"Nutrition / Diet / Eating" Essays

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Development of an Innovative Healthy Food Product Term Paper

8 pages (2,423 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Nutrition

Development of an Innovative Healthy Food Product

Abstract (or Summary)

This is a proposal for the development of an organic, pasteurized, health fruit drink for the client, Mapco. The client has presented a need for a product that would appeal to the 41% of its customers who wish a delicious, refreshing, organic health drink. This proposal shows how the… [read more]

Dietary Supplements: Calcium Term Paper

2 pages (927 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Dietary Supplements: Calcium

To Supplement or Not to Supplement?

A brief overview of the benefits of dietary supplementation, with a specific focus on calcium supplements. The article takes a positive view of supplements, provided the supplementation takes place in dialogue with the individual's biology and lifestyle needs, and provided that supplements are dispensed with clear labeling regarding individual nutritional needs.

To Supplement or Not to Supplement?

Good foods and bad foods, good supplements and bad supplements -- too much of modern nutritional advice, regarding supplementation casts the current debate about the composition of the American diet in stark, black-and-white terms. The fact is, good nutrition is not about good and bad, rather it is a question of how to balance every person's complex daily intake, exercise, and lifestyle needs. A vegan may require a B-vitamin supplement, to make up for nutritional deficiencies due to a lack of animal protein in his or her diet, but a dedicated steak-and-potatoes eater might benefit from a multivitamin supplement that the vegan does not require, given that the vegan eats plenty of multicolored and highly nutritious organic vegetables. A triathelete might do well to stock up on easily packed 300 calorie protein bars as fuel for a marathon bike ride, while a sedentary office worker who struggles to workout at a moderate pace for 30 minutes, three times a week, might benefit from lighter, more filling snacks that take longer to eat.

Perhaps one of the reasons there is such confusion about the issue of supplementation is the broad, sweeping claims made by popular manufactures of supplements, which promise generic cure-alls rather than sound advice. Not every woman may need iron supplements, if she eats fortified grain cereals and eats red meat. The personal and inexact science of creating an ideal diet, tailored to the individual, must be communicated on supplement labels by law. The current nutritional labels that give guidelines for generic 2,000-calorie diets for daily requirements, regardless of age, background, lifestyle, and quite often gender, are often misleading.

Lifestyle and activity level are thus two often overlooked components of nutrition that are not specified in currently labeling requirements and must be taken into consideration in tailoring a very specific dietary and supplementation balance for the individual. Gender and ethnicity are two other components. Women and individuals with lactose intolerance, for example, would do well to consider using supplementation to get their daily calcium requirement, given the difficulty of getting an adequate amount through the current typical American diet alone. According to the 2006 press release "Study Shows Unexpected Outcomes for Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation" of the Council for Responsible Nutrition, although postmenopausal women have shown only moderate, even "disappointing" bone mass gains with supplementation, the long-term benefits are still under scrutiny, and it would…… [read more]

Malnutrition / Obesity Term Paper

6 pages (1,874 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Barbara Ehrenreich too got items of food, which included cereal, candy, barbecue sauce, cookies, crackers, juice mixes and other such sugar-heavy items. The rich as always turn a blind eye since they don't have to interact with or witness what the poor go through, they go to health clubs instead of local parks and shop for their "expensive" food in malls that aren't even accessible to the poor.

Poverty has driven people to many a things that are un acceptable probably even to themselves.When a person works more than his capacity and still his children and family either starve to death or live in conditions that can only breed disease be it in the form of obesity, diabates or any other psychological form he is bound to stoop down to levels that do not befit a human being.We need to be more sensitive towards the people around us and understand the fact that we are as much responsible for their destitute condition as our government.We can make a conscious attempt towards increasing our interaction with the poor and less priviliged people which might help us in not only identifying their problems but also providing a solution to them, hence contributing towards a better safer society.It's high time that the role these nameless, faceless people play in our lives is acknowledged and rewarded by lending them a helping hand so that they too can live to enjoy the happiness life has to offer.


1) Carol Propper-Why economics is good for your health? Publication Year: 2004. Working Paper No. 05/116.Page Number:6+

2) Donna Eberwine -- Article Title: Globesity: The Crisis of growing proportions. Magazine Title: Perspectives in Health Magazine.Volume:7.Number:3.Publication Year: 2002. Page Number: 1

3) Kennedy, E. Article Title: "The Global Face of Nutrition: What Can Governments and Industry Do?." Journal Title: The Journal of Nutrition. Publication Year: 2005.Page Number: 913+

4) Carlos Quintanilla-Alarming malnutrition in Latin America. Available from: http://www.change-links.org/Malnutrition.htm [Accessed on: 11/11/2005]

5) Robert E. Rector and Kirk A. Johnson-Article Title: Understanding poverty in America. Magazine Title: Backgrounder. Published on: 5/1/2004.Page Number:10+

6) Elizabeth I. Ransom and Leslie K. Elder- Nutrition of Women and Adolescent Girls: Why It Matters. Posted on:July 2003.…… [read more]

Nursing Consideration for Patients With Eating Disorders and Its Associate Medical Complications Term Paper

15 pages (4,208 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Nursing Consideration for Patients With Eating Disorders and Its Associate Medical Complications

One of the most widespread and substantial health dilemmas in The Western world, in general, and in America, in particular, is eating disorder. Nurses have come up with several strategies of treating eating disorder amongst both young and old members of the population. This paper assesses the affects… [read more]

Osteoporosis Is a Disease Term Paper

4 pages (1,124 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa may lead to a condition known as menorrhea or absence of menstrual periods, and this may develop into Osteoporosis. It has also been found that ethnic background can also play a role in the incidence of osteoporoses. Studies show " ... that Caucasian and Asian women are at highest risk. Risk is lower for African-American and Latino women. ( ibid) Certain medications have been known to be a factor in the development of the disease. These include excessive thyroid medications, anticoagulants, antiepileptic drugs and immunosuppressants. ( ibid)


Diet is obviously a very important factor in the prevention of this disease as it is caused essentially by a lack of calcium. One of the best sources of calcium is from a balanced diet of " ... fruits, vegetables -- especially leafy green ones -- grains, protein, and low-fat dairy products." (Bennett, B) There are also numerous calcium fortified products on the market that can supplement diet. These supplements should be checked that they meet USP standards. ( The U.S. Pharmacopeia is an organization that sets drug manufacturing standards) Nutritionists recommend that "Men and women between the ages of 19 and 50 should get about 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium daily while those over 50 should get 1,200 mg. "( ibid)


There is no easy or immediate cure or treatment for this disease. However the are a number of medicines and treatments which are designed to slow down the process of loss of bone density and calcium depletion. It has been found that "... Increasing calcium intake to 1500 mg per day, increasing vitamin D to 800 IU per day and maintaining normal weight and exercise patterns to restore hormonal balance may be helpful in preventing further bone loss. (Osteoporosis) If treatment is to be effective it is also important to identify the disease at the earliest possible stage. At present the best and most accurate technique for ascertaining bone density dual x-ray absorpitometry (DEXA). "The measurements are made by detecting the extent to which bones absorb photons that are generated by very low-level x-rays." (Osteoporosis) Diet obviously plays a crucial part in fighting this disease. There are various studies underway to find better methods of fighting this disease - this includes medicines for osteoporosis for younger people.

One of the most recent discoveries with regard to prevention and treatment among older people is exercise. Reports even suggest that weight lifting exercises may be a way of combating osteoporosis among older people. A recent study by Ontario's McMaster University found that "... A year-long strength training program increased the spinal bone mass of postmenopausal women by nine percent. Furthermore, women who do not participate in strength training actually experience a decrease in bone density." (Veracity D.)

In the final analysis, when it comes to osteoporosis, prevention is much better than cure and a healthy and balanced diet can help to prevent the onset of this disease. Diet, as well as calcium supplements and exercise, can… [read more]

Japanese Nutrition Term Paper

10 pages (2,874 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The fat species, such as salmon, mackerel and whitefish, contain a fat content that is less than twenty percent less than most red meat from other animals. Shellfish, like clams, oysters and other mollusks (also a part of the Japanese diet), tend to be leaner than fish.

Fish and shellfish are also rich in vitamins. Fat fish are rich in… [read more]

Effects on the Heart Term Paper

5 pages (1,642 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … diets upon heart disease.

Though heart disease is one of the number one reasons why an individual may embark on a diet to lose any amount of weight, fad diets seem to the be the most logical answer for many, as their results are often seen to be much more immediate than a standard, balanced diet, suggested by… [read more]

Fad Diets Such as Atkins Term Paper

3 pages (1,070 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Fad Diets Such as Atkins

An increasing number of body-conscious Americans have taken to dieting in the last few years. This is hardly surprising in a youth-worshiping culture. While weight watching is an essentially healthy activity and a welcome development, most dieters, instead of following a common sense, long-term approach to dieting, are on the lookout for easy short cuts. Several "low-carb" diet programs, e.g., the Atkins' Diet have been devised to cater for this demand and have attained tremendous popularity. Clearly such diet fads miss the true path to weight loss and overall health: a balanced diet with moderate exercise besides posing serious health problems. This explains why most popular fad diets, particularly Atkins', are based on faulty, unproven theories and describes some of the health problems that may accompany such diet programs.

It has been commonly known for ages that the food we eat provides us with energy in the form of calories. We consume these calories in our bodies for our body functions -- the amount of calories burnt depending mainly on the nature and duration of physical activity and to a lesser degree, on metabolic differences in individuals due to genetic reasons. If our calorie-intake is greater than our calorie-consumption, we put on weight; if our intake is less than our consumption we lose weight. Low carb diets such as Atkins' purport to circumvent this basic fact of nutrition and attribute the weight loss to factors such as insulin resistance, ketosis, and increased fat burning. On closer scrutiny, however, it becomes apparent that such claims have no scientific basis and the low carb fad diets carry significant health risks.

All low-carb diets including Atkins are based on a structured program of substantially reduced carbohydrate-intake with little or no restriction on the intake of proteins and fats. While there is little doubt that the low-carbohydrate diet results in significant weight loss in the short-term for most people, the reasons for such results are misrepresented by the advocates of such diets. Let us examine how this weight loss occurs? During the first few weeks of the Atkins' Diet, the so-called "induction" phase, the dieter's body goes into starvation mode as it is severely deprived of its preferred fuel -- the carbohydrates. In the absence of carbohydrates the body burns fats in an inefficient manner producing toxic byproducts called "ketones." To wash these toxic waste products out of the system large amount of body fluids are expelled through urine, which is mainly responsible for the rapid loss of weight in the first few weeks of starting a low carb diet such as Atkins'. (Sachiko et al., 2001) The other reason for weight loss in low carb dieters is the loss of appetite associated with ketosis, which leads to lower total caloric intake. Weight loss may also occur because most dieters find low-carb diets relatively unpalatable in the long-term and eat less calories. Hence, there is no 'magic' behind the weight loss in Atkins' Diet. Further, loss of… [read more]

Nutrition as a Method Term Paper

6 pages (1,684 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… al, 2000). Unfortunately also more prevalent within these populations and subcultures are the presence of chronic diseases that might otherwise be prevented, including high blood pressure, cholesterol, heart disease and diabetes (CDC, 2003).

Proper nutrition is an essential factor in ones health and well being. It is important to be aware of the impact proper nutrition can have on one's life expectancy and outcome for the future. Education and proper access to health care are primary components and essential elements of a proper nutritional approach to health and well being. Proper nutrition can be integrated into any subject area, including science. The key is simply identifying the impact food and nutrients have not only at the molecular level but also at the physical level. In order to improve the life expectancy of individual's living throughout the nation researchers and health care providers must start focusing on education and prevention.

