energy and the body's demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions" (WHO, cited in Grigsby, 2003). Malnutrition can result from micronutrient deficiencies in nutrients such as iron, iodine, folate, vitamin a, and vitamin D 30% of children in sub-Saharan Africa have PEM (Grigsby, 2003).

A lack of food and nutrients can interfere with the functions of individual cells and tissues. Almost all organ systems are impacted by malnutrition because a lack of protein prevents synthesis of body proteins and enzymes. Cellular functioning is damaged almost universally because energy…… [read more]


Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes Water Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,347 words)
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It is very possible that genomic and phenotypic factors (discussed later in this work) combine along with protectants such as trehalose. Different media concentrations induced E. coli to generate different compounds. Researchers induced the E. coli production of glycine betaine by varying the NaCl concentrations and the consequent osmotic stress. Glycine betaine has been implicated in desiccation protection for several… [read more]


Cholesterol Decreases Mortality Cardiovascular Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (847 words)
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Data will be collected by registered nurses or MDs, in all cases. Questionnaires, blood tests, and medical examinations will be standardized. At each two-year period, mortality rates and causes of death will be assessed.

As noted previously, data from each facility will be collected at two-year intervals. Results from each separate facility will be forwarded for analysis to the central study headquarters. Data will be analyzed at central study headquarters by researchers specifically trained for this purpose. Given the large amount of data collected (10 facilities with 1,000 participants, for a total of 100,000 subjects), data will be collected and stored in a centralized computing environment.

Several statistical approaches will be taken to analyze the data. Data will be analyzed at each two-year interval, and an interim research report will be generated. Further, ten years of data will also be analyzed at each ten-year anniversary of the study. This report will also be available. In addition, data will also be analyzed cumulatively, with analysis including all data reported to the study.

Results

This study is expected to reveal a positive correlation between cholesterol intake and mortality. Further, it is anticipated that the study will reveal some correlations between mortality and other variables such as dietary needs, race, and gender. Similarly, it is anticipated that this study will draw relationships between cholesterol intake and variables such as gender, geographic location, and race.

The large initial sample size is anticipated to result in adequate numbers of subjects for statistical analysis. However, it is anticipated that sample size will dwindle as the study progresses, due to factors such as mortality and participant drop-out. One of the potential limitations of this study is that sample size may eventually be reduced to a size where comparisons of mortality cannot be conclusively linked to variables such as race, geographic location, or specific dietary needs.

Conclusion

This study is anticipated to make a major contribution to the existing body of evidence that currently links heart disease and cholesterol by correlating decreased cholesterol consumption to increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. Given the large sample size in this longitudinal study, this study will also be able to draw a number of correlations between cholesterol consumption, mortality, and other variables such as age, gender, dietary needs, and geographic location.

References

Centers for Disease Control. 2004. Preventing Heart Disease and Stroke. 21 June 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/bb_heartdisease/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control. 2004. Heart Disease and Stroke: The Nation's Leading Killers. 21 June 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/aag/aag_cvd.htm… [read more]


Nutritional Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (883 words)
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Consumers must be aware of this as well as the controversial benefits of non-pasteurization and the company has an ethical as well as a legal responsibility to assure customers they are not putting themselves at a risk they do not wish to take -- much as cigarettes are available but clearly labeled.

Lastly, from a philanthropic stance, even if the law does not provide a clearly basis for an ethical decision regarding pasteurization of the products in question, the company's stance as a health company means it must say more than 'buyer beware.' Presumably, the company stands opposed to the murky ethics of large conglomerates, and in addition to paying more for the product, the consumer hopes to purchase additional health, safety, and freshness that cannot be obtained in a bottle of Mott's Apple Juice, for example.

Thus, legally, the company must release data if it believes its product is causing harm to the public and from a pure economic basis the company must hold the best interest of its stockholders as a potential cause of consideration. But even if one grants that legally and economically the company must and need not cause health scare regarding its most popular goods, it cannot market a potentially toxic product with questionable health benefits, particularly a health food geared to children.

Conclusion and Recommendation

The company must clearly release warnings as to the potential risks of non-pasteurization as to the potential benefits. Of course, many products individuals ingest as food may be hazardous, from Japanese blowfish, to aspartame to (until recently), ephedrine. But all such products were and are not marketed as health foods for children. The consumer must be aware of the potential side effects as well as the potential benefits of such products. Thus, the company may continue to market the products, but only with proper warnings in a balanced standpoint from an ethical standpoint of choice, and should, from an economic standpoint, perhaps consider adding other products to its health food line that do not depend upon pasteurization as a marketing strategy. The positive implications of the recommendation are that the company will be less legally and ethically liable, though the negative economic implications of the recommendation in the short-term are clear -- critics might say all products have an implied risk. However, if the company does not do as outlined above and more deaths from non-pasteurized goods occur, without proper warnings from the company, then the 'health food company' will surely fold, to the economic benefit of neither owners, shareholders, employees, nor those individual consumers who still wish to purchase such products.… [read more]


Pet She Was Bigger Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (381 words)
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I could swear Moose could understand what we were saying half of the time; I could see her ears move and twitch depending on the flow of conversation and her eyes often spoke volumes. She sensed emotion: when one of us was sad, she would offer comfort and cuddling; when we were joyous, so was she. Well-behaved and obedient, Moose never caused us any troubles. She came when she was called and she rarely gave us a reason to punish her. As a result, she was extremely well-fed but she luckily never got fat, probably because of her high energy levels and ability to burn off calories. Moreover, she got plenty of exercise because she loved being outdoors, running around parks or fields.

