"Oceanography / Marine Organisms" Essays

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Survival Strategies: Benthic vs. Pelagic Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Although both plankton and nekton inhabit the mesopelagic zone, the defense mechanisms of the nekton are more elaborate. The Diel vertical migration of nekton represents a strategy to remain invisible to visual predators, by migrating to the upper pelagic zone to feed on phytoplankton during the night and returning to the depths before the sun comes up (De Meester, Weider, and Tollrain, 1995, p. 483). The vertical range for a particular nekton depends to some extent on size, with larger sizes having to go deeper to remain invisible during the daytime. Coloration changes by depth as well, supposedly to render the zooplankton less visible depending on the wavelength of light able to penetrate to a specific depth (Miller, 2004, p. 234-235). Some fish who inhabit the upper mesopelagic elaborate scales containing guanine crystals, which are able to reflect light in such a manner that the position of the prey can't be accurately determined by the predator. Transparency is another strategy used by some nekton, such as eel larvae, but because the eyes require pigmentation to sense light they remain visible.

Summary

If the countless survival strategies can be grouped into those primarily typical of either the benthic or pelagic zone, then the benthic zooplankton tend to rely primarily on physical, chemical, and hiding strategies to avoid predation, while pelagic zooplankton rely primarily on avoiding being seen by visual predators using strategies that avoid, reflect, or transmit light, or by exploiting wavelengths of light able to penetrate to a specific depth to become camouflaged.

References

De Meester, Luc, Weider, Lawrence J., and Tollrain, Ralph. (1995). Alternative antipredator defences and genetic polymorphism in a pelagic predator-prey system. Nature, 378, 483-485.

Duffy, J. Emmett and Hay, Mark E. (2004). The ecology and evolution of marine consumer-prey interactions. In M.D. Bertness, S.D. Gaines, and M.E. Hay, (Eds.), Marine Community Ecology (pp. 131-157). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates,…… [read more]


Force of the Winds Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,142 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … force of the winds is the major cause of patterns produced on the ocean surface. They are then modified by the effect of the Carioles Force due to the earth's rotation. Like gyres, the ocean floor dictates their characteristics (Gardiner, 2010). On question 2, swells, breaking surf and tsunamis despite all being products of the ocean activities, the… [read more]


Red Tides Affect in the Gulf of Mexico Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (3,219 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Red Tides on the Gulf of Mexico

The world's oceans form the basis for a food web that extends to virtually all living organisms, including human beings. The health of the oceans is therefore of critical importance to the future survival of mankind. One phenomenon in particular that threatens the health of the world's oceans is red tides.… [read more]


Ocean Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,459 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Marine Pollution

The ocean covers 71% of the surface area of the globe and accounts for 90% of all habitable space in the planet (Mulvaney 1998).The total volume of the ocean is approximately 300 million cubic miles and weighs approximately 1.3 million million tons. This great matrix is so vast that scientist-writer Arthur C. Clarke once commented about the inappropriateness… [read more]


Negative Effects of Artificial Reefs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,105 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Building mitigating artificial reefs when real reefs are damaged fails to address problems of pollution, nutrient runoff and over-exploitation of the oceans, he also argues.

One of the biggest problems with artificial reefs is the impact on the environment.

One key concern in this area is coastal erosion. Insufficiently weighted materials that end up miles away from the reef site by strong winter storm (such as tires, etc.) can damage sedentary organisms of natural reef sites and destroy the nets of commercial fisherman's bottom trawl (Goldschmid, 1998).

Environmentalists say artificial reefs may be harming dwindling populations of fish (Dixie Divers, 2004). Rather than helping fish stocks recover by creating more habitat, they simply draw the remaining fish to fishermen's hooks. "Do they only attract fish so that fishermen can take more fish?" asked David White, southeast regional director of the Ocean Conservancy. "If they're just giant fish attractors, they're just leading to greater depletion of fish."

Artificial reefs alter ocean habitats. An artificial reef transforms a sandy or muddy bottom habitat, which supports worms, mollusks and other marine life, into a reef ecosystem (Dixie divers, 2004). Many reefs are being created without considering the consequences of changing ocean ecosystems. "They can be dangerous," said Cufone, of the Ocean Conservancy. "We're not certain of the impacts." John McManus, director of the National Center for Caribbean Coral Reef Research at the University of Miami, said artificial reefs threaten depleted fish populations. Attracting fish from coral outcroppings that fishermen may not know about, these reefs create a concentrated population of fish exactly where the hooks will be.

Inadequate buoys and buoy chains, lost buoys, increase the amount of materials dumped into the sea, block shipping or mineral development, and are often difficult to find (Goldschmid, 1998). Use of toxic materials that pollute the aquatic environment (benzene-, heavy metals containing substrate) increase the already huge anthropogenic impact. Older artificial reefs are often not marked so fishing or other vessels cannot avoid them. This is extremely dangerous for divers, who are in danger of being trapped in these reefs.

In conclusion, while some artificial reefs may be beneficial, artificial reefs should create no hazard to navigation and the marine environment, and materials used to develop artificial reefs should not create the potential to trap divers or marine vertebrates (Thai Diver, 2004). Compatibility of materials with the marine environment is key to creating a successful artificial reef. Materials must be chosen because they meet the goal of creating habitat for marine fish and invertebrate organisms.

Bibliography

Bourjaily, Phil. (February 24, 2000). Rebuilding the ocean's rain forests. Environmental News Network.

Dixie Divers. (September 2, 2004). State debates tighter regulations for creating artificial reefs. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.dixiediver.com/DixieWatchDogNews/state_debates_tighter_regulation.htm.

Goldschmid, A. Yip, M. (November 22, 1998). A Natural Reef System and a description of potential Damages: An overview of Artificial Reefs, Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Reefs.

Rodriguez, M. (2004). What are artificial reefs and why do we need them? Retrieved from the Internet at http://scuba.about.com/library/weekly/aa121799.htm.

Thai… [read more]


World's Oceans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,142 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Environmental Science

The World's Oceans

The Economic Value of Oceans to Americans

Waste Dumping in our Oceans

Oil Contamination from Various Sources

Toxins and Trash Entering the Oceans

The Depleted Fisheries

The Vanishing Wetlands

The World's Oceans: New Studies Reveal Threats and Possible Solutions

The world's oceans are vast - in fact, they make up over two-thirds (70%) of our… [read more]


Oceans & Plastic Pollution the Growing Mass Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Oceans & Plastic Pollution

The growing mass of plastic debris that is polluting many of the world's oceans is of great concern to scientists, governments, and environmentally inclined ordinary citizens -- and should be of grave concern to every inhabitant of this planet. What is the nature of the problem? How severe is the degree of degradation to the species that use the ocean as habitat? What are the laws that apply to the debasement of the world's oceans vis-a-vis plastic pollution? These questions will be addressed in this paper.

How serious is the plastic-related problem? What's the impact on marine species?

In a recent book by noted environmental author Marquita K. Hill, the retired professor of chemical engineering (University of Maine) explains that when it comes to marine environments "Truly pristine locales no longer exist" (Hill, 2010, p. 257). Plastic bags, bottle tops, and polystyrene foam coffee cups "have been found in the stomachs of dead sea lions, dolphins, sea turtles, and birds" and seagulls in the North Sea "…had an average of 30 pieces of plastic in their stomachs, according to a 2004 study," she continues. And moreover plastic debris "…is estimated to kill a million seabirds and 100,000 marine mammals and turtles each year" because they ingest the plastic material, or become entangled in plastic fishing line, plastic bags, plastic six-pack holders and string from balloons (Hill, 257).

Charles Moore, writing in the journal Natural History, was shocked at the proliferation of plastic in the Pacific Ocean. He and his crew set out from Point Conception, California, in 1998, heading northwest in their aluminum-hulled catamaran research vessel Alguita. At about 800 miles offshore, they dropped their "manta trawl" overboard and allowed it to skim the surface for three plus miles. "What we saw amazed us," Moore writes (Moore, 2003, p. 3). They witnessed a "rich broth of minute sea creatures mixed with hundreds of colored plastic fragments -- a plastic plankton soup" (Moore, 2003, p. 3). Among the harvest of plastic bits and pieces, they also recovered "a menacing medusa of tangled net lines," Moore continues (p. 3). Their research revealed that for every pound of existing zooplankton, there are "…six pounds of plastic floating in the North Pacific subtropical gyre…" (Moore, 2003, p. 3).

