"Nutrition / Diet / Eating" Essays

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Nutrition Is the Study of the Organic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,472 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nutrition is the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease (Nutrition pp). Today, it is common knowledge that "you are what you eat," however, as recently as the 1960's the medical community claimed that nutrition had little… [read more]

Marketing Channels and Methods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"What is the right strategy to follow in a highly competitive market in which demand is relatively flat?" stated one executive recently. "The answer for us is to identify what our niche is in the market. For us, it is producing ... hamburgers." Healthy hamburgers! (Collins, 2002) Stressing return traffic for those hamburgers is an acknowledgement that McDonald's "fries and… [read more]

Dash Diet an Intake Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(The DASH Diet -- Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Weight Loss)

The DASH diet was initially intended to control the blood pressure and not the weight, but with a few alterations, the weight objectives can also be attained. As fruits and vegetables by nature have low fat and calories than one's usual amount of snack items, they can actually load one up without providing those extra calories which are not wanted. The important part about the DASH diet is that one need not have to spend a great deal of money in diet medications, books, or products and one need not have to waste all the time fixing hard to follow special foods or recipes for oneself. The whole family can take this diet, and all the things required are available in any local grocery store. (For a Healthier You, DASH!)

Here are some of the measures that would help one into the DASH plan slowly: a) Slowly raising the portion of fruits and vegetables to eight a day and trying new ones at a meal or having them as snacks. It is essential to note that the serving sizes of fruits and vegetables are not as huge as one imagines. b) Increasing and drinking more milk and adding more of low or nonfat dairy products to the daily food. If one has a problem of lactose intolerance, then it is better to have lactose free milk or lactase pills. c) It is advisable to use food labels to select products which are low in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium. d) It is necessary to note that processed foods have huge quantities of concealed sodium, fat, and/or cholesterol. e) It is also essential to use only half the quantity of margarine, butter, or other condiments which one uses. f) Reducing one's meat intake and trying one or two vegetarian meals every week. g) And finally, using fruit as an alternative for a dessert. (For a Healthier You, DASH!)


DASH Diet. Retrieved from http://dashdiet.org/

Accessed 15 October 2005

Definition DASH diet. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=24752

Accessed 15 October 2005

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Retrieved from http://www.womensheartfoundation.org/content/Nutrition/dash_diet.asp

Accessed 15 October 2005

For a Healthier You, DASH!. retrieved from http://www.hearthighway.org/cvd/bp/dash.htm

Accessed 15 October 2005

The DASH Diet -- Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Weight Loss.

Retrieved from http://www.netwellness.org/healthtopics/diet/faq4.cfm

Accessed 15 October 2005

The DASH Diet. Retrieved from http://www.cardioconnection.org/media/pdf/new_dash.pdf

Accessed 15 October 2005

Tsang, Gloria. High Blood Pressure Diet - the DASH Diet.…… [read more]

Nutrition Most People Respect Real Expertise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (318 words)
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Most people respect real expertise. However, expertise has a different meaning to most people when it comes to medicine than it might for some other field, such as engineering. An engineer does his or her work and leaves. If the engineer builds a bridge, that bridge stays up for decades without any further intervention except occasional safety checks.

Nutrition, however, has to be an ongoing concern for anyone paying attention to his or her health. A person could have excellent nutrition in January of one year but by July be facing significant nutritional challenges because of illness, changes in income, or other life changes that interfere with eating a healthy and balanced diet that contains neither too few nor too many calories.

This means that just having a degree is not enough for a nutritionist. Nutritionists must be able to relate to people well, evaluate that person's lifestyle, and spot issues that could interfere with the person eating…… [read more]

Weight Loss Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The United States has been criticized by doctors, researchers and government officials as being one of the fattest and unhealthy countries in the world. Our population currently faces numerous problems regarding health issues, weight loss, and now childhood obesity. Historian Harvey Levenstein (1988) contends that the most dramatic changes in the American diet occurred between… [read more]

Which Approach Is More Effective for Weight Loss a Low-Carb Diet or a Low-Fat Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Low-Carb Diet or a Low-Fat Diet

Which approach is more effective for weight loss: a low-carb diet or a low-fat diet?

[Cincinnati State Technical and Community College]

When people plan to choose to lose weight, one of the most difficult decisions that they make is to choose the diet type. There are two main kinds of diets; diets that are low in carbohydrates, which are often referred to as the low carb diets and low fat diet. Restriction of carbohydrates is often referred to as the Atkins diet, and low fat diets are the ones that retract the intake and consumption of high fat food (Rulifson, 2008, p. 281).

Most of the studies have shown that low fat diets may be one of the best for losing weight and having a healthier body. but, then again, there are a number of studies that have argued just the opposite. Although there are a number of studies that have shown that there is a great reduction in the boy levels of cholesterol and fat using low fat diet, these studies have not shown any reduction in the rate of death from high fat and cholesterol levels.

Low fat Diets

Low fat diets have been proposed by Dr. Mitkins, Weightwatchers, and Macrobiotics. These three lobbies have proposed some of the most important low fat diets that have been shown to be effective against controlling blood fat thus accelerating weight loss. However, in these cases, it has been shown that people, who use low fat diets, become seriously ill in the later stages (Kim, Yang, Kim, Lee, and Kim 263). This is the plan that has been regarded as being difficult for most dieters as this plan cannot be continued for a longer period of time.

There is no doubt about the fact that fat in the diet gives an individual a more "full" feeling. With the use of fats, it has been seen that there is a great reduction in the time that the stomach takes to empty. In the following figure, three main kinds of diets have been compared; Mediterranean diet, low carb diet and low fat diet. These diets have been compared in their efficiency in aiding and accelerating weight loss. It can be seen that low fat diet has accelerated weight loss as compared to other two diets (Flynn).

Source: http://graemethomasonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/low-fat-vs.-mediterranean-vs.-low-carb.png

Low Carb Diet

This kind of diet has claimed that if carbohydrates that include sugar, fruits, grains, and vegetables are limited, weight loss can be triggered. Some of these diets include South Beach diet, and Atkins Diet. These diets suggested that if carbohydrates are limited, or if balanced proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate is used, it can trigger weight loss. The goal of any diet should be to ensure longevity and health (Lutz and Allan). In these cases, it has been mentioned that if diets are low in fats and essential vitamins, there are chances that there will be acceleration in heart and bone diseases (D'Arrigo).


Collection… [read more]

Self-Aware of Their Eating Habits Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,066 words)
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From this point-of-view, there can be little concern regarding moral issues in the use of animals to help people, if proper attention and care is given to the needs of the animals as well.

3. Bonobos through their way of behaving, walking, and mostly understanding human language, do resemble to human behavior. Although there are still a lot of studies to be concluded to actually consider them as being the ancestors of human evolution, it is important to view the way in which these animals can exercise their learning capacities and how they can evolve. At the same time, it represents an exercise for the human mind as well because it allows humans to better interact with perhaps the most resembling to human kind animal.

4. Sexual evolution is essential for every primate because it represents the connection between past generations and future ones. It is in the nature of every animal and human to reproduce on a natural way. This is largely because the sexual reproduction depends on a variety of aspects that attract mates and pairs. For most animal species, the reproduction depends on finding the mate with the best characteristics particularly because of the need to reproduce as best as possible and to transmit the best genes to the next generations.

5. Tumai, as the Skull was named, is possible to have been a biped and represent indeed the link between the animal and the human species. The evidence presented by the scientists are sufficiently compelling to lead to such a conclusion, from the shape of the skull to the teeth that proved certain eating habits to the shape of his eyes that determined a vertical position of the head in order to look straight.

6. The scientific community is rather united because all information appears throughout the world and information must be shared for the advancement of science of human kind. This is why when a discovery is made it is shared among all scientists and the knowledge of all of them contributes to evolutionist theories. The advancement of science can only be done through communication and sharing of knowledge.

7. Cloning is a rather debated subject from both a moral and ethical perspective. However advanced science is at this point and will continue to evolve in time, it should be limited to its benefic effects on human kind and not interfere with the natural way of civilization. Should cloning be accepted for medical reasons, such exercises may become uncontrollable and negative effects of science may eventually end up harming civilization rather than helping it.

8. This has been a very interesting course that helps in providing a more complex view of the past and ancient times of human kind. It enables the accumulation of information about human ancestors as well as geographical conditions in order to better understand where people are coming from. Also, through the information acquired in this course, there is a clearer understanding of the tremendous evolution human kind has made along… [read more]

Breast Feeding the Relevance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,613 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


If for example not nearly enough calcium is absorbed at morning meal then a mid early morning treat of cheese may be provided to off- set the distinction. Young children will likewise become 'stuck' on a particular food and not wish to consume anything else, when this occurs the moms and dad or care giver must provide a healthy side… [read more]

Producing a Healthier Biscuit: Evidence Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,354 words)
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A healthy body weight is an important factor in the general promotion of health and reducing cancer.

Other dietary nutrients may be more significant in reducing the risk of cancer. For example, "dietary guidelines that target obesity as well as fat and calcium intake could be more important than fiber (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health). The one conclusive association regarding the health benefits of fiber is that it does reduce constipation, which is important for general digestive comfort and the prevention of other gastrointestinal diseases. "This laxative effect accounts for the role of dietary fiber in conditions such as hiatus hernia, diverticular disease and hemorrhoids" (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health).

Current dietary fiber intakes of Australians

"In Australia, the National Nutrition Survey of 1995 indicated that 45% of dietary fiber comes from breads and other cereal foods, 10% from fruit and 30% from vegetables" (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health). The majority of fiber of Australians thus already comes from soluble fiber in the form of bread products. Like most persons in the industrialized world, Australians have been criticized for having insufficient fiber in their diets, and urged to increase the amount through increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

Whether or not there is strong evidence for benefits of more dietary fiber in Australian's diets

The Australian Ministry of Health suggests that every woman consume at least 25g of fiber in their diet and every man consume at least 30g in his diet (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health). However, any health claims regarding the benefits of increased fiber must be made cautiously. The association between a high fiber diet and lower rates of diabetes and cholesterol may be related to a correlation, rather than causation, between the types of persons who eat high-fiber diets and better health outcomes. Or it may be related to the fact that fiber is useful in weight control and thus has a beneficial effect in an indirect fashion. Fiber does have benefits in increasing satiety and also for its laxative properties. Having fiber in the diet is clearly important to some degree, but despite the official figures released by the Ministry of Health, there is no clear indication that the 25-30g fiber per day is adequate to ward against cancer and many chronic diseases (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health).

Almost all biscuits will contain some form of sugar and carbohydrate, and making health claims for a biscuit is problematic in this respect. Eating biscuits as a health food may not be suitable for all persons, such as diabetics or people seeking to lose weight. Even if there is a trace amount of fiber in the cookie, it is unlikely to be as significant as in a piece of fruit, vegetable, or even a bowl of cereal. Thus, creating a 'healthy biscuit' rather than focusing on taste and the 'treat' aspect of eating a biscuit may be a dubious proposition. A whole wheat oatmeal biscuit could be tasty and higher… [read more]

Eating Disorders According to Himmel Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Finally, genetics might be more similar than different. For instance, Day, Ternouth & Collier (2009) point out that anorexia, bulimia, and obesity might share a similar genetic component.

Eating disorders include anorexia and bulimia, and both of these are classified as psychological disorders. Obesity is usually not classified as a psychological disorder. With anorexia, the person may be a perfectionist who uses food as a means of self-control. With bulimia, the person goes to two extremes of binging and purging. Neither anorexia or bulimia symptoms may be present in a person with obesity. Some people with anorexia never overeat, and therefore, anorexia has a completely different manifestation than obesity. Anorexic people are usually skinny, because the ideal physiology for the person is skinny. Obese people are, by definition, not skinny at all. With both eating disorders and obesity, the person may become obsessed with body image and has a distorted body image. In fact, this same factor can be shared among obese people. Some obese people have a distorted body image, by believing that their weight is just "big bones." Therefore, the underlying factor of distorted body image may be shared in common. There are also psychological risk factors that eating disorders have, such as low self-esteem, frequent exposure to media images for dieting, and a history of abuse. These risk factors are shared in common between obese people and those with eating disorders (Day, Ternouth & Collier, 2009).

There are similarities and differences between eating disorders and obesity. The three most important similarities between eating disorders and obesity include the genetic component, distorted body image, and psychological issues leading to a dysfunctional relationship with food in some way. The three main differences between eating disorders and obesity include the manifestation of the behaviors in the body (skinny vs. fat), the fact that many obese people might not have a psychological problem and could only have a biological issue, and finally, the different types of self-image issues. The main difference in self-image is that anorexia and bulimia lead to a feeling that one is too fat; whereas with obesity, the person might not believe that they are fat when they really are. There are many similarities and differences between eating disorders and obesity, including responses to treatment. Eating disorders and obesity sometimes respond to the same types of treatment interventions, such as the Twelve Step Program. Many experts believe that it is more important to focus on the similarities between eating disorder and obesity than the differences.


Day, J., Ternouth, A. & Collier, D.A. (2009). Eating disorders and obesity: Two sides of the same coin? Epidemiological Psychiatry 18(2): 96-100.