For Additional Information on Nutrition and Health the following resources are available:

American Dietetic Association Consumer Nutrition Hotline

216 West Jackson Boulevard

Suite 800



American Society for Clinical Nutrition

9650 Rockville Pike



U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

1101 Wootton Parkway Suite LL 100



U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

200 Independence Avenue, S.W.

Washington, D.C. 20201




Akande, A., Osagie, J.E. & Wyk, D.W. (2000). "Importance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention of illness and the enhancement of health." Education, 120(4):758

CDC. (2003). "Cause of Death Codes, According to Applicable Revision of International

Classification of Diseases." Centers for Disease Control. 12 November, 2004: http://www.cdc.gov.nchs/data/hus/tables/2003/03hustable_v.pdf

CDC. (2003). "Age Adjusted Death Rates, According to Race, Sex, Region and Urbanization Level, United States Annual Average, 1998-2000" Centers for Disease Control. 12, November, 2004: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/tables/2003/03hus033.pdf

CDC. (2003). "Determinants and Measures of Health." Centers for Disease Control. 14,

November 2004: http://www.cdc.gov/nch.products/pubs/pubd/hus/listables.pdf#Determinants

Maurer, D. & Sobal, J. (1995). "Eating Agendas: Food and Nutrition as Social

Problems." New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Osmani, S.R. (1992). "Nutrition and Poverty." World Institute for Development

Economics Research: Oxford University

Romwell. (1998). "Proper Nutrition." Romwell.com. 12, November, 2004:…… [read more]

Marketing of Atkins Diet Products Term Paper

18 pages (7,184 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Atkins New Diet Revolution) This is because, according to a recent update on the Atkins diet, of the fact that if there is more protein in a person's diet; he will end up losing more calcium, through his urine. (Is the Atkins Diet bad for your bones?)

II. When was Atkins Introduced into USA

It was in the year 1972… [read more]

Lactose Intolerance, and a Description Term Paper

5 pages (1,722 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… As a healthy 24-year-old college student, I felt lactose intolerance was something far removed from my lifestyle, but I found that it could me a major factor in my health as I age. In fact, friends of my family suffer from the disease today, and did not suffer from it when they were younger. Since lactose intolerance removes a major source of protein from the diet, it is imperative that health care professionals and nutritionists understand the complexities of the disease to help their patients manage it effectively. It was quite interesting to discover that lactose exists in so many other foods other than dairy products, and how important it is to control vitamins to make sure calcium is used effectively by the body. I will continue to study the intricacies of this disease, and expect to help many patients develop effective diets that will help them control the disease while still giving them sound and interesting nutritional choices.


Author not Available. "Why Does Milk Bother Me?" Niddk.nih.gov. 2004. 8 July 2004. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/lactoseintolerance_ez/index.htm

Editors. "Lactose Intolerance." Gastro.org. 2004. 8 July 2004. http://www.gastro.org/clinicalRes/brochures/lactose.html

Living with Lactose Intolerance: If You Take Some Simple Steps, You Can Continue to Enjoy a Variety of Dietary Favorites." Ebony Oct. 2002: 66+.… [read more]

Low Fat Diets Are Healthier Term Paper

9 pages (2,819 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Dietetic deviations of the Atkins plan results in immediate water retention when a carbohydrate starved dieter gives into temptation (Blackburn).

The most damning criticism of Atkins is hardly unique to Atkins, in particular. Regardless of the amount of weight lost, no weight loss diet can be considered "successful" except to the extent that it allows dieters to maintain the weight… [read more]

Career in Sports Nutrition Term Paper

2 pages (812 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Some of the opportunities include "sports nutrition and corporate wellness programs; educating and counseling clients about the connection between food, fitness, and health; food and nutrition-related businesses and industries; private practice and consulting; universities and medical centers; and research areas in food (Editors, 2003). It is clear there are a wide variety of career choices open to the sports nutritionist, from corporate research and development to public education and fitness centers. Here is a list of just some of the job titles for recent graduates in the field from one university: "Diet Center Director, Dietitian, Registered Dietitian, Pharmaceutical Sales, Director of Education & Coordinator of Patient Services, Consumer Relations Product Specialist, Quality Assurance Assistant, Diabetes Clinician, Lifestyle Education Assistant, and Dietetic Intern (Career Information, 2000). Today, many nutritionists are creating their own consulting opportunities with a wide variety of clients through fitness centers and local businesses, but as America continues to struggle with eating problems and disorders, it seems the job opportunities will grow.

In conclusion, the career of a sports nutritionist can be interesting and varied. Certified graduates in sports nutrition can work in a variety of industries in a variety of roles, including everything from athletic food suppliers to schools or professional sports organizations. Nutritionists can change people's lives, and help them maintain healthy, happy lifestyles no matter where they choose to work. In the future, sports nutrition will certainly take on even more important meaning as the eating habits of Americans continue to evolve. Sports nutrition may be one way to combat obesity in our society, while making a positive difference in people's lives.

Works Cited

Author not Available. (2003). Sports Nutrition. Retrieved from the SCANpg.org Web Site: http://www.scandpg.org/page.asp?id=career_sports_nutrition4 Nov. 2003.

Author not Available. (27 Nov. 2000). Nutrition/Nutrition Science Career Information. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Web Site: http://www.che.umn.edu/career/infosheets/nutritionprogram.htm#53a4 Nov. 2003.

Editors. (2003). Nutrition & Dietetics Department: Sports Nutrition. Retrieved from the Marywood University Web Site: http://www.marywood.edu/departments/nutr_diet/sports.htm4 Nov. 2003.

Kornspan, A.S., Duve, M.A., Maccracken, M.J., & Buckenmeyer, P.J. (2002). Career opportunities in sport and exercise among college students. College Student Journal, 36(3), 367+.

Staff. (6 April 2000). Sports Nutrition. Retrieved from the Conestoga High School Web Site: http://www.tesd.k12.pa.us/stoga/dept/FCS/SN.htm4 Nov. 2003.

Wright, Kathy. (2003). Course Requirements for Sports Nutrition. Retrieved from the Mansfield University Web Site: http://www.mnsfld.edu/~health/sptcrs.htm4 Nov. 2003.… [read more]

Efficacy of High Protein Low Term Paper

8 pages (2,903 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… 55 kilograms and 4.5 kilograms more than people on the standard high-carbohydrate approach. He noted another factor that came in as a surprise- the Atkins dieters' cholesterol levels also improved. Although the bad cholesterol went up seven points, their good cholesterol rose almost 12. Correspondingly in the high-carbohydrate dieters though the bad cholesterol went down slightly the good cholesterol remained… [read more]

Diet and Diabetes. Review Term Paper

1 pages (355 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… This index helps diabetics who are cooking at home or eating out to plan their meals accordingly.

It is very important that diabetics eat a balanced diet with enough nutrients to keep their blood glucose levels in the healthy and acceptable range. Fiber is also an important factor in the diet. Studies have shown that fiber can have positive effects on the blood glucose levels.

In some cases, Type 2 diabetics may need to adjust their eating from three meals a day to several smaller meals throughout the day to keep their sugar levels on track. For the Type 1 diabetic, they need to take their insulin into consideration and plan meals and snacks to avoid low blood sugar.

Gathering nutritional information and applying the right diet techniques can make this disease easier to control. By eating the right foods in the right amounts, diabetics can contribute to their own well being.

Information Sources

Diet for Diabetes." Kimberly Tessmer, RD, LD. http://www.health.discovery.com.2001

Diabetes and Diet. Http://www.diabetes-and-diet.com.2003.… [read more]

Diet and Cancer Term Paper

5 pages (1,604 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Michael F. Jacobsen, executive director of Washington-based health advocacy group (Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed), also said that acrylamide causes cancer of lungs, breasts as well as uterus in animal testing.

However, the subject of acrylamide being a cause of cancer is still debatable. Many researchers argue over the presence of this substance in foods that caused cancer. Several other researchers as well as research workers at the Swedish National Food Administration are of the viewpoint that these studies do not provide any convincing evidence determining that acrylamide is not unsafe for health. As a result, it is too early to determine whether this substance is a possible cause for cancer or not. Like Anders Glynn, a toxicologist at the government agency said, "This is a first study on a limited amount of cancer forms, and there have to be many more studies before it can be established whether acrylamide is a cancer risk for consumers" (Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed). Hence it is evident that there is no correlation between the tests done on animals and humans.


By reading the above passages it is evident that certain foods have a positive and a strong relation regarding cancer reduction, however there are other food products that have been proved to be the cause of cancer development.

Works Cited

Got breast cancer. Available at: http://www.milksucks.com/breast.html (March 20,2003)

Cancer fighters for food. Available at: http://www.umdnj.edu/umcweb/hstate/fall99/cancer_f99.htm (March 20,2003)

Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed. Available at: http://forum.lowcarber.org/t82676.html (March 20,2003)

Study doubts acrylamide in food causes cancer. Available at http://bhagh.nhshealth.org/HealthNews/reuters/NewsStory0128200320.htm (March 20,2003)

All food causes cancer. Available at: http://www.nutritionnewsfocus.com/archive/a4/05-1-02.html (March 20,2003)… [read more]

Eating for Good Health Term Paper

8 pages (3,156 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The second phase is called ongoing weight loss and this continues until the dieter has reached within 5-10 pounds of their desired weight. In this phase of the plan, carbohydrate intake is increased by 5 grams a week and in the order suggested in the diet plan. In the third phase, pre-maintenance, carbohydrate intake is increased by 10 grams a… [read more]

What Should You Eat? Essay

2 pages (503 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Fruits: tomatoes, bananas, oranges, strawberries, blueberries, water melon, peaches and mangoes.

Carbohydrates: bread, bagels, rice, oatmeal, stuffing, cereal, pasta and soup.

Proteins: beef, pork, chicken, soy-based products, beans / peas, seafood, milk and cheese.

Fats: olive oil, canola oil, peanut butter, nuts, sunflower seeds, tofu, soy milk and fried foods.

Sweets: candy bars, ice cream, cookies, cakes, pies, souffles, chips and dips. ("Mayo Clinic Healthy Weight Pyramid," 2014)

Along with your 6 lists of 8 foods, you may submit up to 2 prescriptive Bible passages that you feel most constrain your thinking on these things.

The two Bible passages which exemplify this diet include: 1 Corinthians 6: 19 -- 20 and Leviticus 7: 23 -- 24. 1 Corinthians 6: 19 -- 20 says, "Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God? You are not your own, for you were bought with a price. So glorify God in your body." While Leviticus 7:23 -- 24 states, "Speak to the people of Israel, saying, You shall eat no fat, of ox or sheep or goat. The fat of an animal that dies of itself and the fat of one that is torn by beasts may be put to any other use, but on no account shall you eat it."( Holly Bible New International Version, 2007) These two passages are saying how it is important to keep everything in balance. They…… [read more]

Postprandial Glycemic Control Diabetes Mellitus Case Study

4 pages (1,316 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Postprandial Glycemic Control

Diabetes Mellitus

In this case study a 55-year-old female with type 2 diabetes mellitus is concerned about a dramatic postprandial spike in her blood glucose levels. Having been diagnosed with diabetes 20 years ago, it seems safe to assume that the postprandial spikes exceed current clinical recommendations for adequate glycemic control. This essay will review the significance of this sign and its etiology.

Glycemic Control

O'Keefe and colleagues (2011) begin their review of glycemic control by discussing the strong epidemiological evidence that links uncontrolled hyperglycemia to cardiovascular disease. Essentially, for every 1% increase in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) an individual will incur an 8 and 9% increase in the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. HbA1c is an indicator of how well a person has been controlling their blood glucose levels over the long-term. In light of these findings, the patient's concern seems warranted.

Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients are typically advised to try controlling blood glucose levels through lifestyle changes (Owens, 2013). These changes can include regular exercise, if the patient is physically capable, and a high-fiber, low-fat diet (Seggelke, S. & Evenhart, 2013). Research has shown that even minor improvements in BMI, from 5 to 10%, will significantly lower HbA1c levels.

If lifestyle changes are not sufficient to maintain HbA1c levels below 7%, then oral anti-hyperglycemic medications (OEMs) are typically prescribed (Robbins et al., 2013). The most common OEM prescribed for patients with type 2 diabetes is metformin, a biguanide that decreases gluconeogenesis in the liver and promotes peripheral glucose uptake (Seggelke, S. & Evenhart, 2013). The overall effect is to lower fasting and postprandial glucose levels to below 126 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL, respectively.

If HbA1c levels fail to go below 7% with metformin monotherapy within 3 months of beginning treatment then metformin can be combined with a number of other agents, including sulphonylurea, thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (Owens, 2013). The first three months of therapy typically involves a two-drug combination, but if this fails to lower HbA1c levels sufficiently within 3 months then a three-drug combination can be tried for another 3 months. These drug combinations may include the use of an insulin analog once daily (basal insulin). If the various drug combinations fail to achieve glycemic control or are not well tolerated, then a combination of basal and prandial insulin can be tried. This treatment approach has been termed 'basal-plus.' If this fails to achieve glycemic goals, then a full basal-bolus strategy can be tried.