Professor Stelios Katsanevakis reports that that plastic pollution on the ocean is just the tip of the iceberg, so to speak. Using data from the North Sea and the ocean waters around Australia (and other environments) "…it has been estimated that up to 70% of the marine litter that enters the sea ends up on the seabed… 15% is found on beaches and the rest (another 15%) floats on the water surface" (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 59). The professor has conducted intensive research on the impact that plastic pollution has had (is having) on sea life. The most vulnerable marine species are the pinnipeds (Seals and Sea Lions); getting entangled in marine debris has been reported for "at least 20 pinniped species," Katsanevakis… [read more]


Features of the Ocean Floor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,092 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This current is the West Wind Drift.

B. The Atlantic Ocean Currents

The North Atlantic westerly winds move the water eastward as the North Atlantic Current, or North Atlantic Drift. The northeast trade winds push the water to the west, forming the North Equatorial Current. The north-south continuity currents are the Gulf Stream, flowing northward along the coast of North America, and the Canary Current, moving to the south on the eastern side of the North Atlantic.

C. The Indian Ocean Currents

The Indian Ocean is mainly a Southern Hemisphere ocean. The southeast trade winds push the water to the west, creating the South Equatorial Current. The Southern Hemisphere westernizes still move the water eastward in the West Wind Drift. The West Australia Current moving northward completes the gyre and the Agulhas Current moving southward along the coast of Africa.

D. The Arctic Ocean Currents

The Norwegian Current supplies the Arctic Ocean from the North Atlantic; some of this flow enters west of Spits Bergen, but most flows over the top of Norway and Finland and moves eastward along the Siberian coast into the Chukchi Sea.

Outflow from Siberian Rivers is caught in the eastward flow of water and ice along Siberia. Eventually this discharge joins the gyre distributing sediments and pollutants throughout the Arctic.

El Nino syndrome

The world continues to be pounded by abnormal weather, due to man's indifference towards lesser mortals. The warnings of the atmosphere that is normally referred to as the "Green House Effect," is caused by the steady build up of six green house gases, emitted by the burning of petroleum by motor vehicles and coal in power plants. It is estimated that about 20 to 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide are discharged to the air each year, and that there is 30% more carbon dioxide in the air today than in 1860. Under these conditions, it is likely that the earth will heat up by a further degree within the next 20 years.

The lifestyles of the more wealthy nations, built up with the aid of science and technology with in-built self-destructive features, are openly criticized today. The high rates of consumption and pollution of the limited resources of the earth by the rich stock, makes it impossible for others who are not as fortunate, to live comfortably. This form of life could be challenged on grounds of natural impartiality. To bring a more equitable distribution of resources the rich must live more simply so that the poor may simply live.

The message on conservation that is already conveyed is very clear. The basic task for all to follow is to reduce as rapidly as possible, the impact of civilizations on the earth's life support combinations. To achieve these objectives, the world must reduce population, reduce consumption and change scientific technologies to eliminate or reduce the eviction of toxic gases into the atmosphere.

References

Loomis, Jennifer. "Observe the origins of some ocean floor sediments. " Exploring Earth.

Exploring Earth. 18 Mar. 2005… [read more]


Oceanography What Were the Significant Contributions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Oceanography

What were the significant contributions of James Cook, Matthew Maury, and the Challenger Expedition? How did their contributions lead to a better understanding of oceanography?

James Cook was the first person to have a trip dedicated exclusively to oceanography. The contributions that he made to a better understanding of oceanography include: the invention of the chronometer, the mapping of… [read more]


Threats to Ecosystem: Cause Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

The problem is so bad that the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that over 25% of the world's fish stocks are incompletely depleted and that as high as 50% are totally depleted (The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA)). In fact, about 90% of the world's predatory fish are virtually non-existent (ibid).

Over fishing has direct and indirect effects, with direct effects reducing and wiping out the number and size of huge populations of marine animals, whilst indirect effects can lead to suffocation and trapping of marine animals by, for instance, nets that are left on the ocean floor. Another indirect effects includes tropic cascading effects where the sea marine level is dislodged with predators removed resulting in cascading effects throughout the marine ecosystem.

3.Global climactic and oceanographic events

Not only does increase of temperature level effect marine life, but acidification, caused by climate changes, also impedes organisms in various ways, not least to build their shells, whilst changes in cloud cover and sea ice affect the light supply to the ocean.

Climactic and oceanographic events also contribute to sea level rise and coastal erosion all of which are traumatic to marine environment and animals, leaving many animals stranded when these events occur.

Remedies have included strategies to change ocean circulation and arrange stable temperature levels; some of this is achieved by environmental modification. Program to measure change and modeling of climate change are also in effect in order that further management strategies can be developed (CSIRO.).

In all cases, recommendations for improvement can be induced by putting pressure on governments and regulatory bodies, as well as supporting companies that are environmentally conscious and increasing people's knowledge about their impact and effect on the marine environment and on how they can improve it.

References

CSIRO. Climate change effects on marine ecosystems report www.csiro.au/resources/ps2yd.html

Save Our Seas Foundation: Pollution saveourseas.com/threats/pollution

The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) www.fao.org/sof/sofia/index_en.htm… [read more]


Effect of Plastic Debris on Marine Species Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,763 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Plastic Debris on Marine Species

Marine litter has been a huge nuisance to marine life and especially plastic debris. Marine debris is defined as any solid material which finds its way into the waters. This marine debris or litter has many negative effects to aquatic life. Close to 80% of all marine debris is of plastic nature Van… [read more]


Invertebrate Ocean Acidification and the Disruption Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (921 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Invertebrate

Ocean Acidification and the Disruption of Marine Ecosystems

The presence and behavior of human beings has altered the ecological balance in profound ways. The release of fossil fuels into the atmosphere, the dumping of waste into the world's oceans and the disruption of the food chain through overfishing have all contributed to a change in the quality of the world's water supplies. As the text by Pechenik (2004) reveals, a discussion concerning any waterborne species would not be complete or properly focused if it failed to address the relationship between this species' survival demands and the changes imposed upon the environment. This directs the focus of our preliminary research discussion, revealing the need for further research on the relationship between acidification of the world's oceans and the patterns of procreation and lifecycle facing waterborne invertebrates.

Research Focus Box:

The research focus is driven by Pechenik's recognition of changes in the state of the world's oceans as these correlate to human activity. Pechenik points to industrial processes and the high levels of atmospheric emission caused by an unsustainable lifestyle as the main causes for a sharp rise in the level of acidity recorded in our oceans. This, the text denotes, has significant and widespread consequences to the balance of aquatic life and species diversity. This is particularly demonstrable based on the impact that the pattern of acidification has had on certain species of invertebrate. The ocean has a vast array of amoebic species and multicellular invertebrates that rely upon the minerals natural to the water in order to perform basic survival functions. As the Pechenik source denotes, there is a direct connection between the heightened acidification in the ocean and the diminished ability of certain marine species to form the protective outer-shells that allow them to survive their environmental and predatory surroundings.

The topic as raised in the text directs our attention toward any number of possible ecological and environmental consequences that could be catastrophic not just to the invertebrates directly impacted but also to whole marine ecologies. As we proceed from the Pechenik text to consider other sources on the subject, it will be with the expectation that some evidence will be yielded to connect the particular threats against invertebrates to more general concerns over the distribution of species in certain marine habitats.

Additional Research:

These assumptions are given grounding by a bevy of research sources, most of which appear to endorse the concerns raised by the Pechenik text. For instance, the article by Science Daily (SD) (2010) confirms the connection drawn between human behavior and the increased acidification of the oceans. According to Antarctic marine biologist Jim McClintock, "Existing data points to consistently increasing oceanic acidity, and that is a direct result of increasing carbon dioxide levels in…… [read more]


Harmful Algal Blooms Weather Events Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,046 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Detection tools have been innovated and implemented by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Finding and measuring harmful algal blooms is time-consuming and requires specialized labs. Generally cells are collected by boat, preserved, and then examined in a lab, so there is a significant time-lag between collection and identification.

Scientists can use satellites to collect data on ocean color to determine the amount of live biomass in the ocean, which can help identify algal blooms and track blooms. They can use this data to help predict the landfall of a bloom. This only works on some types of blooms and the data does not indicate if blooms are harmful or benign.

The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network program trains volunteers around the nation to gather water samples to identify the types of phytoplankton in coastal waters, which can help identify emerging harmful algal blooms.

Mitigation is still the most reliable method of controlling the impact of harmful algal blooms. Mitigation can be a very expensive option; therefore mitigation decisions are based on the social and economic costs of harmful algal bloom events, as well as the costs and benefits of mitigation strategies.

NOAA scientists have developed test kit for domoic acid and brevetoxin, which can both sometimes be found in shellfish. These tests can help keep commercial shellfish safe, and also help determine the cause of death for marine life that are believed to have died as a result of a harmful algal bloom.