Himmel, S. (2009). You must be hungry. Psychology Today. 18 Sept, 2009. Retrieved…… [read more]

Dietary Analysis Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  3 pages (979 words)
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Overall the protein levels over the course of the three day period seem to indicate that the standard American diet includes far too much meat, and too little vegetables and fruit. The Dietary Reference Intake for protein, by contrast, is estimated at 5 1/2 ounces -- so obviously a sandwich with a name like "Double Quarter Pounder" should be an obvious red flag in terms of its needless dietary excess. This was one easily noticed way in which my own diet could be improved -- the replacement of much of the meat intake with more vegetable and fruit would bring my diet substantially closer to the Dietary Reference Intake levels for all of these types of food.

It is worth noting, however, that if just this one sandwich is a clue to a culture of overeating, it also demonstrates that there are certain aspects of this diet which are healthy. Obviously overeating is not a good policy, but it does also seem to rule out the prospect of most kinds of vitamin or mineral deficiency -- there was no risk of my diet, as it exists, failing to meet the target for most of the vitamins and minerals listed. Again, to make reference to the McDonald's hamburger which was the single most outrageous item in my food record, it is worth noting that this one burger contains in itself twice the recommended daily dosage of Vitamin B12. Obviously an excess of Vitamin B12 is not dangerous (in the way that the excess of fat calories or cholesterol in the burger would be) but it also indicates that the diet basically consists of overkill. If I were to give myself a solid prescription for improving my diet, though, it would probably consist in trying to cut down substantially the level of meat intake -- perhaps even to the point of vegetarianism. However, with such a radically curtailed dietary palette, it would become important to watch the vitamins and minerals -- it is possible that the risk of shortage (which is not currently there, basically because of the level of overeating indicated by my records) would arise with a vegetarian diet, though.

It is also worth noting that the eating patterns might also be improved here. My dietary record indicates three meals a day, but very often the dinner comes substantially later than the lunch -- often later at night, which is why there is "fast food" on there. It is worth suggesting that more frequent and smaller meals would probably improve a lot of things about this diet -- it seems like the buildup of hunger may very well prompt the overeating which is the most significant problem in my dietary records. It's also worth noting that this would be an easy and convenient way of getting the greater amount of…… [read more]

Food Practice Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,447 words)
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The mushrooms were from China. The tofu was made in the United States, presumably with American soybeans. Also in the dish there were Sichuan peppercorns from China, American-grown ginger, garlic, spring onions, one American tomato, soy sauce, black bean paste and a few other spices, most of these ingredients coming from either China, Taiwan or in the case of the… [read more]

Eating Behaviors in First Year Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,401 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


(Anderson et al., The freshman year…, 2003) The vast majority of weight gained during freshman year is gained during the first semester. During the fall semester of the American academic year, there are a great deal many holidays in that time. American holidays are absolutely about eating whether it is eating candy on Halloween, eating festive food on Thanksgiving, or… [read more]

High-Protein Diets and Colon Cancer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,218 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


001) reductions in fecal butyrate concentrations for the HPMC and HPLC diets, respectively. The reduction in butyrate concentrations would force epithelial cells to use alternate sources of energy, and lower the anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-neoplastic activities normally present in a carbohydrate-balanced diet.

N-nitroso compound concentrations in fecal matter were increased by 3.6- (p < 0.001) and 5.4-fold (p < 0.001) for the HPMC and HPLC diets, respectively, as was the pH of the fecal-extracted water. These diet-induced changes suggest that high-protein low-carbohydrate diets increase the prevalence of compounds linked to colon cancer. Subjecting fecal extracts to high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry produced a large amount of information. Overall, the most significant findings were a significant decrease in plant-derived indoles and phenolic compounds and their derivatives. Changes in bile acid concentrations showed no clear pattern. The authors interpreted this data as being consistent with high-protein low-carbohydrate diets decreasing the concentrations of cancer-protective metabolites and increasing those posing a hazard.

Overall fecal bacteria counts were lower in both high-protein diets (p < 0.012). Importantly, the prevalence of the butyrate producer Roseburial Eubacterium rectale were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in subjects on the HPLC diet, which may explain the 50% reduction in fecal butyrate concentrations. The prevalence of the butyrate producer Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was unchanged and could therefore be one of the primary sources of the butyrate detected. The authors suggested that the decline in Roseburial E. rectale counts may have been driven by the increased pH and the reduction in fiber associated with the HPLC diet.

The authors concluded that the more moderate high-protein diet (HPMC) was able to maintain a relatively healthy profile in terms of butyrate concentration and bacterial diversity. This conclusion implies that less severe high-protein diets may help maintain a healthy intestinal environment, while still experiencing significant weight loss. This conclusion though, is undermined by the dramatic increase in N-nitroso compounds and phenyl acetic acids (PAA) detected in the fecal matter from subjects on the moderate high-protein diet. These compounds and their derivatives have been linked to an increased risk of colon cancer (reviewed by O'Keefe et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2011).


One of the main limitations of this study is the small sample size (N = 17), which may have prevented reaching statistical significance for some of the data derived from HPMC samples. Age is a contributing factor in colon cancer (O'keefe et al., 2007), and thus colon health, and it would have been interesting to see if stratification by age would have produced any interesting results, but the authors failed provide any information about the age of the subjects. The subjects were screened for recent anti-biotic use and a history of gastrointestinal problems, but the results may have achieved greater significance if the subjects were first acclimated to the same diet over a longer period of time, and with a defined probiotic dietary component. This type of approach could have established a more equivalent baseline intestinal environment across all subjects,… [read more]

Diabetes Mellitus (Dm) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (877 words)
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Recommend testing for ketones in all urine samples from patients with type 1 DM who exhibit persistent, rapid, and marked fluctuation in their degree of hyperglycemia.

DKA is acute metabolic changes in the body due to lack of insulin or poor response to insulin due to stress or illness. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis, leading to osmotic diuresis and dehydration.

Since Kusuf also has been diagnosed with Ketosis and Acidosis, the key to treatment of DKA is volume repletion, insulin therapy, and specific metabolic corrections.

One of the first steps in managing type 1 DM is diet control. According to the ADA policy, the diet treatment is based upon nutritional assessment and treatment goals. Diet recommendations should be made in view of the patient's eating habits and lifestyle.

Diet management includes education about the timing, size, frequency, or composition of meals to avoid hypoglycemia or postprandial hyperglycemia. All patients on insulin should receive a comprehensive diet plan that includes a daily caloric intake prescription; recommendations for amounts of dietary carbohydrate, fat, and protein; and how to divide calories between meals and snacks. A professional dietitian should be involved to create the individual diet plan.

In these patients, the caloric distribution is important; a recommended distribution consists of 20% of daily calories for breakfast, 35% for lunch, 30% for dinner, and 15% for late evening snack.

The minimum protein requirement for good nutrition is 0.9 g/kg/d (range = 1-1.5 g/kg/d), but a reduced protein intake is indicated in cases of nephropathy.

Fat intake should be limited to 30% or less of the total calories, and a low-cholesterol diet is recommended.

Patients should consume sucrose in moderation and increase their fiber intake. In some cases, midmorning and midafternoon snacks are important to avoid hypoglycemia.

Also, Yasaf should begin to exercise regularly. Exercise is an important aspect of diabetes management. Patients should be encouraged to exercise regularly. Educate the patients about the effects of exercise on the blood glucose level. If patients are planning to participate in rigorous exercise for more than 30 minutes, they may develop hypoglycemia. To prevent hypoglycemia, they either can decrease the insulin by 10-20% or can have an extra snack. These patients must maintain their hydration status during exercise.

If Yasaf follows these steps than he will have a greater chance of deterring his diabetes from complicating his life in the future. Though common in young children of his age, and especially among white children, such cases can be detrimental to mental health as well as the obvious physical symptoms. Such a diagnosis, for Yasaf and for…… [read more]

Risk Factors for Mr. Jablonski Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (821 words)
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5 ounces nuts; 1 tablespoon or 1/2 ounce seeds;

1/2 cup cooked dry beans

Fats & oils teaspoon soft margarine; 1 tablespoon lowfat mayonnaise;

2 tablespoons light salad dressing; 1 teaspoon vegetable oil

Sweets per week tablespoon sugar; 1 tablespoon jelly or jam; 1/2 ounce jelly beans; 8 ounces lemonade

Source: National Institute of Health

The diet changes required for treating Mr. J's hypertension are more or less the same as for reducing his LDL cholesterol except that he has to reduce his salt intake to less than 6 grams per day. It is always difficult to make drastic changes in any long-time habit specially one's diet. However, Mr. J would have to be bluntly told about the absolute necessity of a diet change. Only a bit of 'shock therapy' about his condition is likely to convince him to change.

Lab and Clinical Tests

Mr. J would have to have his LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure monitored regularly. In addition it is advisable that he gets his triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, VLDL, and blood-sugar (glucose) levels monitored. This is because he already has elevated LDL cholesterol and hypertension, while he is a potential candidate for diabetes. The rest of his lipid profile also needs to be monitored.

Benefit of Losing Weight

Mr. J would benefit from weight loss as this would lower his high LDL cholesterol level, reduce his high BP, help control his cigarette smoking and, as a result, reduce his risk of getting CHD or a heart attack. (He would also look and feel better!) In order to lose weight one must burn more calories than one's intake, and physical activity results in burning of calories. For example a person weighing 200 pounds (Mr. J's weight) who eats the same amount of calories but walks briskly for 1 1/2 miles a day would lose approx. 14 lbs. In one year. Other ways in which Mr. J would benefit from a weight loss program are the development of a stronger heart and lungs through increased physical activity.

Nutrition Considerations after a Heart Attack or Stroke

During the first week following a heart attack, it is advisable to take several small meals, low in salt and to avoid cold fluids. The same dietary plan as described for prevention of CHD and stroke are subsequently applicable in a post heart-attack situation. However, the nutrition considerations for Mr. J, if…… [read more]

Nutrition and Cognitive Learning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In an effort to address the problem of low nutritional levels, many students have implemented school breakfast programs, building coalitions to improve the school nutrition and physical activity environment, teaching nutrition curriculum, and adding more physical activity for children, using federal snack program reimbursement as a foundation (ADA, 1995).

Recent research suggests that many aspects of nutrition can have an… [read more]

Diet as an Effective Treatment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,247 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Excessive amounts of a particular vitamin or mineral and a substantially low amount on the other nutrients needed by the body can trigger serious health illnesses to develop. Overnutrition usually develops as a result of an individual's lifestyle, wherein alcoholism, smoking, and eating patterns and habits alter the body's proper functioning. Like undernutrition, the elderly also become vulnerable to overnutrition, which is one common result of aging. Subsisting to alcoholism and/or smoking can result to high blood pressure or cholesterol, which can lead to heart diseases. Similarly, "fad diets" and other new forms of food diets that deprive an individual from receiving equal amounts of essential vitamins and nutrients in the body often result to an instability in the body's supply of nutrients. Improper food diets lacking vegetables and fruits or meat and protein-rich foods can eventually lead to the development of chronic illnesses (Beers and Berkow 2003). Overnutrition is mainly characterized by "abdominal findings," which often concerns the internal organs in the body affected by the following lifestyles enumerated a while ago. However, one of the most evident effect and symptom of overnutrition is the alteration of one's behavior, such as the development of increased anxiety, depression, and/or irritation (Grigsby 2002).

It is evident that malnutrition is a prevalent health disorder that can result to death if it goes undetected or no immediate and proper medical intervention is used. In America, overnutrition occurs in almost 1.1 million Americans through obesity and overweight conditions (AHA 2003). On the other hand, undernutrition is prevalent in 13 million American children as a result of food insufficiency due to improper food diets (Guarino 2002). Thus, an effective treatment must be used to solve the increasing problem of malnutrition not only in the U.S., but in the whole world as well. Among the solutions offered to prevent malnutrition, subsisting to a proper food diet remains to be the most effective and feasible solution to malnutrition. A guideline to obtain information of the proper food diet is through the Food Guide Pyramid, which lists the proper foods in appropriate amounts needed by the body. The Food Guide Pyramid lists and locates foods needed most by the body in the base, while the least nutritious foods are located in apex or on top of the pyramid. The proper food diet using this source lists breads and cereals as the primary sources of the body's energy; fruits and vegetables take the second place in the food hierarchy; and meats and protein-rich food ranks as third (Medical Encyclopedia 2003). It can be observed that as the hierarchy goes up the pyramid, the amounts of food needed for each level decreases, suggesting that the body needs more of the first 2 levels (bread, cereals and vegetables and fruits) than the other higher levels (meat and fats, oil, and sweets). Through a proper food diet like the Food Guide Pyramid, the human body will become healthy and resistant to illness and diseases, and problems of malnutrition can now be prevented… [read more]

Weight Watchers Diet System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,873 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Alexander et al.)

The Adkins Diet Plan

Another popular diet trend today is the Adkins Diet, which is vastly different from the Weight Watchers system. This diet plan was founded in 1972 by the now deceased Dr. Robert Atkins, who was a cardiologist and businessman. Atkins developed his diet plan though personal experience losing weight after seeing a photograph of… [read more]

Diets and Young Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (808 words)
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Then the plan gradually begins to add some of these items back into the diet. The first two weeks may be so difficult that many dieters do not stick with the plan long-term.