Etiology and Importance of Postprandial Hyperglycemia

In healthy people a postprandial spike in blood glucose can reach 70 to 110 mg/dL after a night of fasting (American Diabetes Association, 2001). This increase is caused by the absorption of carbohydrates and begins about 10 minutes after the start of the meal. Peak levels are reached about an hour later and return to basal levels within about 2-3 hours. This pattern is controlled by the composition of the meal,… [read more]

Sugar Obesity Research Paper

6 pages (2,322 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Sugar

Obesity and the Sugar Controversies

The Culprits

Soft drinks

Corn syrup

The Government and Nutrition


The United States and many other countries in the Western world have drastically lowered the cost of many foods over the course of several generations. Whereas total spending on food would represent a large percentage of a families total income, now it generally… [read more]

Food Served in Public Research Paper

7 pages (2,618 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 9

… Project 5: Some drawbacks.

Provided the damaging effects of competitive meals on pupil wellness and health, limitations on competitive food sales and accessibility have actually been proposed at all levels of government. There are issues that constraints may have unintentional adverse repercussions: loss of profits from competitive food sales; pupil fixation with body weight; as well as, a compensatory boost… [read more]

Fast Food Essay

3 pages (1,183 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Fast food are heavy in trans fats which is a specific kind of fat which is harder for the body to digest, meaning they stay in the body for a longer period of time, making the body larger and heavier.

There are other serious health risks besides obesity which have been linked to overeating of fast food but becoming obese through fast food can make your body even more ill, although they are linked to obesity too. One of the scariest parts of eating fast food is the fact that it can seriously decrease your life expectancy, sometimes taking decades off of your life (Vigilante). The reasons for this have to do with the diseases which you are more likely to get if you are obese (Schlosser 200). The most serious thing which can happen with obesity is organ failure. People can develop heart disease, have heart attacks, or develop heart failure. Other organs, like the liver and kidneys can also fail if they are given too much fast food. One of the most common things that happen to obese people is they get diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes has been scientifically shown to increase in likelihood the more a person eats fast food instead of healthy meals. In people who have Type 2 Diabetes their body is unable to regulate their blood sugar. According to Eric Schlosser in the book Fast Food Nation, "Obesity has been linked to heart disease, colon cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, diabetes, arthritis, high blood pressure, infertility, and strokes" (242). When looking at how dangerous fast food and obesity are, the argument that it is faster to purchase this food does not make sense. People are dying because they eat the foods that are making them ill. It is very much like the fast food restaurants are selling people poison to cause them to die.

People go and get fast food because they are hungry and they do not think that they have the time to make dinner. They think it will be okay to do this because it is just food but this is not the case. Fast food is very dangerous to eat, especially if it is eaten a lot. There are severe effects of eating fast food. People are not getting the nutrients that they need and can become ill. They can also become obese which is itself a serious health problem which can take years off of your life. Eating this food can give you other illnesses as well with the most common being Type 2 Diabetes. If the cost of eating fast is a serious health problem, then people really should just take the time and eat healthy because not only will they be alive but they will wind up saving time by not having to be treated medically.

Works Cited

French, S.A., Story, M., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Fulkerson, J.A., and Hannan, P. "Fast Food

Restaurant Use Among Adolescents: Associations with Nutrient Intake, Food Choices and Behavioral and Psychosocial Variables." Journal… [read more]

Food Menu and Nutrition Essay

3 pages (847 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Large Fries -- 500 calories, 220 calories from fat, 25 grams of Trans Fat, 3.5 grams Saturated Fat, no Trans Fat, no cholesterol, 350 mg sodium, 27 grams carbohydrates, no dietary fiber, no sugars, 21 grams protein, % value of daily intake Vitamin A 6%, Vitamin C 2%, Calcium 4% and Iron 4%.

Dr. Pepper -- 150 calories, 50 mg sodium, 39 grams carbohydrates, and 39 gram sugars.

Strawberry McCafe Shake: 850 calories, 35 calories from fat, 16 grams saturated fat, 1 gram saturated fat, Trans Fat 26, cholesterol 11 mg, Sodium 46 mg, Dietary fiber 18 grams,

Reaction to Analysis of Menu Items

The total of calories of these food menu choices total 2209 calories. The writer of this work was quite surprised at how many calories can actually be contained in one sandwich, an order of fries, a soft drink and a fruit-based desert at a local fast food restaurant. The knowledge gained from this menu review has enabled the writer of this work to understand that some of McDonald's food items comprise a very unhealthy diet. This will result in the writer of this work choosing fast food items more carefully in the future.

Summary and Conclusion

One can dine at McDonalds fast food restaurant and depending upon what they choose to eat, they can either eat relatively healthy food items with low caloric intake or they can by choosing other meals while dining at McDonalds consume food items that are high in calories, high in sodium, high in Trans Fat, high in saturated fats and carbohydrates. This study has conclusively demonstrated that dining at a fast food restaurant does not always mean that one is consuming high caloric foods and neither does it mean that the individual is always consuming foods high in sodium, carbohydrates, Trans Fat or calorie fat.

Before one decides to dine at a fast food restaurant, they should always investigate the various food items offered at these restaurants and conduct an assessment of the food items so that they are knowledgable enough to make wise choices in terms of their nutrition and in terms of the calories contained in the various food menus offered at fast food restaurants. Just as was the case in this specific study, the calories as well as other nutritional values of fast food restaurants may be…… [read more]

Volunteer Splenda in Today's High Essay

2 pages (512 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Lewis (2008) claimed a "new study makes it clear that Splenda can cause you to gain weight and lose the benefits of medications designed to improve and protect your health." Other researchers have found that this product may cause cancer in mice. Rattue (2012) reported " According to earlier studies by Dr. Soffritti and team, approximately 3,000 rodents who were fed with aspartame, the most commonly used artificial sweetener, had a higher risk of developing certain types of cancer; the risk period was calculated from conception until death."

It must be understood that Splenda competes against other natural sweetener within markets and research can be skewed to represent different views for different purposes. Splenda may cause obesity in some, and it may reduce it in another cases, causing an unknown amount of harm. It is best for the individual to decide if this product is good for one's own health or not. It seems obvious that someone addicted to sugar would not be any healthier if they simply replaced their sugar with Splenda. But if Splenda may cut down on the addiction itself and individuals can use it to their benefit than its health or risk effects should be considered relative and subjective.

Works Cited

Lewis, T. (2008). Duke Study Not Sweet on Splenda. Consumer Affairs, 23 Sep, 2008. Retrieved from http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2008/09/splenda_study.html

Rattue, P. (2012). Sucralose Causes Cancer Concern. Medical News Today, 25 April, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/244603.php

Splenda Web page. "About Splenda Brand Sweetener." Viewed on 20 Jan 2013. Retrieved from http://www.splendatruth.com/about… [read more]

Childhood Epidemic Obesity Term Paper

4 pages (1,638 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Researchers should also develop instruments to measure their impact and closely monitor change. It has been found that even small amounts of increase in PE time are helpful in reducing childhood obesity. Government should ensure that all schools offer this option and that it be serviced by qualified teachers. Polices and environments too should be modified so that they are supportive of the different communities and attempt to introduce healthy eating habits and more regular physical activity. This needs health promotion interventions on the line that Michele Obama has in mind.

On the other hand, it is imperative that Government do not exceed their prerogatives and become too dictatorial and arrogant. A watchdog committee can be established to ensure that this not occur.

Following these recommendations may help America curb its childhood obesity epidemic without it resorting to dictatorial and stalinesque methods in order to do so.


Arizona law blog http://blog.sdsfamilylaw.com/child-custody-debate-state-intervention-to-remove-obese-children-from-their-homes/

Building a healthier America http://www.buildinghealthieramerica.org/index.asp?Type=B_BASIC&SEC={FEB23E39-070A-4D02-8B7B-D9E360BDFF8B}

Boon, R & Clysedale, P (2005) Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 45

Cleveland.com (December 04, 2011) Childhood obesity: Government was wrong to intervene in Cleveland Heights casehttp://blog.cleveland.com/letters/2011/12/childhood_obesity_government_w.html

Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, et al. "Prevalence and trends in overweight among U.S. children and adolescents, 1999-2000." Journal of the American Medical Association. 288(14):1728-1732, 2002.

Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC, et al. "A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century." New England Journal of Medicine, 352(11):1138-1145, 2005.

Childhood obesity: Costs, treatment patterns, disparities in care, and prevalent medical conditions. Thomson Medstat Research Brief, 2006.


NCCOR Childhood Obesity in the United States


USA Today. (2/9/2010 Michelle Obama aims to end child obesity in a generation. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2010-02-09-1Afirstlady09_CV_N.htm

Sharma, M (2006) School-based interventions for childhood and adolescent obesity The International Association for the Study of Obesity. Obesity reviews, 7, 261 -- 269… [read more]

Farmed vs. Wild Salmon Research Term Paper

3 pages (1,308 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… ..[the study] found significantly higher concentrations of contaminants in farmed salmon vs. wild. In particular, four substances that have been well studied for their ability to cause cancer -- PCBs, dioxins, dieldrin, and toxaphene -- were consistently and significantly more concentrated in farmed salmon as a group" (Shor 2008). This was attributed to the farmed salmon's diet. In general, the larger the fish and the higher up on the food chain, the more toxins a fish will consume, as they are eating the chemicals within the many smaller fish that they eat. But "while wild salmon eat a diverse buffet from small aquatic organisms like krill to larger fish, farmed salmon are fed a concentrated and high fat mixture of ground up fish and fish oil" which is much higher in toxicity levels (Shor 2008).

According to the EPA's comparison of farmed and wild salmon, "individual contaminant concentrations in farmed and wild salmon" are not in excess of the FDA's recommendations for PCBs and dieldrin. But Hites (2004 et al.) cautions that "FDA action and tolerance levels are not strictly health-based, do not address the health risks of concurrent exposure to more than one contaminant, and do not provide guidance for acceptable levels of toxaphene and dioxins in fish tissue" (Hites 2004:228). Although the difference in toxin levels between a meal of farm-raised salmon vs. A meal of wild-caught salmon may be negligible in isolation, over time the levels can build up in the human body and the long-term effects are not well-known. The Pew researchers found "consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon may pose risks that detract from the beneficial effects of fish consumption" and at minimum EPA limits upon the consumption of farm-raised salmon per week should be observed (Hites 2004:228).

Past studies have indicated that eating fish of any kind outweighs the risk. A study in the Journal of American Medicine found that consuming fish 1-2 servings/wk times a week that are higher in Omega-3 fatty acids "reduces risk of coronary death by 36%...and total mortality by 17%" (Mozaffarian 2006:1885). Eating some fish seems to be better than no fish at all, according to current medical advice. But clearly, based upon the available evidence, wild salmon is better for the human body because of its lower fat content and lower pesticides. Moreover, farmed salmon leaves a very large carbon footprint: "salmon...must be fed fish during the 2-3-year period when they are raised to a marketable size. To produce one pound of farmed salmon, 2.4 to 4 pounds of wild sardines, anchovies, mackerel, herring and other fish must be ground up to render the oil and meal that is compressed into pellets of salmon chow" (Is there any nutritional difference, 2012, The World's Healthiest Foods). The best solution is for the consumer to eat wild salmon in season, as his or her budget allows, and to eat smaller, less toxic fish as a source of low-calorie protein high in Omega-3 fatty acids.


Dobbs, David. (2008). The wild salmon… [read more]

Obesity Late Obesity in Florida Essay

4 pages (1,188 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… 1. Green salad, potatoes (excluding French fries, fried potatoes, or potato chips), carrots, or other vegetables.

2. Not including diet soda or diet pop.

3. Doing any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time.

4. Played video or computer games or used a computer for something that was not school work.

5. Enrollment in other courses, participation in school sports, participation in other school activities, and participation in community sports activities.

Disadvantages of obesity

There many ways it can cause harm to the body and health.

Hear diseases due to Obesity

Joint pain due to overweight

Weakened immunity

Social Problems

Sexual Issues


Many Health issues

Type 2 Diabetes


Pregnancy Issues

Breathing Issues

Sleeping Issues

Heart Problems

Stroke risks

Abnormal Cholesterol Levels

Movement Problems and pain in joints

Obesity in New York

New York stands at 42 positions in state ranking according to obesity. The obesity rate in New York is 24.5%. In 2007-2010 16.8% children were found as obese. There was a rapid increase in males having obesity aged 2-19 in the December. The female's rate did not increase that much as compare to the males as females were subjected to dieting and modeling. The children obesity rate is highest in U.S. And it is suggested that overall children obesity will increase to 30% by 2030. Although it is difficult to differentiate and compare U.S., obesity rates to other countries because every country has different obesity standards.