Sources of Harmful Algal Blooms

Weather

Nutrients

Pollution

Fiscal

Fatal

Harms

Algal Growth Cannot be controlled by Oceanic Conditions

Marine Life is Impacted by Algal Growth

Change in Ocean Conditions

Injuries

FISH

Copepods

Phytoplankton

National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. (n.d.). Investigating the ocean: algae blooms.

Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://www.science-house.org/nesdis/algae/background.html

Backer, L. And McGillicuddy, D. (2006). Harmful algal blooms: At the interface between coastal oceanography and human health. Oceanography, 19(2), 94-106.

National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. (n.d.). Investigating the ocean: algae blooms.

Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://www.science-house.org/nesdis/algae/background.html

Landsberg, J.H. (2002). The effects of harmful algal blooms on aquatic organisms. Reviews in Fisheries Science,

10(2), 113-390.

National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. (n.d.). Investigating the ocean: algae blooms.

Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://www.science-house.org/nesdis/algae/background.html

Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences. (2011). "Fitting algae into the food web." Toxic and harmful algal blooms: educational activities. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from: http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/fitting_algae.html

National Ocean Service. (2011, Oct. 14). Identifying and monitoring HABs. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/hab/

National Ocean Service. (2011, Oct. 14). Identifying and monitoring HABs. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/hab/

National Ocean Service. (2011, Oct. 14). Preventing HABs before they happen. Retrieved November 4, 2011

from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/hab/

National Ocean Service. (2011, Oct. 14). Identifying and monitoring HABs. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/hab/… [read more]


Oceanography Comparing Approaches Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, and M. Behrenfeld (2006), A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 53(5 -- 7), 741 -- 770, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.01.028.

Duffy, J.E., and J.J. Stachowicz (2006), Why biodiversity is important to oceanography: Potential roles of genetic, species, and trophic diversity in pelagic ecosystem processes, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 311, 179 -- 189, doi:10.3354/meps311179.

Friedrichs, M.A.M., et al. (2009), Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Mar. Syst., 76(1 -- 2), 113 -- 133, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.010.

Milutinovic, S. Beherenfeld, M.J., Johannessen, A. And Johannessen, T. (2008). Sensitivity of remote sensing-derived phytoplankton productivity to mixed layer depth: Lessons from the carbon-based productivity model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23 (GB4005). doi: 10.1029.2008GB3431.

Townsend, D.W., L.M. Cammen, P.M. Holligan, D.E. Campbell, and N.R. Pettigrew (1994), Causes and consequences of variability in the timing of spring phytoplankton blooms, Deep Sea Res., Part I, 41(5 -- 6), 747 -- 765, doi:10.1016/0967-0637(94)90075-2.

Westberry, T., M.J. Behrenfeld, D.A. Siegel, and E. Boss (2008), Carbon- based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation, Global Biogeochem.…… [read more]


Oceanography What New Phase of Ocean Exploration Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Oceanography

What new phase of ocean exploration started in 1968 with the Glomar Challenger?

A new phase of ocean exploration was started with the Glomar Challenger, where deep water drilling / exploration become a reality. This is significant because prior to the launch of the Glomar Challenger, no one had known the age or the composition of the ocean floor. The way this was conducted was by drilling for specific samples on the ocean floor. Between 1968 and 1974, the Glomar Challenger was able to take samples from all of the various oceans around the globe. As a result, a number of different discoveries were made because of the work conducted by the Glomar Challenger to include: salt domes were discovered. This is a common element that is found where oil / natural gas reserves are located. The discoveries that were made allowed for the development of underwater oil / natural gas exploration. However, the real contribution of the Glomar Challenger is opened up the field of deep water drilling. As the different voyages were able to confirm the Theory of Continental Drift, under this theory the Earth was one single landmass. The samples taken from the Glomar Challenger was able to confirm this through the various core samples. This established how future deep water oceanic exploration would take place. ("Glomar Challenger,"2010)

What techniques are used to study plate tectonics?

The way that the plate tectonics was studied was by drilling a series of holes into various spots along the ocean floor. Then, at various longitudes a series of different samples were taken to determine the age and composition of the ocean floor. This would provide: a basic background as to how the various tectonic plates were moving closer or farther apart. (Maxwell, 1969)

What is the evidence for sea floor spreading?

There was a fracture zone that was discovered between sites 17 and 18 in the Atlantic Ocean. This was dated to be over 66 million years old and the average rate of drift is 2 cm per year. As a result, the fracture zone allowed scientists to confirm that the Earth was actually one continent millions of years ago. This also underscores the fact that the tectonic plate is still continuing to drift, signifying that as the contents are spreading farther apart and the ocean floor is following suit. The drifting that is taking place is consistent from the reading seen taken off the coast of South America. (Maxwell, 1969)

Where are the oldest ocean sediments located?

The oldest ocean sediments were located at: sites 20, 19, 14 and 17.

Data

At what degree longitude is the…… [read more]


Oceanography Oceanic Tides Differ Greatly Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Oceanography

Oceanic Tides Differ Greatly Depending on Location

The tides of the ocean are unique to geographical location. Each individual location is affected differently by the pull of the moon and sun on the earth's bodies of water (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2010). Thus, location is a primary determinate of the types of tides, and how ocean water levels are affected during both high and low tides.

Semi-diurnal tides are most common. In the span of one day, the earth's rotation hits the point of high tide, where there is the greatest force pulling the water outward, then returns to low tide, and back again to the original point of high tide (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2010). According to research, "This results in two high tides and two low tides in a day," (Ocean Link 2010). These types of tides are most common on the Eastern Atlantic Seaboard, which explains how the Florida Keys and Connecticut tides are both semi-diurnal (Pidwirny 2008). They also occur closer to the equator, based on the incline of the moon's orbit around the earth (Ocean Link 2010). However, the data is recovered from a winter month, where the sun's inclination is at the highest point. Research states that "During these months the 'bulges' in the ocean are offset the most from the equator, and it is most likely to encounter only one tide cycle per day, or diurnal tides," (Ocean Link 2010).

Diurnal tides are much different. In these types of tides, there is only one high and one low tide per 24-hour period. They tend to occur in extremes of the northern and southern hemispheres (Ocean Link 2010). Diurnal tides occur typically in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Pidwirny 2008). Thus, Eagle Point Texas, the only point in the northern region of the Gulf of Mexico covered by the data is the only diurnal tide

Lastly, mixed tides show a combination of the elements of the two tide types. They are common on the West Coast of the United States (Pidwirny 2008). Hence, the Alaskan tide covered in this research is a mixed tide, showing elements of both diurnal and semi-diurnal tides. According to research, mixed tides show "successive high-water and low-water stands differ appreciably," (Pidwirny 2008). Therefore, these tides have the greatest disparity between high and low tide water levels.

The data correlates with the West coast of Alaska being dominated by mixed tides. There are two low and high tides per day, because Alaska returns to the same point of tide twice a day. However, it is clearly a mixed tide here. This data set shows the greatest disparity between the tides, with enormous differences between the high and low tide water level measurements. Around January 9th there is a greater disparity between the water levels of the tides. The high tide increases, but at the same time the low tide decreases in water level. There is a great decrease seen in the context of the low tide, the… [read more]


Ocean Water Resource Issue Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (873 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Ecological Balance of the Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are a system of living organisms found only in the warm benthic shallow ocean water environments along the world's coastlines. The shallow seas where the reefs grow represent just eight percent of the world's oceans, but sustain most of the life found in the sea (BBC/Discovery, film documentary, 2008). The health of the coral reefs is representative of the health of our oceans, and the health of our planet. The health of the coral reefs is impacted by hurricanes, tsunamis, drastic fluctuations in water temperatures, and the presence of mankind. It is a fragile ecosystem, but one that provides $375 billion a year in good, service and industry, and supports as many as 500 million people who are dependent upon the ocean life that can be found only in the coral reefs (Tibbets, John, 2004, p. 472). This represents a relationship between man and the environment that is co-dependent in nature; mankind must be aware of the fragility of the system that sustains him, and work to protect the coral reef environment to preserve it in whatever ways we can. Today, 30% of the world's coral reefs are damaged, and it is expected that the damage will increase to 60% by the year 2030 (Tibbetts, p. 472). This suggests the critical state of the reefs, and the logical conclusion that mankind must take whatever actions possible to negate damage to the coral reefs stemming from man's impact on the environment.

The Threats to the Coral Reefs

There is really very little that environmentalists or scientists can do prevent damage to the coral reefs from natural threats like tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes, or fluctuating changes in the water temperature as a result of the earth's natural evolutionary processes. We know that at least twice in the history of the world, the coral reefs along the coast of Australia were destroyed because of natural planetary changes. We know this, because the remnants of the dead coral reefs are found hundreds of feet below the ocean, in the abyssal zone of the benthic environment, are the remains of coral beds that illustrate changes that occurred in the water levels and water temperatures.

