Study "Nutrition / Diet / Eating" Essays 56-110

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Breast Feeding the Relevance Research Paper

… If for example not nearly enough calcium is absorbed at morning meal then a mid early morning treat of cheese may be provided to off- set the distinction. Young children will likewise become 'stuck' on a particular food and not… [read more]


Self-Aware of Their Eating Habits Research Paper

… From this point-of-view, there can be little concern regarding moral issues in the use of animals to help people, if proper attention and care is given to the needs of the animals as well.

3. Bonobos through their way of behaving, walking, and mostly understanding human language, do resemble to human behavior. Although there are still a lot of studies to be concluded to actually consider them as being the ancestors of human evolution, it is important to view the way in which these animals can exercise their learning capacities and how they can evolve. At the same time, it represents an exercise for the human mind as well because it allows humans to better interact with perhaps the most resembling to human kind animal.

4. Sexual evolution is essential for every primate because it represents the connection between past generations and future ones. It is in the nature of every animal and human to reproduce on a natural way. This is largely because the sexual reproduction depends on a variety of aspects that attract mates and pairs. For most animal species, the reproduction depends on finding the mate with the best characteristics particularly because of the need to reproduce as best as possible and to transmit the best genes to the next generations.

5. Tumai, as the Skull was named, is possible to have been a biped and represent indeed the link between the animal and the human species. The evidence presented by the scientists are sufficiently compelling to lead to such a conclusion, from the shape of the skull to the teeth that proved certain eating habits to the shape of his eyes that determined a vertical position of the head in order to look straight.

6. The scientific community is rather united because all information appears throughout the world and information must be shared for the advancement of science of human kind. This is why when a discovery is made it is shared among all scientists and the knowledge of all of them contributes to evolutionist theories. The advancement of science can only be done through communication and sharing of knowledge.

7. Cloning is a rather debated subject from both a moral and ethical perspective. However advanced science is at this point and will continue to evolve in time, it should be limited to its benefic effects on human kind and not interfere with the natural way of civilization. Should cloning be accepted for medical reasons, such exercises may become uncontrollable and negative effects of science may eventually end up harming civilization rather than helping it.

8. This has been a very interesting course that helps in providing a more complex view of the past and ancient times of human kind. It enables the accumulation of information about human ancestors as well as geographical conditions in order to better understand where people are coming from. Also, through the information acquired in this course, there is a clearer understanding of the tremendous evolution human kind has made along… [read more]


Producing a Healthier Biscuit: Evidence Essay

… A healthy body weight is an important factor in the general promotion of health and reducing cancer.

Other dietary nutrients may be more significant in reducing the risk of cancer. For example, "dietary guidelines that target obesity as well as fat and calcium intake could be more important than fiber (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health). The one conclusive association regarding the health benefits of fiber is that it does reduce constipation, which is important for general digestive comfort and the prevention of other gastrointestinal diseases. "This laxative effect accounts for the role of dietary fiber in conditions such as hiatus hernia, diverticular disease and hemorrhoids" (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health).

Current dietary fiber intakes of Australians

"In Australia, the National Nutrition Survey of 1995 indicated that 45% of dietary fiber comes from breads and other cereal foods, 10% from fruit and 30% from vegetables" (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health). The majority of fiber of Australians thus already comes from soluble fiber in the form of bread products. Like most persons in the industrialized world, Australians have been criticized for having insufficient fiber in their diets, and urged to increase the amount through increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

Whether or not there is strong evidence for benefits of more dietary fiber in Australian's diets

The Australian Ministry of Health suggests that every woman consume at least 25g of fiber in their diet and every man consume at least 30g in his diet (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health). However, any health claims regarding the benefits of increased fiber must be made cautiously. The association between a high fiber diet and lower rates of diabetes and cholesterol may be related to a correlation, rather than causation, between the types of persons who eat high-fiber diets and better health outcomes. Or it may be related to the fact that fiber is useful in weight control and thus has a beneficial effect in an indirect fashion. Fiber does have benefits in increasing satiety and also for its laxative properties. Having fiber in the diet is clearly important to some degree, but despite the official figures released by the Ministry of Health, there is no clear indication that the 25-30g fiber per day is adequate to ward against cancer and many chronic diseases (Dietary fiber, 2012, Ministry of Health).

Almost all biscuits will contain some form of sugar and carbohydrate, and making health claims for a biscuit is problematic in this respect. Eating biscuits as a health food may not be suitable for all persons, such as diabetics or people seeking to lose weight. Even if there is a trace amount of fiber in the cookie, it is unlikely to be as significant as in a piece of fruit, vegetable, or even a bowl of cereal. Thus, creating a 'healthy biscuit' rather than focusing on taste and the 'treat' aspect of eating a biscuit may be a dubious proposition. A whole wheat oatmeal biscuit could be tasty and higher… [read more]


Eating Disorders According to Himmel Essay

… Finally, genetics might be more similar than different. For instance, Day, Ternouth & Collier (2009) point out that anorexia, bulimia, and obesity might share a similar genetic component.

Eating disorders include anorexia and bulimia, and both of these are classified as psychological disorders. Obesity is usually not classified as a psychological disorder. With anorexia, the person may be a perfectionist who uses food as a means of self-control. With bulimia, the person goes to two extremes of binging and purging. Neither anorexia or bulimia symptoms may be present in a person with obesity. Some people with anorexia never overeat, and therefore, anorexia has a completely different manifestation than obesity. Anorexic people are usually skinny, because the ideal physiology for the person is skinny. Obese people are, by definition, not skinny at all. With both eating disorders and obesity, the person may become obsessed with body image and has a distorted body image. In fact, this same factor can be shared among obese people. Some obese people have a distorted body image, by believing that their weight is just "big bones." Therefore, the underlying factor of distorted body image may be shared in common. There are also psychological risk factors that eating disorders have, such as low self-esteem, frequent exposure to media images for dieting, and a history of abuse. These risk factors are shared in common between obese people and those with eating disorders (Day, Ternouth & Collier, 2009).

There are similarities and differences between eating disorders and obesity. The three most important similarities between eating disorders and obesity include the genetic component, distorted body image, and psychological issues leading to a dysfunctional relationship with food in some way. The three main differences between eating disorders and obesity include the manifestation of the behaviors in the body (skinny vs. fat), the fact that many obese people might not have a psychological problem and could only have a biological issue, and finally, the different types of self-image issues. The main difference in self-image is that anorexia and bulimia lead to a feeling that one is too fat; whereas with obesity, the person might not believe that they are fat when they really are. There are many similarities and differences between eating disorders and obesity, including responses to treatment. Eating disorders and obesity sometimes respond to the same types of treatment interventions, such as the Twelve Step Program. Many experts believe that it is more important to focus on the similarities between eating disorder and obesity than the differences.

References

Day, J., Ternouth, A. & Collier, D.A. (2009). Eating disorders and obesity: Two sides of the same coin? Epidemiological Psychiatry 18(2): 96-100.

Himmel, S. (2009). You must be hungry. Psychology Today. 18 Sept, 2009. Retrieved…… [read more]


Dietary Analysis Creative Writing

… Overall the protein levels over the course of the three day period seem to indicate that the standard American diet includes far too much meat, and too little vegetables and fruit. The Dietary Reference Intake for protein, by contrast, is estimated at 5 1/2 ounces -- so obviously a sandwich with a name like "Double Quarter Pounder" should be an obvious red flag in terms of its needless dietary excess. This was one easily noticed way in which my own diet could be improved -- the replacement of much of the meat intake with more vegetable and fruit would bring my diet substantially closer to the Dietary Reference Intake levels for all of these types of food.

It is worth noting, however, that if just this one sandwich is a clue to a culture of overeating, it also demonstrates that there are certain aspects of this diet which are healthy. Obviously overeating is not a good policy, but it does also seem to rule out the prospect of most kinds of vitamin or mineral deficiency -- there was no risk of my diet, as it exists, failing to meet the target for most of the vitamins and minerals listed. Again, to make reference to the McDonald's hamburger which was the single most outrageous item in my food record, it is worth noting that this one burger contains in itself twice the recommended daily dosage of Vitamin B12. Obviously an excess of Vitamin B12 is not dangerous (in the way that the excess of fat calories or cholesterol in the burger would be) but it also indicates that the diet basically consists of overkill. If I were to give myself a solid prescription for improving my diet, though, it would probably consist in trying to cut down substantially the level of meat intake -- perhaps even to the point of vegetarianism. However, with such a radically curtailed dietary palette, it would become important to watch the vitamins and minerals -- it is possible that the risk of shortage (which is not currently there, basically because of the level of overeating indicated by my records) would arise with a vegetarian diet, though.

It is also worth noting that the eating patterns might also be improved here. My dietary record indicates three meals a day, but very often the dinner comes substantially later than the lunch -- often later at night, which is why there is "fast food" on there. It is worth suggesting that more frequent and smaller meals would probably improve a lot of things about this diet -- it seems like the buildup of hunger may very well prompt the overeating which is the most significant problem in my dietary records. It's also worth noting that this would be an easy and convenient way of getting the greater amount of…… [read more]


Which Approach Is More Effective for Weight Loss a Low-Carb Diet or a Low-Fat Research Paper

… Low-Carb Diet or a Low-Fat Diet

Which approach is more effective for weight loss: a low-carb diet or a low-fat diet?

[Cincinnati State Technical and Community College]

When people plan to choose to lose weight, one of the most difficult decisions that they make is to choose the diet type. There are two main kinds of diets; diets that are low in carbohydrates, which are often referred to as the low carb diets and low fat diet. Restriction of carbohydrates is often referred to as the Atkins diet, and low fat diets are the ones that retract the intake and consumption of high fat food (Rulifson, 2008, p. 281).

Most of the studies have shown that low fat diets may be one of the best for losing weight and having a healthier body. but, then again, there are a number of studies that have argued just the opposite. Although there are a number of studies that have shown that there is a great reduction in the boy levels of cholesterol and fat using low fat diet, these studies have not shown any reduction in the rate of death from high fat and cholesterol levels.