Reasons behind obesity in New York are same as Florida. Overeating, taking a lot of junk food, not participating in physical activities, not doing physical training, not properly doing exercises.

Obesity in France

Obesity has not an important place in France. There was a concept that French people don't get overweight. But recently obesity has gained place in France too. The French people are shocked due to this new fact.

France ranks 128 among the fattest country. It has the lowest obesity rate in Europe. However its obesity rate has doubled from 1994 -2004. 42% of French population is obese. In the last decade the obesity rates for girls got doubled and that of boys grew to 195%. The adult's obesity growing rate is 6% while its 17% of children.26% of women while 38.5% of men are considered as ob16% of French five-to-11-year-olds are obese. Obesity in that age is set to increase to more than 20% by 2010 (Nies & McEwen, 2011).


French people love food. They celebrate through it. They are food lovers. The enjoy food. So obviously, their love for food leads to overeating, which paves the path for obesity.

Unhealthy snacks, fast food, prepared food all have been banned in France.


Several studies have shown that obese men tend to have a lower sperm count, fewer rapidly mobile sperm and fewer progressively motile sperm compared to normal-weight men. Researchers in France have said that poor children were up to three times more likely… [read more]

Poverty and Obesity Evidence Research Paper

2 pages (639 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… 8% in 1996 and among girls this number grew from 15% to 23.6% (Tremblay and Willms 2000).

• Rates of overweight conferring a "probable health risk" (Body Mass Index of over 27) have more than doubled in BC, with 26.4% of the province's adults now overweight, up from 11% in 1985. While BC still has the lowest rates of overweight residents in the country, the increase has been sharper than the national average (Coleman et al. 2001).

• In a study of Canadian children, 6.4% of children in the wealthiest quarter of the Canadian population were obese as compared with 12.8% of those in the poorest socioeconomic quarter (Tremblay and Willms 2003).

• Food insecurity is associated with obesity. In a recent study, more than 50% of low-income women who reported having difficulty putting nutritious food on the table were overweight. This compares to 34% of their food secure peers (Townsend et al. 2001).

• In a 2001 review of licensed mental health community care facilities in BC's Capital Health Region, seventy percent of the residents were found to be overweight or obese (Holland 2001).

• Obese Canadians are 4 times more likely to have diabetes, 3 times more likely to have high blood pressure, and 2 times more likely to have heart disease than those with healthy weights (Coleman et al. 2001).


Rainville, B. & Brink, S. (2001). Food insecurity in Canada 1998-1999. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://

hrdc.arhc.gc.ca/sp-ps/arb-dgra / publicationa/research/2001docs/R-01-02/R-01-2_E_abs.shtml

Statistics Canada. (1997). Selected leading causes of death by sex. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://


Tremblay, M. & Willms, J. (2000). Secular trends in the body mass index of Canadian children, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 163 (11), 1429 -- 33

Coleman, R., et al. 2001. "Cost of Obesity in British Columbia."

Townsend, M.S., Peerson, J., Love, B., Achterberg, C., & Murphy, S.P.(2001). "Food insecurity is positively related to overweight in women." Journal of…… [read more]

Participating in Scholarship-Query Letter, Abstract Term Paper

2 pages (566 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… June 1, 2012

To Whom It May Concern:

Please find attached an article that addresses the problem of obesity in the United States. As one can clearly see from the information reported in the article obesity is a major health concern and one that is exacerbated by poor nutrition, lack of exercise, smoking and hypertension among others. The biggest problem to addressing obesity is the difficulty in making the changes that are needed on a local level and specifically in the community and schools to impact obesity rates. This article highlights the difficulty of bringing about changes in the national school lunch program as well as in the daily activities of those in the community. While there are plenty of programs geared towards addressing and reducing obesity rates, none of these have thus far been successful. This is due to inadequate funding and the difficulty to instituting programs that are effective in reducing obesity. There is a need for programs that assist those in the community who are obese to address this issue in order for those individuals to live healthier lives as well as for reducing the cost of obesity to the government and to society-at-large. This article should be published in the Cambridge Health and Nutrition journal to highlight the problems that are faced in addressing obesity rates in the United States.



Boyer, E. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities for the professoriate. Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. In: Defining Scholarship for the Discipline of Nursing. Leading Initiatives. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Retrieved from: http://www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/position/defining-scholarship… [read more]

Nokes and Nwakeze ) Case Study

2 pages (580 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Furthermore, both potential interviewer and interviewee bias (where each is effected by characteristics of the other) may create further complicity, and context of interviews (the time -- fatigue may intrude -- the setting, mood of participant and so forth) may introduce certain confounding factors. Interviewers / interviewees may misinterpret / mistake question or response as well as accompanying gestures / mannerisms, and, if conducted over the phone, other obstacles may intrude such as person's impatience to return to his/her routine, impatience with interview, and so forth.

During development of the data analysis plan, the researcher identifies the level of significance. Human subjects' research studies often establish the level of significance at p < 0.05. Discuss what the level of significance means, and how it is related to type I and type II errors. Why is the level established prior to data collection?

Probability means that there is less than a 5% chance that the outcome happened by chance. A Type 1 error may say that the outcome is significant when it is not (for instance, using random sampling to prove authenticity of a newly created lie-test, researchers may conclude that, in line with their hypothesis, the lie test indicates a p < 0.05 that 65% of the individuals incriminated by the lie-test are guilty . Actually, they are not. This is a Type 1 error.

The Type II error would conclude that outcome of the lie test indicates a p < 0.05 that, contrary to hypothesis, 30% of those sampled are innocent. They are… [read more]

Andre Dubus' the Fat Girl Essay

2 pages (816 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… '

Carrie then helps Louise lose weight and break off her love affair with food. During this period in her life, when she's dropped some excess weight, Louise looks at eating food the way a paramour would look at spending time with an ex, "She did not enjoy it: she felt she was being friendly with a recalcitrant enemy who had once tried to destroy her" (166).

Although Louise learns the value of temperance and self-discipline, she feels as though she has given up something in the process of losing weight. That, with the exception of Carrie, no one sees her for whom she really is: a skinny, food addict (they say, once an addict always an addict). The failure of others, in particular her husband, to recognize that she is -- in her heart of hearts -- a food addict leads her to fall of the wagon. In a scene of vivid imagery, with strong sexual undertones, Louise defies her husband's wishes to have her diet, "The pie was cherry. She looked at it as her fork cut through it; she speared the piece and rubbed it in the red juice on the plate before lifting it to her mouth" (170).

While there are many ways to interpret the scene, one of the more interesting ways is to see it as Louise taking away her husband's virginity with respect to whom she really is (ironically, he took her virginity). Earlier on in the story, she tried to have a heartfelt conversation with him about how she grew up and who she was before they met, but he doesn't understand. Defiantly eating this cherry pie (one won't discuss the baser interpretations, such as the connection of hymen blood and the red juice, colloquially terms such as "popping cherries," the phallic ideal of "spearing" it) reveals to him, on some level, that this is the woman he actually married. "You never used to eat pie," her husband exclaims in disbelief (170). Soon he will become completely disillusioned, he will realize that he married a food-addict, and he will leave her.

While it's a sad ending, it's a real ending. Louise will fully relapse to her old ways. She will become fat again. She will renew her love affair with food. One can speculate that Dubus defined Louise's relationship with food in terms of sex and love because no other human social dynamic could adequately express the…… [read more]

Obesity and the College Research Paper

5 pages (1,693 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… These include outlets such as Panera Bread, Jason's Deli, Subway and few more.

Although these restaurants do have high calorie food such as cheese and high sodium options, but the sandwiches, the bread selection, the soups and salads form the major part of the healthy menu. In contrast, fast food restaurants are often known to supply unhealthy food to its consumers. One such incident is associated with McDonalds who had to deal with the allegations of the parents of two obese minors in 2002 who won claiming that the restaurant creates a false impression when it says that its menu is healthy. Moreover, in addition to the unhealthy choices, these restaurants provide huge meal sizes like upsizing it for few bucks which promote overeating among college students (Hodge J, 2008).

Thus, there is a dire need to control the increasing percentage of obesity in America. Apart from introducing a calorie count in the menu, the introduction of healthy food in the college cafeteria, along with spreading awareness regarding exercising, changes in the restaurant menu should also be taken into consideration. This modification does not only require strict government laws of introducing nutritious meals in the menu, but this is also enhanced by municipal requests and lawsuits. This is evident from the use of Tran's fat free oil in KFC during 2007. Moreover, several outlets like in New York City, Philadelphia and chains like Chili's and Wendy's which are working on the food options they provide. For this reason, in 2005, the city of Tiburon was labeled as the first trans fat free city because of incorporating the use of other healthier alternatives (Hodge J, 2008). If such alterations are practiced widely than the issue of obesity could be controlled and hence reduced.


Chou, S. (2004). An Economic Analysis of Adult Obesity: Results from the Behavioral Risk

Factor Surveillance System. Journal of Health Economics, vol. 23.

Hodge J. (2008). Legal themes concerning obesity regulation in the United States: Theory and practice. Australia New Zealand Health Policy. Vol. 5, no. 14.

IBTimes. (2011). 68% Americans found to be overweight as obesity becomes global epidemic. International Business Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/108770/20110204/u-s-americans-obesity-bmi-body-mass- risk-factor-disease.htm

Rabin R. (2010). Nutrition: Study Examines a Diet From TV Ads. The New York Times, pg 6.

Sparling B. (2007). Obesity on Campus. Preventing Chronic Disease.…… [read more]

Risk Factor Intervention Research Paper

7 pages (2,111 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Nursing

Risk Factor Intervention

Risk Factor and Population

The risk factor being looked at is that of adult obesity in Tulsa County, Oklahoma.

Scope of the Problem & Contributing Factors

Overweight and obesity are both tags for ranges of weight that are greater than what is normally considered healthy for a given height. The terms also recognize ranges of weight… [read more]

Sports Nutrition by Pramukova, Szabadosova &amp Soltesova Term Paper

1 pages (339 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Sports Nutrition" by Pramukova, Szabadosova & Soltesova (2011) include an abstract, introduction, a research summary including sub-sections on sports nutrition topics, a conclusion, and a list of references.

Although not an experimental research, this thorough review of literature includes a hypothesis. The hypothesis is that "Designing the most suitable diet for an athlete requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant scientific literature, the training and competitive demands of the sport, the social situation and the individual athlete's preferences." Moreover, the authors suggest that a summary of the abundance of scientific literature on the subject can help illuminate key areas in sports nutrition (Pramukova, 2011, p. 107).

The hypotheses were not tested using an experimental research design. However, the authors "provide an overview of the current macronutrient requirements for athletes and provide some recommendations for dietary supplements intake," (Pramukova, 2011, p. 107).

4. The data was not analyzed using any statistical methods. However, the authors have condensed reams of scientific literature into one report. The effort requires extensive…… [read more]

Josephine Seems to Be at the Precontemplation Case Study

4 pages (1,366 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Josephine seems to be at the precontemplation stage of change. This means that she is not yet ready to consider changing. The way in which she talks about her problems appear to indicate that she does not believe in her own ability to change her circumstances. There appear to be several obstacles to Josephine's ability to make the changes she seems to require. The first is her mother's cooking. Josephine's relationship with her mother is such that she cannot contemplate asking her to change her cooking. There is also a cultural aspect to Josephine's perceived difficulty, as she appears unwilling to impose upon her mother's sense of cultural tradition, which the latter appears to regard as important, especially in terms of cooking. Furthermore, the situation is perpetuated by Josephine's relative sense of powerlessness in making decisions about her eating habits, as she is constrained by her financial situation and unable to live on her own. This, along with the long-term nature of the problem, has created a situation in which Josephine appears to feel trapped and unable to escape.

Josephine appears very focused upon her body image and the desire to lose weight. She perceives her problem to be physical and situational rather than psychological. She appears completely unaware that her problem could relate to eating disorders and disturbances, which further inhibits her ability to move towards the contemplation stage of change.

Josephine's therapy will have to focus on the underlying issues of her eating habits, exercising habits, and purging before her desire to lose weight can be addressed. It is essential that the latter problem should be addressed in a healthy manner. This can only be done once Josephine's body image is restored to a more normal, healthy sense of self. Only once Josephine understands her psychological sense of her body to be at the heart of her problem, rather than her physical weight, will the therapist be able to help her move to the contemplation stage of change.