The threats posed by man, however, are:

Overfishing and pollution, wrote Hughes and colleagues, have been the most important causes of "massive and accelerating decreases in abundance of coral reef species." These two factors have caused widespread changes in reef ecosystems over the past two centuries, but the past few decades have seen an exponential increase in the amount of damage done (Tibbetts, p. 472)."

If we do…… [read more]


Marine Mammal Impact on Fisheries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sacramento Basin

The project is designed to examine the link between marine mammals and fisheries in the area of the Sacramento Delta, looking particularly to the impact pinnipeds have on the anadramous fish populations and recreational fishery in this region.

The goal of this research project is to assess the distribution and abundance of pinnipeds in the Sacramento and San… [read more]


Spread of Marine Larvae Predicted by Ocean Term Paper

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¶ … Spread of Marine Larvae Predicted by Ocean Temperature

Marine life in the world's oceans is increasingly encountering conditions that are rendering many species near extinction. It has never been so important for scientists to understand the reproduction process among marine life. New discoveries are breaking and are being reported that will surely assist scientists in their study of the reproduction processes of life in the world's seas and oceans.

The Science Daily article entitled "Ocean Temperature Predicts Spread of Marine Species" states that scientists have the ability to predict, "How the distance marine larvae travel varies with ocean temperature - a key component in conservation and management of fish, shellfish and other marine species - according to a new study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." (2006) The data which scientists gathered came from 72 marine species and included: (1) Cod; (2) Herring; (3) American Lobster; (4) Horseshoe crabs; and (5) Clams. It is held in this article that the scientists discovered that most of marine life, to include the species that are important commercially reproduce "via larvae that drift far along ocean currents before returning to join adult populations." (Science Daily, 2006)

The process of which study has been conducted and reported in this article is one that is referred to as "dispersal." Dispersal held by scientists to be linked directly to the temperature of the waters of the world's oceans. Stated in this article is that scientists discovered that the larvae in warmer waters travel less distance than larvae in cold water. The article states that temperature has the capacity to "alter the number and diversity of adult species in a certain area by changing where larvae end up." (Science Daily, 2006) The interesting thing to note is that less than 1% of the larvae actually survive the dispersal process as most are…… [read more]


Continuing Legacy of Louis Agassiz and the Study of Marine Biology Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 3

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Louis Agassiz

The Scientific Legacy of Louis Agassiz

Though he may not be as well-known in the general populace as his contemporaries Darwin and Spencer, Louis Agassiz is responsible for some of the greatest achievements in geology, marine biology, paleontology and scientific philosophy in the 19th century. His wide-ranging interests, deep intellect, and talent for acute observation and innovative thinking… [read more]


Earth's Ocean Surface Current Patterns Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (509 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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This is another example of how surface currents can influence currents at deeper levels.

The Gulf Stream also influences the world's ocean currents at the surface by creating major flows of current many times larger than the Mississippi or Amazon rivers (McWilliams and Restrepo, 1999). There are many different specific currents, namely the North Atlantic and the Canary in the Atlantic, both of which are influenced by the flows of the Gulf Stream. Surface currents are generally measured as the top 10% of the ocean's currents and extend from the surface to around 400 meters in depth (Mills, 2011). Below this depth currents are dictated by other forces such as temperature, salinity, the moon and the Earth's rotation. These currents can also affect and be affected by deeper water eddies and upwellings, which sailors and commercial boats often plan rips around due to higher or lower fuel costs specific to these areas in the ocean and their related currents (Mills, 2011). The study of currents and their effects on sea life as well as other aspects of life on Earth is relatively new, having been just recently undertaken as a direct result of the commercial and recreational actions of sailors (Mills, 2011). Currents and their side effects are not completely understood even today, as new discoveries are still being made.

References

McWilliams, J.C. And J.M. Restrepo. (1999) "The wave-driven ocean circulation."

Journal of Physics and Oceanography. Vol. 29, No. 1. Pp. 2523 -- 2540.

Mills, E.L. (2011). The Fluid Envelope of our Planet: How the…… [read more]


Oceanography Diurnal Tides Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (376 words)
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SAMPLE TEXT:

m.

8. From -2,000 feet to 14,000 feet

9. Semidiurnal

10. The difference between the low tides and the high tides increases significantly as the week progresses.

11. The greatest is approximately 2,000 feet. The least is approximately 500 feet.

12. The tides are significantly different. The disparity between the high and low tides in Florida is practically insignificant when compared to the huge sweeping difference (of at least 12,000 feet) in the high and low tides in Maine. These differences can not only be attributed to the difference in locations from the sun and the moon that these two places are on the earth, but can also be related to the ocean depth and the rotational gravity of these respective places.

13. The 11th and the 26th

14 Approximately 17,000 feet on the 26th and roughly 11,000 feet on the 11th.

15. On the third and the 19th.

16. About 3,000 feet.

17. Actually, the dates for the spring and neap tides are different in Alaska than those for Maine. This is due to the fact that the relation of these areas to the…… [read more]


Geography Oceanography Is the Field Term Paper

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Finally, recent discoveries about the geography of the ocean floor have profound implications for the study of biology. The discovery of biological communities that do not require oxygen or light to sustain life, found around hydrothermal vents, has profound implications for the study of how life on Earth may have begun (WHOI, 2005).

At one time the ocean was viewed as being both simple and possessing an endless ability to absorb whatever we threw into it. The study of oceanography, with the in-depth knowledge developed about its currents and underwater geography, have profoundly changed how we make use of it (Pidwirny, 2004). Because of our increased knowledge of oceanography, we now have international treaties governing countries' use of it.

SOURCES

College Board, The. 2005. "Oceanography," in CollegeBound. Accessed via the Internet 1/10/05.

Pidwirny, Michael, Ph.D. FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 2004. Online textbook accessed via the Internet 1/10/05.
WHOI. 2005. Career Profiles: Oceanography. Accessed via the Internet 1/10/05. [read more]


Hydrothermal Vents: A New Way to Monitor Term Paper

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Hydrothermal Vents: A New Way to Monitor the Earth's Core

Deep sea-thermal vents are an important part of life on our planet. These unique areas of the ocean provide an oasis for life on the sea floor that are supported by thermal and chemical processes situated deep in the earth's interior. It is thought that life on earth may have… [read more]


Mortality and Loss Processes in Phytoplankton Term Paper

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Mortality and Loss Processes in Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton are members of the autotrophic that that are usually found on top-most parts of bodies of water. They are oftentimes floating over the seas or rivers. The name itself comes fro a Greek word "phyton" which literally means "drifter" or "wanderer." Phytoplankton could not really be seen by the naked eye especially if… [read more]


Kinsler Defines Acoustics Term Paper

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(Pacific). In case of rough or "back of the envelope" SNR calculations, ambient noise lvel (NL) is deducted from the sound intensity level with this equation:

SNR = SIL - NL

When the reading is higher than 0 dB (decibels), the signal can be detected and separated from the background noise. If less than 0 dB, it is inaudible. (Pacific)… [read more]


Desertification of Coral Reefs Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 9

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Geography

Desertification of Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are under threat worldwide. An estimated 58% of reefs are classified as threatened and 11% of the original amount of coral reefs has already been lost. The makeup of remaining coral reefs is also rapidly changing. In regards to many of the reefs, the decline in coral has coincided with increased cover of… [read more]


Solar Radiation Spectra in Ocean Water Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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¶ … Ocean Water Modifies and Influences Solar Radiation Spectra

There are a multitude of complex factors that influence the absorption of solar radiation by ocean water, including two very specific laws involving the amount of light transmitted through a liquid. The Beer and Lambert laws govern the transmission of solar spectra in ocean water, but beyond these laws, other… [read more]


Fate of Carbon in a Seagrass Dominated Ecosystem Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  17 pages (4,902 words)
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Fate of Carbon in a Sea Grass Dominated Ecosystem

Perhaps the most pressing concern for the world is the rising rate of global warming in the 21st century. Many discussions have taken place on the global front to discuss the possible steps to decrease this rate. On aspect that has been discussed diligently in relation to global warming is the… [read more]


World Religions and Ecology Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,705 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Rachel Carson -- Under the Sea-Wind

Under the Sea-Wind is not Rachel Carson's best-known book; her most heralded book is Silent Spring. But Under the Sea-Wind, her first book, is very well written and contains a wealth of solid environmental information for the reader. Many years before Jacques Cousteau began his televised explorations into the depths of the oceans and… [read more]


Job Application as a Licensed Mate Application Essay

Application Essay  |  4 pages (1,206 words)
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Job Application

As a licensed mate, I have 337 sea days worth of experience. I have worked on four different ships as an Officer in Training. These ships included container, break-bulk and passenger vessels, both diesel and diesel-electric. Each of these vessels was commercial in nature; however I feel that the transition to government/research vessels will be relatively seamless.