The Atkins diet is so popular that a whole industry of low-carb foods has grown up around it. However, this low-carbohydrate diet is so restrictive, that it is difficult to stay on for any length of time, and it cuts out nearly all fruits, grains, and sugars, especially in the initial stages of the diet, so it is quite difficult to maintain, and it is quite expensive, since it relies heavily on proteins, such as meats and cheeses. This diet is not concerned with fat, and it might be perfect for those people who do not enjoy a lot of vegetables and fruits in their diet. However, it is quite restrictive, and cuts out so many foods that nutritionally, it is not sound, or even desirable to stay on it for a long period.

The cabbage soup diet is quite popular because it helps a person lose quite a bit of weight in a short amount of time, and it is relatively easy to stay on for a week. This diet combines low fat and high-fiber to accomplish weight loss, and it might help lead the way into a longer lasting diet plan. However, the diet only lasts a week, and it is quite restrictive in terms of what you can eat. It is not meant for long-term weight loss, and so, it is not nutritionally sound. This diet may be fine to lose a few extra pounds, but it should not be considered a nutritional lifestyle.

The ideal weight for a person is not what the media portrays. The ideal weight for a person is a weight they can maintain comfortably, that makes them feel good about themselves but does not put their health at risk, and that allows them to live a healthy lifestyle. This can differ from person to person, and it is not reed thin, it is, most of all, healthy. Young women today do not see weight as a health issue, it is an issue of how they look to others, and this idea that ultra-thin is the best weight is creating havoc with women's bodies and their emotions.… [read more]

Pros and Cons Omega-3 Fatty Acids Article

Article  |  3 pages (1,018 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Mediterranean diets are also different from the standard American diet in that they have fewer foods high in omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-6 fatty acids are also essential but they tend to promote rather than reduce inflammation. "The typical American diet tends to contain 14-25 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids, which many nutritionally oriented physicians consider to be way too high on the omega-6 side. The Mediterranean diet, on the other hand, has a healthier balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids" (Ehrlich 2011). Foods high in omega-6 include vegetable oils such as corn, soy, and sunflower oil as well as most nuts. Many highly processed foods contain these types of oils.

It should be noted that the key is having the right balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids: one type is not 'good' while the other type is not 'bad.' Another problem with the idea that omega-3s are better than omega-6s is that people may overdose on omega-3 supplements, which can cause problems on its own. For example, "people who eat more than 3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day (equivalent to 3 servings of fish per day) may have higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke, a potentially fatal type of stroke in which an artery in the brain leaks or ruptures" (Ehrlich 2011). And "a study by scientists at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle linked eating a lot of oily fish or taking potent fish oil supplements to a 43% increased risk for prostate cancer overall, and a 71% increased risk for aggressive prostate cancer" (LeWine 2013). High doses of omega-3s may inhibit blood clotting, so people who bruise or bleed easily should use high-dose supplements with extreme caution and only under physician supervision. Patients on blood-thinning medications like warfarin (Coumadin) and aspiring should also be very cautious about dramatically increasing omega-3s in their diet (Ehrlich 2011).

For most of us, the best way to ensure that we are getting enough omega-3s and the right balance of omega-6s with omega-3s is to increase the amount of fatty fish we eat in our diets and to minimize our consumption of processed foods which contain vegetable oils. Just like during the fat free craze, food marketing companies are now jumping on the omega-3 bandwagon and many are supplementing their breakfast cereals and peanut butters with fish oil and other sources of omega-3. Supplements and fortified products, though, do not seem to provide the same benefits as natural sources and for some consumers may pose risks because of the potential for overdoses. As with everything, the key to incorporating omega-3s into your life is balance.


Ehrlich, S. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids

LeWine, F. (2013). Fish oil: Friend of foe? Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from:

http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/fish-oil-friend-or-foe-201307126467… [read more]

Obesity in Preschoolers Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


, 2012). Most preschoolers (60%) consume too much fat in their diets, and only about a third (34% of boys and 33% of girls) consume the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables each day (Cariun et al., 2012). Nearly a quarter (24%) of young people eat too many high-fat, low-nutritional value foods, particularly fried foods, candy, soft drinks and cookies (Cariun et al., 2012).

As a child, the only punishments used to compel me to eat the proper foods was being forced to remain at the table on occasion until I at least tried new foods (a time-consuming enterprise on many occasions). Rewards consisted of going to A&W for ice-cold root beer and hot dogs or making homemade peach ice cream on hot summer nights at the grandparents (this was the best ice cream and time ever). Overcoming picky eating habits can be a challenge for many parents, but parents can help promote healthy eating habits by ensuring their preschoolers eat breakfast and are provided with the above-listed recommended daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, dairy and oils.


Cariun, C., Taut, D., & Baban, A. (2012, March). Self-regulatory strategies for eating behavior in children and adolescents: A concept mapping approach. Cognitie, Creier,

Comportament, 16(1), 49-54.

Daniels, S.R. (2006, Spring). The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47-51.

Doong, J.Y. & Shariff, Z.M. (2008, April). Growth status of low-income preschool children and the relation of birth weight to short stature and overweight. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 90(2),…… [read more]

Stress and Nutrition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (741 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


d.). Ingesting caffeine may also lead to irritability and difficulty sleeping, both of which can make stress worse. Other foods that are problematic for triggering a strong response to stress are sugar and carbohydrates (Seaward, n.d.). These are, however, commonly found in foods that people like to eat when they feel stress. That creates a serious problem for them, because they are exacerbating the problems they already have by consuming foods that increase their stress response (Khansari, et al., 1990). That can lead these people to have anxiety attacks, generalized problems with anxiety, or simply an elevated stress level that can be very hard on the body over time. Those who are allergic to specific foods should also avoid those foods, as they can trigger a bad reaction that can increase stress, as well.

According to Seaward, there are four stress domino factors. These are nutrient depletion, more nutrient depletion, stress-trigger foods, and a suppressed immune system (Seaward, n.d.). When a person becomes stressed and does not eat properly, a number of nutrients are lost. The longer the stress goes on the more nutrient depletion is seen, because the person starts to lose the building blocks he or she needs in order to allow some nutrients to attach to other nutrients and be properly absorbed by the body (Seaward, n.d.). The stress-trigger foods are then often eaten because the person does not feel well, and wants the psychological comfort that these foods can bring. While that makes sense from a mental health standpoint, it is actually a dangerous proposition because it only makes the already bad situation much worse (Seaward, n.d.). This leads to a suppressed immune system that is very unhealthy, and that can cause a person to fall victim to everything from a common cold to life-threatening ailments (Seaward, n.d.). Breaking the cycle as soon as possible is very important, and stress reduction is needed to do that.


Khansari, D.N., Murgo, A.J., et al. (1990). Effects of stress on the immune system. Immunology Today, 44(26): 170-175.

Seaward, B.L. (n.d.). The domino effect. Authenticliving.com. Retrieved from: http://www.brianlukeseaward.com/downloads/DominoEffect.pdf… [read more]

Nutrition for the Older Patient Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Nutrition for Adults Over Fifty:

Supporting healthy aging

The fundamental principles of good nutrition -- eating within one's calorie limit, plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, and regular exercise -- remain constant regardless of the stage of life. However, there are certain age-specific recommendations for older adults regarding diet and exercise which are important to keep in mind to maintain a healthy body and attitude. For example, older adults have trouble absorbing the critical nutrient B12: eating more foods rich in B12 such as fish, chicken, and moderate fat dairy products are recommended (Jaret 2013). Dairy products are also an abundant source of calcium, a vital component in guarding against osteoporosis, which afflicts many elderly adults, particularly women. "Other good dietary sources of calcium include kale and broccoli, as well as juices fortified with calcium" (Jaret 2013). Vitamin D can facilitate the absorption of calcium. Hip fractures and broken bones can be particularly detrimental to older adults, given the difficulty of rehabilitating from a serious injury and also the psychological blow to their physical confidence. Older adults may also need more fiber and water than their younger counterparts to facilitate healthy elimination.

Metabolic rate slows with age, reducing calorie needs. People who have struggled with their weight throughout their lives may experience additional challenges while even those who maintained a healthy weight may struggle to keep pounds off. Obesity is just as if not more detrimental to the health of the elderly. "Obese elders have an increased risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease" and metabolic slowing combined with increased difficulty in exercise can compound this (Getz 2013). Weight loss must be managed carefully, however, given that older patients are already losing muscle mass naturally as a consequence of aging and dramatic weight loss inevitably results in some loss of muscle as well as fat. Also, for some adults, eating too little rather than too much may be the more serious issue if illness, mobility, or even economic factors are interfering with their ability to consume adequate amounts of calories.

However, it is important not to solely focus on diet alone in terms of strengthening…… [read more]

Nutrition Public Health Nutritionists Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,219 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Public Health Nutritionists

Public Health Nutrition consists of the promotion of good health through nutrition in order to reduce diet related illness within the population. The emphasis is on the health and well being of the entire population. This is done by developing programs that take into consideration all aspects of food and nutrition. This includes a wide range of partners at local, regional and national levels, for example, education, voluntary and community sectors. The increased importance on promoting public health and reducing health inequalities has provided great opportunities for nutritionists. The unique knowledge, skills and experience of nutritionists help to support the delivery of the public health agenda, in particular that of public health nutrition (Dietitians: working to improve public health through nutrition, 2008).

Most nutritionists contribute to public health by supporting dietary change to promote well being and prevent ill health. One way in which public health nutritionists contribute is by promoting the public health nutrition agenda. Across the UK a series of policies, strategies, initiatives and services have been developed to implement the public health and public health nutrition agenda (Dietitians: working to improve public health through nutrition, 2008).

Public Health Nutrition is the use of the science of nutrition for the benefit of the population as a whole, or sub-sections of the population. It includes promotion of good health through nutrition and the primary prevention of diet-related illness in the population. Although an important aspect of public health nutrition is establishing the relationships between nutrition and health or disease risk at a research level, equally important is nutrition-related health promotion. This comprises the type of work that is done by many of the nutritionists working in the food industry and related trade associations, government, health promotion, and by dietitians working in the community (All about Careers in Nutrition UK, 2004).

The definition used by the UK Nutrition Society for the science and practice of nutrition and the function of a nutritionist includes the following:

The science of nutrition includes all the physiological processes and biological interactions which occur between living organisms and the foods that they consume. These include the psychological, sociological, environmental (including ecological), cultural and technological factors which influence food choice, with a focus on the consequences for health.

The practice of nutrition is to move forward, apply and promote understanding of the effects of dietary components from farm to plate on growth, development, reproductive capacity, health and well-being within the population.

The function of a nutritionist includes research along with disseminating and applying scientific knowledge drawn from the relevant sciences to promote health and prevent diet-related illness within the population (NSA Voluntary Register of Nutritionists, 2007).

A nutritionist can clearly have a varied range of professional functions and operate in a wide variety of settings. Depending on the area a nutritionist may be involved in providing information and/or training programs, in identifying new issues and directions or developing, implementing and evaluating nutrition policy. Depending on the context they may also have to… [read more]

South Beach Diet Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


South Beach Diet: Help or Hype?

The South Beach Diet is a weight loss plan that severely restricts carbohydrate intake. According to Kellow (2010) there are two primary claims that the South Beach Diet makes. The first is that the dieter will lose up to 13 pounds in the first two weeks. The second is that the majority of the fat lost will come from the dieter's waistline. These claims were made by the diet's originator, Arthur Agatston, in his bestselling book the South Beach Diet: The Delicious, Doctor-Designed, Foolproof Plan for Fast and Healthy Weight Loss. But does this diet deliver on its promises? And even if it does, is it safe? Because of the popularity of this diet plan, along with its potential health risks, it is critically important to analyze it. In order to do this, one must first examine how the diet works.

How it Works

The basic principles of the South Beach diet revolve around what is known as the Glycemic Index (GI). As Mendosa (2008) explains, "The glycemic index ranks foods on how they affect our blood glucose levels. This index measures how much your blood glucose increases in the two or three hours after eating" (par. 1). Essentially what this means is that carbohydrates break down into sugars after they are ingested. They are then absorbed into the blood, raising the individual's blood sugar levels which, in turn, triggers a release of insulin. When the foods ingested have a high GI and are loaded with carbohydrates, this causes the individual's blood sugar level to drop, causing the body to crave more carbohydrates. This creates a vicious cycle of hunger that causes people to eat more and gain weight. Making weight gain even more likely is the fact that the body begins to build up a tolerance to the insulin response, which results in the storage of more fat around the belly (Kellow, 2010). Therefore the theory behind the South Beach Diet is that if dieters severely restrict the amount of carbohydrates they eat, they will break this cycle and start losing weight, particularly in the stomach area.