Her legs were elegant and long, as was her entire body; Moose was so beautiful that strangers often gave her unsolicited compliments. Her favorite game was Frisbee, and we made a point to take her out whenever possible. Moose's brown eyes lit up every time we wiggled the keys because she sensed an outing was coming. Moose embodied joy and love; she had no equal in the…… [read more]


Iron an Essential Nutrient Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (563 words)
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III. Results

Table of Observations (individual plants #3473):

Start (Day 0) Day 7 Day 14 Day 21

Control Plant:

stem height 2.3-6.0-20.0-41.5 leaf color some dead spots N/C N/C N/C young leaves) leaf color N/C N/C N/C N/C old leaves) leaf necrosis N/C N/C N/C N/C young leaves) leaf necrosis N/C N/C N/C N/C old leaves)

Fe-deficient Plant:

stem height 5.0-5.5-9.0-12.0 leaf color some dead spots N/C whole leaf young leaves) chlorosos chlorosis leaf color N/C N/C N/C N/C old leaves) leaf necrosis N/C N/C N/C N/C young leaves) leaf necrosis N/C N/C N/C N/C old leaves)

Stem height results (individual plants #3473):

Start (0 day) Day 7 Day 14 Day 21

Control Plant:

stem height 2.3-6.0-20.0-41.5

Fe-deficient Plant:

stem height 5.0-5.5-9.0-12.0

Graph of stem height results (individual plants #3473):

Stem height results (class average):

Start (0 day) Day 7 Day 14 Day 21

Control Plant:

stem height 5.2-12.9-23.7-43.4

Fe-deficient Plant:

stem height 4.9-12.2-20.1-32.1

Graph of stem height results (individual plants #3473):

IV. Discussion & Conclusion

Data Summary:

For the individual plant and for the overall class data, the Fe-deficient plant had reduced stem height as compared to the control plant. While both plants started with some dead spots on leaves, the Fe-deficient plant had whole leaf chlorosis present at the 14 and 21 day mark while the control plant did not.

Conclusion:

The plant that received all essential nutrients except Iron had reduced growth, effected leaf color and leaf chlorosis, as compared to the control plant that had all essential elements including iron. This proves the hypothesis and shows that Iron is an essential element required for normal growth in tomato plants.… [read more]


Backyards Can Be an Expression Term Paper

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One is apple, one apricot, and one plum. If we head south, a fig tree stands proudly displaying its wares. Plump, beckoning figs still stick to their branches. I gingerly pick one, making sure it is fully ripe. When I bite through its succulent skin I am rewarded with an explosion of seed-laden sugar. My now sticky mouth grins as I complete the circumambulation of the backyard.

On the west side of our ample lawn, hedges and blackberry bushes brag about their brambles. Spanning the entire length of the west fence, the bushes invite me to sample the candy-like treats. Cautiously I reach through the tangles and pick a handful of juicy blackberries; their juice runs all over my hands and stains my palms a deep shade of purple. The sweetness makes my smile broaden, and when I turn to my left I catch the eye of a curious squirrel. He cocks his head and readies himself to run, lest I prove to be an enemy. The skittish creature leaps away when I make the slightest move, and I follow him around the side of the house.

Passing a small tool shed, I squeeze past newly planted flowerbeds filled with roses, chrysanthemums, irises, and cannas. The soil beneath their feet glistens and sparkles: like gold it speaks of richness. I can almost hear the nutrients being sucked up the stems of the glorious flowers, whose colors dazzle my already awe-filled eyes. Each time I tread through my backyard, I notice something new, something that reminds me of how lucky I am. I steal one last glance, scanning the entire yard, before heading back through the patio door. As I get ready to slip into the bubbling hot tub, I glimpse the bright blue wave of a crested jay. Its greeting soothes me as much as the caress of the chlorinated, body-temperature water. Closing my eyes, I can feel the warm expanse of my enchanting backyard encircling my body. Ahhh.… [read more]


Teenagers Usually Exhibit a Mixture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (370 words)
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At first, the children only register shock, envy, and disbelief. They also feel an acute sense of shame when they enter F.A.O. Schwartz. These feelings catalyze their coming of age, especially Sugar. Sylvia, although she feels angry, does not fully comprehend the bigger picture like Sugar does. But the narrator does notice that when she and Sugar bump into each other accidentally, they "don't laugh and go into (their) fat-lady bump-stomach routine." Sylvia is aware of their dawning maturation.

It is Sugar who first becomes aware that the exorbitant prices are a reflection of deeper societal issues. She tells Miss Moore, "this is not much of a democracy if you ask me." This realization transforms her relationship with Sylvia, who is "disgusted with Sugar's treachery." Because Sugar is now unwilling, or unable, to participate in their childish antics, Sylvia is left out. She comes of age slower than Sugar does, even as she realizes that "somethin weird is goin on."… [read more]