In my time at the United States Merchant Marine Academy, I have attained a license as a USCG Third Mate for any tonnage and any ocean. I was able to gain experience with the four commercial vessels over the course of the past four years, while completing my education. I served on the M/V Sealand Pride for Maersk in 2006. My next vessel was of the M/V Liberty Star for Liberty in 2007. I worked on the M/V Pride of America for NCLA, Inc. from 2007-2008. Lastly, I worked on the M/V Harry L. Martin for Keystone in 2008.

With these four vessels, I was able to gain significant experience in all aspects of shipboard operations. I worked on safety, on fire and lifeboat drills and I was able to assist with maneuvering and cargo offloading. I believe that my experiences on these vessels is sufficient to meet the expectations that NOAA will have of me. I am able to handle the navigation and vessel management duties expected of a Third Officer and NOAA Civilian Mariner as the direct result of my officer training aboard these four vessels.

In addition, these vessels each provided me valuable insight into the different ways in which vessels are managed. All four were run with different techniques and systems, such that I feel I gained a rich variety of experience in the short time I have worked on the sea.

2. On board the four vessels on which I have served, I was able to gain experience in a variety of areas beyond navigation. For example, on the container ships (M/V Sealand Pride and M/V Harry L. Martin) I was able to assist the other officers in the maneuvering and offloading functions. I helped them to guide ships into port and then gained experience in assisting the offloading function as well. It was critical to learn these functions, because they form the basis of the container ship's role.

I was fortunate enough to expand on my container experience with the break bulk ship M/V Liberty Star. This gave me insight into the deck operations of a different type of cargo vessel. With my passenger experience I was able to see the differences between deck and engineering operations with three different types of vessels. The differences between these two types of vessel were striking, but even more so was the experience I gained on the passenger vessel M/V Pride of America. Deck operations take on a much different tone when you are given the responsibility over the lives and safety of hundreds of passengers. Since my role included a significant portion of safety initiatives the passenger… [read more]


Ballard's Telepresence Project to Unlock Undersea Secrets of Gulf Marine Sanctuary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (328 words)
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Ballard's Telepresence Project To Unlock Undersea Secrets Of Gulf Marine Sanctuary

The article concerns the latest projected effort of Dr. Robert Ballard and a team of scientists. This team has been assembled to explore the NOAA Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary undersea area, located about 114 miles from the Texas/Louisiana coast. Its attraction for research relates not only to its unique geology and biology, but also to the fact that it could be explored for evidence of earlier human habitation than has been found to date. The sea level was much lower during the ice age, and it is estimated that the area under investigation could have been the site of early human settlements during this period.

Another focus of exploration will be the protective cover the area provides for animals that travel between gelogic features - what the article refers to "hidden highways" between the Flower Garden Banks and other reefs and banks.

The expedition is to last for one week, with…… [read more]


Endangered Species Green Sea Turtles Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 4

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Endangered Species

Green Sea Turtles are an endangered species of reptiles, one of the few animals to have seen the mighty dinosaurs grow extinct. Sea turtles are as old as 200 million years, and are now on the verge of extinction because of the son of man.

The scientific classification of Green Sea Turtles is:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Reptiles… [read more]


Migratory Cetaceans and Their Relation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Migratory Cetaceans and Their Relation

To the Trophic Level they Feed within the Foodweb

seasonal migratory patterns of 3 species of whales; is the global primary production pattern evidenced in VGPM maps related to their seasonal migration?

What are cetaceans?

Cetaceans are Mammalian Order Cetacea, and include whales, dolphins and porpoises.

The Cetaceans are further separated into two major subgroups: the Mysticetes, the baleen whales, and the Odontocytes, the toothed whales, which includes the smaller dolphins and porpoises. General morphological characteristics of Cetacea are: the fusiform shape of their body (i.e., spindle shaped); their forelimbs are modified into flippers; whereas their hindlimbs are completely vestigial (i.e., not attached to backbone, and hidden within body); their tails have horizontal flukes; they breathe from a dorsally oriented blowhole, a reduced nares resituated on the top of head; they are nearly hairless -- with only a few bristle like whiskers surrounding lips of young; and they are insulated from cooler ambient ocean by their layer of blubber. Some species are noted for their intelligence, and complex group behavior, remarkable communication, and even songs.

2) Choose three marine cetacean species, which are migratory from NOAA Protected Resources List.

1) Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus. E/D (denotes endangered / depleted stock)

2) Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae E/D

3) Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus E/D

3) Briefly describe the migratory patterns of each species.

1) Gray whale migration:

There are two isolated geographic distributions: the North Pacific Ocean group (visible off the coastal waters of Oregon). And the Korean North Pacific group.

The whales summer in the rich feeding grounds of the Bering and Chukchi Seas, southeast Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and northern California. They use their ballen to filter feed the copepods, also known as krill…… [read more]


Environmental Impacts of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 5

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Environmental Impact of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

On March 11, 2011 a massive 9.0 earthquake occurred 311 miles off the cost of the Japan. This was one of the largest seismic events to hit the country (triggering a tsunami with wave heights of 133 ft.). The Fukushima nuclear plant was sitting inland on the Northern Pacific Coast. This meant that the… [read more]


Human Effects on Coral Reefs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

"National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: http://www.nos.noaa.gov/education/kits/corals/coral07_importance.html (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

'Things You Can Do to Help Save Coral Reefs." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/books/reefs/reef1-5.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"Threats to Coral Reefs." University of the Virgin Islands. Available: http://www.uvi.edu/coral.reefer/threats.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005)

'U.S. Coral Reef Task Force." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/coral/taskforce.html (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

'What are Corals and Coral Reefs?" NOAA's Coral Reef Information System. Available: http://www.coris.noaa.gov/about/what_are/what_are.html (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"How Old are Coral Reefs?" The Coral Reef Alliance. Available: http://www.coralreefalliance.org/aboutcoralreefs/howold.html (Accessed 24 Jan. 2005).

Fujita, Rodney M., Epstein, Mark S., Goreau, Thomas J. And Gjerde, Kristina. "A Guide to Protecting Coral Reefs." 1992. Available: http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/496_ACFC6.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"What are Corals and Coral Reefs?" NOAA's Coral Reef Information System. Available: http://www.coris.noaa.gov/about/what_are/what_are.html (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"Importance of Coral Reefs."National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: http://www.nos.noaa.gov/education/kits/corals/coral07_importance.html (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

Ibid.

Ibid.

Bryant, Dirk, Burke, Lauretta, McManus, John and Spalding, Mark. "Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indictor of Potential Threats to the World's Coral Reefs." 1998. World Resources Institute. Available: http://marine.wri.org/pubs_description.cfm?PubID=2901 (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"Threats to Coral Reefs." University of the Virgin Islands. Available: http://www.uvi.edu/coral.reefer/threats.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005)

"Bleaching: A Coral Survival Strategy." StudyWorks! Online. Available: http://www.studyworksonline.com/cda/content/article/0,,NAV4-43_SAR1147,00.shtml (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005)

Ibid.

Ibid.

Bryant, Dirk, Burke, Lauretta, McManus, John and Spalding, Mark. "Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indictor of Potential Threats to the World's Coral Reefs." 1998. World Resources Institute. Available: http://marine.wri.org/pubs_description.cfm?PubID=2901 (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

Fujita, Rodney M., Epstein, Mark S., Goreau, Thomas J. And Gjerde, Kristina. "A Guide to Protecting Coral Reefs." 1992. Available: http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/496_ACFC6.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"EPA Activities in Coral Conservation." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/coral/programs.html#symposium (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

"U.S. Coral Reef Task Force." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/coral/taskforce.html (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

"EPA Activities in Coral Conservation." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/coral/programs.html#symposium (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

"Things You Can Do to Help Save Coral Reefs." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/books/reefs/reef1-5.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).… [read more]


Landforms Barrier Island Beaches Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,371 words)
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..

a Roads

b Latitudes

c Elevations

d scale of distances e Man-made structures

84. The cartographic technique by which points on the sphere of the Earth are transferred to points on the plane surface of a map is ...

a Trajection

b Projection

c Intersection

d Interpolation

e approximation

85. The Mercator projection is actually which type of projection?… [read more]


Effect of Red Tide on Manatees Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Red Tides and Manatees

The Effect of Red Tide on Manatees

The manatee population of Florida has suffered devastating effects not only from the fishing and boating industry, but the re-occurrence of the red tides has killed large numbers in recent years, leading to much research and numerous efforts regarding manatee protection and algae controls.