Low fat Diets

Low fat diets have been proposed by Dr. Mitkins, Weightwatchers, and Macrobiotics. These three lobbies have proposed some of the most important low fat diets that have been shown to be effective against controlling blood fat thus accelerating weight loss. However, in these cases, it has been shown that people, who use low fat diets, become seriously ill in the later stages (Kim, Yang, Kim, Lee, and Kim 263). This is the plan that has been regarded as being difficult for most dieters as this plan cannot be continued for a longer period of time.

There is no doubt about the fact that fat in the diet gives an individual a more "full" feeling. With the use of fats, it has been seen that there is a great reduction in the time that the stomach takes to empty. In the following figure, three main kinds of diets have been compared; Mediterranean diet, low carb diet and low fat diet. These diets have been compared in their efficiency in aiding and accelerating weight loss. It can be seen that low fat diet has accelerated weight loss as compared to other two diets (Flynn).

Source: http://graemethomasonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/low-fat-vs.-mediterranean-vs.-low-carb.png

Low Carb Diet

This kind of diet has claimed that if carbohydrates that include sugar, fruits, grains, and vegetables are limited, weight loss can be triggered. Some of these diets include South Beach diet, and Atkins Diet. These diets suggested that if carbohydrates are limited, or if balanced proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate is used, it can trigger weight loss. The goal of any diet should be to ensure longevity and health (Lutz and Allan). In these cases, it has been mentioned that if diets are low in fats and essential vitamins, there are chances that there will be acceleration in heart and bone diseases (D'Arrigo).

Methodology

Collection… [read more]


Food Practice Essay

… The mushrooms were from China. The tofu was made in the United States, presumably with American soybeans. Also in the dish there were Sichuan peppercorns from China, American-grown ginger, garlic, spring onions, one American tomato, soy sauce, black bean paste… [read more]


Eating Behaviors in First Year Research Paper

… (Anderson et al., The freshman year…, 2003) The vast majority of weight gained during freshman year is gained during the first semester. During the fall semester of the American academic year, there are a great deal many holidays in that… [read more]


Nutrition Gastric Surgery Article Review

… Nutrition

Bariatric Surgery and Nutritional Consequences

The prevalence of obesity is on its way up and is often associated with a number of co-morbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, sleep apnea, pulmonary dysfunction, ischemic stroke, knee arthrosis, gallbladder disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and certain types of cancer. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most successful long-term treatment for morbid obesity, reducing obesity-associated co-morbidities (De Luis et al., 2009). But for all the good that it brings it can lead to serious nutritional deficiencies in those who undergo it.

Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a mixed and complex operation that has shown the best long-term results regarding weight loss. BPD can be considered a very good bariatric operation. It is well-known that as difficulty increases in bariatric surgery, effectiveness also increases, but risk of secondary effects and possible complications may also go up. A good knowledge of this technique in early follow-up and of its possible complications is important for the patients. The severity of the postoperative nutritional deficit depends on several factors, including the preoperative nutritional status, the type of bariatric procedure performed, the incidence of postoperative complications, the capability to modify eating behavior as well as conformity with regular follow-up and prescribed vitamin and mineral supplementation (De Luis et al., 2009).

In a study done by De Luis et al. (2009) the researchers set out to describe clinical results and nutritional complications in morbidly obese patients with BPD. The results showed a high loss of body weight and an improvement in the prevalence of co-morbidities in patients having undergone BPD. However, blood levels of a number of micronutrients and vitamins decreased during the follow-up and different rates of deficiencies were detected.

Loss of weight in the patients was important, amounting to 29.3% at 6 months and 61.5% at 3 years of follow-up.

The most frequent side event found was incisional hernia, related to open surgery and high BMI. In previous studies, the incisional hernia rate has ranged from 5 to 30%. Glycemia, plasma lipid levels and blood pressure became normal 6 months after BPD, while patients were still overweight. All the patients could quit their hypoglycemic and hypolipemic drugs. With other type of bariatric surgery, such as gastric bypass, depending on the intestinal length, the normalization of these parameters is lower. This type of surgery has been shown to have a direct effect on glycemic status (De Luis et al., 2009)

In is well-known that bariatric surgery often leads to patients experiencing long-term side effects that negatively influence their metabolism and quality of life. These side effects include: vomiting, diarrhea, osteoporosis, anemia and malnutrition. All of these side effects either lead to nutritional deficiencies or are consequences of such deficiencies. Bariatric surgeons have long wanted to find an operation that result in steady weigh loss that was simple, had only minimal risk and gave the patients the freedom to consume most foods in order to maintain nutritional sufficiency (Vassallo et…… [read more]


Eating Disorders Understanding the Reason Research Paper

… Some of those being a step parent joining the family, or the addition of a new member such as a sibling into the family (LeGrange, Lock, and Loeb, 2009).

Retrospective

In this retrospective example one group of women a year… [read more]


Obesity Among Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia 14 18 Aged Essay

… Saudi Arabia Obesity: Adolescent Girls

Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Although the patterns of obesity differ between developing and developed countries, obesity rates are generally on the increase worldwide. According to… [read more]


Obesity Among Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia Essay

… Adolescent Obesity in Saudi Arabia

Obesity in Saudi Adolescent Girls

Obesity is a serious health problem in any population, but it is of special concern in younger individuals. The longer a person is obese, the longer that person has potentially… [read more]


Eating Disorders Research Proposal

… However, one common criticism of this and other studies of eating disorders is that even the designation between 'full blown' and 'subclinical' eating disorders can feel somewhat arbitrary. The DSM-IV has extremely specific, numerical criteria for what constitutes an eating disorder -- such as binging and purging at least twice weekly over three months for bulimia. Rates of clinically-identified bulimia would be much higher if the limits were raised to once a week (Ford 2003). The requirement of amenorrhea or cessation of menstruation for anorexics is an irrelevant diagnosis for males and can result in lower diagnostic rates for boys and men for the disorder. Additionally, even young women who are on the pill and artificially menstruate because of hormonal supplementation alone may be excluded simply on this basis (Ford 2003).

It should also be noted that even though eating disordered literature and hospital admissions focus on anorexia nervosa, and to a lesser extent bulimia, Bing Eating Disorder (BED) affects around 2% of the population, at a comparable rate to other EDs. The degree to which there has been an increase in BED is even more difficult to measure than anorexia, given that BED was only identified as disordered behavior and classified in the DSM very recently. The rapid increase in obesity does suggest, however, that the disorder is increasing given that being overweight is one of the primary symptoms of the disorder.

Perhaps the most significant finding has been in twin studies, comparing manifestations of all of the major eating disorders in twins. One study of the Australian Twin registry found that 59% of variance is genetic and 41% is non-shared environment related regarding eating disorders (Ford 2003). This supports the notion that the media, including dieting literature, cannot be entirely blamed for the rise in eating disorders. Conversely, however, it also underlines that subclinical and clinical symptoms can be environmentally related, given the clear impact of non-shared environmental factors in eating disordered behavior.

No clear causal factor has emerged as 'the' reason for the increase in eating disorders; rather it seems that a constellation of genetic and environmental factors can contribute to the development of EDs. However, the evidence does suggest that a preoccupation with thinness and past engagement with 'extreme' dieting behaviors does increase the risk of an individual's likelihood of exhibiting ED-related behavior, even if the full-blown illness is not manifested. One of the most comprehensive studies to date was the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health on 14, 686 female adolescents. The study subjects were "randomly selected from the National Medicare database, with over-sampling from rural and remote areas, [and] responded to a questionnaire seeking dieting and health information…High frequency of dieting (rather than dieting per se) and earlier dieting onset were associated with poorer physical and mental health (including depression), more disordered eating (bingeing and purging), extreme weight and shape dissatisfaction and more frequent general health problems" and one in five women with a BMI below 18.5 (underweight) admitted to going on a diet… [read more]


Nutrition During the Infancy and Toddler Hood Essay

… Nutrition During Infancy and Toddlerhood

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2010) adequate nutrition during infancy is essential for lifelong health and well-being. Malnutrition can be linked to 35% of the disease burden for children under five. Adequate infant and toddler nutrition is vital to improving child survival and promoting healthy growth and development. The first two years of a child's life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period will lead to reduced morbidity and mortality, to reduced risk of chronic diseases, and to overall better development. In fact, optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are so critical that they can save the lives of 1.5 million children under five every year.

Pediatric Nutritional Recommendations

Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, development and health (World Health Organization, 2010). Thereafter, to meet their evolving nutritional requirements, infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods, while continuing to breastfeed for up to two years or more.

Cow's milk is not recommended during the first 12 months of life (Allen & Myers. 2006). However, fortified cow's milk is an important dietary component of a toddler's diet because of its high-quality protein, calcium, and vitamins A and D. Calcium is involved in bone growth, tooth development, and muscle contraction, and it may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure and body fat. One study showed that children who consumed milk with the noontime meal were the only group to meet or exceed 100% of the daily Dietary Reference Intake for calcium (i.e., 500 to 800 mg). Two or three servings of milk or dairy products per day are recommended to meet these requirements. Some toddlers are poorly weaned from an all-milk diet and consume more than the recommended number of servings; this "milk diet" is high in fat and total calories and inadequate in iron.

Dangers of Malnutrition

The World Health Organization defines malnutrition as the cellular imbalance between supply of nutrients and energy and the body's demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions. Malnutrition affects virtually every organ system. Children are most vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition in infancy and early childhood. Malnutrition is globally the most important risk factor for illness and death, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide.