The types of foods with the highest GI include (those scoring 70 or more) include bagels, white rice, white bread and potatoes. In contrast, the types of foods with the lowest GI (those scoring 70 or more) include artificially sweetened yogurt, peanuts and tomatoes ("High" n.d.). While some diet plans focus almost solely on fat intake or calorie intake, the South Beach Diets puts carbohydrate intake above all else. This does not mean that it allows dieters to eat as much fat and calories as they like, however. The originator of the diet, Agatston (2005), suggests that saturated fats and trans fats be replaced by more heart-healthy substitutes such as legumes and olive oil because "ounce for ounce, fats have more calories than carbs" (p. 18).

In terms of execution, the South Beach Diet is divided in three phases. Phase one lasts two weeks (14 days)… [read more]

Explore the Individuals Experience of Night Eating Syndrome and How it Affects Their Life Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  23 pages (7,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Night Eating

Explore The Individuals Experience Of Night Eating Syndrome And How It Affects Their Life

Night Eating Syndrome

The Individual's Experience of Night Eating Syndrome and how it Affects Their Life


The problem of night eating syndrome has become a focus of research in recent years largely due to the debate about its relationship to various eating disorders… [read more]

High Sugar Consumption Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,471 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


High Sugar Consumption

Sugar is a natural source of energy found or added to foods and meant to be burned by metabolism or exercise (Green 2011). When ingested in moderation, it does no harm. It is over-consumption, which has been linked to health-related conditions. Among these conditions are obesity, a damaged immune system, which increases vulnerability to diseases and infections,… [read more]

Born to Be Big Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,102 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Born to Be Big

Childhood obesity has become an epidemic. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the incidence has more than tripled in the last thirty years. Obese youth are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, bone and joint problems, and sleep apnea. Obese youth are more likely to suffer… [read more]

Diet and Heart Disease Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Diet and Heart Disease

Over the last several decades, heart disease has become one of the leading causes of death throughout the Western world. In the United States, the number fatalities associated with the condition stands at a1.4 million deaths each year. According to the American Heart Association this condition is so extreme that it account for nearly $142 billion in lost productivity (each year). This is from: increased time off at work and the direct impact of the utilizing an increasing amount of health care services (as this is necessity for most people who are affected by the condition). (Yeung, 2009, pg. 447) This is troubling, because it shows how the problem has become so severe; that it is beginning to impact a significant portion of the adult population. However, there are sub-groups within the population that have been avoiding the common trends that are occurring in mainstream society. An area where this can be seen is with Seventh Day Adventists, as their lifestyle choices have helped certain segments of the population to avoid the common ailments affecting Western society. The problem is that many research studies are limited, by looking at select factors while ignoring others. For example, one area that could be helping to improve the lives of individuals is the use of natural supplements, in associate with their lifestyle. This is significant, because ignoring the effects of natural supplements on this group of the population, could mean that key areas of significance are overlooked. To determine why this population group is avoiding heart disease requires: looking at their lifestyle and the effects that taking natural supplements could play in mitigating the condition. This will be accomplished by: examining the hypothesis / design study, discussing the population sample, the methodology that will be used, possible areas of bias and how the two hypothesis; can help in the implementation of effective public health policy. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights as to how an effective research study can be conducted on both theories.

Section 1

For simplification purposes, the paper will be subdivided into the two different sections, where we will examine each of the two different hypotheses. In this section we will be discussing why Seventh Day Adventists are less susceptible to heart disease.

What is the hypothesis? What study design will be used to test the hypothesis?

The first hypothesis is: Seventh-Day Adventists are less susceptible to heart disease, because of their strict dietary habits. The design study that will be used to test the hypothesis will be qualitative research. This is when we will be examining a number of different pieces of information, to determine what will be taking place. ("What is Qualitative Research," 2007) Where, researchers will be seeking to understand why this is occurring by looking at: different studies and corroborating them with our own. Once this occurs, it will provide the most accurate results, which will to support or refute the hypothesis being presented.

What population will serve… [read more]

Knowledge of Saudi High School Students About Healthy Diet Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Knowledge Levels of Saudi High School Students about Healthy Diet Choices to Reduce the Prevalence of Obesity

Introduction and Theoretical Framework

This program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of mathematics and biostatistics within the area of public education. Within public education, there is mounting evidence that poor diet choices and increasingly sedentary… [read more]

Attitude Toward Diet and Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Attitude toward Diet and Exercise

I have always been interested in exercise and physical fitness but my attitude toward it has changed significantly over time. Like many people, I used to think that exercise was the only important part of achieving specific fitness goals. For example, I used to believe (and tell other people) that the key to losing weight was to do a lot of aerobic exercise. I used to be opposed to focusing on dieting for that purpose because my only real experience with dieting was my exposure to some of the fad diets popularized in the media.

I used to believe that it hardly mattered what you eat as long as you do enough exercise to burn off extra calories and lose unwanted weight. I knew from my personal experience that anytime I wanted to reduce my weight or tone up, all I had to do was workout a little more often or harder and longer. Without fail, every time I did that I was able to lose as much weight as I wanted to without any kind of dietary changes; I just continued eating whatever I wanted but I exercised more if I thought I needed to lose any weight or tone up. Therefore, it always bothered me when people had any kind of special diets or eating habits. My attitude was that people who are unhappy with their body weight should just exercise more and stop worrying about what they eat. I practiced what I preached by making sure that I compensated for eating a lot by going to the gym and making sure that I did enough aerobic exercise to make up for weekends of eating pizza.

Then, I became friendly with someone who is a professional fitness trainer with degrees in nutrition and exercise physiology; she also competes in amateur bodybuilding contests. She explained to me that exercise is only one component of weight control and that dietary factors are actually more important for maintaining optimal body weight than exercise. I was skeptical at first but then she showed me…… [read more]

High Fiber Diet and Serum Lipids Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,357 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


High Fiber Diet and Serum Lipids

The study reported herein addresses the question of "What affect does a high fiber diet have on serum lipids in adults?"

The significance of this study is the additional information that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of study and the synthesis of the information and research… [read more]

Agriculture Animal Nutrition and Feed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (620 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


In other words, low-quality feed based on past assumptions has created a feeding situation in which the nutrition needs of the animals are not being met.

In order to combat this deficiency, new trends in research have been developed to increase ruminant productivity and health through a balanced nutrient approach. In fact, research into ruminant feeds and nutrition has been proceeding along these lines, with definite gains being made into deepening our understanding of how nutrients are absorbed from the ruminant digestive tract from various feeds, especially common, low-quality feeds. In particular, researchers must pay attention to microbial growth efficiencies in the rumen and the ratio of amino acids to nutrient energy. When these twin understandings are applied to "diets based on relatively poor quality roughage, surprisingly high levels of production can be achieved" (4). In essence, a deeper knowledge of how nutrients are processed in the rumen from different feeds will allow us to better improve animal nutrition through feeds and enhance animal health and productivity.

In conclusion, we must recognize that the health and productivity of ruminants demands a balanced approach to nutrients and feed, with evaluations built on a solid understanding of the workings of the rumen ecosystem itself. Such an understanding will allow researchers to better design feeds that more efficiently deliver needed nutrients to stock animals. In addition, we should expect that more efficient nutrient delivery in ruminants should allow researchers to help ameliorate metabolic and diet-based diseases and syndromes, as well as increasing the general productivity of feed-to-meat/dairy ratios.

Works Cited

Leng, R.A. "Quantitative Ruminant Nutrition -- A Green Science." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 1993. 16 Dec. 2009 .… [read more]

Nutrition During the Infancy and Toddler Hood Period Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Nutrition During Infancy and Toddler-Hood

The first year of a baby's life is a crucial time of development. Good nutrition is important for overall health, bone growth and density, and even at this early age, beginning to adjust the baby's tastes to the nutritious foods that will sustain its good health over a lifetime.

The very first decision a parent must make is whether to provide the baby's primary nutrition through breast-feeding or by providing formula. The breast milk or a formula fortified with iron are the only food a baby requires for the first four to six months of its life.

Children become the "structures" they are built from. What goes into their bodies as infants and toddlers will determine the habits they form regarding good vs. bad nutrition. And whether the structure is solid and lasting, or unstable and feeble, will be a result of their nutrition beginning their first day on earth.

After those first few months of liquids, babies and then toddlers need fruits and vegetables. Whole grains are a must. They also need nutrition for their continuing forming and growing bones in the form of calcium. Proteins are important from fish, poultry, meat and eggs. Other plant sources would suffice as well. All these foods give their bodies those vitamins and minerals that are required to ensure the child grows strong and healthy.

Among those commodities that are not required by infants, toddlers, or children of any age, is sugar in large quantities. It is debated whether large doses of sugar cause severe behavioral changes in these young people, but it is known that it does cause adrenalin surges a few hours after consumption which affects their energy level. And, as we all know, sugar is a major contributor to obesity, which is a huge problem among children today.

Good nutrition is also important for the mental growth of the child -- their ability to learn.…… [read more]

Childhood Obesity Is Growing at an Alarming Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,938 words)
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Childhood obesity is growing at an alarming pace presenting serious health and socio economic consequences. A multi-pronged approach involving parental guidance and school-based initiatives, is necessary for tackling this preventable problem from developing into an unmanageable healthcare crisis. This coordinated approach is the key to promoting healthy life style modifications in our children who are the future of our country.… [read more]

Nutrition the Body Depends on Its Method Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (363 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



The body depends on its method of digestion in order to pull out to vital nutrients and vitamins it needs to survive out of the foods that we eat. The body separates digestion into two modes: mechanical and chemical. Due to the fact that we eat such a wide variety of different types of foods, there are different approaches the body takes in order to most successfully digest each individual item. For instance, digesting a carrot is different than a greasy piece of pizza filled with fats.

When one eats a carrot, the first step in the digestion process is the mechanical digestion. This occurs within the mouth and consists of the chewing and grinding of food between the teeth in order to "help separate the different types of molecules," (George Mateljan Foundation 2009) happens in the mouth. After this process, the carrot then travels down the throat and into the lower parts of the digestion system. This is where the chemical process of digestion begins. In the chemical process of digestion enzymes "cut the bonds within the molecules, to…… [read more]

Advertising's Affect / Impact on Americans' Diet Choices Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,227 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Advertising Impact on American's Bad Diet Choices

And why we are Lured to Eat "Bad" Food

The reason Americans, young and old, make bad diet choices and eat too much fast food is because advertising and promotions lure them into it.

Did you know that, each year, the fast food business spends billions upon billions of dollars on advertisements for… [read more]

Evidence for an Anti-Cancer Diet Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Anti Cancer Diet

Research has indicated that almost 30 to 40% of all cancers could be prevented just by means of a healthy diet alone. [Donaldson S, 2004] From the vast majority of studies conducted on dietary cancer research, it is inferred that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits, high levels of fiber, folic acid, carotenoids and other anti-oxidants has the best protective effect for cancer. Researchers have found that a high fiber diet helps to stabilize blood glucose levels. High fiber diet is also thought to have a protective effect especially in some forms of cancer. Slattery et al. (2002) found that a combination of whole grains, vegetables, and fruit diet was inversely associated with cancer while a diet rich in refined grains was positively associated with rectal cancer. [Slattery et al. (2002)]

Research points out that Sulforophane, a phytochemical found in some vegetables has good antioxidative properties and good chemopreventive potential. Sulforophane is naturally found in high quantities in broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables. High intakes of these vegetables are currently studied for their effective anti-cancer properties. [OSU] Studies have also shown that Omega 3 fatty acid, an important member of the unsaturated fatty acids, has an important role in the expression of the breast cancer suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. [Bernard et.al, (2002)] Flax seeds are an important natural source of omega 3 fatty acids. Another study by the Thomson research group revealed that feeding tumor affected mice with 10% flax seed diet resulted in a 45% reduction of cancer growth rate. [Chen J, et.al, (2002)] Some studies have also focused on the intake of vitamin C and its anti-cancer properties. Studies have shown that ascorbate is toxic to cancer cells but its effect is realized only when vitamin C is administered intravenously. [Padayatty SJ, (2004)]

Recently studies have reported that low folic acid in diet may be a high risk factor in colon cancer. For this particular study, the researchers developed human colon cells in two different culture mediums one with folic acid and one without it. It was noticed that the folate-depleted culture medium resulted in cellular DNA damage, which is an important marker of cancer risk. This study clearly suggests that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits that have high concentrations of folate constitutes an effective anti-cancer effect. [ScienceDaily] Recently, studies have also confirmed the long known efficacy of Green tea, an important anti-cancer agent. The antioxidant and immunopotentiating properties of green tea are ascribed to epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin-3-gallate, the two important polyphenol components. EGCG induces apoptosis and promotes cell growth arrest by down regulating pro-inflammatory factor kappa B. And by promoting interleukin 23-based cellular repair mechanisms. [Butt Ms, 2009]

A diet rich in refined sugars, low fiber and red meat presents a high-risk formula for developing cancer. Research has concluded that a high calorie diet (over consumption) is also a predisposing factor for developing…… [read more]

Evidence for an Anti-Aging Diet Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (783 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Anti-Aging Diet

The quest for immortality is as old as time. While most understand that true immortality is unachievable, delaying the natural aging process is still highly sought. The process of aging includes not only wrinkles, but also memory loss -- especially Alzheimer's Disease, decreased brain function, adult-onset diabetes, and an increasing risk for chronic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and certain cancer (Roth, 2005; Zelman, 2009; Levenson & Rich, 2007). One of the more popularized of preventing this deterioration of the body due to aging today involves a diet based on calorie restriction.