Manatees are large marine mammals,… [read more]


Behavior of Concrete in Rivers Dissertation

Dissertation  |  13 pages (3,632 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 24

SAMPLE TEXT:

Included in this are the kind of concrete use, the cover depth chosen for reinforcement, the overall on-site implementation and managerial practice as well as the intensity and harshness of exposure (Castro et al., 2001).

River atmosphere signifies the atmosphere encircled through the river water. River water is really a complex compound of numerous salts that contains living matter, suspended… [read more]


Ocean Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,363 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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All in all, marine pollution affects marine populations all over the world, and some face extinction because of it. To save the marine populations, strict pollution guidelines have been developed in some countries.

The Clean Water Act, first passed in the United States in 1972, was a major step forward in protecting the world's oceans. Since its' passage, the Act has been updated several times, the last in 1996. The Act contains measures regulating dredging, dumping, wastewater discharge, and more. While the Act has helped clean up the oceans, there is much more to be done.

People already feel the consequences as damaged marine systems stop delivering myriad "free" services. Islands wash away during storms. Formerly stable shorelines sink and erode. Tropical nations watch tourism and fisheries decline with the coral reefs that sustained them. The quality and quantity of seafood is diminishing, imperiling over one billion people who depend on it for their daily protein needs (Woodard 35).

Along with the Clean Air Act, many local communities are taking clean water into their own hands, enacting legislation to protect and limit pollutants in watersheds feeding into oceans.

In some regions, ocean life is damaged by pollution originating hundreds or thousands of miles from shore and delivered to the sea by rivers and streams. For these places, an integrated watershed management regime will probably be the only effective strategy. From a marine perspective, a watershed strategy should take steps to limit river-borne pollution and contaminants to levels acceptable to marine life (Woodard 233).

Local activists have also created programs to help endangered mangrove groves in Florida, endangered delta areas in Louisiana, and Gulf of Mexico pollution in states bordering the Gulf in the Southern U.S. Local "grassroots" programs are often extremely successful, because they recognize immediate local pollution problems, and offer specific results.

Many countries are also developing Marine Protection Areas. Some act as a kind of "wildlife sanctuary," protecting all the life in the area from any kind of fishing or commercial activity. Others are similar to National Parks, where some kinds of activity are allowed, but it is highly regulated and monitored.

Most are zoned for multiple uses, with different activities or types of fishing allowed in each area, but usually under an umbrella of strong legal protections against industrial activity such as pollution, seafloor mining, or offshore energy projects. Many extend onto the land to include mangroves, wetlands, or seabird nesting sites. Whatever the form, they provide vital ecological anchors for the surrounding ocean (Woodard 234).

Most countries that have created these protection areas have found them to be successful. Fish living in the protected areas are larger and more plentiful than those living in unprotected areas. These protected areas also serve the scientific community. Scientists can study baseline marine animal populations so they learn more about normal populations, and how pollution can affect them.

In conclusion, pollution of the oceans is not just a national issue. Over 70% of the globe is covered in oceans, so… [read more]


Coral Reefs Their Status, Purpose Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (739 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Many scientists recognize the extreme value of the reefs, and are attempting to save them not only for their great contribution to the ocean ecosystem, but because of their great beauty. One scientist writes,

Delicate purple sea fans, blood-red sponges, spiny pufferfish, poisonous scorpionfish, giant clams, yellow-lip snakes, and giant manta rays are just a small sample of the fascinating residents that awe visitors from the terrestrial realm. Iridescent fish dart between the intricate coral formations. For their beauty alone, reefs rank as one of the greatest treasures of the planet (Weber).

Studies have shown a variety of ways to help conserve the reefs, including "controlling poor land-use practices that spill mud, nutrients and pesticides into coral reef waters; managing fisheries through quotas and fishing-gear restrictions; reducing tourism impacts; and establishing marine protected areas" (Wolanski et al.). While some recent studies have shown many reefs have the ability to regenerate themselves, most scientists believe a more concentrated effort must be made to save the world's coral reefs, and the many benefits they provide.

In conclusion, coral reefs provide numerous benefits to the world's population, from providing jobs and protection during storms, to chemicals that may help cure certain forms of cancers (Potera 207). Therefore, the reefs must be protected from chemical and sewage runoffs, and other forms of destruction by humans. The coral reefs are certainly beautiful places to visit and explore, but even more importantly, they form part of the ocean's backbone, and many creatures depend on them for their survival.

Saving the reefs must begin now, so that future generations can reap the benefits of the reefs, and enjoy their elegant beauty.

References

Chepesiuk, Ron. "Stressed Reefs May Get Relief." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.9 (2000).

"Coral Reefs." The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. 2000.

Ekman, Sven. Zoogeography of the Sea. Trans. Palmer, Elizabeth. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1953.

Potera, Carol. "Is Sewage Destroying Coral?." Environmental Health Perspectives 111.4 (2003): 207.

Weber, Peter K. "Saving the Coral Reefs." The Futurist July-Aug. 1993: 28+.

Wolanski, Eric, et al. "Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs:…… [read more]


Activities Along Coastlines: Positive Vs.Negative Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Current Event in Physical Geography

The article by Cornelia Dean "The Aftermath: Costs of Shoring up Coastal Communities" discusses the issues of environmental conversation among populations living next to the sea. Many countries enjoy enormous continuous coastline as compared to others. A country such as Australia has its coastline stretching to about 60,000 kilometers including its islands. The focus also includes close to 10,000 separate beaches. In the world, two-thirds of people living in towns and cities built next to the prime areas take advantage of benefits related to the coastline. Coastal management arrangements include the application and protection of such vast areas like estuaries and other marine ecosystems (Dean (a) 4). The changing evolution of the coastline makes the areas have a natural influence from rainfall, ocean currents, wind, tidal movements, and waves.

The article presents that the coastal zone houses have extended potentially with respect to the use of commercial, settlement, and recreational engagements. The instrumentation holds more cultural and social values for non-Indigenous and Indigenous populations alike. However, in the recent past, human enjoyment and use of the coastline is greatly disrupting processes that translate the intricate ecosystems. The scope of human activities is reduced to the biodiversity of coastlines that help in the maintenance of health. Smaller organisms from the coastal ecosystems are narrowed down to the first link food chains (Dean (a), 3). The implication of population extinction or reduction has an inevitable reverberate across the entire chain. The significant techniques that humans are impacted upon the coastline are fundamental topics in coast management activities.

Critically, the construction of houses across swamps and lagoons, the use of wetlands as landfills, and the development of more sand dunes to establish 'prime' real estate for recreational purposes affect the coastline negatively. Removal of vegetation contributes significantly in the reduction of biodiversity and causing disruption of natural processes forming intricate coastal ecosystems. For example, beaches are established through ongoing erosion and deposition cycles for sand. Storms cause erosion for beaches and their sand that is later re-deposited through the larger waves. In case humans attempt the use of such areas for housing and recreation, the natural cycle faces interruption while sand banks face depletion. With time, this destroys most of the world's beautiful beaches. Although cliff-top housing esthetically pleases, homeowners are dangerous as they interfere with the natural processes (Dean (a) 3). However, their extraction needs quarrying of beaches to disrupt natural cycles forming sand banks while destroying many animals and plants habitats (Dean (b) 6). People also utilize coastlines for purposes of recreational and tourism.

In my opinion, for purposes of enhancing the navigational potential within the coastline, natural channels are deepened or widened through the removal of earth from bottom waterways through processes of dredging. The outcomes include destruction of bottom-dwelling habitats of benthic organisms living within sediments as removed. The stone breakwaters stretch far out into the sea while constructing regions around marinas and ports to lessen the impacts of tidal fluctuations and waves (Dean… [read more]


Unique Properties of Water Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (855 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Properties of Water

According to the definition provided by Merriam Webster, water is defined as being:

An odorless, tasteless, very slightly compressible liquid oxide of hydrogen H2O which appears bluish in thick layers, freezes as 0oC and boils at 100oC, has a maximum density at 4oC and a high specific heat, is feebly ionized to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, and is a poor conductor of electricity and a good solvent.

Water has several unique properties that make life possible on earth. First, water is the only natural substance that is found in all three states, liquid, solid and gas, at temperatures normally found on earth (Riley, 1). Second, water has an extremely high heat capacity. Third, water has the highest surface tension of any liquid found on earth with the exception of mercury. Each of these properties affects the functioning of living things.

Water is found in on earth in its liquid, solid and gaseous state. Water reaches a solid state at 0oC. In its solid state, water has a defined shape, taking on the shape of the container in which it was frozen. Water also has a crystalline internal structure and is less dense than its liquid counterpart, which is why ice floats on water (Riley, 2). As a liquid, water has no definite shape but takes on the shape of its container. Water is a liquid between the freezing and boiling point temperatures of 0oC and 100oC. At 100oC, the boiling point, water turns to gas. Like water, gas has no definite shape, but assumes the shape of its container.