Energy is essential for all biochemical and physiologic functions in the body. Dietary protein is needed to provide amino acids for synthesis of body proteins and other compounds that have various functional roles. Micronutrients are essential in many metabolic functions in the body as components and cofactors in enzymatic processes. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), first described in the 1920s, is observed most…… [read more]


Nutrition Analysis a Food Diary Was Kept Essay

… Nutrition Analysis

A food diary was kept for a three-day period for the purpose of determining nutritional quality of the daily diet and making recommendations for improvements to support a healthy lifestyle. The subject of the nutrition analysis is a twenty-eight-year-old female in good health standing five feet one inch tall and weighing one hundred forty-five pounds. Analysis of the diet and averaged results yield the following information about food consumption:

Actual Consumption

Recommended Consumption

Total calories (Kcals)

Protein (gm)

Carbohydrates (gm)

Fiber (gm)

Total Fat (gm)

Saturated Fat (gm)

OK

<24.6

Cholesterol (mg)

OK

<300n
Vitamin a (mcg RAE)

Vitamin C (mg)

75

Vitamin E (mg)

6.13

15

Thiamin (mg)

1.5

1.1

Calcium (mg)

Phosphorus (mg)

OK

Magnesium (mg)

Iron (mg)

15.9

18

Zinc (mg)

12.2'

8

Selenium (mcg)

55

Potassium (mg)

Sodium (mg)

1500-2300

The average calorie count for the three-day period was nearly double what is recommended. The subject will steadily gain weight without a reduction in calories and/or the incorporation of calorie-burning activities into the daily routine. If the subject walks for an hour a day at a moderate pace of four miles per hour, it is possible to burn 400 calories a day. Other activities could easily be incorporated into the day (e.g., taking stairs instead of an elevator, parking the car further from the destination and walking) so that the subject could reduce net calorie intake without having to make as many cutbacks on food intake. The calorie requirement for this individual is relatively low because of her height, age and gender; a daily multivitamin would also help her meet nutritional needs without upping food intake over recommended levels.

The subject consumed nearly twice the recommended amounts of protein and carbohydrates. Since both contain four calories per gram, the subject could make significant cuts in protein and carbohydrate consumption to reduce calories. She consumed, on average, fifty-five more grams of protein than needed per day; eliminating the extra protein could save 220 calories a day. Eliminating excess carbohydrates could save 512 calories. These savings would bring the average daily calories consumption down to 1,373, only 303 calories above recommended intake. Walking less than an hour would offset the difference.

The subject's intake of fiber, at an average of fourteen grams, was nearly half of what is recommended. The subject could boost fiber intake significantly by consuming certain fruits and vegetables. One avocado, for example, has 10-13 grams of fiber. They are also high in fat; the subject's fat consumption is currently within acceptable range but she is not looking to add additional calories, so avocados should be limited to once or twice a week. Other vegetables high in fiber are sweet potatoes, carrots…… [read more]


High-Protein Diets and Colon Cancer Research Paper

… 001) reductions in fecal butyrate concentrations for the HPMC and HPLC diets, respectively. The reduction in butyrate concentrations would force epithelial cells to use alternate sources of energy, and lower the anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-neoplastic activities normally present in a carbohydrate-balanced diet.

N-nitroso compound concentrations in fecal matter were increased by 3.6- (p < 0.001) and 5.4-fold (p < 0.001) for the HPMC and HPLC diets, respectively, as was the pH of the fecal-extracted water. These diet-induced changes suggest that high-protein low-carbohydrate diets increase the prevalence of compounds linked to colon cancer. Subjecting fecal extracts to high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry produced a large amount of information. Overall, the most significant findings were a significant decrease in plant-derived indoles and phenolic compounds and their derivatives. Changes in bile acid concentrations showed no clear pattern. The authors interpreted this data as being consistent with high-protein low-carbohydrate diets decreasing the concentrations of cancer-protective metabolites and increasing those posing a hazard.

Overall fecal bacteria counts were lower in both high-protein diets (p < 0.012). Importantly, the prevalence of the butyrate producer Roseburial Eubacterium rectale were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in subjects on the HPLC diet, which may explain the 50% reduction in fecal butyrate concentrations. The prevalence of the butyrate producer Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was unchanged and could therefore be one of the primary sources of the butyrate detected. The authors suggested that the decline in Roseburial E. rectale counts may have been driven by the increased pH and the reduction in fiber associated with the HPLC diet.

The authors concluded that the more moderate high-protein diet (HPMC) was able to maintain a relatively healthy profile in terms of butyrate concentration and bacterial diversity. This conclusion implies that less severe high-protein diets may help maintain a healthy intestinal environment, while still experiencing significant weight loss. This conclusion though, is undermined by the dramatic increase in N-nitroso compounds and phenyl acetic acids (PAA) detected in the fecal matter from subjects on the moderate high-protein diet. These compounds and their derivatives have been linked to an increased risk of colon cancer (reviewed by O'Keefe et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2011).

Critique

One of the main limitations of this study is the small sample size (N = 17), which may have prevented reaching statistical significance for some of the data derived from HPMC samples. Age is a contributing factor in colon cancer (O'keefe et al., 2007), and thus colon health, and it would have been interesting to see if stratification by age would have produced any interesting results, but the authors failed provide any information about the age of the subjects. The subjects were screened for recent anti-biotic use and a history of gastrointestinal problems, but the results may have achieved greater significance if the subjects were first acclimated to the same diet over a longer period of time, and with a defined probiotic dietary component. This type of approach could have established a more equivalent baseline intestinal environment across all subjects,… [read more]


Nutrition Physical Activity and Obesity Nexus Research Paper

… Nutrition, Obesity, And Physical Activity Nexus

The population of the United States is a much less healthy and fit than their preceding generations. Once the healthiest of modern societies, the U.S. has fallen below dozens of other nations in measures… [read more]


Nutrition Synthesis Essay

… Nutritional Evaluation and Planning

In what ways is your current diet healthy?

My current diet is only healthy in that it not excessively high in caloric intake. Approximately 1,700 calories per day for a relatively active young person of my height, weight, and bodily composition is not, in and of itself, a problem. Likewise, my protein, vitamin, and other micronutrient consumption levels are adequate although I could benefit from reducing my sodium intake, and from increasing my water and potassium intake for optimal health and fitness.

In what specific areas could your diet could use improvement?

The biggest problems with my current diet are that I consume excessive amounts of fats in general and saturated fats in particular and that I do not distinguish adequately between complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates. Ideally, I should reduce my consumption of fats much more; I should reduce my consumption of poly-saturated and transfats to an absolute minimum; and I should make sure that I consume a healthy amount of complex carbohydrates (especially those that are also high in dietary fiber) while reducing my consumption of all simple carbohydrates to an absolute minimum.

I also tend to go without eating for too long because of my schedule. As a result, I have less will power to restrict my food choices to those that are most beneficial; I am more prone to eating irresponsible snacks when I am confronted with the temptation; and I tend to overeat during meals. Ideally, I should be making arrangements to snack healthily during the day or to pack healthy meals so that I can avoid going for long periods without eating or succumbing…… [read more]


Diet and Heart Disease Public Health Policy Research Proposal

… Diet and Heart Disease Public Policy

Identify a current public health policy (at the national/federal or state level) that pertains to your chosen topic.

Over the last several decades, the obesity / overweight epidemic is becoming a major challenge that is affecting two thirds of adults and one in three children. Where, the condition would remain fairly stable during: the 1960's and 1970's. Then, between the 1980's and early to mid-2000's, this number would skyrocket as the amount adults (affected by obesity) would increase from just 13.4% (in 1980) to 34.8% of the population. ("Surgeon General's Vision for a Health and Fit Nation 2010," 2010) This is significant, because such large increases in the number of obese adults and children will mean that: diabetes, heart disease as well as hyper tension are medical conditions, which are becoming increasingly common. Once this occurs, it can mean that the underlying amounts of health care services will increase and it can have an impact on the productivity of the nation. As overweight and obese individuals would miss more work days, because of having to deal with the lingering effects of the condition. In the State of Mississippi these numbers are higher than the national average. Where, obesity has been known to increase the mortality rate in the state for: diabetes, heart disease and other conditions. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than, the state's mortality rate in comparison with the rest of the United States. As Mississippi, has been consistently above the national average, by at least 30% (since 2002). ("House Concurrent Resolution Number 6," 2008) This is important, because it shows how on the national and state level, the obesity epidemic is affecting a number of different individuals. Where, the total amount of cases has been consistently increasing at an alarming rate. When you put these two elements together, this highlights how the number of obese adults and children is consistently increasing, despite efforts to reduce the rate by a variety of organizations.

Outline the objectives of the current policy

There are a number of different factors that are contributing to the large number of obesity cases being reported the most notable include: poor diet, a lack of physical exercise, genetic factors, metabolism, culture and behavior. This is important, because one or a combination of these different factors has been contributing to the disease. As a result, various government programs have been introduced to increase awareness and reduce the number of cases. The most notable includes: creating healthy home environments for families / individuals, eliminating unhealthy choices that many individuals will face on daily basis (i.e. soda / candy vending machines in schools), promoting healthy food choices / increased physical activity, creating healthy schools / child care settings, creating healthy work environments, working with the medical establishment / community organizations and limiting the amount of non-physical activity. This is significant, because it highlights how the government is attempting to address the problem by increasing funding and coordination. Yet,… [read more]


Eating Behaviors, Weight Loss Methods, and Nutrition Essay

… ¶ … Eating Behaviors, Weight Loss Methods, and Nutrition Practices Among High School Wrestlers

The article begins by explaining that wrestling is a sport that requires some necessary components, which include endurance, muscular strength, flexibility and motor conditioning. In conjunction with this a wrestler also has to maintain a specific weight classification, which may pose to be a difficult thing to do. Extreme weight loss has negative effects on the body. Various methods have been researched regarding how wrestlers cut weight; often a combination of the methods of food restriction, deprivation of liquids, and thermal dehydration. The reading describes a study in which over 80% of 528 high school wrestlers reduced food intake to reduce their weight. 32% of the wrestlers explained that food intake restriction is used rather often as a means of weight lose. The second study discussed in the article explains that wrestlers in the upper weight class used fluid restriction and dehydration for weight loss in contrast to the wrestlers in the lower weight classes whom incorporated food intake restrictions in conjunction with the methods used by the upper weight class. Additional methods that were mentioned that too are used include vomiting, laxatives, and diuretics in an attempt to control weight.