Anti-Aging Calorie Restriction Diet:

Calorie restriction is the only "non-genetic intervention known to slow aging and extend life span in organisms ranging from yeast to mice" (Wei et al., 2008, p. 0139). Calorie restriction for anti-aging benefits, an idea that was first conceived in the 1930s (Chiarpotto, Bergamini & Poli, 2006), is much as the name implies -- a diet of eating fewer calories than what is necessary to maintain an individual's normal weight. In addition to restricting calories, this diet also involves monitoring food intake to ensure the proper level of vitamins and nutrients are being consumed, despite the reduced calories. Often a calorie restriction diet is centered on vegetables and whole grains, which offer a higher nutrient content with a lower calorie count ("Calorie restriction," 2007). Although the concept of calorie restriction is the same, the actual level of calorie restriction varies dependent on the source.

The Mayo Clinic cites studies with calorie reduction levels of 20 to 25% of their normal daily caloric intake, for weight maintenance, for human beings. A 2,000 calorie daily requirement would have the individual eating between 1,500 to 1,600 calories daily ("Calorie restriction," 2007). In contrast, it has been found that a much more restricted diet, of a 40%-reduced calorie diet, in rats to be effective, whereas Rhesus monkeys tolerated a 30% reduction in caloric intake without any adverse health effects (Bergamini et al., 2007; Masoro, 2007). Redman and Ravussin (2007) cite the Vallejo Study which studied 120 non-obese men. The 60 that followed a calorie reduced diet, of approximately 35% when compared to the control group, showed a lower death rate and a reduction of approximately 50% in hospital admissions. There are, however, no life-long studies for humans and a calorie restricted diet (Everitt & LeCouteur,…… [read more]

Nuts for Health Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,046 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Eating Nuts and Legumes" and evaluate the article. The article discusses why eating nuts and legumes can be part of a heart-healthy diet, and talks about some of the nutritional data on nuts and legumes that proves them to be beneficial to good nutrition. Specifically, the article singles out peanuts and macadamia nuts as sources of nutritional benefits, including lowering bad cholesterol and making the subjects feel fuller, longer when they ate them.

The publication where this article first appeared is the Journal of Nutrition in 2008. It is a well-respected journal for the American Society for Nutrition, a membership society that is "dedicated to bringing together the world's top researchers, clinical nutritionists and industry to advance our knowledge and application of nutrition for the sake of humans and animals" (Editors). It is the number three rated peer-reviewed journal in the nation in nutritional and dietetic topics, and it is indexed in several of the best medical journals and databases. Thus, the publication is extremely trustworthy and does not present information it has not researched, reviewed, and studied beforehand.

Unfortunately, the author is not available for this article, so it is not possible to assess them or their certifications and affiliations. However, it was presented at an Institute of Food Technologists meeting in 2008, indicating the presenter was a member or affiliated with the Institute, and a professional food technologist.

There does not seem to be any way that economic gain could come to this publisher for the information presented in this article. The article simply states facts about certain types of nuts and their nutritional value. If they offered the nuts for sale, or made outrageous health claims about the nuts, then there could be a problem, but the publication is simply offering knowledge and insight, and there is no way that economic gain could come to the publication. They could, however, urge nut producers or distributors to advertise in the magazine, but in my experience, peer-reviewed journals do not accept advertising unless it is for professional equipment or relates to professionals in some way, such as careers, and so advertising would not be available to nut retailers and wholesalers.

There is an official "feeding study" cited here, it states facts that were gained by the study, but does not note how many people participated. It does not they compared the diet with nuts to a "standard American diet." For example, the article notes, "Macadamia nuts are higher in monosaturated fats, compared with other tree nuts. A controlled feeding study was used to compare a heart-healthy diet with 1.5 ounces of macadamia nuts with a standard American diet" (Author not Available). They do have specific statistics about how much the nuts lowered the cholesterol in the diet compared with the cholesterol in a standard American diet. Clearly, this was a more casual study than a long-term diet study that looked at diet results for months or even years, but it was complex enough to show differences in… [read more]

Diets to Go Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (677 words)
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Diets to Go

How well in your estimation is the company's present strategy working? What are the strengths; weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the organization? How strong, if applicable, is the company's position? What strategic issues does this organization face in the next year? Next 5 years?

Diet to Go SWOT


At present, the obesity epidemic has gotten a great deal of publicity. Individuals are seeking to lose weight in record numbers. Diet to Go offers a way to lose weight, through controlled meal plans that eliminate the danger of cheating, as the entire meal structure of the dieter is controlled.


Diet to Go has a business model that is extremely problematic. First and foremost, during a recession, people are likely to cut back on eating out. By selling expensive premade meals, Diet to Go is a luxury for most consumers, not a necessity. Diet to Go involves not just eating out, but actually paying more to eat less, which people are unlikely to be willing to do if their budget is tight.


Fewer people know how to cook today. Thus if they must lose weight, they are more likely to use Diet to Go rather than to start from scratch and learn how to cook low-fat and low-calorie meals. Diet to Go is also a time-saver and offers a sane alternative to fast food.


Jenny Craig offers a similar diet plan, but with brick-and-mortar support, counseling, and cheaper food given that it is sold without shipping and handling costs. Weight Watchers offers a similar service, only with a more flexible points program -- consumers can buy Weight Watchers prepared meals in supermarkets if time-pressed, but the plan is less rigid. Weight Watchers is also more of a lifestyle plan, than a short-term quick fix diet.

If the economy continues to worsen, all diet companies are likely to suffer, but particularly high-end, high-cost boutique firms like Diet to Go. The recession is likely to be difficult for Diet to Go over the next…… [read more]

High Fiber Diet Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,384 words)
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The Nutrition Source: Fiber Start Roughing it! Retrieved Mar 31, 2009 at http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/fiber-full-story/index.html

The Harvard School of Public Health (2009) publishes a series of nutrition-related guides. One guide details the health effects of fiber. Although aimed at a general consumer audience, the "Fiber: Start Roughing it!" guide does include multiple references to empirical research related to the health benefits and effects of consuming a diet high in fiber. The introduction summarizes the different types of fiber (soluble and insoluble). The body of the report addresses specific health issues including colon cancer, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, diverticular disease, and constipation. The Harvard School of Public Health concludes with a "bottom line" list of recommendations for how many grams per day of fiber to include in a healthy diet. The conclusion also lists specific tips on how to increase intakes of fiber. Foods that are good sources of fiber include whole grain products, whole fruits as opposed to juices, and legumes.

One of the reasons why the Harvard School of Public Health (2009) Web site is a valuable resource is because the information included on the Web site is valid and reliable. Moreover, the information is presented clearly and with an absence of jargon. Statistics are included to underscore the importance of a high fiber diet and are used judiciously.

Another reason to refer to the Harvard School of Public Health (2009) Web site is to learn about how a high fiber diet can help with specific health problems, diseases, and ailments. Although far from being a thorough metaanalysis, the Harvard School of Public Health information sheet does inspire further investigation into how specific conditions react to an increase in dietary fiber. Finally, the authors recommend a gradual intake of fiber, coupled with a concurrent increase in water consumption. The recommendations for how to increase fiber intake are helpful for patients who are just learning about how to improve their lifestyle habits.

American Heart Association (2009). Fiber. Retrieved Mar 31, 2009 at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4574

The American Heart Association (2009) offers a thorough guide to dietary fiber with a specific focus on heart and arterial health. The guide lists a range of food sources from which dietary fiber can be obtained: not only whole grains. Moreover, the American Heart Association (2009) notes that the foods that are high in fiber also happen to be high in essential nutrients. The American Heart Association (2009) offers patients clear advice for how to increase dietary fiber, both soluble and insoluble. In addition to suggesting how much fiber a patient should aim to include in the diet, the American Heart Association also recommends that half of all grain products consumed be from whole grain.

Because of its focus on cardiovascular health, the American Heart Association (2009) mentions the role of fiber in reducing LDL cholesterol. Patients will learn that a diet high in fiber is superior to one that is only low in fat but not also high in fiber. Therefore, one of the best features… [read more]

Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (403 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Eating Disorders

Anorexia nervosa has been known to cause various physical and mental health problems. Among physical health risks are stunted growth, lowered immune system functions, amenorrhoea which causes women to stop menstruating, tooth decay, thinning of the hair, coldness, an chronic headaches, (Stoppler 2008).

Easting disorders can lead to a very distorted body image. Distorted self-image lesson the reality of one's real image and impose a unequivocal image in the mind. This then creates the paranoia of being overweight leading to lowered self-esteem. Constant worrying and leave one paranoid, hopeless, and depressed.

Society has always had a relation with cultural boy image and the individuals drive to meet that image. Recent years have painted particularly negative images of body representations when associated with fast food, and an ever growing dependency on the use of diets to slim down. These diets then fuel a multi-million dollar industry, and so the latest diet is always a craze to be forgotten for the next one.

4. Family environment plays a large role in current and past eating habits. In many cases, the parental influence helps mold what our children are eating. Yet, at the same time, parents are substituting desirous fatty foods in…… [read more]

Diets Hollywood (Miracle) Diet What Foods Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Hollywood ("Miracle") Diet


Hollywood Miracle Juice" is all you consume for forty-eight hours. This juice is 100% natural fruit juices and botanical extracts. Mix sixteen ounces of juice concentrate with sixteen ounces of water per day for forty-eight hours. And drink eight glasses of extra water per day.

For the Optimal Results: You shouldn't consume food, alcohol, caffeine or tobacco while on the "Hollywood 48-Hour Miracle Diet" and this includes chewing gum.


This diet is designed to cleanse, detoxify and rejuvenate your body, while losing unnecessary weight. The juice is formulated from a special blend of fruits, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, essential oils and other cleansing ingredients. With each day's serving you can receive up to and above 300% of the U.S.D.A. recommended amount of vitamins needed daily. If you are looking for a quick and easy way to lose a few pounds of water weight, or you are looking for a good tonic, detoxifying, and cleansing routine then this diet may be helpful. Fasting and tonics can be very beneficial to your overall health.

If you use this detox juice to jump-start a real program of diet and exercise with fundamental weight-loss practices you will probably receive more benefit from this Hollywood diet.


The "Hollywood 48-hour Miracle Diet" claims that you will lose ten pounds in forty-eight hours. This is a 'fad' diet and is not a sustainable weight loss technique. It is essentially a juice fast. Like most rapid weight loss, it's a loss of water and some muscle loss rather than fat. You will never lose ten…… [read more]

Global Nutrition Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (434 words)
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Global Nutrition

According to WHO (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/malnutrition/en/),protein-energy malnutrition is responsible for half of all under-five deaths each year in developing countries. Malnutrition can also cause chronic wasting of fat, muscle and other tissues, cretinism, irreversible brain damage, blindness and increased risk of infection and death from vitamin A deficiency.

Undernutrition is a disease of poverty and social exclusion, unhealthy environments and poor access to vital services..." (http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/index_36170.html).Poverty -- at the household, community and national levels -- results in lack of access to such basic necessities as food. A second cause is ignorance combined with prejudice against women, which deprives them of the rest and care they require during pregnancy and lactation, as well as access to education and economic resources (http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/subjindx/113hung.htm).Malnutrition is particularly acute in developing countries where an estimated 10% of children under five suffer from acute undernutrition (http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/index_36170.html).One third of the world's hungry people are South Asian; one quarter are from sub-Saharan Africa and the next largest populations are in East and Southeast Asia and in Latin America (http://www.thp.org/who_we_are/faq).

Unfortunately, malnutrition during war usually becomes more severe because militias commonly destroy, damage or loot crops, agricultural areas, livestock and drinking water installations (http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=11293&Cr=sudan&Cr1=).

In the United States, food is more readily available than in developing countries. Yet, there are still amply cases of malnutrition. The types…… [read more]

Days Food Intake Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (2,139 words)
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Nutritional Analysis

Food Analysis: Week One

Prior to doing my nutritional analysis, I believed that I ate a relatively balanced diet. I maintain a pretty stabile weight and am in pretty good shape, and think that my food choices are generally balanced. However, the results of my food analysis revealed that I am not eating the number of fruits and… [read more]

Correlation of Diet and Heart Disease Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Heart Disease is not a simple illness; rather it is a conglomeration of diseases that affect the heart and arteries, the vessels responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. Coronary artery disease, heart failure, and heart arrhythmias are three common types of heart disease. Coronary artery disease occurs when arteries become smaller, so it is difficult for blood to make it to the heart. This type of heart disease is the primary cause of heart attacks, a medical emergency that occurs when an artery is completely blocked and the heart is receiving too little blood for at least twenty minutes. Coronary artery disease also causes angina, chest pain that is caused by the heart getting too little blood. Angina is often a warning sign of a heart attack ("Heart Disease" 2007). Heart failure occurs when the heart is not pumping enough blood, so other organs do not receive all they need, and heart arrhythmias are irregular heart beats that are often normal but can sometimes cause faintness, dizziness, or shortness of breath ("Heart Disease" 2007).