This unique property of water molecules makes life on earth possible for several reasons. First, "all known biochemical processes occur in aqueous environments" (Riley 7). For example, photosynthesis requires water and energy from the sun to produce carbohydrates. Photosynthesis creates oxygen, which is necessary for survival. Secondly, the fact that water can exist in three separate states at once is important because heat is transferred through the evaporation and condensation of water. The redistribution of heat energy helps keep the earth cool enough to maintain life (Pidwirny 1). Life on earth is possible because of water's ability to exist in three different states simultaneously.

Water has an extremely high specific heat capacity. Heat capacity is defined as being "the amount of energy required to change the temperature of a substance" (Pidwirny 1). This property allows water to absorb enormous amounts of heat before it begins to grow warm and allows it to release heat gradually when it begins to cool. The high heat capacity of…… [read more]


Saltwater Intrusion and Salinization Research Paper

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Ecology

Saltwater Intrusion and Salinization

Approximately two thirds of the world's population lives within 400 km of an ocean shoreline. The majority of these coastal regions depend on groundwater as their main source of fresh water. As the world's population continues to increase, fresh water supplies are continually being depleted, which brings with it issues like saltwater intrusion. This increases the importance of groundwater monitoring, management, and conservation (Pump/Recharge Rate Affects Saltwater Intrusion, 2010).

Saltwater intrusion is the provoked flow of seawater into freshwater aquifers principally caused by groundwater development near the coast. Wherever groundwater is being pumped from aquifers that are in hydraulic connection with the sea, induced gradients are causing the migration of salt water from the sea toward a well, making freshwater wells not viable. Due to the reality that fresh water is less dense than salt water it floats on top. The border between salt water and fresh water is not distinct. The region of dispersion is found to be saline because of the mixing of salt water with fresh water. Under normal circumstances, fresh water moves from inland aquifers and recharge areas into coastal discharge areas. Generally, groundwater moves from areas with higher groundwater levels to areas with lower groundwater levels. This ordinary movement of fresh water towards the sea avers salt water from getting into freshwater coastal aquifers (Pump/Recharge Rate Affects Saltwater Intrusion, 2010).

Saltwater intrusion and salinization occurs when there is an enhancement of chloride ion concentrations in freshwater aquifers. This occurs mainly along coastlines, although there have been reports of salinization occurring inland. Saltwater intrusion has several causes, a number of which are natural and some which are a result of by human actions. Once saltwater intrusion has happened, it is almost impossible to turn around, which makes it a significant threat to freshwater resources. Mitigation strategies are put into place in order to slow or halt the rate that saltwater intrusion occurs (Ryan, 2008).

One of the natural reasons for saltwater intrusion comes from storm surges that are caused by hurricanes and other tropical storms. In these cases, tidal flushing is recognized to remove some of the established salinity in the freshwater marshes before substantial damage happens. In areas that are not close to tidal flushing along with areas where rainfall does not flush the salt water from the water table, there is substantial damage that occurs to the freshwater systems. Human made saltwater intrusion occurs in a number of different ways. One way is by dredging canals in coastal zones that allow saltwater to move even farther inland than it had been able to previously (Ryan, 2008).

One of the most remarkable forms of saltwater intrusion happens in coastal areas that are reliant upon groundwater for their potable water and irrigation needs. The most widespread situation involves the over pumping of the freshwater which reduces the chief difference at the saltwater-freshwater edge and…… [read more]


Western Interior Sea Kansas Research Paper

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¶ … Western Interior Sea is the name given to the seaway that split the North American continent in the cretaceous period near the end of the age of dinosaurs. Estimated to exist between 65 and 100 million years ago the seaway was relatively wide stretching as far west as Utah and as far east as the western Appalachians, south to the Gulf of Mexico and North into the northern most reaches of Canada. The Seaway serves as one of the most direct examples of the evolution of the earth's geology, as the majority of the region is now relatively arid and yet, the region was underwater for more than all of recorded history. (Everhart 2010) the Western Interior Seaway goes by several names, the Cretaceous Sea and the Kansas Seaway being the most common but all the names are referring to the large, shallow inland sea shown in the graphic below. The seaway is most known in the modern era for the rich fossil examples that are found throughout the region and represent a time shift when the last of the prehistoric dinosaurs existed and the first amphibians and birds began to appear. The rich Paleolithic history of the Western Interior Seaway, also known again as the Kansas Sea and the Cretaceous Sea, leaves a multitude of fantastic examples for modern science to better understand the development of life in the era. (Everhart 96)

The Western Interior Seaway was formed by both high sea levels and platonic movement that forced the central aspect of the continent up, a movement which created the Rocky Mountains. The seaway developed inland and was affected by storm rather than tide movement and was home to thousands of what seem today to be unearthly animal species, specially adapted to deal with the unique environment of the seaway with its limited oxygen supply, shallow levels and heavy silt coated bottom. (Baldridge 190-197) "The Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America has an abundant and well-studied record of fossil marine reptiles." (Nicholls & Meckert 1591) Nicholls and Meckert go on to say that the fossil record is so rich in the region that is thought to be the geological home of the seaway that fossil records elsewhere pale in comparison, with a single or just a few recorded finds of certain animal groups, as compared to the thousands recorded in the Western Interior Seaway region. (1591-1592)

It was a shallow sea with diverse marine life including predatory marine reptiles, such as mosasaurs growing up to 18 meters long, ichthyosaurs, and plesiosaurs. There were abundant sharks, such as Squalicorax, and advanced bony fish including Pachyrhizodus, Enchodus, and the huge 18-foot long Xiphactinus, a fish larger than any extant bony fish, and another monster, Ichthyodectes. Other sea life included invertebrates such as mollusks, ammonites, squid-like belemnites, and plankton including coccolithophores that secreted the chalky platelets that give the Cretaceous its name, foraminiferans and radiolarians. The sea was probably less than 600 feet deep in most areas, and… [read more]


Quote From Ludlow Research Proposal

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¶ … Psychometric Theory

"If it exists, it can be measured; if it can't be measured, it doesn't exist. "

-Ludlow, 1996

That expression of professor L.H. Ludlow is actually an idea suggested much earlier by Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) and to even earlier arguments, such as those of Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911), for whom a strong case could be made that he was the first psychometrician (Ludlow, 1998). According to Ludlow (1998), Galton specifically argued that being "subjected to measurement and numbers" is a fundamental prerequisite for qualifying any branch of knowledge as a form of science. In some respects, Galton's original formulation is more accurate than subsequent versions of the same basic suggestion as expressed by Thorndike and Ludlow.

The only neat way of reconciling Thorndike and Ludlow's stronger absolute statement with Galton's suggestion is to assume that the absolute position is meant to apply only to the distinction between phenomena that are capable of accurate analysis and those that exist, but defy analysis. With that assumption, the Thorndike/Ludlow position is both consistent with that of Galton and it represents phenomenological objective reality. However, without that assumption, it would seem that the Thorndike/Ludlow formulation is inaccurate and susceptible to disproof.

The principal difference between the broader Galton concept and the much narrower Thorndike/Ludlow position is that the former does not refute the existence of that which cannot necessarily be measured. It merely suggests that until phenomena can be confirmed through objective measurement, it cannot possibly be understood and its observation cannot be regarded as a science (Ludlow, 1998).

The literal interpretation of Thorndike and Ludlow's expression is that phenomena that defy measurement cannot exist. That conclusion is rather easily refuted at the macro level of ordinary matter by the existence of vast oceans and beaches bordering such large bodies of water. At the micro level, the Thorndike/Ludlow position is definitively disproved by various elements of quantum physics (Feynman, 1995; Hawking, 2002).

Consider the prospect of measuring the exact number of all of the water molecules in the Atlantic Ocean. Even at the simplest level where, for the sake of argument, one ignores the fact that water molecules on the surface of the ocean continually evaporate into the atmosphere as water molecules fall from the sky in storms elsewhere along thousands of miles of intercontinental distances, the precise measurement of the number of water molecules in the ocean defies calculation.

Even if one could focus on a precise instant in time, computing the exact number of the water molecules in the ocean would be impossible. That is a function of the irregularity of the shape of the…… [read more]


Remote Sensing Can Be Utilized Term Paper

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Radiometric sensitivity: This is the sensors ability to differentiate the reflectance or the remittance of the spectral radiation from various predetermined targets. This however depend s on the various quantum levels that exists within a certain spectral band.