There are various ways in which I can establish rapport with Josephine. On the verbal platform I would attempt to create a safe and friendly atmosphere by avoiding subject jargon. Using jargon in a communicative situation with a client creates a barrier between the client and therapist which could impede the trust necessary to help the client move forward. Furthermore, I will ask questions in a straightforward and clear manner, encouraging Josephine to ask for clarification if she does not understand the questions. I would also convey patience, concern and acceptance by means of my verbal behavior. At no point would I make Josephine feel that her problems and concerns are not valid in my point-of-view.

It is also important to establish rapport in a nonverbal way. I will, for example, maintain friendly eye contact with Josephine. In addition, I will nod occasionally when she speaks to show that I understand what she is saying and feeling. Also, I will smile at appropriate intervals and maintain an attentive… [read more]

Healthy Food Prevent Obesity? Essay

2 pages (683 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Exercise could be an alternative to healthier eating, and like everything else, money is involved in the promotion of most of these programs. Although simple exercises could be done to maintain a healthy weight, eating healthy is also a big part of doing these. Some foods are broken down easier than others, which makes it important to maintain a good diet as well. This brings back the issue of eating some foods over others. An individual won't want to eat foods high in fat and sugar while trying to exercise to lose weight; it will be counterproductive. Either way, if one wants to beat obesity by eating healthier, it will be more expensive and therefore will be more difficult for people to afford the food that will enable them to lose weight, to get to a healthier lifestyle.

Food control for children has also been a topic that has taken over. The fact that eating healthier will lead to a lower obesity rate, schools have now attempted to regulate the types of foods that are being given to our children. From removing vending machines that were once full of sugar filled sodas and juices and unhealthy junk food, to designated menus that provide proper nutrition, this idea that eating healthier will lead to a healthier future has even overtaken the educational system. It's the only way that children will grow up to have healthier lifestyles.

In conclusion, eating healthier will lead to a lower obesity rate in everyone. With proper exercise and diet management, rates of cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes could be abolished. An epidemic of an unhealthy society could be avoided if just the simplicity of changing a diet could be arranged. It would lead to so much reduction in a bad future as a society, but in order for that to occur, it needs to be made easier for individuals to be able to achieve whatever health goal they set for themselves.

Healthier Food…… [read more]

Diabetes Self-Management: Exercise and Nutrition Research Proposal

3 pages (770 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… " (Christensen, Steiner, and Whalen, 2000) Findings reported by Christensen, Steiner and Whalen (2000 ) in a diabetes self-management study include the fact that "registered dieticians contribute to improvement in diabetes."

The stated requirements in self-management of diabetes include such as identification of goals. This specifically refers to what needs to be done to effectively self-manage diabetes including changes in diet, changes in exercise habits and other factors including smoking and drinking cessation. Nutrition and weight loss are of utmost importance in self-management of diabetes. (Arbuckle, 2010 ) Lifestyle changes are reported by Arbuckle (2010) to be the "most difficult diabetes self-management goals because "Many people can learn to eat healthy and add in activity, but their lifestyle sets them up for relapses into bad habits." (Arbuckle, 2010)

It is reported that Medicare does cover the patient services for Diabetes Self-Management Training to include 10 hours of initial training plus an additional 2 hours of follow-up training. Stated as a requirement for Medicaid coverage to be payable on this training is that the training be inclusive of "blood glucose management, nutrition, physical activity, and preventing and treating complications of diabetes.

Summary of Findings

The initial and brief review of literature in this proposal for research indicates that self-management of Diabetes is possible in its effectiveness if the individual receives proper education in this area. Diabetes self-management educational and training is covered under Medicaid and includes 12 hours of training along with management of blood glucose, nutrition, physical activities, and the prevention and treatment of diabetes complications.

This study concludes that self-management of diabetes is an effective method of diabetes management and is one of the nature that needs to be researched in order to gauge its actual effectiveness.


Arbuckle, K.A. (2010) Setting Goals for Diabetes Self-Management. Bright Hub. 18 Oct 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.brighthub.com/health/diabetes/articles/91661.aspx

Christensen, Nedra K., Steiner, Julianne, and Whalen, Jack (2000) Contribution of Medical Nutrition Therapy and Diabetes Self-Management Education to Diabetes Control as Assessed by Hemoglobin A1c. Diabetes Spectrum Vol.13, No.2, 2000. Retrieved from: http://journal.diabetes.org/diabetesspectrum/00v13n2/pg72.htm

Diabetes Self-Management Education Program (2011) Diabetes Society. Retrieved from: http://www.diabetessociety.org/education/3-step

Medicare Coverage of Diabetes Self-Management Training and Medical Nutrition Therapy. Retrieved from: http://www.sdhdidaho.org/hpro/pdf/coverage_self_mgmnt.pdf… [read more]

Holistic Nutrition Consultant Legal Implications Essay

2 pages (628 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Holistic Medicine

Holistic Nutrition Consultant/Legal Implications

Holistic nutritionists are nutrition counselors who aspire to assist their customers by examining their present health condition and finding ways to progress areas of shortage by way of diet and lifestyle alterations. A holistic nutritionist distinguishes the complicated association between the person's biochemical, mental, environmental states, and how each adds to their health or lack of (Holistic Nutrition, 2008).

Education to offer professional recommendations in regards to food options and preparation, the holistic nutritionist will have attained certification from an organization that concentrates on teaching holistic nutrition. Throughout their education the holistic nutritionist learns to review clients' nutritional shortfalls and systemic insufficiencies, with a focal point on designing nutrition programs that aim to offer assistance with symptoms and righting fundamental differences. In addition, the holistic nutritionist is trained to be familiar with when a recommendation to other health professionals is necessary. Based on the requirements of the customer, one may refer to others who can help out and will work together with them to sustain the attainment of their client's health requirements (Holistic Nutrition, 2008).

There are a lot of different nutritionists practicing in the U.S. today. Each state has dissimilar education and certification requirements for nutritionists. The majority, though, will reflect on the whole person and their individual needs, helping clients by making lifestyle and nutrition alterations as needed (Peattie, 2011). There are a lot of programs that are available in the U.S. For certification and degrees in nutrition, so most reputable practitioners will have a firm base of physiology and some anatomy, along with procedures for creating health. Inside the U.S., a nutritionist or nutritional advisor does not hold a license and is not typically registered because there is no national credentialing board acknowledged by the government. According to the National Association of Nutrition Professionals, each state has dissimilar laws regarding registration for practicing nutrition consulting…… [read more]

Diabetes and Obesity Thesis

8 pages (2,438 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… (Laska et al., 2011)

Both ignorance and laziness are often cited as the reasons that people are overweight or obese: Perhaps the most common cultural narrative about overweight people is that they are heavier than would be healthiest for them because they are too lazy to exercise.

However, the students surveyed by Laska et al. As well as the students… [read more]

Obesity Is a Serious Social Term Paper

7 pages (1,847 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… Retrieved from https://www.rwjf.org/childhoodobesity/product.jsp?id=21142.

National Center for Health Statistics (2010). Press Release: Obesity Still a Major Problem. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/06facts/obesity03_04.htm

OECD Health Data (2010). Statistics and Indicators. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/document/30/0,3746,en_2649_34631_12968734_1_1_1_1,00.html

Ogden C.L., Flegal K.M., Carrol M.D. And L.R. Curtin (2010). Prevalence and Trends in Obesity Among U.S. Adults, 1999-2008. JAMA;303(3):235-241. Retrieved from: http://jama.amaassn.org/cgi/reprint/303/3/235?ijkey=ijKHq6YbJn3Oo&keytype=ref&siteid=amajnls

Rogovik, A., Chanoine, J., & Goldman, R. (2010). Pharmacotherapy and weight loss supplements for treatment of pediatric obesity. Drugs 2010, 70(3), 335-346.

Rubin, S. (2010). The CDC and childhood obesity: Thinking outside the box. Holistic Health. Retrieved from www.drsusanrubin.com.

Schlosser, E (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Books.

Smith, M. (2009). Obesity as a social problem in the U.S.: Application of the public arenas model. Policy Politics Nursing Practice, 10, 134-142.

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2010). Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Retrieved from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_home.htm

Trust for America's Health. F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America's Future. Washington, D.C.: Trust for America's Health, 2010.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). Obesity Still a Major Problem. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/06facts/obesity03_04.htm

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- United States 2009," MMWR Surveillance Summaries 59, no. SS05. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss5905.pdf

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008

Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.

Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short… [read more]

Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children 12 24 Months Research Paper

4 pages (1,260 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Anemia

"Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia," (Brody 2008; "Iron Deficiency Anemia" n.d.). The population most at risk for developing iron deficiency anemia is babies between the ages of 9 and 24 months. Pregnant women and older children are also impacted by iron deficiency anemia. Anemia is a potentially chronic condition that can affect the child's physical and cognitive development, which is why it is crucial to monitor infant blood. Iron deficiency anemia is almost always related to dietary intake of iron, intestinal infections, or viral infections. The disease is also almost always preventable.

"All babies should have a screening test for iron deficiency" between 12 and 24 months of age; whereas babies born prematurely may need to be tested even earlier ("Iron Deficiency Anemia n.d.). Iron deficiency anemia is caused in part by the early introduction of cow's milk before the age of 12 months. Breast milk and iron-fortified formula can reduce the infant's risk of developing iron deficiency anemia. Iron is absorbed readily from breast milk, whereas cow's milk inhibits the absorption of iron in the baby's body. Infants absorb about 10% of the iron they eat, but absorb three times as much iron from breast milk (Brody 2008).

Consumption of cow's milk, especially when cow's milk replaces breast milk, is empirically implicated in some of the secondary precursors to iron deficiency anemia such as intestinal infections. "Cow's milk also can cause problems in the intestine that lead to blood loss and increased risk of anemia," (Brody 2008). "Cow's milk also can cause the intestines to lose small amounts of blood," ("Iron Deficiency Anemia n.d.). This is because cow's milk actually "irritates the lining of the intestine, causing small amounts of bleeding. This slow, gradual loss of blood in the stool -- combined with low iron intake -- may eventually result in iron deficiency and anemia," (KidsHealth n.d.). For this reason, iron-foritfied infant formulas are a preferable substitute for breast milk, if a substitute is required for medical reasons.

Socio-economic factors are invariably implicated with iron deficiency anemia, with low-income families particularly at risk (Tympa-Psirropoulou, Vagenas, Dafni, Matala & Skopouli 2008; Marotz 2009). Awareness of the problem has led to a decrease in prevalence of the problem of iron deficiency anemia in infants, although even in the developing world the incident level remains alarmingly high. In one region of Greece, for example, almost ten percent of infants aged 12-24 months demonstrated the presence of iron deficiency anemia (Tympa-Psirropoulou 2008).

Marotz (2009) points out related factors that may predispose populations at risk for fostering iron deficiencies infants. Nutrition issues are generally interrelated. For instance, a "lack of interest in food may further compromise the child's intake of iron," (Marotz 2009, p. 12-13). This suggests that there is a cyclical relationship between wellness and nutrition. Nutrition ensures a healthy appetite, which in turn means consuming nutritious foods. Consuming nutritious foods helps to stimulate that healthy appetite, thus leading to increased consumption of essential nutrients. The reverse… [read more]

Fast Food on Our Nation Research Paper

7 pages (2,456 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… McDonald HR Chief made comments about his role in the company giant success and that the organization would be expanding, and hiring much more employees to cover the demand for the product (Pitcher, 2008). Surveys of teenagers have found that they prefer foods that have the fast food brand, especially of the giant brands (MarketWatch, 2007). These fast food companies… [read more]

Evidence for Association Between Type 2 Diabetes Essay

9 pages (4,051 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… ¶ … Type 2 Diabetes

and intake of Fruits and Vegetables

Diabetes Mellitus has become one of the major chronic diseases affecting more than 220 million people around the world. [WHO, 2009] In Australia too the incidence of diabetes is on the rise with current estimates indicating that more than 1.7 million people are affected by the condition. Of these… [read more]

Healthy High Schools Movement: Strategies for Mobilizing Research Paper

5 pages (1,849 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… ¶ … Healthy High Schools Movement: Strategies for Mobilizing Public Health for Educational Reform.

This article explores the impact of the implementation for healthy high school programs throughout the nation. The school environment is targeted for health education reform due to the vast amount of time that students spend in school each day therefore giving them the best opportunities for… [read more]

Low-Fat or Low-Carb Diets Which Is Healthier Lab Report

2 pages (786 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Low-fat or Low-Carb Diets: Which is healthier?