The three main types of heart disease are relatively common and are associated closely with diet. According to the most recent statistics, taken in 2006, 71,300.000 Americans had at least one type of cardiovascular disease. The disease is most likely to affect the older population, with 27,400, 000 of the 71,300,000 being over the age of 65 in 2006. In terms of ethnicity, Hispanics, Asians, and whites are among the least likely to contract the disease. Around 9.9% of African-Americans, 13.8% of American Indians and Alaskan Natives, and 16.6% of Asians have the disease. On the contrary, only 5.6% of Asians, 7.7% of Hispanics, and 11.4% of whites have the disease (American Heart Association 2006). Women are especially prone to heart disease, and in 2003, two times as many women died from this disease and strokes than all types of cancer. Among women, African-Americans and Latinas must be especially vigilant, as these groups are more likely to suffer from heart disease because they display more risk factors ("Heart Disease" 2007).

Risk factors for heart disease are strongly linked to lifestyle choices, especially…… [read more]

Mediterranean Cuisine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,046 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … nutrition especially in the treatment of obesity. Specifically it will discuss the Mediterranean cuisine and its benefits in controlling weight. For the past two to three decades, food writers and nutritionists have been touting the benefits of a Mediterranean diet. Technically, this cuisine stretches from the shores of Morocco and the Middle East to North Africa and Southern… [read more]

Educational Intervention on the Balance Between Diet and Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (9,613 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Educational Intervention on the balance between Diet and Exercise

Energy Balance is the key to a healthy body

More and more people are becoming victims of obesity. While on one hand, the precise causes of this disease are still unclear, the general conclusion most scientists have agreed upon is the disparity between the energy consumed and the energy… [read more]

What Role Did Diet Play in the Evolution of Hominids Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,966 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … role did diet play in the evolution of hominids?

Importance of diet in the evolution of hominids

Introduction and overview prevalent theoretical stance used to explain the early processes of human evolution is that environment and bipedality are seen as primary factors in this process. "Modern theories of evolution consider the environment to be the directive force in… [read more]

Food Pyramid Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
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Food Pyramid

The triangle printed on most food packages has long been a nutritional guide on how to eat right each day. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) first developed this pyramid in the 1960s because of the increasing levels of heart disease. Despite the pyramid's revision a few years ago, some scientists, nutritionists and medical researchers still criticize it for being outdated and providing misinformation.

According to the Harvard School of Public Health's website, the USDA relied on scientists, nutrition experts, staff members as well as lobbyists from food industries, to define the food pyramid. In theory, the pyramid should reflect the nutrition advice assembled in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which the USDA states "provides authoritative advice for people two years and older about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases." By law, dietary guidelines must be revised every five years based on the latest scientific research. According to federal regulations, the panel writing the dietary guidelines must include nutrition experts who are leaders in pediatrics, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and public health. Panel member selection encourages lobbying from organizations as the National Dairy Council, United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association, Soft Drink Association, American Meat Institute, National Cattlemen's Beef Association, and Wheat Foods Council (Abboud, 2003).

Recently science writer Gary Taubes, who wrote the New York Times article five years ago "What if fat does not make you fat?," published a book Good Calories/Bad Calories: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom on Diet, Weight Control, and Disease. Taubes analyzes five decades of scientific research on obesity (Mabrey, 2007). Similarly, Harvard scientist Walter Willett, lists the food pyramid's six faults that are misinforming consumers: all fats are bad, all complex carbohydrates are good, protein is protein, dairy products are essential, eat potatoes and the lack of guidance on weight, exercise, alcohol, and vitamins (Harvard School of Public Health). The Harvard School of Medicine believes the USDA's revised "MyPyramid" is "the old Pyramid turned on its side," and it does not convey enough information for informed choices on diet and long-term health. Instead, Harvard…… [read more]

Diet How Many Grams of Fat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,143 words)
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How many grams of fat can you consume in a day and not exceed 30% of your calories from fat? How did you do in this area for the day you recorded?

The majority of the fat that I consumed consisted of near 60 calories per gram. Given these ratios, I would be restricted to consuming no more than 14.32 grams of fat per my 2,864 calorie diet. For the day I recorded my intake, I did not exceed the CNPP recommendations.

How many grams of saturated fat can you consume in a day and not exceed 10% of calories from saturated fat? How did you do in this area for the day you recorded?

The CNPP recommendation for an approximate 2,800 calorie intake diet is 31g or less, and I did not exceed this for the day of my recording ((1.)CNPP, 2007).


For the day you recorded your intake, if you ate a serving of a high-fat food, for example, lasagna, how could you avoid exceeding the recommended fat intake for the day?

There are two ways in which you may avoid exceeding the recommended fat levels in a particular food. One, in preparing the lasagna, low fat ingredients would help to level out the intake amounts per serving. Or two, I would have to ration the amounts of the lasagna eaten ((2.) CNPP, 2007).


If you could substitute a serving of lower fat lasagna for the higher fat choice, what effect would this have on your other food choices and on your calorie and nutrient intakes for that day?

Substituting a serving of lower fat lasagna would allow me to eat more sparingly of all other food choices. In not substituting the lower fat lasagna, I will have to dramatically decrease the overall intake amounts of the other food choices.


Considering regular lasagna, which ingredients most likely contribute most to the total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol in the higher fat lasagna selection?

The most likely total fat contributing ingredient would be either in the cheese or pasta, in the saturated fat; the cheese or meat, for cholesterol; the meat and pasta ((1) CNPP, 2007).


How could you change those ingredients to reflect a reduction in fat content?

Low fat cheese and a lean meat would be a substantial method to reduce the fat content in Lasagna.


How did the day's recorded total for calories and vitamins compare with your recommended amounts? Did the day's meals meet or exceed your need for energy? Describe how your actual intake varied from the CNPP recommendation.

Based on my exercise levels, I was close to my recommended calorie intake, but far from the recommended vitamin requirements. My days recommended total fat for calories met closely - within an approximate 35 calories. Though my intake met closely to the calorie requirements, my needs for vitamins and certain nutrients did not match up correctly. My calorie intake was roughly 30% off from the recommendation with nutrients and… [read more]

Childhood Obesity &amp Nutrition Evaluation of Contemporary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (4,811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15




The purpose of this work is to evaluate the available treatments and preventions for childhood obesity and clarify the pros and cons of the most prevalent treatments being used by today's medical professionals. The National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation states that maintenance of a balance "between energy intake and… [read more]

Nutrition Research Study Comparison of Handheld Computers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Nutrition Research Study

Comparison of Handheld

Computers for Nutrition Assessment and Support

This study, reported in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, was to find out the differences between the various handheld computers nutritionists use and to determine if one kind was better than others. The purpose of the study was to compare and analyze computational features on five commonly used handheld computers that are available for nutrition assessment and support. A secondary objective was to establish a strategy for nutritionists that would help them to choose the one best suited to their needs.

The researchers compared the objective and computational operating features of each of the five computers. Subjective features such as speed, which depends on the operator's experience, were not part of the study. Computational features and functions were placed in three classifications -- anthropometric, biochemical, or dietary assessment. For example, mean corpuscular volume and total lymphocyte count were considered biochemical. The researchers also determined what computations each handheld was capable of doing. From this they produced two Tables showing which handheld had which features and capabilities.

Results: Researchers found that some devices used Metropolitan Life…… [read more]

Healthy Diet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Superior sources of protein, such as eggs, meat and fish almost became a side dish on our daily plate. Interestingly enough, the desired effect stayed away. The result of the "no-fat mania" as the Eades (ibid) point out has been a fatter and less healthy America. Since the 1990s, a "counter-movement" against "low fat" appeared on the stage in the shape of so called "low carb." Advocates of this diet regimen, many of them medical doctors -- advocate a high fat, moderate protein and low carbohydrate diet regimen reportedly with good weight loss results naturally resulting in an overall-improvement of the "dieter's" health. The range of carbohydrate intake that these diets permit varies from 0 g carbohydrates per day to about 40 g carbohydrates per day for weight loss. Keep reminded that one single (1) five grain bagel has already more than 45 grams of carbohydrates and would surmount the daily allotment of carbohydrates. I wonder whether this sustainable in the long run. I also wonder whether it is necessary to succumb to either one of these extreme diets.

I have always been a strong advocator of a balanced diet where the entire caloric content of food comes from all three macronutrients that is sometimes coined: "The French Paradox" (Shulman, 1). The name is due to the observation of scientists that French people can consume foods that are known for causing weight gain -- white bread, cheese, rich sauces, red wine -- and still stay slim and healthy or even lose weight. Even better, their rates of heart diseases and stroke are significantly less than in North America (Shulman 1).

Scientists from… [read more]

Holistic Wellness Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Holistic Wellness

Targeted objective: Nutrition and Weight Status.

Target population: 11-20: adolescent/young adulthood.

Model of Health Promotion and Wellness: Holistic wellness: Self-inventory of personal wellness using the Medicine Wheel. (Lundy and Janes, 2009)

Overweight and obesity are among the biggest problems faced by American society today. A child is considered obese when the weight is at least 10% higher than is recommended for the particular height and body type of the child. Obesity in adolescence is a particularly difficult problem, since studies have suggested that children who are obese whey they are between 10 and 13 years old are 80% likely to become obese adults as well (American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2008). It is therefore an issue that could affect their future and their entire adult lives. Hence, the Health People 2020 objective of Nutrition and Weight Status is examined by means of the holistic wellness model suggested by the Medicine Wheel.

Physical wellness refers to the maintenance of the body, which entails healthy eating and exercising habits. Because adolescents are the concern here, most habits are cultivated during school hours, which makes schools responsible for the physical well-being of this age group. Danger points would then basically lie in a lack of healthy food choices and a lack of exercise programs during school hours.

Vocational wellness for adolescents would mean a sense of enjoyment at schools. Danger points in this regard would be either a lack of exercise and sports programs, or a lack of enjoyment while taking part in these programs. Some young people may feel forced to take part in these activities, or that they are not good at physically demanding tasks.

Psychological wellness refers to a person's experience of reality and his or her ability to think reasonably and clearly. In schools, the logic of physical wellness should be imparted to students, encouraging them to willingly take part in physical wellness programs.

Social wellness means that social roles are fulfilled effectively and comfortably, with the equal wellness…… [read more]

Healthy People 2020 Nutrition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For this reason many schools have stopped selling high sugar goods in their vending machines. Behavior is also an influence, increased use of computers and sedentarily lifestyles has reduced the amount of exercise taken has reduce the amount of calories burned which further increased the potential for weight gain to take place. It may also be argued that social interaction can have an impact, with individuals likely to emulate the behavior of their social group norms; those who are in groups that visit gymnasiums regularly are less likely to gain weight compared to those who go out drinking consuming alcohol. It has also been discovered there is a genetic link, with some individuals having a greater potential predisposition to weight gain (Faith et al., 2006)

The Healthy People 2020 initiative has a number of objectives that will help to help promote health, these objectives include the aim to "Increase the number of States with nutrition standards for foods and beverages provided to preschool-aged children in child care" with the aim of increasing this from 24 in 2006 to 34 in 2020, at a rate of one state per year (Healthy People, 2012). A second goal is to " Increase the proportion of schools that offer nutritious foods and beverages outside of school meals" this includes increasing the number of schools that do not sell high calorie drinks to students, from the 9.3% of school in 2006 to 21.3% of school by 2020 (Healthy People 2020, 2012).

For those that wish to help themselves and pursue a healthier diet a web site has been set up by the government at http://www.nutrition.gov/. This is a useful and informative resources which provides a wide range of information on diet and nutrition, in an easy to understand manner, including advice on shopping, recipes, meal planning and food assistance programs as well as weight management.


CDC, (2012), U.S. Obesity Trends, retrieved 5th April 2-12 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html

Faith MS, Kral TVE. (2006), "Social Environmental and Genetic Influences on Obesity and Obesity-Promoting Behaviors: Fostering Research Integration" In Hernandez LM, Blazer DG, (eds.), (2006), Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (U.S.).

Healthy People, (2012), retrieved 6th April 2012 from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx

Nutrition.gov, (2012), retrieved 6th April 2012 from http://www.nutrition.gov/

Paddock C, (2009), Obesity Healthcare Costs U.S. 147 Billion Dollars A Year, New Study, Medical News Today, retrieved 6th April 2012 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/158948.php

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2001), Overweight and obesity: a major public health…… [read more]

Marketing of Atkins Diet Products Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (7,184 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Atkins New Diet Revolution) This is because, according to a recent update on the Atkins diet, of the fact that if there is more protein in a person's diet; he will end up losing more calcium, through his urine. (Is the Atkins Diet bad for your bones?)

II. When was Atkins Introduced into USA

It was in the year 1972… [read more]

Nutrition as a Method Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


al, 2000). Unfortunately also more prevalent within these populations and subcultures are the presence of chronic diseases that might otherwise be prevented, including high blood pressure, cholesterol, heart disease and diabetes (CDC, 2003).