Another aspect of these extremes to control weight discussed in the article, include the negative impacts that these forms of weight loss have on the body. Researchers indicate that such methods can cause a negative impact on body composition. These methods of weight loss can cause renal failure, electrolyte imbalances, and issues with thermal regulation, nutrient intake and eating behavior issues, testosterone levels, muscular strength, and fluctuations in metabolic rate. Researchers have also realized that wrestlers tend to know less about nutrition than participants in other sports; college wrestlers lacked a solid understanding of basic nutrition. The reading also states that there is not a lot of research regarding the nutritional and eating habits of athletes.

One study in the reading discussed a study done on 17 prep school wrestlers, looking at the pre-event meal analysis. The study found that the mean calorie intake before a game was around 1,517 kcal. The study went further to explain that the majority of the calories consumed were through sources of junk food i.e. soda, chocolate and candy. The study concluded by making an association between binge eating and episodes of high caloric intake. Statistically the article indicates that on average 12% of high school wrestlers have reported that they have often had episodes of binge eating. The results found from the above mentioned research is stated to affirm that wrestlers have more of a tendency to have eating disorders because of the lack of knowledge associated with good nutrition and poor eating habits. However it is also mentioned that there are no studies that evaluate this association.

Research in the reading further state that on average 4 to 8% of bulimia cases are seen in high school subjects; one of the characteristics associated with those susceptible to… [read more]


Diet and Heart Disease in Exploring Research Paper

… Diet and Heart Disease

In exploring the impact of diet on heart disease it will be important to consider the theoretical perspective of the health belief model (HBM) which is the most commonly used model in health promotion and education. The HBM claims that health behavior is determined by personal beliefs about the disease and the specifics surrounding prevention and treatment (Glanz, Lewis, & Rimer, 1997). The four facets of this model involve this personal perception and include perceived seriousness, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers (Glanz, Lewis, & Rimer, 1997). This theory will be integral in exploring the relationship between diet and heart disease as it will allow the researcher to not only explore the medical aspects but also the role of the individual in diet and heart related care.

Article 1: Dietary restriction and fibre supplementation: oxidative stress and metabolic shifting for cardiac health

Objective of the Article

This article is based on the premise that the first course of action in the prevention of heart disease is dietary modification. This study seeks to identify if there is a correlation between consuming a diet enriched in fiber and oxidative stress in cardiac tissue. Previous studies have shown that dietary fiber has been integrated into dietary programs as a manner by which glucose serum and cholesterol can be lowered (Diniz et al., 2003). Yet the impact of dietary fiber on functioning, as well as, the effect of fiber enriched eating on oxidative stress in cardiac tissue has not been fully explored through research and therefore are the focus of the current study.

Methodology Employed

Researchers utilized 40 male Wistar rats which were randomly divided into groups by random computer sampling. Each group of rats was fed different diets depending on their grouping: control, fiber enriched diet, and the dietary restricted. While all diets provided sufficient nutritional values they differed in their amount and concentration of fiber. Results were measured through the obtainment of body mass each week and at week 6 the rats were fasted and sacrificed (Diniz et al., 2003). The body of the rat was then studied to determine what impact if any the introduction of dietary fiber had on heart disease, particularly oxidative stress.

Conclusions of the Study

The results of this study showed that the rats with fiber added to their diet had increased body mass. Researchers were able to identify a direct link between dietary fiber and metabolic responses (Diniz et al., 2003). In fact, these results were more significant than that of food consumption alone. In terms of cardiac functioning, dietary fiber was found to increase glycogen concentrations which increases cardiac viability. Further, dietary fiber was found to stop the development of oxidative disease in the cardiac tissues (Diniz et al., 2003).

Article 2: Dietary iron as a risk factor for myocardial infarction:

Public health considerations for Nova Scotia

Objective of the Article

The present study seeks to determine if the amount of dietary iron can result in myocardial injury. Many recent… [read more]


Synopsis of Major Diets to Lose Weight Creative Writing

… Popular Diets

In contemporary society, one of the most visible issues facing Americans, and indeed, most of the developed world, is obesity and the link between diet and health. Medical doctors, scholars, researchers are all in agreement that there is a complete link between what we eat and drink, and the consequences to our overall health. One need only look in the newspaper, magazines, grocery store aisles, or pop-up ads to see thousands of ads for diet pills, diet aids, etc. -- one need only look at the increasing demographic of vitamin and supplement stores and offerings to see that American's are rabid for something to bring quick results and better health (Fumento, 1998). Are there negatives to healthful eating? Certainly none that are medical -- but, in our society of fast food, it is more expensive to eat right, fresh vegetables, hormone free meat, low sugar beverages all are a bit more expensive that the high-carbohydrate, fast foods so popular (Robbins, 1998).

Eating right involves two things: a balanced approach to nutrition and the proper mindset to utilize the proper foods in the proper amount. The balanced approach to nutrition does not require depriving oneself of everything one likes -- it simply indicates that we eat in moderation, and, when possible, try to include more fresh fruits and vegetables, limit processed foods and sugars, eat whole foods, limit alcohol, and most especially limit sugary drinks and candies with only processed empty calories and very little nutritional value. For example, on a given day Americans drink 12 gallons of soft drinks per week, totaling vast amounts of sugar -- is this healthful? (Valentine, 2002). Many even call this America's "other drinking problem," and enough soft drinks are produced for every person in the United States to have 52 gallons per year. ("Strong Evidence Links Soft Drink Consumption to Obesity."

Second, humans need a balance between protein, fats and carbohydrates. There are many "quick fix" diets that promise rapid weight loss by eating all grapefruit, no carbohydrates, all carbohydrates, etc. The truth of the matter is that a balanced, limited portion menu, with limited amounts of alcohol is the most nutritious and healthful way of eating. Fats are necessary in the human body to lubricate cells, improve blood health, ease inflammation, and stabilize the heart. Carbohydrates help cell metabolism, provide numerous trace minerals and vitamins, and are essential for proper blood chemistry. Proteins are necessary to fuel amino acids and are essential for bone growth, neurological health, and to fuel the body. In addition, there are hundreds of minerals, vitamins, and substances that at smaller levels, contribute to the overall health of the body ("The Nutrition Source").

For most Americans, the perception of nutrition is a diet. In fact, most Americans do believe they are overweight, and almost 67% of Americans are on a diet 2-3 times per year. 62% of adults and 34% of children are overweight or obese, and yet, if any of the diets worked, why would people… [read more]


Nutrition Tropical Creme Desert Bars Great Taste Essay

… Nutrition

TROPICAL CREME DESERT BARS

Great taste, lactose free, no sugar added

Market Share - Ice cream is a $60 billion dollar industry dominated by 2 global giants, Nestle with about 18% market share, and Unilever with about 15%. Research shows that ice cream sales are rising about 3% worldwide, and in Europe, the world's largest market, over $22 billion in frozen desserts were sold (Scott and Flanagn, 2007). In the United States, the frozen desert industry boasts about $20 in annual sales. The industry is dynamic, yet a larger number of smaller "mom-and-pop" producers are finding superb niche in the market. Even a slight market share stands to make millions, and often unique packaging and formulas offer regional providers more flexibility than the national or global organizations ("U.S. Market for Ice Creme," 2002). Add to this the wave of health-food, low sugar, low fat, product extensions and one will see it is quite possible to profitably introduce a new frozen desert into the market.

Target Group- Lactose intolerant individuals who might also be concerned with sugars in their diet; diabetic and heart conscious individuals -- but caloric count is a tad high. Likely target women 34-55 or retired women; might be marketed with coconut shell (see above) to increase novelty and market share. Target group would appreciate the novelty, and be willing to pay more to have lactose free desert option. Estimates range that as humans age, their lactose intolerance increases (witness products such as Lactaid). By the targeted age group, at least 47% of the population is expressing some lactose intolerance, and by age 70 almost 90% (National Institute of Health, 2010). Thus, marketed properly, the market share actually grows up per year since more people are growing older, but older folk are living longer.

Product/Packaging Nutrition Claims- the formula for the new desert would consist of 2 parts coconut milk, 1 part almond…… [read more]


Principles of Equine Nutrition Basic Nutrients Too Much or Too Little Salt Thesis

… ¶ … Equine Nutrition -- Review of the Basic Nutrients -- Too Much or Too Little: Salt

Salt deficiency and excess: Why the right balance of salt is so critical for equine health

Salt is an essential nutrient for both… [read more]


Eating Disordered Mothers Influence to the Cause of Unhealthy Eating Behavior on Daughters Research Proposal

… ¶ … MOTHERS WITH EATING DISORDERS PROJECT UNHEALTHY EATING HABITS ON THEIR DAUGHTER?

The literature review in this work is conducted for the express purpose of reviewing information and previous studies which examine whether mothers with eating disorders project unhealthy… [read more]


My Diet Analysis Research Proposal

… Daily Diet

My Daily Diet Analysis

Healthy eating and ensuring that one receives the proper nutrition is much more complicated than many advertisers suggest. It is not as simple as watching calories, cutting fat or carbohydrates, or boosting levels of… [read more]


Vitamin C And Nutrition Thesis

… Vitamin C and Nutrition

The objective of this work is to research Vitamin C in regards to nutrition and to discuss the articles reviewed for this purpose discussing the similarities and differences in the articles.