This study looked at several factors relating to cardiovascular disease including weight and low and high density lipoproteins to determine whether low-fat or low-carb diets were healthier. Low-fat diets were determined to be the healthier choice of the two.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a term that refers to many diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels such as hardening of the arteries, arrhythmia and heart attack. According to MayoClinic.com it is the number one world wide killer of both men and women and is the cause of 40% of deaths in the U.S. alone.

There are several factors that determine a person's risk for CVD. These include diet, weight and genetic factors. Diet is an important factor. Low-fat diets restrict fat and cholesterol intake. Doctors have recommended low-fat diets as a way to reduce CVD risk. Low-carb diets limit the intake of carbohydrates such as grains. The low-carb diet has become a popular diet for losing weight. Which diet is a healthier choice? In this study, several measures were used to determine whether CVD symptoms were increased or decreased with either low-fat or low-carb diets.

Materials and Methods

Nurses' Health Study -- 84,129 women's diets were studied between 1980 and 1994. Diets were given a score ranging from 1 to 5. A score of 1 indicated an unhealthy diet and 5 indicated a healthy diet high in fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. A relative risk score was calculated by comparing a person's chance of having CVD symptoms to that of women with a score of 5.

Framingham Study -- 2,489 men ranging in age from 30 to 74 years of age were studied for CVD symptoms for twelve years. Low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL) were measured.

Six-month and Twelve-month Diet Studies -- In the six-month diet study 120 obese men and women were restricted to either a low-fat or a low-carb diet. The participants ranged in age from 18 to 65 and 79 finished the study. In the twelve-month diet study 132 severely obese men and women were restricted to either a low-fat or a low-carb diet. All participants were 18 years or older and 87 completed the study. In both studies, weight was measured at zero and six months with an additional twelve-month measurement recorded for the twelve-month study. Also, LDL…… [read more]

Normative and Felt Needs Assessment Book Report

13 pages (3,941 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… Normative and Felt Needs Assessment

Normative and Felt Need Assessment

Over the last several years, the issue of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because an increasing number of minorities have been affected by this condition, in comparison with other population groups. In Australia, this has been having a dramatic effect upon… [read more]

Wheat Grass Term Paper

3 pages (1,012 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Nutrition


Wheatgrass is part of the Poaceae family. This family includes a wide variety of different grasses. Wheatgrass is usually found growing in the mild regions of Europe and the United States. It can be grown both outdoors and indoors. Both the roots and subversive stems are often used to make herbal remedies (Wheatgrass, 2008). It is made up of all of the vitamins and most of the minerals that are needed for human maintenance and well-being. It is considered a complete protein, containing about 30 enzymes. It is also made up of about 70% crude chlorophyll (Wheatgrass Juice, 2009).

In the 1940's, Charles Kettering, former Chairman of the Board of General Motors, donated money in order for chlorophyll to be studied. Chlorophyll was looked at by medical doctors using double blind studies. These medical doctors found that chlorophyll was a great healer and it was used as such for quite some time afterwards (Fowlkes, 2009).

Ann Wigmore is the first person known to have studied and promoted the use of wheatgrass juice in this country. She thought that it had blood cleansing and building abilities. She studied the effects that Chlorophyll has on the circulatory system and oxygen supply. She also looked at its role in detoxifying and regenerating the liver. She thought that absence and toxemia were the causes of all disease. Her theory was that because people eat a modern American diet that consists of mostly cooked, highly processed, nutritionally empty food, it is thought that we cause our bodies to become clogged. By cleansing the body with wheatgrass juice a person gives their body more of an opportunity to heal itself. It is believed that cleansing the systems will actually allow the body to heal itself from disease (Wheatgrass Juice, 2009).

Wheatgrass is thought to be one of the most abundant super foods known. Wheatgrass and barley grass have been recognized for their nutritional content along with their cleansing and cell regeneration capabilities. They are also recognized for being in a form that is easily and effortlessly assimilated and digested by the human body. The amount of chlorophyll that is contained in wheatgrass has been enough to encourage many people to consume either fresh or powdered wheatgrass everyday. Because of the fact that it is approximately 70% crude chlorophyll, it has a very high energizing effect and provides a real boost to those looking to alkalize their body (Wheatgrass Juice Benefits, 2010).

Many health experts have suggested that the chlorophyll molecule in wheatgrass is nearly identical to the hemoglobin molecule that is found in the human blood. The only difference that has been found is that the main element in chlorophyll is magnesium while the main element in hemoglobin is iron. Because of this inherent similarity, the human body can easily transform chlorophyll into hemoglobin. This is known to increase the red blood cell count as well as the blood's capacity to deliver oxygen and other nutrients to cells (Wheatgrass Juice Benefits, 2010).

Chlorophyll is… [read more]

Obesity Ma Adolecents: Family Centered Intervention Term Paper

8 pages (2,798 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Obesity Ma Adolecents: Family Centered Intervention

Obesity Among Mexican-American Adolescents: Family Centered Nursing Intervention

Community Diagnosis

Overweight/obesity among Mexican-American middle-school aged children related to unhealthy snacks high in fat and calories, and drinks high in calories and sugar as evidenced by Healthy People 2010 objective 19-3 to reduce the proportion of children and adolescents who are overweight or obese; Baseline:… [read more]

Teaching Learning Plan by Nurse Practitioner for Type 2 Diabetes Research Paper

3 pages (838 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Nurse Teaching

Teaching learning plan by Nurse practitioner for type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes is a significant, pressing and continually worsening public health problem. General research has drawn close connections between this public health problem and certain gender, racial and cultural factors. Additionally, research has recognized that diabetes is today one of the fastest growing public health problems due to the negative health behaviors which have become increasingly culturally prevalent in America. The 'junk food' culture that inclines Americans to consume fatty foods with limited nutritional value and to engage relatively sedentary lifestyles is creating a culture of heart-disease, obesity and diabetes. The result is that a particular strain of diabetes is proliferating amongst juveniles and overweight adults such as the 43-year-old woman who is reported to have been diagnosed newly with the Type 2 form of the disease. The teaching learning plan described hereafter offers a framework through which a nurse practitioners can help the patient develop proper self-treatment techniques and effective illness-management

Knowledge Deficits/Learning Needs:

The subject's condition is a demonstration that she has lacked the proper knowledge in areas of nutrition and exercise that might have prevented the early onset of diabetes. She is reportedly 30 pounds overweight and is in need of a greater body of knowledge on how to eat nutritional foods, how to engage in regular physical activity and how to lose the excess weight in a safe and healthy weigh. Additionally, it will be necessary to help the patient learn proper management techniques with respect to self-medication and proper lifestyle habits.

The goal will be to provide the patient with the knowledge to improve her health behaviors, remove the patterns which created her health ailment and prevent the worsening of her condition. This would be carried out through a consultation regarding her lifestyle habits and an intensive discussion on how to reverse negative patterns.

Teaching/Learning Principles/Theory Used

The use of the health belief model should contribute to the construction of an examination that seeks to alter negative health behavior by isolating such root causes as poor diet and sedentary lifestyle and establishing empirical connections for the patient between patterns and consequences. Our research finds that the health belief model bases its approach on the premise that the individual will tend only to take preventative healthcare actions or positive health if certain conditions are present. Namely, 1) The individual must believe that it is feasible to avoid the negative health condition at issue; 2) The individual must believe that by taking an…… [read more]

Health and Quality Improvement Term Paper

8 pages (2,971 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… I have seen programs based on dancing, kickboxing, yoga, Pilates, and intensive aerobic workouts.

Since I am out of shape and have little free time, I think I should choose a program that is not too long and starts out slowly, building up as I become more fit. I will look for a program that is 30 minutes or so,… [read more]

Bioavailability Gut Health and Nutrition L Term Paper

6 pages (2,008 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Bioavailability

Gut Health and Nutrition


The gut is in healthy condition when good bacteria suppress the action of bad intestinal bacteria (Fong 2007). At the same time, good bacteria help digest and absorb food, synthesize nutrients it carries and enhance immunity and resistance. This was the pronouncement of Senior Research Fellow Dr. Masaaki Watanuki of the Yakult Central Institute… [read more]

Biopsychology of Eating and Drinking Hormones and Sex Research Proposal

1 pages (456 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Biopsychology of Eating and Drinking; Hormones and Sex

Set-point theory: A problematic concept

The set-point theory of weight loss and weight gain suggests that dieting is unsuccessful and futile. When dieting, the body naturally adjusts its metabolic rate, slowing so that weight loss slows to a crawl. As a survival mechanism, the body tries to preserve its fat cells in case of a famine (Set point theory, 2009, MIT). The dieter loses motivation as a result.

The problem with set point theory is that the world's obesity rate continues to climb, despite the fact that it is impossible that the genetic composition of the world could have changed so rapidly. Everybody knows some chronic dieters who insist they were naturally born to be obese. But evidence suggests that while there may be a wide variety of body sizes within humanity, the current obesegenic environment of fast food, low required activity, and highly processed palatable sugary and salty foods all contribute to the explosion of obesity in the developing, and to some extent, the developing world. Clearly, the extremes of the human condition on the overweight side are being pushed to the limit, and individuals who might under other circumstances be normal or high-to-normal weights, are in an environment where it is hard to lose weight, and easy to gain weight.

A diet and exercise plan must be highly…… [read more]

Role of Disease Prevention Term Paper

10 pages (3,364 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Tools to Maintain Health and Vitality

While herbs and a healthy diet can help maintain health and vitality, there are other tools available that can help you maintain health and vitality. Exercise is a very important element of those tools. Exercise, especially cardiovascular workouts that strengthen the heart and circulatory system are extremely important for good health. Proper exercise promotes… [read more]

Dietary Pills and Dietary Supplements Essay

7 pages (2,207 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Dietary Pills and Dietary Supplements

This is a guideline and template for your use. Please do not use as a turn-in paper.

Diet Pills are any medication that help a person either lose weight or control their appetite so they don't consume as many calories. There are both prescription and over-the-counter weight loss products that may be used. Most over-the-counter… [read more]

Leptin Is a Protein Whose Expressions Thesis

4 pages (1,506 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Leptin is a protein whose expressions have significant implications in the current trends towards weight loss. Leptin is a relatively small molecule. It is a hormone, which like all hormomes is part of the ductless gland system -- recognized as the eleventh system of a mammalian body. The other systems are circulatory, digestive, immune, lymphatic, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, skeletal,… [read more]

Promoting Cardiovascular Health Thesis

10 pages (2,748 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Cardiovascular Health

A nurse with ambition might wish to peruse the latest literature concerning how to assist patients in regards to promoting cardiovascular health. By doing so, the nurse would not only be helping the patients by showing them how to live healthy lives, but would likely be more successful in achieving those ambitions as well. This is certainly true… [read more]

Sports Nutrition the Stuff of Champions Essay

5 pages (1,524 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Sports Nutrition


With a vast array of appealing foods and all kinds of information on foods, coaches should diligently seek out true information and disseminate it (Mannie, 2001). This will accrue to their athletes' best performance and prevent poor health. Nutrition should be a top priority and based on scientific, official facts. The Food Guide Pyramid… [read more]

Bittman, Mark. "Eating Food That's Better Essay

3 pages (896 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Bittman, Mark. "Eating Food That's Better for You, Organic or Not." Week in Review. New York Times March 21, 2009. March 27, 2009.


A few weeks ago, my frugal mother walked into Whole Foods -- and walked straight out. "It's too expensive to eat healthfully these days," she complained. By 'healthy' she meant organic. And it is this misperception that food writer Mark Bittman attempts to address in his March 21, 2009 editorial to the Sunday New York Times Week in Review editorial section entitled "Eating Food That's Better for You, Organic or Not." Bittman believes that the emphasis of public relations campaigns that stress eating organic, often more costly produce and other foodstuffs is misplaced and unduly influenced by commercial agriculture and big corporations. Instead, Bittman persuasively argues that the unbiased food media should stress the importance of eating a healthy, varied diet, rather than stressing organic foods.