Proper nutrition is an essential factor in ones health and well being. It is important to be aware of the impact proper nutrition can have on one's life expectancy and outcome for the future. Education and proper access to health care are primary components and essential elements of a proper nutritional approach to health and well being. Proper nutrition can be integrated into any subject area, including science. The key is simply identifying the impact food and nutrients have not only at the molecular level but also at the physical level. In order to improve the life expectancy of individual's living throughout the nation researchers and health care providers must start focusing on education and prevention.

For Additional Information on Nutrition and Health the following resources are available:

American Dietetic Association Consumer Nutrition Hotline

216 West Jackson Boulevard

Suite 800



American Society for Clinical Nutrition

9650 Rockville Pike



U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

1101 Wootton Parkway Suite LL 100



U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

200 Independence Avenue, S.W.

Washington, D.C. 20201




Akande, A., Osagie, J.E. & Wyk, D.W. (2000). "Importance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention of illness and the enhancement of health." Education, 120(4):758

CDC. (2003). "Cause of Death Codes, According to Applicable Revision of International

Classification of Diseases." Centers for Disease Control. 12 November, 2004: http://www.cdc.gov.nchs/data/hus/tables/2003/03hustable_v.pdf

CDC. (2003). "Age Adjusted Death Rates, According to Race, Sex, Region and Urbanization Level, United States Annual Average, 1998-2000" Centers for Disease Control. 12, November, 2004: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/tables/2003/03hus033.pdf

CDC. (2003). "Determinants and Measures of Health." Centers for Disease Control. 14,

November 2004: http://www.cdc.gov/nch.products/pubs/pubd/hus/listables.pdf#Determinants

Maurer, D. & Sobal, J. (1995). "Eating Agendas: Food and Nutrition as Social

Problems." New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Osmani, S.R. (1992). "Nutrition and Poverty." World Institute for Development

Economics Research: Oxford University

Romwell. (1998). "Proper Nutrition." Romwell.com. 12, November, 2004:…… [read more]

Fad Diets Such as Atkins Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Fad Diets Such as Atkins

An increasing number of body-conscious Americans have taken to dieting in the last few years. This is hardly surprising in a youth-worshiping culture. While weight watching is an essentially healthy activity and a welcome development, most dieters, instead of following a common sense, long-term approach to dieting, are on the lookout for easy short cuts. Several "low-carb" diet programs, e.g., the Atkins' Diet have been devised to cater for this demand and have attained tremendous popularity. Clearly such diet fads miss the true path to weight loss and overall health: a balanced diet with moderate exercise besides posing serious health problems. This explains why most popular fad diets, particularly Atkins', are based on faulty, unproven theories and describes some of the health problems that may accompany such diet programs.

It has been commonly known for ages that the food we eat provides us with energy in the form of calories. We consume these calories in our bodies for our body functions -- the amount of calories burnt depending mainly on the nature and duration of physical activity and to a lesser degree, on metabolic differences in individuals due to genetic reasons. If our calorie-intake is greater than our calorie-consumption, we put on weight; if our intake is less than our consumption we lose weight. Low carb diets such as Atkins' purport to circumvent this basic fact of nutrition and attribute the weight loss to factors such as insulin resistance, ketosis, and increased fat burning. On closer scrutiny, however, it becomes apparent that such claims have no scientific basis and the low carb fad diets carry significant health risks.

All low-carb diets including Atkins are based on a structured program of substantially reduced carbohydrate-intake with little or no restriction on the intake of proteins and fats. While there is little doubt that the low-carbohydrate diet results in significant weight loss in the short-term for most people, the reasons for such results are misrepresented by the advocates of such diets. Let us examine how this weight loss occurs? During the first few weeks of the Atkins' Diet, the so-called "induction" phase, the dieter's body goes into starvation mode as it is severely deprived of its preferred fuel -- the carbohydrates. In the absence of carbohydrates the body burns fats in an inefficient manner producing toxic byproducts called "ketones." To wash these toxic waste products out of the system large amount of body fluids are expelled through urine, which is mainly responsible for the rapid loss of weight in the first few weeks of starting a low carb diet such as Atkins'. (Sachiko et al., 2001) The other reason for weight loss in low carb dieters is the loss of appetite associated with ketosis, which leads to lower total caloric intake. Weight loss may also occur because most dieters find low-carb diets relatively unpalatable in the long-term and eat less calories. Hence, there is no 'magic' behind the weight loss in Atkins' Diet. Further, loss of… [read more]

Effects on the Heart Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … diets upon heart disease.

Though heart disease is one of the number one reasons why an individual may embark on a diet to lose any amount of weight, fad diets seem to the be the most logical answer for many, as their results are often seen to be much more immediate than a standard, balanced diet, suggested by… [read more]

Japanese Nutrition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The fat species, such as salmon, mackerel and whitefish, contain a fat content that is less than twenty percent less than most red meat from other animals. Shellfish, like clams, oysters and other mollusks (also a part of the Japanese diet), tend to be leaner than fish.

Fish and shellfish are also rich in vitamins. Fat fish are rich in… [read more]

Osteoporosis Is a Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,124 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa may lead to a condition known as menorrhea or absence of menstrual periods, and this may develop into Osteoporosis. It has also been found that ethnic background can also play a role in the incidence of osteoporoses. Studies show " ... that Caucasian and Asian women are at highest risk. Risk is lower for African-American and Latino women. ( ibid) Certain medications have been known to be a factor in the development of the disease. These include excessive thyroid medications, anticoagulants, antiepileptic drugs and immunosuppressants. ( ibid)


Diet is obviously a very important factor in the prevention of this disease as it is caused essentially by a lack of calcium. One of the best sources of calcium is from a balanced diet of " ... fruits, vegetables -- especially leafy green ones -- grains, protein, and low-fat dairy products." (Bennett, B) There are also numerous calcium fortified products on the market that can supplement diet. These supplements should be checked that they meet USP standards. ( The U.S. Pharmacopeia is an organization that sets drug manufacturing standards) Nutritionists recommend that "Men and women between the ages of 19 and 50 should get about 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium daily while those over 50 should get 1,200 mg. "( ibid)


There is no easy or immediate cure or treatment for this disease. However the are a number of medicines and treatments which are designed to slow down the process of loss of bone density and calcium depletion. It has been found that "... Increasing calcium intake to 1500 mg per day, increasing vitamin D to 800 IU per day and maintaining normal weight and exercise patterns to restore hormonal balance may be helpful in preventing further bone loss. (Osteoporosis) If treatment is to be effective it is also important to identify the disease at the earliest possible stage. At present the best and most accurate technique for ascertaining bone density dual x-ray absorpitometry (DEXA). "The measurements are made by detecting the extent to which bones absorb photons that are generated by very low-level x-rays." (Osteoporosis) Diet obviously plays a crucial part in fighting this disease. There are various studies underway to find better methods of fighting this disease - this includes medicines for osteoporosis for younger people.

One of the most recent discoveries with regard to prevention and treatment among older people is exercise. Reports even suggest that weight lifting exercises may be a way of combating osteoporosis among older people. A recent study by Ontario's McMaster University found that "... A year-long strength training program increased the spinal bone mass of postmenopausal women by nine percent. Furthermore, women who do not participate in strength training actually experience a decrease in bone density." (Veracity D.)

In the final analysis, when it comes to osteoporosis, prevention is much better than cure and a healthy and balanced diet can help to prevent the onset of this disease. Diet, as well as calcium supplements and exercise, can… [read more]

Nursing Consideration for Patients With Eating Disorders and Its Associate Medical Complications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,208 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nursing Consideration for Patients With Eating Disorders and Its Associate Medical Complications

One of the most widespread and substantial health dilemmas in The Western world, in general, and in America, in particular, is eating disorder. Nurses have come up with several strategies of treating eating disorder amongst both young and old members of the population. This paper assesses the affects… [read more]

Malnutrition / Obesity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Barbara Ehrenreich too got items of food, which included cereal, candy, barbecue sauce, cookies, crackers, juice mixes and other such sugar-heavy items. The rich as always turn a blind eye since they don't have to interact with or witness what the poor go through, they go to health clubs instead of local parks and shop for their "expensive" food in malls that aren't even accessible to the poor.

Poverty has driven people to many a things that are un acceptable probably even to themselves.When a person works more than his capacity and still his children and family either starve to death or live in conditions that can only breed disease be it in the form of obesity, diabates or any other psychological form he is bound to stoop down to levels that do not befit a human being.We need to be more sensitive towards the people around us and understand the fact that we are as much responsible for their destitute condition as our government.We can make a conscious attempt towards increasing our interaction with the poor and less priviliged people which might help us in not only identifying their problems but also providing a solution to them, hence contributing towards a better safer society.It's high time that the role these nameless, faceless people play in our lives is acknowledged and rewarded by lending them a helping hand so that they too can live to enjoy the happiness life has to offer.


1) Carol Propper-Why economics is good for your health? Publication Year: 2004. Working Paper No. 05/116.Page Number:6+

2) Donna Eberwine -- Article Title: Globesity: The Crisis of growing proportions. Magazine Title: Perspectives in Health Magazine.Volume:7.Number:3.Publication Year: 2002. Page Number: 1

3) Kennedy, E. Article Title: "The Global Face of Nutrition: What Can Governments and Industry Do?." Journal Title: The Journal of Nutrition. Publication Year: 2005.Page Number: 913+

4) Carlos Quintanilla-Alarming malnutrition in Latin America. Available from: http://www.change-links.org/Malnutrition.htm [Accessed on: 11/11/2005]

5) Robert E. Rector and Kirk A. Johnson-Article Title: Understanding poverty in America. Magazine Title: Backgrounder. Published on: 5/1/2004.Page Number:10+

6) Elizabeth I. Ransom and Leslie K. Elder- Nutrition of Women and Adolescent Girls: Why It Matters. Posted on:July 2003.…… [read more]

Dietary Supplements: Calcium Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dietary Supplements: Calcium

To Supplement or Not to Supplement?

A brief overview of the benefits of dietary supplementation, with a specific focus on calcium supplements. The article takes a positive view of supplements, provided the supplementation takes place in dialogue with the individual's biology and lifestyle needs, and provided that supplements are dispensed with clear labeling regarding individual nutritional needs.

To Supplement or Not to Supplement?

Good foods and bad foods, good supplements and bad supplements -- too much of modern nutritional advice, regarding supplementation casts the current debate about the composition of the American diet in stark, black-and-white terms. The fact is, good nutrition is not about good and bad, rather it is a question of how to balance every person's complex daily intake, exercise, and lifestyle needs. A vegan may require a B-vitamin supplement, to make up for nutritional deficiencies due to a lack of animal protein in his or her diet, but a dedicated steak-and-potatoes eater might benefit from a multivitamin supplement that the vegan does not require, given that the vegan eats plenty of multicolored and highly nutritious organic vegetables. A triathelete might do well to stock up on easily packed 300 calorie protein bars as fuel for a marathon bike ride, while a sedentary office worker who struggles to workout at a moderate pace for 30 minutes, three times a week, might benefit from lighter, more filling snacks that take longer to eat.

Perhaps one of the reasons there is such confusion about the issue of supplementation is the broad, sweeping claims made by popular manufactures of supplements, which promise generic cure-alls rather than sound advice. Not every woman may need iron supplements, if she eats fortified grain cereals and eats red meat. The personal and inexact science of creating an ideal diet, tailored to the individual, must be communicated on supplement labels by law. The current nutritional labels that give guidelines for generic 2,000-calorie diets for daily requirements, regardless of age, background, lifestyle, and quite often gender, are often misleading.

Lifestyle and activity level are thus two often overlooked components of nutrition that are not specified in currently labeling requirements and must be taken into consideration in tailoring a very specific dietary and supplementation balance for the individual. Gender and ethnicity are two other components. Women and individuals with lactose intolerance, for example, would do well to consider using supplementation to get their daily calcium requirement, given the difficulty of getting an adequate amount through the current typical American diet alone. According to the 2006 press release "Study Shows Unexpected Outcomes for Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation" of the Council for Responsible Nutrition, although postmenopausal women have shown only moderate, even "disappointing" bone mass gains with supplementation, the long-term benefits are still under scrutiny, and it would…… [read more]

Development of an Innovative Healthy Food Product Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,423 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Development of an Innovative Healthy Food Product

Abstract (or Summary)

This is a proposal for the development of an organic, pasteurized, health fruit drink for the client, Mapco. The client has presented a need for a product that would appeal to the 41% of its customers who wish a delicious, refreshing, organic health drink. This proposal shows how the… [read more]

Low-Carb Diet &amp Atkins Phenomenon Impact Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Low Carb Food Craze & the Atkins Phenomenon

The Low Carb Food Craze and the Atkins Phenomenon

There is an old saying that puts forth the proposition that we are what we eat. In the 21st century, this takes on additional meaning due to the emergence of nutrition issues which not only impact the lives of individuals today, but also… [read more]

Obesity in Dogs and Cats Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (718 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


As reports show "the Zucker fa/fa rat is a genetic model of obesity related to a default in the leptin receptor" (Beck, Richy & Stricker-Krongrad, 2003). Thus, it the discovery of Ghrelin and the use of Zucker rats have been profound in discovering genetic elements that can lead individuals to obesity. Still, diet plays a large role in activating already present genetic components that can lead to obesity and diabetes.