Naidu (2003)

The work of Naidu (2003) entitled: "Vitamin C in Human Health and Disease is Still a Mystery?: An Overview" states "L-ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is the trivial name of Vitamin C" ( ) Ascorbic acid is stated to be "widely distributed in fresh fruits and vegetables. It is present in fruits like oranges, lemons, grapefruit, watermelon, papaya, strawberries, cantaloupe, mango, pineapple, raspberries and cherries. It is also found in green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, broccoli, green and red peppers, cauliflower and cabbage." (Naidu, 2003) Ascorbic acid is "one of the most important water soluble vitamins" and it is essential for "collagen, carnitine and neurtransamitters biosynthesis." (Naidu, 2003)

Historically it is related that those who voyaged the sea "developed a peculiar disease called scurvy when they were on sea. This was found to be due to eating non-perishable items and lack of fresh fruits and vegetables in their diet. A British naval Physician, Lind documented that there was some substance in citrus fruits that can cure scurvy. He developed a method to concentrate and preserve citrus juice for use by sailors. British Navy was given a daily ration of lime or lemon juice to overcome ascorbic acid deficiency. Ascorbic acid was first isolated from natural sources and structurally characterized by Szent-Gyorgyi, Waugh and King. This vitamin was first synthesized by Haworth and Hirst. Currently ascorbic acid is the most widely used vitamin supplement through out the world." (Naidu, 2003)

While the majority of plants and animals "synthesize ascorbic acid from D-glucose of D-galactose…" and most of animals produce "relatively high levels of ascorbic acid from glucose in liver" it is stated that humans, as well as guinea pigs, apes, and fruit eating bats "can not synthesize ascorbic acid due to the absence of the enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase." (Naidu, 2003)

Recommended average daily intake levels sufficient in meeting ascorbic acid nutritional requirements are 90 milligrams per day for men over the age of 19 and 75 milligrams per day for women over the age of 19. Individuals who smoke should consume approximately 120 milligrams each day to "maintain cellular saturation and optimum risk reduction of heart disease, stroke and cancer in health individuals." (Naidu, 2003)

Naidu reports that there is absolutely no evidence that exists that supports the idea that excess doses of Vitamin C are toxic and as well there is no evidence to clearly link excess Vitamin C to formation of kidney stones, pro-oxidant effects or excess iron absorption. Vitamin C is however, know to be very beneficial in preventing and relieving symptoms of the common cold. Vitamin C is vital in would healing processes and the healing and regeneration process since Vitamin C "stimulates collagen synthesis." (Naidu, 2003) In fact, Naidu (2003) state that the recommendation to hasten the process of healing calls for… [read more]


Effects of Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease Thesis

… Nutrition and CVD

Cardiovascular disease or CVD is a disorder affecting the heart or the body system of blood vessels (American Association for Clinical Chemistry 2009). Most cases of CVD are usually attributed to obesity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, too much smoking and alcohol use, and low vegetable and fruit intake (Perspectives in Health 2007). It is believed that a combination of treatment and education is the best approach to CVD. Singling out smoking as a major cause, former Pan American Health Organization Director George Allayne pointed to tobacco taxation as a most cost-effective intervention for this disease. He also said that cost-effective medical treatments should include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, off-patent statins and aspirin. A polypill, which incorporated many medications, for long-term use was considered ideal. But education should cap all efforts. Health care workers must assiduously follow clinical guidelines. Patients must be educated on the importance of following their medical regimens and doctor's orders (Perspectives in Health).

Organic Pollutants Cause CVD

Studies showed that exposure to persistent organic pollutants or POPs can be another cause of CVD (Ha et al. 2007). POPs are lipophilic stable chemicals, which can accumulate in adipose tissue. Eventually, they become a lasting toxic body burden. Findings of the studies revealed that exposure to these pollutants increases atherogenic serum lipid levels in both man and animal. They damage the endothelial cells through oxidative stress. The rise of serum lipid levels and the damage to endothelial cells combined to pose the risk of CVD. Another study conducted in other areas contaminated with POPs found that residents had a higher incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 with 889 participants (Perspectives in Health).

CVD-Depression Link

Medical experts predicted that ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases would be the leading causes of death in the world (Kamphuis e al 2007). Studies showed that depression is linked to the CVD in those with the disease and in the general population without it. The assumption on the connection was drawn from the low intake of n-3 FAs, EPA and DHA. These nutrients are all found mainly in fish. The Zutphen Elderly Study was conducted on 332 men, aged 70-90 who did not have CVD or diabetes in 1990. Their diets and demographic characteristics, educational levels and lifestyles were also examined. The study found that roughly 22% of them exhibited mild-to-severe depression symptoms at the time of the study. A follow-up 10 years later found that 170 or 52% of them had died, 92 or 28% of CVD. The findings suggested that an increased intake of n-3 FAs could reduce the risk of depression and, consequently, of CVD (Kamphuis et al.).

N-3 Fatty Acids and CVD

Increased consumption of N-3 fatty acids, mainly from fish, could reduce coronary artery disease, several studies said (Erkkila et al. 2003). A five-year Finish cohort study of the European Action on… [read more]


Nutrition Information Research Proposal

… Nutrition Information Sources

The last nutritional information that I received was from the nightly news: it was the warning about salmonella in pistachios. The information is credible because it was on multiple news stations and also in the newspapers. I changed my diet by throwing out the small bag of pistachios that I had and I made sure none of the foods I purchased recently contained pistachios in the ingredient lists.

Generally, I do not relay on word-of-mouth sources for reliable nutritional advice,

(especially at the gym), because there is absolutely no guarantee of its accuracy. I have overheard ridiculous conversations in the gym about nutrition, some of which came from personal trainers and other gym employees who are supposed to know something about the topic. For one example, I have heard a trainer tell someone not to eat at night because food eaten before bed "turns to fat" more than food eaten at other times. My doctor confirmed that this is not…… [read more]


Nutrition Diabetes Affects About 23 Thesis

… Nutrition

Diabetes affects about 23 million -- almost 8% -- of the American population (American Diabetes Association). Many Americans may be unaware that they have the condition. Most Americans with Diabetes have Type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is the inability to properly metabolize glucose and produce insulin. Type 1 Diabetes is also the body's inability to metabolize or produce insulin, "a hormone that is needed to convert sugar (glucose), starches and other food into energy needed for daily life," (American Diabetes Association). Type 2 Diabetes is usually preventable and caused by lifestyle and dietary habits. Type 1 Diabetes is usually passed down from generation to generation and is diagnosed in young children.

Diabetes is related to a number of health problems, including oral health problems. According to the American Dental Association (ADA) diabetes is related to "tooth decay, peridonatl (gum) disease, salivary gland dysfunction, fungal infections, lichen plantus and related skin diseases, infection and delayed healing, and taste impairment." The reason why diabetes can increase oral health hazards is that persons with diabetes cannot metabolize glucose properly and therefore saliva has a high amount of bacteria in it. That bacteria causes tooth decay and gum disease (ADA). Persons who do not brush and floss their teeth regularly are at an even greater risk for developing oral health problems. When teeth are not brushed and flossed regularly, a plaque builds up and later hardens into tartar. Tartar is a calcification, a hard substance that is difficult to remove except by an oral health professional. When tartar builds up on teeth, it can cause inflammation of the gums and infections (ADA). Preventing gum disease and tooth decay depends both on diet and also on hygiene habits.

Oral health is only one of the possible effects of having diabetes. Diabetes also causes other health problems such as heart disease. Managing diet and especially intake of sugar helps diabetics manage their symptoms and improve overall health. Persons diagnosed with diabetes should avoid refined sugars and simple carbohydrates in favor of small amounts of natural sweeteners and complex carbohydrates. The American Diabetes Association recommends eating as many fruits and vegetables as possible, but not too many starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn and peas. Fruits and vegetables are best eaten fresh, because canned and frozen vegetables contain additives like salt and sugar that can exacerbate the condition of diabetes. Starchy vegetables are healthy in small portions and best when fresh, too.

Eating fresh fruits and vegetables is important for the diabetic's overall health, and can also prevent diabetes in individuals who might be at risk. One reason why eating fresh fruits and vegetables improves the health of diabetics and reduces their risk for complications is that those foods are satisfying. Eating large quantities of fresh fruits and vegetables helps people feel good about what they are eating and become more likely to eat less unhealthy processed foods. Processed foods are the ones that contain the highest amount of sugars, sodium, and chemical additives. Those are… [read more]


Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan Thesis

… Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan

One of the marvels of the modern world is the fact that we can anticipate health problems and take steps to mitigate or even prevent them altogether. Scientific and nutrition research has identified the optimal… [read more]


Basic Human Nutrition Essay

… ¶ … Nutrition

What Was Eaten

One strawberry/chocolate flavor pop tart

One can of Diet Rite soda

One glass of water

One corned beef sandwich with two slices of wheat bread, three slices of corned beef, one slice of Swiss… [read more]


Impact of a High Fat High Calorie Diet on Depression Anxiety and Energy Levels Term Paper

… ¶ … High-Fat, High Calorie Diet on Depression, Anxiety and Energy Levels

The methodology of a study is particularly important, because those who read the study must be able to understand what the researcher did, and those who want to… [read more]


Managing Arthritis With Nutrition Term Paper

… Managing Arthritis With Nutrition

Nutrition and arthritis

In order to address the question of whether the management of arthritis can be facilitated by nutrition instead of a reliance on conventional medication, the term arthritis and its concomitant conditions must first… [read more]


Importance of Proper Diet and Exercise and Obesity Epidemic in America Term Paper

… ¶ … Diet

Attention Step

Obesity is one of America's biggest problems. People in America of the most prominent problems that young and adults, men or women face. In the nutritionist's point-of-view, obesity having 20% more of the should be and/or ideal body weight. So, why is obesity considered as a major problem of the Americans? The response can be explained better by the statistics related to obesity.

In America alone, obesity is already considered an epidemic as it has affected, and continuously affecting millions of its populace. The recent statistics reveal that (Middleton, 2006):

Million Americans are overweight, 40 Million are considered obese and 3 Million are considered morbidly obese

Eight of every 10 Americans are found to be overweight

More so, other studies disclosed that at the start of the millennium (from 2000 to 2001) the rate of obesity has started to gradually increase. In fact, it started from 19.8% and moved higher to 20.9% of the population of American adults. Same studies also prove that among the American adult population, 34% of the people that fall under the ages 20-74 are overweight and 27% are considered obese (CDC, 2002).