First and foremost, the cost of organic food is often prohibitively high, he argues, which can act as a deterrent to poor and middle-class Americans from striving to eat healthfully at all. Also organic food is not a cure-all for our environmental crisis or the obesity epidemic. After all, organic food is sold at Wal-Mart -- there can be organic potato chips, for example, but food grown locally at a farmer's market may not be USDA certified-organic because the small farmer used some commercial fertilizer in his garden that does not meet the federal government's rigid standards for what is 'organically' produced food. What, asks Bittman, do you think is better for the environment -- why shopping locally, of course! But getting organic food to be certified by the government is a costly and bureaucratic process. A local farm might be organic, but simply cannot afford the paperwork. This also mean that "organic" doesn't mean "locally produced," even though eating locally grown food is actually better for the environment, given that it does not involve the use of fossil fuels in transportation. Organic salmon can be flown in from Chile and frozen vegetables can be grown in China and sold in the United States "no matter the size of the carbon footprint left behind by getting from there to here," Bittman says (Bittman 2009).

Moreover, organic food is not necessarily pure. What does organic mean? According to the federal government's standards, it does not necessarily mean "returning natural nutrients and substance to the soil in the same proportion used by the growing process (there is no requirement that this be done); of raising animals humanely in accordance with nature (animals must be given access to the outdoors, but for how long and under what conditions is not spelled…… [read more]

Older Adult Health Issues Essay

2 pages (736 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Health-Nursing

Older Adult Health Issues

Identify a health problem and explain how inadequate nutrition is affected by it.

Although the United States is a wealthy country, there is a problem among our older people, with hunger and poor nutrition. These factors are important underlying causes of or contributors to many of the nutrition related illnesses that older people in our country face today (Frongillo and Horan, 2004). One illness that can be traced back to hunger and poor nutrition is that of heart disease. Poor nutrition resulting from an insufficient diet has been found to be an essential factor in the development of coronary heart disease. When comparing American diets to the Federal Food Guide Pyramid, most do not meet the Pyramid's dietary recommendations. It is felt that people consume too many servings of added fats and sugars and not enough servings of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, lean meats, and foods made from whole grains (Diet Quality and Food Consumption: Health, Food Consumption, and the Agricultural Sector, 2008).

There is evidence that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is beneficial to heart health and can considerably reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 estimates that 4% of overall disease in developed countries is caused by low fruit and vegetable consumption. It also states that just less than 30% of coronary heart disease in developed countries is due to fruit and vegetable consumption that is below the recommended daily allowance (Poor Nutrition, 2006).

Good nutritional values are an important part of good health and should be paid special attention to in the elderly. Poor nutrition contributes to frailty and poor health by intensifying medical conditions, increasing disabilities and extending hospital stays. These and other aspects of nutritional health have also caused economic problems as well. There have been increased costs for caregivers because of an increased need, along with increased healthcare costs for the nation as a whole (Frongillo and Horan, 2004).

2. Using your topic in question 1, explain the impact on health care delivery in the rural setting and the role of a specific health care professional.

Older people who live in rural areas have a greater frequency…… [read more]

Hardship Letter - Nutritional Analysis Case History Term Paper

5 pages (1,376 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Hardship Letter - Nutritional Analysis


The subject of this study, Mr. a, was a 30-year-old, married male of South Korean descent residing in London.

Mr. a's height was 175cm and his weight was 82.6kg, with a BMI of 27. His fat to lean ratio was 16.5% (13.6kg) to 83.5% (69kg). His dry lean weight was 20.4kg and his water mass was 58.8% with a calculated volume of 48.6 liters. His Base Metabolic Rate (BMR) was 2101 kcal with an extrapolated BMR/body weight of 25.4kcal/kg and Estimate Average Requirement (EAR) of 3152 kcal.

He reported a medium activity level specified as once weekly basketball and twice weekly gym workouts.

His waist measured 85cm and his hips measured 100cm, resulting in a waist to hip ratio of 0.85.

Subject reported neither family history nor personal medical history that would affect dietary advice or indicate compliance issues with recommendations.


The nutritional analysis was performed by recording all food and beverage ingested by the subject over the time period of Thursday, January 22, 2009, Friday, January 23, 2009 and Saturday, January 24, 2009.

Measurements were obtained and reported by the subject using common household measuring devices and were obtained from commercial food purveyors.

Initial nutritional analyses were performed utilizing the Nutritional Analysis Tool version 2.0, which is based on U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances.

These analyses were averaged for the 3 day study to determine the percentages consumed vs. The British DRV's.

Tables with recorded data can be referenced in the Appendix.


Table 1: Intake of nutrients as % of UK DRV (3 day weighed intake: Mr. a)

Day Avg.


2550 kcal/d

Pro (g)


Fat (g)

Carb (g)


Fiber (g)


Cal (mg)

700 mg/d

Iron (mg)


Na (mg)

1600 mg/d

Pot (mg)

3500 mg/d

Phos (mg)

Ash (g) vitA (IU)

700µg/d vitC (mg)

40 mg/d

Thia (mg)


Ribo (mg)


Nia (mg)

17 mg/d

H2O % satF (g)

255g monoF (g)

306g polyF (g)


Chol (mg)

Graph 1: Percentages of DRV's consumed by Subject: Mr. a

Table: Nutritional Analysis of Food Intake Thursday, January 22, 2009 using NAT 2.0



Pro (g)

Fat (g)

Carb (g)

Fiber (g)

Cal (mg)

Iron (mg)

Na (mg)

Pot (mg)

Phos (mg)

Ash (g) vitA (IU) vitC (mg)

Thia (mg)

Ribo (mg)

Nia (mg)

H2O %

Male 19-30 satF (g) monoF (g) polyF (g)

Chol (mg)

Table: Nutritional Analysis of Food Intake on Friday, January 23, 2009 using NAT 2.0




Pro (g)

Fat (g)

Carb (g)

Fiber (g)


Cal (mg)

Iron (mg)

Na (mg)

Pot (mg)

Phos (mg)

Ash (g) vitA (IU) vitC (mg)

Thia (mg)

Ribo (mg)

Nia (mg)

H2O %

Male 19-30 satF (g) monoF (g) polyF (g)

Chol (mg)

Table: Nutritional Analysis for Saturday 24, 2009 using NAT 2.0




Pro (g)

Fat (g)

Carb (g)

Fiber (g)

Cal (mg)

Iron (mg)

Na (mg)

Pot (mg)

Phos (mg)

Ash (g) vitA (IU) vitC (mg)

Thia (mg)

Ribo (mg)… [read more]

School-Based Intervention Trials for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity Research Proposal

40 pages (14,493 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… School-Based Intervention Trials for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

When it comes to the issue of childhood obesity, there are many factors that have to be considered. Proper parenting is important, the media is blamed for a lot of the obesity that is seen today, and, increasingly, the schools are also being blamed for not working hard enough at ensuring… [read more]

Diet Life Is All About Striking Essay

1 pages (336 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Diet

Life is all about striking a right balance between important things. Priorities differ from person to person but one of the most important aspects of good life is the right diet. Our body requires sufficient nourishment to support us at work or for that matter at any other important place; hence it becomes imperative for every human being to look after their body well. Looking after the body is all about getting two things right namely, the right diet and the right workout. This paper will throw light upon the changes in the dietary pattern throughout the semester, a comprehensive analysis will be provided about the dietary changes.

Good health is all about taking a balanced diet, here are no hidden secrets of how to have a good health. Diet majorly constitute towards good health, there is no denying that there are other factors like habits etc. But diet is one of the most important factors to keep in the pink of health. I firmly believe that…… [read more]

Food as a Better Means of Productivity Within a Workplace Research Proposal

7 pages (2,106 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 22

… Nutrition as a Means of Increasing Productivity

Annotated Bibliography

Little academic research exists regarding the link between productivity and the quality of nutrition that one receives. The connection represents a logical one, as malnutrition has been linked to many conditions, such as illness that decrease productivity. However, as far as studies that directly investigate this link, there is only a… [read more]

Eating Disorders According to the U.S. Department Term Paper

5 pages (1,335 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Eating Disorders

According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, eating disorders are "complex, chronic illnesses largely misunderstood and misdiagnosed." (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Office on Women's Health, 2000) Included among the most common eating disorders are:

Anorexia nervosa;

Bulimia nervosa; and 3) Binge eating disorder. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Office on Women's Health, 2000)

The American Psychiatric Association (2005) defines eating disorders as illnesses in which the victims suffer severe disturbances in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions." Individuals with eating disorders have an obsession with their body and with food and specifically in relation to their weight and weight-gain issues.

Eating disorders have been found in studies to be linked to other health risk behaviors and according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, those include:

Tobacco use;

Alcohol use;

Marijuana use;


Unprotected sexual activity; and Suicide. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Office on Women's Health, 2000)

The fact is that "anorexia nervosa...ranks as the third most common chronic illness among adolescent females in the United States." (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Office on Women's Health, 2000)

Presently, one to four percent of young women in the United States have some type of eating disorder. The effects of eating disorders include:

1) Physical;

2) Psychological; and 3) Social. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Office on Women's Health, 2000)

Included in these specifically are significant preoccupation with weight as well as inappropriate eating behavior and distortion of one's body image. (Ibid, 2000; paraphrased) Individuals with eating disorders are known to be "at risk for osteoporosis and heart problems" and furthermore have the highest death rates of any mental illness.


Eating disorders are one of the key issues that young women face in relation to their health and generally take three primary forms.


Anorexia Nervosa is described as a condition that is dangerous and "...in which people can literally starve themselves to death." (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Office on Women's Health, 2000) People with this disorder, while already thin, eat only a very small amount compared to normal people. This disease is stated to be characterized by "...an intense and overpowering fear of body fat and weight gain, repeated dieting attempts, and excessive weight loss." (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Office on Women's Health, 2000) These individuals refuse to eat, have a great desire to be thin and many times are known to "...diet, fast, or over exercise" in order to stay very thin.

The American Psychiatric Association states that individuals with anorexia nervosa "tend to be perfectionists who suffer from low self-esteem and are extremely critical of themselves and their bodies." (2005) in fact, these individuals often induce vomiting upon themselves to assist in weight loss and are even known to use laxatives to lose weight. The American Psychological Association states that over a period certain symptoms develop as… [read more]

Nutritional Basis of Calcium &amp Osteoporosis Treatment Term Paper

2 pages (978 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Osteoporosis and Nutrition

The condition osteoporosis, or porous bones, presently affects 30 million people worldwide, 80% women, and can be fatal if left untreated. Often dubbed the "silent killer," in osteoporosis the bones become fragile and are more readily able to break. The disease can progress without notice until a bone breaks, most often in the hip, spine or wrist, which often requires hospitalization and major surgery, can impair a person's ability to walk unassisted and may cause prolonged or permanent disability or even death. Researchers have found that the best way to build strong bones, especially before the age of 30, is to get enough calcium and vitamin D, engage in regular weight bearing exercise and avoid smoking and excessive alcohol drinking. Coupled with the general bone loss that occurs after 35, the decreased estrogen levels in women after the menopause may cause loss of bone mass at a rate two to four times faster than prior to menopause, leading to osteoporosis, or porous bones.

Recently, however, a number of studies have found potassium to be an essential dietary mineral and electrolyte, or substance that dissociates into in solution and thus being capable of conducting electricity. Normal body function depends on tight regulation of potassium concentrations both inside and outside of cells. Potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables, are also rich in precursors to bicarbonate ions, which buffer acids in the body. Studies are suggesting that potassium can increase bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

Most often, the issue with osteoporosis is not having had enough calcium and vitamin D in the diet when young. The opposite is true, as well. According to research by Frassetto et. al., (2008) osteoporosis can also occur due to eating the wrong foods. To a significant degree, humans remain genetically adapted to the potassium-rich, sodium-chloride-poor, net base-producing diet of the hunter-gatherers. Now, however, a typical American diet contains sodium chloride far above evolutionary norms and potassium far below those norms. Foods commonly eaten also are metabolized more to noncarbonic acids than to organic bases. Diets rich in sodium chloride and that are net acid producing induce and sustain increased acidity of body fluid. As people age, the kidney's ability to excrete daily net acid loads declines, and leads to increased use of base stores, such as bone and skeletal muscle on a daily basis to alleviate the increasing baseline metabolic acidosis, which results in increased calciuria and net losses of body calcium.

Based on this information, it is recommended that Americans cut down on the high dietary sodium chloride load and the dietary net acid load of contemporary American diets. In addition to cutting sodium chloride intake, bananas are suggested foods for increasing potassium. Decreasing sodium chloride intake and increasing potassium- and bicarbonate-rich precursors may help the deteriorating skeleton as well as provide other potential health benefits.