Current data on diabetes in dogs and cats also shows this relationship between genetic and dietary factors. As pet owners, there are methods for preventing the onslaught of obesity and diabetes within cats and dogs. Practical diets and feeding management play a huge role in pet health (Cook, 2007). Foods with high preservatives and fillers tend to have a higher incident rate of obesity and diabetes. Fillers are essentially used in dog food to make the production cost lower than using more nutritional items such as meats and other healthy proteins. Corn, soy, and wheat are often used as fillers that make up a large portion of dry pet food. Pet owners can help prevent obesity by using pet foods that are high in fiber, protein, and other nutritional elements. Using natural or organic brands can help strengthen prevention strategies. Prevention is one of the best strategies, as once an animal has diabetes, their quality of life drastically changes and a lot of effort and costs can burden the pet owner. Moreover, feeding rates can play a role as well. Feeding a dog only once a day can cause a rapid increase of Ghrelin. Feeding smaller meals multiple times a day is a much better idea, and allows the body to digest the food in a much healthier way.


Beck, Bernard, Richy, Sebastian, & Stricker-Krongrad. (2003). Ghrelin and body weight regulation in the obese Zucker rat in relation to feeding state and dark / light cycle. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 228(10), 1124-1131. Retrieved September 30, 2012 from http://ebm.rsmjournals.com/content/228/10/1124.long

Cook, Audrey K. (2007). The latest management recommendations for cats and dogs with nonketotic diabetes mellitus. Veterinary Medicine. Retrieved September 30, 2012 from http://veterinarymedicine.dvm360.com/vetmed/Endocrinology/The-latest-management-recommendations-for-cats-and/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/456192… [read more]

Diet Analysis I Am Female Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I am not sure that I would attempt to double my caloric intake, as I might prefer not to maintain weight but to lose it. In addition, such a change would be quite dramatic and I am unsure how my body would react to doubling my caloric intake. However, an increase of 20% might be beneficial, especially if there are nutritional deficiencies.

The other issue that I noticed with my diet is that I was off on two of the three elements of the macronutrient distribution. I eat a lot of protein. While my consumption falls just outside of the AMDR for protein, and I supplement my protein with protein powder, I feel that this is justified given my exercise level. Indeed, if I increased my calorie intake without increasing protein, my protein consumption levels would fall within the AMDR for protein.

With carbohydrates, I have generally kept those to a minimum in my diet. Carbohydrates can provide valuable energy, especially for exercise, but they also have a reputation of sticking to people's bodies. My consumption of carbohydrates is therefore below the AMDR for carbs. Given that I need to boost consumption of calories in general, it is reasonable that I do this mainly with carbohydrates. There are ways to do this that will only slightly increase the size of meals, for example adding more brown rice. I would still avoid bread, but could add the healthier, more fibrous carbs like brown rice. Many fat-laden carbs would still be avoided (like tortillas and industrial bread, for example).

I found that my consumption of fat is a little bit below the AMDR as well. Certainly if I increase my caloric intake my fat consumption will be below the optimal, throwing my macronutrient distribution out of balance. As a result of this finding, I will perhaps increase my fat content in my diet. I will not add much fat -- my target would be at the bottom end of the AMDR -- but I can do this with a small piece of cheese or some other natural fat content that would boost my protein. I might also consider adding fat via my carbs with either a fatty bread something like that. The key is that I cannot add too much fat to my diet, and if I do it will be something healthy and natural.

Overall, this exercise was quite valuable for me. Since I exercise a lot, my diet reflects that, and I have generally been seeking the right balance for myself in terms of diet and exercise. Knowing what I know now, I can make some adjustments to perhaps optimize my food consumption. I would like to be able to sustain over the long run a high level of energy along with being able to maintain a healthy weight, allowing myself the flexibility to lose a little bit of weight…… [read more]

Protein the Benefits and Risks Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (845 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


The best sources -- fish, meat, dairy, beans -- aren't as quick or convenient as most carbs or even fruits and veggies. 'Traditional protein sources aren't usually grab and go. And if they are, they're often fried or unhealthy,' says nutrition expert Angela Ginn, R.D., a spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association." (Yeager, p. 1)

This is why, Yeager says, not only is the high-protein diet hard to maintain, but many women don't even get the daily recommended amount of protein in their current diets. Naturally, dieting and the denial of food cravings only magnifies this protein deficiency. Therefore, it may be instructive to consider some of the best sources of protein that can be easily incorporated into one's everyday diet. Lean turkey or chicken breast, and fish such as tuna, salmon, flounder and tilapia are all readily available and healthy sources of protein. So too are low-fat dairy products such as cottage cheese, yogurt and mozzarella.

Another set or readily available, affordable and portable sources of protein include green beans, lima beans, soy beans, peanuts, almonds and a host of seeds, beans and nuts. Additional sources of protein to be considered but within moderation include eggs, pork, beef and veal.

With respect to these latter sources of protein, a note of caution is certainly required. Specifically, an article by Varetsky (2012) indicates, "some high-protein diets promote foods such as red meat and full-fat dairy products, which may increase your risk of heart disease."

The article by Varetsky offers several additional warnings about the potential risks related to a high-protein diet. Specifically, because the emphasis is placed on seeking out sources of protein and avoided carbohydrates, one might develop a fiber insufficiency, which could result in health problems like constipation or diverticulitis. The higher elimination functions called for by a high-fiber diet may also place an unnecessary strain on an individual's kidneys.

These are all risks that one should consider before undertaking a high-fiber diet. Likewise, one should consult a physician or a nutritionist for advice on how to prepare a weekly menu and maintain the diet in a way that is healthy, natural and conducive to your desired results. That said, with balance and intelligence, an individual can be well-served by a high-protein diet. Managed properly, this is a sound path to weight loss and the wide range of health benefits that come with it.

Works Cited:

WebMD, 2011. High-Protein Diet for Weight Loss. WebMD.com.

Yeager, S., 2012. Protein: Your Secret Weight-Loss Weapon. Women's Health Magazine.

Zaretsky, K., 2012. Nutrition and…… [read more]

Red Meat Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


when examining the survey years that give details on diet and factors relating to lifestyle together with the health of the participant the scientists came to the conclusion that the more the red meat that an individual consumed in the four-year period by at leas two servings in a day led to a 48% increase in the risk of diabetes in the four-year period. On the other hand hose who had reduced their consumption of red meat and took at least half what they initially took during the first four years showed a 14% decrease over the follow up period.

This report truly confirms the robustness of the link between red meat and developing Type 2 diabetes. They also add more proof that when the consumption of red meat is limited over time there will certainly be some benefits when it comes to Type 2 diabetes. There has been a lot of questioning by people on the report about red meat and Type 2 diabetes that has been compiled by the team. There are high chances of the report being criticized as the critics will prefer to see a research that has been conducted at random that tests the effects that come with consuming red meat directly.

In JAMA international medical study, those who co-author admit that the analysis they made was not a definite establishment of eating red mat causes diabetes but they still go ahead to defend the design they use. They wrote that if the random clinical trial were used then they would definitely address the casual relationship that exists between the intake of read meat and development of diabetes but this is not feasible.


Brown, E. (2010). Chicago Tribune. Bad news on red meat: Eating more is linked to diabetes…… [read more]

Brief Action Plan Applied to Obesity in Pregnancy Dissertation

Dissertation  |  15 pages (4,542 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Obesity in Pregnancy

Brief ActionPlan applied to obesity in Pregnancy

Obesity and Pregnancy

The study used both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data validated the findings of the quantitative analysis. The research was carried along a set of motivational interview questions. A structural framework known as the UB-PAP (Ultra-brief Personal Action Plan) was applied as the structural framework, and it… [read more]

Gluten Free Diet Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,148 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Gluten-Free Diet

The objective of this study is to examine the importance and benefit of a gluten-free diet. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye and barley that results in intestinal damage including weight loss and nutrient deficiencies in those with gluten intolerance. Symptoms of gluten intolerance include: (1) diarrhea; (2) abdominal pain; (3) bloating; (4) fatigue; (5) forgetfulness;… [read more]

Sleep Deprivation the Effects it Has on Adolescent Obesity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,228 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Adolescent Obesity

The Harvard School of Public Health reports that "dozens of studies spanning five continents have looked at the link between sleep duration and obesity in children." (2013, p.1) Key to maintaining good health is a good night's rest and while this is widely acknowledged researchers are demonstrating that individuals who get too little sleep… [read more]

Diet on the Metabolism Lab Report

Lab Report  |  3 pages (1,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



A week after introduction of high-fat diet, body weight increased significantly more in the high-fat diet -- fed mice (+1.6 ± 0.1 g) than in the normal diet -- fed mice (+0.2 ± 0.1 g). The weight gain continued thereafter to be progressively higher in high-fat -- fed mice. The growth rate in normal diet-fed mice during the first 12 weeks was 0.40 ± 0.03 g/week which increased to 0.68 ± 0.04 g/week in high-fat diet-fed mice. The growth rate during the second phase; from week 3 onwards, was 0.10 ± 0.01 g/week in normal diet -- fed mice compared to 0.18 ± 0.03 g/week in high-fat diet -- fed mice representing an augmented growth rate of 80%.

Additionally, the energy intake was increased in high-fat diet -- fed mice compared with normal diet -- fed mice throughout the study period. With time, energy intake declined linearly, with, however, the difference between the two groups being stable. Metabolic efficiency was calculated for the initial 3-week study period, when weight gain was high but this was significantly reduced in high-fat diet -- fed mice.

Finally, respiration at room temperature among the high-fat fed mice increased gradually compared to the normal diet-fed mice. With increased body weight and energy intake, the high-fat diet fed mice after the first week had higher respiration. This was due to higher dietary intake in combination with lower metabolic efficiency.


Several studies hypothesize that dieting subjects eating high-fat diets tend to lose more weight more rapidly than subjects eating low-fat diets leading to speculations that high-fat diets enhance weight loss by attenuating the decrease in energy expenditure typically seen with dieting (Almind & Kahn, 2004). However, such an effect has not been demonstrated in either humans or rodents. In this study we examined the effects that diet composition can have on metabolism and found that diets high in fat do in fact lead to weight loss by increasing energy expenditure.

The growth curves for this 6-week study is divided into two phases; initial phase with more rapid growth, which lasted until 4 weeks of age, and a second phase with slower growth. Energy intake was higher in the high-fat diet-fed mice. The research estimated a parameter; metabolic efficiency, by calculating the ability of ingested energy to be metabolized. During the rapid growth phase, energy intake was stable while metabolic efficiency increased over the time period for both groups.

Besides, metabolic efficiency index was lower in high-fat diet-fed mice compared with normal diet-fed mice. This is the inverse parameter of the feed efficiency, which is shown to be elevated in high-fat diet -- fed mice. This indicates that the weight gain observed in high-fat -- fed mice is not fully explained by increased energy intake but is also caused by a reduced metabolic rate. After the rapid growth period, both body weight gain and energy intake decreased in both feeding groups, which was reflected in a slight reduction in the metabolic efficiency.


Michie, K &… [read more]

Childhood Obesity and Its Correlation Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Watching of TV time had a lower but still significant occurrence.

Conclusions, in other words, showed that there was strong correlation between child's income background and his or her lifestyle choices.

6. What are strengths of the research?

The strengths of the research are that the chosen population was enormously large and that populations were matched with all being studied from Project Healthy Schools so that one can conclude that it was not the schools that were responsible for obesity factor (since they all had same stress on health).

Limitations are that this was a self-report which means that students could unintentionally or otherwise distort response and response too could be misinterpreted. On the other hand, school nurses did record BMI of children which would have corrected for almost all deviant responses.

The limitations too depend on the way that one defines 'low income' as well as the fact that other conditions -- aside from low income may have produced obesity. Some of these may be pressure from classmates, motivation and expertise of teachers in teaching and implementing health measures (poorer schools may be less well-paid), psychological factors (e.g. Parental divorce).

7. Own analysis

All the study shows at the end of the day is that the studied kids from low income families tended to eat less vegetables, indulged more in fried food, and exercised less than those in higher income families. It does not show why they were attracted to these factors in the first place -- after all, children regardless of income have access to these factors. More so, there are many children, all around the globe, who come from extremely poor families (with lower income than those described in the study), who are slim. Other studies show children form high-income families who are, nonetheless, obese / overweight.

The fact, therefore, that this particular children studied are attracted to these factors may point to underlying reasons such as motivation for their particular teachers in conveying lessons, peer pressure, psychological problems, or numerous other factors.

The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.


Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood…… [read more]

Dietary Supplement for Athletes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,407 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


2007). On average, the International Society of Sports Nutrition reported that body composition athletes supplementing with creatine gain twice as much lean muscle mass than those taking a placebo (Butford et al. 2007).

But not all studies have confirmed this notion. In another small study by Beck (2007) fifty-one men were assigned a creatine drink while others were given a… [read more]

Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,456 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Those with high cholesterol and high blood pressure were at a risk that was six times higher than the individual without high cholesterol and high blood pressure for the development of dementia later in life.

The Alzheimer's Association additionally reports that previous research studies have shown that "high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol clogs the arteries and is associated… [read more]

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