Because of this data, there is really a string need for the American people - males or females, young and adults - to be informed of the importance of proper diet and exercise so that the increasing rate of obesity will be gradually stopped. This is also the very reason why students, teachers and everybody should all be interested in knowing how to maintain healthy lifestyle not only for their own benefits but also for the chance of sharing the knowledge to other people.

Need Step

Problems on degenerative diseases has long been affecting the entire U.S.. The table below presents the magnitude of the problem of degenerative diseases in the United States as of 1980 (and this is based on the statistics of 1980 alone, how much more if oday's data will be looked upon?

Hypertension 160/95 or above Hypertension 140/95 to 160/95

Cardiovascular Diseases

Causes 54% of deaths

Heart attacks every year

New Diabetics every year

Surgery for Gallstones every year

Cancer Deaths every year

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Osteoporosis

New Cases with Strokes every year

Major Degenerative Arthritis (over age 50) (Crane, 2002).

There are several factors that contributed to these problems.

These are: poor diet and nutrition; sedentary lifestyle; chronic stress; destructive habits; environmental pollution; internal pollution; and genetic expression. The first two reasons have been proven to be the highest factor affecting degenerative health.

Satisfaction of Needs

With regards to poor diet and nutrition, government and university studies revealed that at least 95% of all Americans have at least one nutrient deficiency in their diet. Most U.S. citizen are dependent on the convenience of gust getting and eating manufactured foods. It should be noted that such manufactured foods do not support good health (http://www.connecticutcenterforhealth.com/health-factors.html#sec1,2004)..

They do not eat nearly enough vegetables and fruits, and consume an extremely high amount of fat, animal products, and refined… [read more]


Nutrition in Preventive Medicine Term Paper

… ¶ … nutritional site that is designed to advise readers about the importance of eating healthy foods. The writer explores the website and provides feedback as to its reliability. There was one source used to complete this paper.

This website offers a wide range of advice with regards to eating nutritionally balanced meals. It is does little to explain the scientific elements of why a person should eat well, but does allude to the idea that if one eats well one will be healthier and live a longer life.

This article and research conclusion was originally published by the New York Department of Aging and focuses primarily on the topic of nutrition for those who are aging. While everybody ages when people begin to enter their senior years their health often becomes more fragile than it had been in the past and at the same time their appetite begins to decrease (Nutrition and Aging Well (http://agingwell.state.ny.us/eatwell/index.htm#articles).

This creates a possible climate for deteriorating health that can be exacerbated by not eating properly.

One of the things this site offers is an area for eating tips. Within this area the site provides helpful hints and guidance about how the person can make healthy choices in his or her everyday eating habits (Nutrition and Aging Well (http://agingwell.state.ny.us/eatwell/index.htm#articles).

Here are some tips for healthy eating at home, work and elsewhere. To help you get started, try some of these ideas (Nutrition and Aging Well (http://agingwell.state.ny.us/eatwell/index.htm#articles)."

Some of the hints include adding bananas or berries to breakfast food. This is a good tip for the elderly because it is not unusual for people in this age bracket to become malnutrition and this tip will help them to remember to put some fiber and fruit in their diet each day (Nutrition and Aging Well (http://agingwell.state.ny.us/eatwell/index.htm#articles).

Wouldn't it be easier to eat something if it was right in front of you? An easy way to make fruits and vegetables more accessible to you is to make sure you buy them. Make sense, right? So when you go grocery shopping, hit the produce section first. Then keep bowls of fruit on the kitchen table and counter. Now that you've bought them, eat them (Nutrition and Aging Well (http://agingwell.state.ny.us/eatwell/index.htm#articles)."

The above passage is not a very helpful passage as in today's America most people are already aware of the need for fruits, grains and other natural foods without being reminded of the need. In addition the passage does not advise the reader about which fruits and vegetables might be the best choice to purchase at the store.

The site is somewhat condescending in its communication style until one gets into some of the links provided and then sees the more detailed and higher level information that is provided to them.

This site has several strengths and weaknesses. One of the most important strengths that it has is its reader friendliness. The site is easy to maneuver around and the text is written in easy to understand relatively simple… [read more]


Weight Loss Term Paper

… HEALTH, EXERCISE & WEIGHT LOSS

The United States has been criticized by doctors, researchers and government officials as being one of the fattest and unhealthy countries in the world. Our population currently faces numerous problems regarding health issues, weight loss,… [read more]


Nutrition Most People Respect Real Expertise Term Paper

… Nutrition

Most people respect real expertise. However, expertise has a different meaning to most people when it comes to medicine than it might for some other field, such as engineering. An engineer does his or her work and leaves. If the engineer builds a bridge, that bridge stays up for decades without any further intervention except occasional safety checks.

Nutrition, however, has to be an ongoing concern for anyone paying attention to his or her health. A person could have excellent nutrition in January of one year but by July be facing significant nutritional challenges because of illness, changes in income, or other life changes that interfere with eating a healthy and balanced diet that contains neither too few nor too many calories.

This means that just having a degree is not enough for a nutritionist. Nutritionists must be able to relate to people well, evaluate that person's lifestyle, and spot issues that could interfere with the person eating…… [read more]


Dash Diet an Intake Plan Term Paper

… (The DASH Diet -- Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Weight Loss)

The DASH diet was initially intended to control the blood pressure and not the weight, but with a few alterations, the weight objectives can also be attained. As fruits and vegetables by nature have low fat and calories than one's usual amount of snack items, they can actually load one up without providing those extra calories which are not wanted. The important part about the DASH diet is that one need not have to spend a great deal of money in diet medications, books, or products and one need not have to waste all the time fixing hard to follow special foods or recipes for oneself. The whole family can take this diet, and all the things required are available in any local grocery store. (For a Healthier You, DASH!)

Here are some of the measures that would help one into the DASH plan slowly: a) Slowly raising the portion of fruits and vegetables to eight a day and trying new ones at a meal or having them as snacks. It is essential to note that the serving sizes of fruits and vegetables are not as huge as one imagines. b) Increasing and drinking more milk and adding more of low or nonfat dairy products to the daily food. If one has a problem of lactose intolerance, then it is better to have lactose free milk or lactase pills. c) It is advisable to use food labels to select products which are low in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium. d) It is necessary to note that processed foods have huge quantities of concealed sodium, fat, and/or cholesterol. e) It is also essential to use only half the quantity of margarine, butter, or other condiments which one uses. f) Reducing one's meat intake and trying one or two vegetarian meals every week. g) And finally, using fruit as an alternative for a dessert. (For a Healthier You, DASH!)

References

DASH Diet. Retrieved from http://dashdiet.org/

Accessed 15 October 2005

Definition DASH diet. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=24752

Accessed 15 October 2005

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Retrieved from http://www.womensheartfoundation.org/content/Nutrition/dash_diet.asp

Accessed 15 October 2005

For a Healthier You, DASH!. retrieved from http://www.hearthighway.org/cvd/bp/dash.htm

Accessed 15 October 2005

The DASH Diet -- Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Weight Loss.

Retrieved from http://www.netwellness.org/healthtopics/diet/faq4.cfm

Accessed 15 October 2005

The DASH Diet. Retrieved from http://www.cardioconnection.org/media/pdf/new_dash.pdf

Accessed 15 October 2005

Tsang, Gloria. High Blood Pressure Diet - the DASH Diet.…… [read more]


Marketing Channels and Methods Term Paper

… "What is the right strategy to follow in a highly competitive market in which demand is relatively flat?" stated one executive recently. "The answer for us is to identify what our niche is in the market. For us, it is… [read more]


Nutrition Is the Study of the Organic Term Paper

… Nutrition is the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease (Nutrition pp). Today, it is common knowledge… [read more]


Diet and Exercise Term Paper

… ¶ … diet and exercise. There are sixteen references used for this paper.

Americans are becoming more and more obese, which can lead to serious and potentially fatal health risks. It is important to explore diets and the role that… [read more]


Nutrition Industry a Person Term Paper

… Food Service Management is related with the supervision of the food service department of hospitals, schools, nursing homes, etc. Their job is to plan healthy menus, purchase foods, plan and supervise food service delivery system and to train the staff. Once you know your interests, you can choose the specialization area. (About the Profession: Dietetics)

For the long-life of health of children, good nutrition and physical activity are important. Recently the Type 2 Diabetes, one of the most severe health problems of overweight and fat children has gone up. Children often go without breakfast due to busy schedules, long bus rides, and lack of resources. Schools must search for alternate breakfast services to meet the varying requirements of the student population. This can include serving breakfast in the classroom, serving breakfast after the first period or during the class changes. Children's eating habits and physical activity types have changed over the last 3 decades. High-fat foods and children's liking to these foods has contributed to increased obesity. Good nutrition is associated with willingness to learn and academic success, reduced behavioral problems, and decreased emotional problems. It also helps in scoring more marks, math and reading percentile scores, class participation and decrease in absence and lethargy. Nutrition education is an important part of most major health promotion and disease prevention programs. (Nutrition services: an essential component of comprehensive health programs)

Nutrition education professionals are answerable and responsible for the nutrition uprightness at schools and for executing nutrition education standards. They also offer guidance for the expansion of polices, programs, and services that incorporate nutrition services into the educational atmosphere. Dietetics professionals and nutrition education professionals have the education and knowledge to guide us to a call to action toward the growth of the school as a community center in giving valuable nutrition services to enhance the health and welfare of our country's children. A career in nutrition offers a person huge scope for professional development, complete satisfaction of serving humanity as how to lead a healthy life and will remain to be a long-time career as nutrition is a part of human being. A healthy human body free from diseases need not be a gift for few as nutrition professionals ensure that it is possible for every one to have a healthy body. Hence, nutrition will continue to be a most sought after profession for mankind. (Nutrition services: an essential component of comprehensive health programs)

References

"About the Profession: Dietetics" Retrieved from http://www.shrs.pitt.edu/cdn/about/about.html Accessed on 23 February 2005

"Dietetic Professionals are Registered Dietitians (RD) and Dietetic Technicians, Registered (DTR)" Retrieved from http://www.eatrightohio.org/dietitians.html Accessed on 23 February 2005

"Nutritional consultant -- Home study program" Global College of Natural Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.gcnm.com/courseNC.htm?src=overture Accessed on 23 February 2005

"Nutrition services: an essential component of comprehensive health programs" (2003) Journal of American Diet Association. Vol: 103; pp: 505-514. Retrieved from http://www.eatright.org/Public/GovernmentAffairs/92_8243.cfm Accessed on 23 February 2005

"Welcome to Jersey Nutrition & Dietetic Service" (June, 2004) Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.je/dietitians/dietitians.asp Accessed on 23 February 2005… [read more]


Diets and Young Women Term Paper

… Then the plan gradually begins to add some of these items back into the diet. The first two weeks may be so difficult that many dieters do not stick with the plan long-term.