Rafferty and Heaney (2008) also considered the value of potassium in their…… [read more]

Prenatal Nutrition What Mom Needs to Eat for the Fetus to Be Healthy Term Paper

5 pages (1,642 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Prenatal Nutrition

There is in the pediatric and medical professions a consensus that prenatal nutrition and other related factors have a profound and often long-lasting effect on the child. As Mead (2007) states, "It is now axiomatic that the in utero environment influences prenatal development and may trigger structural and functional changes that can persist for a lifetime." (Mead, 2007.… [read more]

Program Project Design Grant Proposal Term Paper

15 pages (4,332 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Obesity Proposal

There is a serious problem facing the citizens of America today that could lead to a variety of problems down the road, health problems that could further strain the health care industry and ultimately affect the future economic viability of the United States. That problem is the percentage of obese individuals and the ensuing diseases and health issues… [read more]

Freshman Fifteen Term Paper

2 pages (771 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Freshman 15 steady diet of ramen noodles and vending machine snacks can cause some students to put on weight in their first year of college: a phenomenon referred to as the "freshman 15." Although not always a full fifteen pounds, the weight that students might gain can lead to self-esteem issues and further self-destructive behaviors. A 2002 survey reveals that 59% of college students do gain weight during their freshman year (Peck). However, most studies show that the average weight gain may only be between 4 and 8 pounds and not a full 15.

Being away from healthy home cooking is not the only reason why some students gain weight. Many might develop eating disorders. Some may react to the increased pressures placed on them by heavy school work loads by nibbling through study sessions. Social anxiety may be another cause for the freshman 15. Writing for the Gainsville Sun, a student at the Universty of Florida admits that "Living in a dorm room was stressful" for many reasons (Bowe). Students on dining hall meal plans might start unnatural obsessions about eating. Others might dislike being away from their friends and family at home, suddenly thrust into a situation in which they sleep, eat, and study with total strangers. Food might serve as a source of comfort and solace during the time of transition into college.

Stress is certainly a major factor in the freshman 15. Students who have to work a job while they are in school face added stress having to make ends meet to pay for their tuition, room and board. The freshman 15 could simply be due to not being able to afford healthful eating too. Ramen noodles and vending machine foods seem much cheaper than a full meal at the dining hall. The freedom of being away from home might also cause some rebellious students to chow down on as much junk food as they can while away from mom's watchful eye (Hirsch). The freshman 15 is ultimately due to the radical change of lifestyle and environment that the first year of college entails.

Whatever its immediate causes, the freshman 15 can be easily prevented. Hirsch notes that keeping a regular sleep schedule and sleeping a full 7 to 8 hours per night helps students manage stress and prevent triggers…… [read more]

High Blood Pressure Awareness Proposal Term Paper

9 pages (3,591 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… High Blood Pressure Awareness Proposal

High Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure (BP) awareness:

Being crowned as the 2007 Miss Nigeria in America - MNIA, I plan to undertake a High Blood Pressure Awareness as being my platform. I have chosen this issue of creating high blood pressure awareness since I have seen the impacts of having high BP, which caused… [read more]

Policy Analysis on Nutritional Programs for K-12 Grade in California Term Paper

9 pages (2,367 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 28

… Policy Analysis

An in-depth investigation of the California school nutrition policy for K-12 grades and recommended policy changes to that policy

This paper presents an analysis of the nutritional policy in California schools for grades K-12. The writer explores the current policies and makes suggestions for new policies with a discussion on how to carry out the suggested new policies.… [read more]

Nutrition for Older Adults Term Paper

1 pages (461 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Nutrition for Older Adults

Seniors commonly exhibit nutritional deficiencies in both Vitamin B9 (folate) and vitamin B12. Health risks associated with the nutritional deficiencies include increased risk for vascular diseases, often leading to irreversible neurological damage or cognitive impairment. Deficiencies in B12 and folate are also associated with above-average concentrations of blood homocysteine levels. Elevated homocycsteine levels are relatively common among elderly populations. However, even levels in the high range of normal can place individuals at risk for vascular disease or neurological impairment. Studies have shown that increasing intake of folate may reduce risk of some types of vascular disease but researchers worry that increasing folate intake might mask B12 deficiencies. If a B12 deficiency is masked, the patient may remain at risk for developing vascular disease. Thus, new fortification rules increasing folate content in packaged breads and cereal grains may or may not be beneficial for the senior population.

The current research studies the diets of a senior population to determine average intake levels of folate, and the authors suggest that increasing folate would have positive impacts on seniors' health. A sample of 308 seniors aged 65-94 years completed food intake surveys. Responses indicated a mean intake of nearly 300 micrograms per day of folate. Almost half of the sample reported taking daily folate supplements. Most participants who took supplements took an average of 400 micrograms, whereas a small…… [read more]

Eating Disorders and Advertising Term Paper

4 pages (1,555 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … wafer-thin model smiles wanly at the reader. The blonde model is eating a large, greasy slice of pizza. The headline proclaims: "Looking Beyond the Runway for Answers on Underweight Models." Although the New York Times is a respectable media publication, in many ways this sensationalist and simplistic attitude perfectly sums up the popular media attitude towards eating disorders.… [read more]

Fibermyoalgia or Fibromyalgia Term Paper

3 pages (892 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Fibermyoalgia or fibromyalgia is a common and long0standing physical disorder, which is characterized by widespread pain, fatigue and several painful or tender points or parts all over the body (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders. 2004). These specific parts are the neck, shoulders, back, hips and upper and lower extremities. It is only similar to arthritis because of the pain and fatigue but, unlike arthritis, there is no inflammation of the joints, muscles or other tissues. In addition to pain and fatigue, fibromyalgia may cause sleep disturbances, morning stiffness, headaches, the irritable bowel syndrome, painful menstruation, numbness or tingling of the extremities, the restless leg syndrome, memory problems, and sensitiveness to temperature. Unlike a disease, which is a medical condition and has a specific cause or causes, fibromyalgia is considered only a syndrome, consisting of signs, symptoms and other medical problems, which occur together (NIAMSD).

The American College of Rheumatology reported that 3 to 6 million or one in every 50 Americans suffers from fibromyalgia (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders 2004). Most of those afflicted are women at 80 to 90% and middle-aged. Those who are sick of rheumatoid diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or ankylosing spondylitis, are more likely to develop fibromyalgia. Some studies say that it seems to run in families, the exact cause is still unknown but an emotionally stressful or traumatic event, like an automobile accident, repetitive injuries or an illness may predispose people to it. Some scientists assume that the genes of a person with fibromyalgia may cause him to react to pain stimuli more strongly than those without it. Sufferers consult with many doctors for their pain and fatigue, which develop along with other conditions. At present, there are no diagnostic laboratory tests for fibromyalgia. Because of this, some doctors may conclude that the patient's condition is only imagined and that nothing can be done about it the patient should consult those who specialize in arthritis and other conditions, which affect the joints and soft tissues (NIAMSD).

Fibromyalgia treatment now often requires a team approach by the doctor, a physical therapist and other health professionals and the patient himself who will focus on improving the patient's quality of life (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders 2004). Doctors prescribe analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-depressants and benzodiazepines. Patients may also benefit from a combination of physical and occupational therapy, pain-management and coping techniques and by balancing rest and activity. Some have benefited from alternative or complementary treatments or approaches, such as massage, chiropractic medicine, acupuncture, and herbal and dietary supplements. These supplements, however, have not been tested for scientific proof…… [read more]

Food Shelf Life Term Paper

8 pages (2,291 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Milk Quality & Safety Issues


While there is little controversy over many aspects of product development, food quality issues and safety processes must be taken into consideration. Critical discussion of biotechnology and its application in the food marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The… [read more]

Human Nutrition Carbohydrates Are the Key Source Term Paper

1 pages (391 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Human Nutrition

Carbohydrates are the key source of energy of the human body, which uses them to produce sugar glucose to help maintain tissue protein, metabolize fat and fuel the nervous system (MSN Encarta 2006). The major carbohydrates are starches and sugars. Examples of common starches are whole-grain breads and cereals, pasta, corn, beans, peas and potatoes. Natural sources of sugar include fruits and many vegetables, milk products, honey, maple sugar and sugar cane (MSN Encarta).

Dietary proteins are compounds, which build and repair body tissues, speed up chemical reactions in the body, serve as chemical messengers, fight infection and bring oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues (MSN Encarta 2006). Excellent sources of animal proteins include eggs, milk, meat, fish and poultry. Examples of plant sources are vegetables, grains and beans (MSN Encarta).

Fats are the most concentrated energy-producing nutrients, which play a significant role in building the membranes surrounding body cells and in forming blood clots (MSN Encarta 2006). Fats also help the body absorb certain vitamins, cushion vital organs and protect the body from extreme cold and heat. Examples of sources of animal fats are eggs, dairy products and meats. Examples…… [read more]

Childhood Obesity in Americans Term Paper

10 pages (3,052 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… 4. All school meal must meet the standards of nutrition set forth by the USDA. In addition there must be sufficient choices to encompass new foods, and foods prepared in different ways so that taste preferences are considered. This is necessary because public school populations tend to be diverse (Childhood Obesity).

5. Students must have designated lunch periods that are… [read more]

Nursing Obesity an Overview Term Paper

6 pages (1,568 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Nursing Obesity

An Overview of Obesity

More and more studies show that increasing numbers of children and adults alike are diagnosed as obese (Levi, Goodman, Poral & Savransky, 2003; Pool, 2001; Bostwick & Melcher, 1998). Obesity may be defined by some as an epidemic, particularly aggressive in Western cultures where upwards of 20% of certain populations are characterized as obese… [read more]

Heliconius Butterflies Term Paper

2 pages (534 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Heliconius

Natural History of the Heliconius Butterfly

Many consider the Heliconius butterfly among the more intelligent butterfly species. This is a result of multiple factors including their reproductive tendencies, spatial analysis capability and eating preferences. Heliconius is said to spend most of its day traveling, reproducing and 'sipping nectar' which give the species a reputation for living the good life (Millius, 1998). These ideas are explored in greater detail below.

Nutrition of the Heliconius

Many species of the genus Heliconius rely on secondary nutritious substances including the pollen of flowers for nutrition. The Heliconius butterfly in particular has an anatomically structured tongue that allows special collection of pollen (Eldredge, 1987). The butterfly uses enzymes and nectar and regurgitates these substances onto the tongue to release free amino acids in the pollen (Eldredge, 18). The butterfly then absorbs the nutrients. The amino acids formed from pollen create the building blocks for proteins which the butterfly then passes on to its tissues, helping enable biological functions (Elderedge, 1987).

Lifestyle of the Heliconius Butterfly

The heliconius butterfly typically spends much of its day "patrolling a regular route" in search of nectar an pollen sources; in an average day the butterfly may cover miles and miles of forest (Elderedge, 18). Studies suggest male Heliconius butterflies have to fight off other species for flowers they prefer for "early morning feedings" (Elderedge, 18).

Females tend to deposit eggs on passionflowers. These species place their yellow-orange eggs in very prominent places on the edges of the vine tendrils of this plant to "warn other females the plant is already taken" (Eldredge, 18). This prevents…… [read more]

Vitamins and Minerals Support Ones Immune System Essay

2 pages (530 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Vitamins and minerals support ones immune system by making sure that the body has all the nutrients that it needs to function properly. Without proper nutrition, the immune system may become compromised and illnesses may occur due to the deficiencies. Steps that can be taken to improve one immune system would be to increase vitamins and minerals that support where the deficiency is taking place i.e. information has shown that deficiencies in vitamin A and vitamin B can cause serious problems with the immune system. Some of these deficiencies are suppression of immune reactions; frequent repertory, digestive, bladder, vaginal, and kidney infections (Whitney & Rolfes, 1999, P.346).

My risk factors include: genetic factors because I have a family history of cancer. Environmental factors i.e. sun exposure and air pollution. To reduce the chances of developing cancer one could do the following; control weight and prevent obesity. Reduce consumption of total fat to 30% or less and saturated fat to 10% or less of total energy intake. Increase fiber intake to 20 to 30 grams per day. Include a variety of fresh vegetables and fruits (including deep yellow and dark green vegetables) in the daily diet; consume salt-cured, salt-pickled, nitrite-cured, and smoked foods in moderation. As well as consume alcoholic beverages in moderation, if at all (Whitney & Rolfes, 1999, p.577).

3.My risk factors for hypertension include being overweight. Ways to reduce Hypertension risk include the following: Weight control, increased physical activity, decreased alcohol consumption, and decrease sodium intake.

4. I run the risk of developing type II diabetes, which has been related to obesity. Ways…… [read more]

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