The Atkins diet is so popular that a whole industry of low-carb foods has grown up around it. However, this low-carbohydrate diet is so restrictive, that it is difficult to stay on for any length of time, and it cuts out nearly all fruits, grains, and sugars, especially in the initial stages of the diet, so it is quite difficult to maintain, and it is quite expensive, since it relies heavily on proteins, such as meats and cheeses. This diet is not concerned with fat, and it might be perfect for those people who do not enjoy a lot of vegetables and fruits in their diet. However, it is quite restrictive, and cuts out so many foods that nutritionally, it is not sound, or even desirable to stay on it for a long period.

The cabbage soup diet is quite popular because it helps a person lose quite a bit of weight in a short amount of time, and it is relatively easy to stay on for a week. This diet combines low fat and high-fiber to accomplish weight loss, and it might help lead the way into a longer lasting diet plan. However, the diet only lasts a week, and it is quite restrictive in terms of what you can eat. It is not meant for long-term weight loss, and so, it is not nutritionally sound. This diet may be fine to lose a few extra pounds, but it should not be considered a nutritional lifestyle.

The ideal weight for a person is not what the media portrays. The ideal weight for a person is a weight they can maintain comfortably, that makes them feel good about themselves but does not put their health at risk, and that allows them to live a healthy lifestyle. This can differ from person to person, and it is not reed thin, it is, most of all, healthy. Young women today do not see weight as a health issue, it is an issue of how they look to others, and this idea that ultra-thin is the best weight is creating havoc with women's bodies and their emotions.… [read more]


Weight Watchers Diet System Term Paper

… (Alexander et al.)

The Adkins Diet Plan

Another popular diet trend today is the Adkins Diet, which is vastly different from the Weight Watchers system. This diet plan was founded in 1972 by the now deceased Dr. Robert Atkins, who… [read more]


Diet as an Effective Treatment Term Paper

… Excessive amounts of a particular vitamin or mineral and a substantially low amount on the other nutrients needed by the body can trigger serious health illnesses to develop. Overnutrition usually develops as a result of an individual's lifestyle, wherein alcoholism, smoking, and eating patterns and habits alter the body's proper functioning. Like undernutrition, the elderly also become vulnerable to overnutrition, which is one common result of aging. Subsisting to alcoholism and/or smoking can result to high blood pressure or cholesterol, which can lead to heart diseases. Similarly, "fad diets" and other new forms of food diets that deprive an individual from receiving equal amounts of essential vitamins and nutrients in the body often result to an instability in the body's supply of nutrients. Improper food diets lacking vegetables and fruits or meat and protein-rich foods can eventually lead to the development of chronic illnesses (Beers and Berkow 2003). Overnutrition is mainly characterized by "abdominal findings," which often concerns the internal organs in the body affected by the following lifestyles enumerated a while ago. However, one of the most evident effect and symptom of overnutrition is the alteration of one's behavior, such as the development of increased anxiety, depression, and/or irritation (Grigsby 2002).

It is evident that malnutrition is a prevalent health disorder that can result to death if it goes undetected or no immediate and proper medical intervention is used. In America, overnutrition occurs in almost 1.1 million Americans through obesity and overweight conditions (AHA 2003). On the other hand, undernutrition is prevalent in 13 million American children as a result of food insufficiency due to improper food diets (Guarino 2002). Thus, an effective treatment must be used to solve the increasing problem of malnutrition not only in the U.S., but in the whole world as well. Among the solutions offered to prevent malnutrition, subsisting to a proper food diet remains to be the most effective and feasible solution to malnutrition. A guideline to obtain information of the proper food diet is through the Food Guide Pyramid, which lists the proper foods in appropriate amounts needed by the body. The Food Guide Pyramid lists and locates foods needed most by the body in the base, while the least nutritious foods are located in apex or on top of the pyramid. The proper food diet using this source lists breads and cereals as the primary sources of the body's energy; fruits and vegetables take the second place in the food hierarchy; and meats and protein-rich food ranks as third (Medical Encyclopedia 2003). It can be observed that as the hierarchy goes up the pyramid, the amounts of food needed for each level decreases, suggesting that the body needs more of the first 2 levels (bread, cereals and vegetables and fruits) than the other higher levels (meat and fats, oil, and sweets). Through a proper food diet like the Food Guide Pyramid, the human body will become healthy and resistant to illness and diseases, and problems of malnutrition can now be prevented… [read more]


Nutrition and Cognitive Learning Term Paper

… In an effort to address the problem of low nutritional levels, many students have implemented school breakfast programs, building coalitions to improve the school nutrition and physical activity environment, teaching nutrition curriculum, and adding more physical activity for children, using… [read more]


Risk Factors for Mr. Jablonski Term Paper

… 5 ounces nuts; 1 tablespoon or 1/2 ounce seeds;

1/2 cup cooked dry beans

Fats & oils teaspoon soft margarine; 1 tablespoon lowfat mayonnaise;

2 tablespoons light salad dressing; 1 teaspoon vegetable oil

Sweets per week tablespoon sugar; 1 tablespoon jelly or jam; 1/2 ounce jelly beans; 8 ounces lemonade

Source: National Institute of Health

The diet changes required for treating Mr. J's hypertension are more or less the same as for reducing his LDL cholesterol except that he has to reduce his salt intake to less than 6 grams per day. It is always difficult to make drastic changes in any long-time habit specially one's diet. However, Mr. J would have to be bluntly told about the absolute necessity of a diet change. Only a bit of 'shock therapy' about his condition is likely to convince him to change.

Lab and Clinical Tests

Mr. J would have to have his LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure monitored regularly. In addition it is advisable that he gets his triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, VLDL, and blood-sugar (glucose) levels monitored. This is because he already has elevated LDL cholesterol and hypertension, while he is a potential candidate for diabetes. The rest of his lipid profile also needs to be monitored.

Benefit of Losing Weight

Mr. J would benefit from weight loss as this would lower his high LDL cholesterol level, reduce his high BP, help control his cigarette smoking and, as a result, reduce his risk of getting CHD or a heart attack. (He would also look and feel better!) In order to lose weight one must burn more calories than one's intake, and physical activity results in burning of calories. For example a person weighing 200 pounds (Mr. J's weight) who eats the same amount of calories but walks briskly for 1 1/2 miles a day would lose approx. 14 lbs. In one year. Other ways in which Mr. J would benefit from a weight loss program are the development of a stronger heart and lungs through increased physical activity.

Nutrition Considerations after a Heart Attack or Stroke

During the first week following a heart attack, it is advisable to take several small meals, low in salt and to avoid cold fluids. The same dietary plan as described for prevention of CHD and stroke are subsequently applicable in a post heart-attack situation. However, the nutrition considerations for Mr. J, if…… [read more]


Diabetes Mellitus (Dm) Term Paper

… Recommend testing for ketones in all urine samples from patients with type 1 DM who exhibit persistent, rapid, and marked fluctuation in their degree of hyperglycemia.

DKA is acute metabolic changes in the body due to lack of insulin or poor response to insulin due to stress or illness. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis, leading to osmotic diuresis and dehydration.

Since Kusuf also has been diagnosed with Ketosis and Acidosis, the key to treatment of DKA is volume repletion, insulin therapy, and specific metabolic corrections.

One of the first steps in managing type 1 DM is diet control. According to the ADA policy, the diet treatment is based upon nutritional assessment and treatment goals. Diet recommendations should be made in view of the patient's eating habits and lifestyle.

Diet management includes education about the timing, size, frequency, or composition of meals to avoid hypoglycemia or postprandial hyperglycemia. All patients on insulin should receive a comprehensive diet plan that includes a daily caloric intake prescription; recommendations for amounts of dietary carbohydrate, fat, and protein; and how to divide calories between meals and snacks. A professional dietitian should be involved to create the individual diet plan.

In these patients, the caloric distribution is important; a recommended distribution consists of 20% of daily calories for breakfast, 35% for lunch, 30% for dinner, and 15% for late evening snack.

The minimum protein requirement for good nutrition is 0.9 g/kg/d (range = 1-1.5 g/kg/d), but a reduced protein intake is indicated in cases of nephropathy.

Fat intake should be limited to 30% or less of the total calories, and a low-cholesterol diet is recommended.

Patients should consume sucrose in moderation and increase their fiber intake. In some cases, midmorning and midafternoon snacks are important to avoid hypoglycemia.

Also, Yasaf should begin to exercise regularly. Exercise is an important aspect of diabetes management. Patients should be encouraged to exercise regularly. Educate the patients about the effects of exercise on the blood glucose level. If patients are planning to participate in rigorous exercise for more than 30 minutes, they may develop hypoglycemia. To prevent hypoglycemia, they either can decrease the insulin by 10-20% or can have an extra snack. These patients must maintain their hydration status during exercise.

If Yasaf follows these steps than he will have a greater chance of deterring his diabetes from complicating his life in the future. Though common in young children of his age, and especially among white children, such cases can be detrimental to mental health as well as the obvious physical symptoms. Such a diagnosis, for Yasaf and for…… [read more]


Children Health and Diet Essay

… ¶ … healthy menu for the following groups.

Infants

Toddlers

Children

Among the simplest ways to demonstrate our care for children is feeding them safe and healthy food (Benjamin, 2012). This is crucial for the following reasons (Benjamin, 2012):

Through… [read more]


Environmental and Genetic Factors Causing Obesity and Hypertension Essay

… ¶ … Nutrition: Water, Mineral Functions, and Obesity

Understanding Water and Mineral Functions

Diet/Lifestyle to help one cope with high blood pressure

High blood pressure, also referred to as hypertension describes the pressure in an individual's artery more than it should be. A number below 120/80 mm HG depicts normal blood pressure of an individual. Evidently, blood pressure does not have a cure; rather it can be managed with proper diet and lifestyle practices. Hypertension does not indicate any signs or symptoms are making it a dangerous disease. It increases the risk of developing a heart attack and stroke. Various categories of individuals at risk to develop hypertension include overweight people, expectant women, and people with diabetes, among others. The following factors relate to dietary and lifestyle practices that enable individuals manage hypertension:

Diet Changes

Managing hypertension depends on what one eats and drinks. Cooking food from scratch gives individuals control over what they eat. Following dietary measures facilitate management of high blood pressure (Gorelick & Aiyagara, 2010).

Eating a healthy diet occurs as a fundamental step in managing the disease. Food rich in whole grain, vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy products can lower individual's blood pressure by up to 14 mm Hg. Changing one's diet may prove a difficult task for most individuals. However, adopting some tips can enable one adopt a healthy lifestyle.

Engaging in smart shopping involves careful reading of food labels. When dining out, it is also vital to stick to a healthy-eating plan.

Keeping a food diary involves jotting one exactly what one eats. The log facilitates monitoring of eating habits that depicts one's actual diet.

Boosting potassium in one's diet can help curtail the effects of sodium on blood pressure. Foods such as vegetables and fruits occur as the best sources of potassium rather than supplements. It is crucial to talk to a doctor for advice on the best level of potassium.

Reducing the level of sodium can reduce blood pressure levels by 2 to 8 mm Hg. The effects of sodium on blood pressure vary amongst different individuals. In a day, one should limit sodium intake to less than 2,300 milligrams (mg). For people with greater salt sensitivity, it is appropriate to have 1500mg a day or less (Gorelick & Aiyagara, 2010). Limiting alcohol intake lowers blood pressure by up to 2 to 4 mmHg. However, elderly individuals may escalate blood pressure levels even with moderate alcohol consumption. Drinking alcohol may reduce the effectiveness of the prescribed medications.

Lifestyle Changes

Regular physical activity can lower blood pressure levels by 4 to 9 mm Hg. It is essential to exercise at least 30 minutes a day on several occasions of the week. Best types of blood pressure lowering activities include dancing, swimming, jogging, and cycling, among others. It is crucial to talk to a doctor for the best advice on an appropriate exercise program (Weir, 2010).

Quitting smoking can reduce blood pressure levels, back to the normal state. Regardless of the age factor, quitting… [read more]


Disorder of Carbohydrate Digestion: Nutrition and Human Physiology Essay

… Nutrition and Human Physiology: A Disorder of Carbohydrate Digestion

Why the small intestine is better suited than the other gastrointestinal tract organs to carry out the absorptive process

The small intestine is a section of the gastrointestinal tract that is located between the large intestine and the stomach, which comprises the jejunum, the ileum and the duodenum. Alters (2000) explains that the average person consumes about 1.2 liters of water and 800 grams of food every day. The liver, pancreas, stomach and salivary glands also secrete over 7 liters of fluid. Of these, about 750 grams of solid food and 8 liters of fluids are absorbed by the small intestine. This implies that its primary function is the absorption of water, electrolytes and nutrients.

The small intestine is best suited to carry out the absorptive process than all other gastrointestinal tract organs. For instance, Alters (2000) states that its structure is especially suited for absorption. She further explains that it has a large surface area made up of fingerlike projections called villi, which are also covered by cytoplasmic projections called microvilli. These provide the small intestine with a tremendously large surface area and since they are specifically designed to carry out the process of absorption, they facilitate faster absorption of nutrients and minerals. The small intestine is the only organ in the GI tract that has these villi and microvilli and, therefore, it is better equipped to carry out the absorptive process.

According to Hayes and Cruger (2014), the absorption process is aided by mechanics of movement that are specific to the small intestine namely, peristalsis and segmentation. Segmentation refers to the localized contractions that bring chime into close proximity with the small intestine surface by contractions of approximately 12 to 16 times per minute. On the other hand, peristalsis is a relaxation and contraction of muscles. Hayes and Cruger (2014) explain that peristalsis is slow and deliberate, and it pushes chyme through at a rate of approximately 1cm per minute, leaving it in the small intestine for about three to five hours. Tortora and Derrickson (2008) also state that the capacity of the small intestine to absorb carbohydrates is 120 grams per hour. The digestive process is completed when chyme moves along the length of the small intestine.

Tortora and Derrickson (2008) state that the small intestine contains the four basic layers that make up the vast majority of the GI tract. This enables fast digestion and enables it to initiate majority of the absorption process. Once macromolecular enzymes get to the small intestine, they are exposed to bile and pancreatic enzymes and digested to molecules that are capable of being absorbed. Moreover, Tortorra and Derrickson (2008) explain that the absorption of materials occurs in various ways namely active transport, diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion, and that 90% of all absorption occurs in the small intestine.

Thus, based on the structure, mechanics of movement and the process of diffusion; the small intestine is better suited than all other GI… [read more]


Can the Ketogenic Diet Help Brain Cancer Patients Research Paper

… Cancer affects millions each year worldwide. Some attribute it to diet; others attribute it to environmental factors. Meaning, some may say the toxins in processed food can lead to a higher risk of cancers while others say exposure to chemicals… [read more]


Treatment of Obesity Literature Review

… An increasingly moderate protein intake with exercise can generate similar health benefits to a high protein diet with exercise (Arciero, 2008, p.762). However, the effectiveness of the moderate protein intake with exercise requires high-intensity exercise training in order to result in improved body composition and insulin sensitivity. As compared to moderate protein intake with no exercise, a modest protein intake with exercise contributes to major decreases in hip and waist circumference that result in reduced abdominal obesity and lesser risk of insulin resistance and other metabolic syndrome (Meckling and Sherfey, 2007, p.751).

High Protein Diet with Exercise

Arciero (2008) states that previous research findings have reported that high-protein diets with exercise mitigate the decrease in lean body mass that is usually linked to dietary weight loss (p.763). A high protein diet and high-intensity exercise regimen contributes to greater decrease in abdominal and total body fat and other disease risk factors as compared to moderate protein and moderate-intensity exercise program. The high-intensity exercise program either provides extra energy deficit resulting in weight loss or prevent increase in resting metabolic rate that is always associated with hypocaloric diets (Meckling and Sherfey, 2007, p.750). Wycherley et al. (2012), argues that high protein diet with exercise contributes to indicators of strength and aerobic capacity in obese and overweight men (p.322).

Possible Benefits of Consuming High Protein Diet

These research articles demonstrate some possible benefits of consuming high protein data including greater reductions in total and abdominal body fat as well as some disease risk factors. The other benefits include improvements in body composition and insulin sensitivity, reduced lean body mass, and metabolic changes that generate clinical benefits.

Possible Adverse Effects of High Protein Diet

One of the probable adverse effects of high protein diet is significant lean mass loss and compromised resting metabolic rate, which may enhance risk factors for other medical problems. Secondly, individuals may find it difficult to sustain energy reduction and dietary fiber intakes, which may hinder weight loss and other clinical benefits associated with high protein intake.

Conclusion

Overweight and obesity has developed to become major health issue attributed to various factors such as the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. While various treatment programs have been developed to address these risk factors, lifestyle programs are considered as the most effective because of the role of physiological and behavioral factors in contributing to obesity. Studies have demonstrated that exercise and diet are the main components of these programs since they contribute to significant weight loss, improved body composition, and preserved lean mass. While different protein intakes contribute to different results when combined with different exercise programs, a high-protein diet combined with moderate-intensity exercise training program is regarded as the ideal treatment approach.

References

Arciero et. al. (2008). Moderate Protein Intake Improves Total and Regional Body Composition

and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Adults. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental, 57, 757-765.

Layman et. al. (2005, May 7). Dietary Protein and Exercise Have Additive Effects on Body

Composition during Weight Loss in Adult Women.… [read more]


Dance and Bones Essay

… , 2011). Disordered eating and amenorrhea also combine to create "synergistic effects in decreasing bone mineral density," (Friesen, et al., 2011, p. 31). Low bone mineral density increases the risk of bone fractures in both sexes, making dietary health and nutrition awareness particularly important to professionals hoping to maintain a long and successful career. It is worth noting that Caucasian women are at a greater risk for low bone density and other RED-S factors vs. African-American women. Still, all dancers should be made aware of the consequences of disordered eating on their health and their career.

The three most important ideas dancers can learn from literature on RED-S include the importance of self-awareness, balance, and evidence-based nutrition. What professional dancers need to know is how to maintain equilibrium while also remaining competitive. Regular hormonal testing may help identify at-risk populations, such as those with persistent menstrual irregularities. Eating disorders have a number of different etiologies, including psychological causes that may extend beyond the realm of dance instructors. As Mountjoy et al. (2014) notes, dancers who resist recommended changes to diet may have psychological issues impeding their ability to intake the necessary nutrients bones need to restore themselves. Dance is an especially stressful sport for bones, due to the load-bearing factors and repetitive stress associated with the movement. Dietary considerations also come into play with professionals intending to maintain a specific aesthetic in their physique. Nutrition awareness can coincide with professional dancing, so long as dancers remain aware of the dangers associated with disordered eating and hormonal irregularities.

References

Friesen, et al. (2011). Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science 15(1).

Hoch, et al. (2011). Association between the female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction in dancers. Clin J. Sport Med 21(2), 119-125.

Mountjoy, et…… [read more]

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