Problems with remotely sensed information

The major problem with remotely sensed information is that the path that exists between the object under… [read more]


Turtles the Surprising Thing About Turtles Almost Essay

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Turtles

The Surprising Thing About Turtles

Almost everyone has seen a turtle, and not just on that also happens to be a pizza-eating Teenage Mutant Ninja. A lot of people keep small turtles as pets, both indoors inside terrariums or tanks and with some varieties outdoors in gardens and back yards. Larger turtles live in the zoo and, to a… [read more]


Saltwater Oceans Compare and Contrast to Freshwater Essay

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SALTWATER OCEANS COMPARE and CONTRAST

To FRESHWATER LAKES AND RIVERS

COMPARE AND CONTRAST

In some respects, oceans and inland freshwater lakes are very different; in other respects, they are not as different as they may appear superficially. Similarly, while biological organisms that populate the oceans do differ from those that populate freshwater lakes, in many ways they may also be more similar than dissimilar.

While oceans are considered to be a saltwater environment, so-called "freshwater" also contains substantial amounts of salt and other minerals. That is because ocean water is significantly more salty than freshwater, but only relative to one another. A simple taste test between freshwater (including filtered and treated municipal drinking water) and distilled water illustrates the point. In comparison to distilled water, even freshwater that has been chemically treated and filtered still has a very noticeable flavor attributable to salts and other minerals that survive the filtration and chemical treatment processes. Without a specific comparison to distilled water, even a glass of freshwater with a few grains of table salt sprinkled into it does not taste particularly salty either.

The presence of salts and other dissolved minerals in ordinary freshwater drinking water is also evidenced by the fact that tap water often leaves significant rust, lime, carbon, and other deposits on porcelain surfaces despite being treated and filtered freshwater. Therefore, the primary difference between ocean saltwater and freshwater is not that only the former necessarily contains any salt or minerals; their difference is much more one of degree than the presence or complete absence of salts and other dissolved minerals. Actually, both ocean saltwater and fresh lake water contain some of the identical types of salts and mineral compositions; their main difference is that ocean saltwater is…… [read more]


Trash Has Been a Part of Human Thesis

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¶ … Trash has been a part of human civilization since at least the Neanderthal began tossing excess foods, waste, and broken items into their caves. It is directly linked to human development, both socially and technologically. Historically, the compositions of wastes have varied, with the Industrial Revolution and subsequent innovation providing a huge spike in excess waste. As a nation, the United States generates more waste than any other country -- 4.5 pounds of solid waste per person/per day -- over 1/2 of which is residential garbage ("Zero Waste America, 2008). Unfortunately, some of this trash, the debris of modern living, often ends up in our waterways, making a path toward the ocean. Some is intentional or accidental discharge from ships; the rest comes into the oceans via rivers, wind, sewers, and anyone who utilizes the beaches (Janes, 2005). Because of the number and diversity of sources, and the way in which modern containers (plastic, etc.) not only travel long distances, but remain intact, marine debris is a serious global concern (National Academies Press, 2008). Because of the interconnectedness of the global environment, marine debris is not a national problem -- it is indiscriminate in its harm to marine wildlife, the degradation of ocean habitats, interference with navigation and water safety, fishing, coastal communities, human health and disease vectors, and the global economy (Ofiara, 2001, pp. 103-8; Williams, 1999).

There are certainly a variety of national laws and regulations designed to protect individual waterways and to limit the disposal of garbage in the oceans. However effective these may be country to country, though, there are no comprehensive, international programs designed to assess and limit marine debris, or to remove what waste is already in the system. The United Nations has a 1982 Convention on Law and Sea Treaty, which describes the rights and responsibilities of all nations, but offers no assurance of compliance.

Fortunately, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a federal agency that is tasked with the conditions of the world's oceans and atmosphere, understands that issues that effect the oceans are global in span and must be treated as global in diplomacy, policy, and education. NOAA has a Marine Debris Program that serves as a centralized information and action/development center with NOAA and several global agencies, including the United Nations. It is tasked with the coordination, strengthening, and education to the public and private sector regarding the effects of marine debris. In the last decade, NOAA-MDP has focused its efforts on the international community -- helping to identify, reduce, prevent, and where possible, clean up, marine debris pollution. While it is difficult to educate fishermen globally due to a variety of factors: language and cultural barriers, logistics, etc., there are several programs in place that could be adapted to any language and diverse culture in order to help fishermen, in particular, understand that their actions today will have a serious affect on their own economic future of tomorrow (Coe. 1996). Among some of the most successful… [read more]


Maritime Delimitation Essay

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Maritime Border Delimitation

Maritime boundaries have been debated, discussed and litigated for centuries. Despite this the majority of maritime boundaries are not delineated or set by any enforceable means as maritime boundaries lay in what is considered a no-man's land, within reason of coastal borders.

For the most part nations have assumed the right of the waters within a few… [read more]


Lapita Pottery Thesis

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Lapita Pottery

The native peoples called the Lapita who lived an estimated 3,000 years ago on the scattered islands of what is now the Kingdom of Tonga have left part of their cultural legacy available to be studied through their ceramics, according to the literature. This paper reviews some of the research that explores the Lapita craftsmanship through archaeological studies;… [read more]


Spreading of Red Sea Floor Over the Geological Time Term Paper

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Red Sea Spreading Seafloor

The spreading of the seafloor under the Red Sea offers researchers a chance to study several important areas of science and apply what is learned to a better understanding of earth, earth's history, and perhaps other planets in the Solar System such as Mars. This paper reviews and examines existing science related to the tectonic plates… [read more]


Bermuda Triangle Term Paper

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Bermuda Triangle - also sometimes called the "Devil's Triangle" - has been the topic of controversy for many years. The name "Bermuda Triangle" was given to this area - a roughly shaped imaginary triangle between Florida, San Juan (Puerto Rico) and the Bahamas - by writer Vincent H. Gaddis in 1964. Gaddis published an article in Argosy magazine claiming that… [read more]


Students Meningitis Shots Term Paper

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Glacial Melting

Though global acclimate change has been debated much over the last 20 years the debate seems to be coming to an end, with regard to the masses of evidence of its occurrence, at an extremely accelerated rate over the last 50 years. Global climate change in its current state is creating massive glacial melting, which can have devastating effects on the earth. Glacial melting, will eventually cause massive shifts in the composition and breadth of the ocean, which will likely cause shorelines in many low lying areas to disappear under a wake of differently composed sea water. There will likely be loss of biodiversity, as many island nations and shoreline areas are a center fro biodiversity and will be underwater. Additionally, the arctic regions also play host to diverse species that will no longer be able to find the space and food they need once the ocean temperatures rise and the ice disappears.

How much should we worry about global climate change and other forms of environmental degradation? Any lingering doubts about its occurrence, as well as humankind's influence, are quickly fading amid new reports of faster-than-expected glacial melting (Overpeck et al. 2006) and unprecedented rates of species loss, deforestation, desertification, and water shortages (Hughes et al. 2003; Jackson et al. 2001; Thomas et al. 2004). (Schwartz, Parker, Glass, and Hu 1807)

Glacial melting has been occurring for some time, at an accelerated rate, most believe as a result of human interventions on the earth, technology, encroachment, deforestation, burning of massive amounts of fuel which produce carbon emitting gases that have degraded the atmospheric protection of the earth.

Scientists suspect the enhanced melting is linked to human-influenced climate change. Air temperatures in the region have risen by more than 2 degrees Celsius in 50 years, one of the fastest warming rates in the world. But they also say topography, wind and precipitation patterns, and changing ocean conditions could play a role.

Mastny 9)

There are many causes that together make up the result of markedly higher temperatures, reaching the polar ice caps today. These trends are not showing signs of marked reversal, and many argue that anything people do today, in an attempt to reverse glacial melting may be simply, to little to late.

Scientists have released the most compelling evidence yet that certain glaciers in Antarctica are melting rapidly. In April, researchers with the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and the U.S. Geological Survey reported that 87% of 244 marine glaciers they surveyed on the Antarctic Peninsula have retreated markedly in the last 50 years

According to a collaborative group of scientists who have been studying glacial melting (over the last 50 years) for the last three or more years are convinced by the data that the numbers look not only bad but startling and that this rate of melting has never been seen on this earth. "Loss of all ice on the Antarctic Peninsula would raise oceans by an estimated 0.3 meters."

Mastny 9)

Other parts of… [read more]


Keeping California's Oceans Healthy for Future Generations of Scuba Divers Term Paper

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Scuba Diving in California's Oceans

Scuba diving is a recreational activity that is rapidly gaining popularity, as equipment has become more professional, easier to work with, and widely available to the public. People may choose to scuba dive for a number of different reasons. Some do so on a professional level, to investigated oceanographic matters, to investigate elements such as shipwrecks, or merely for recreational purposes, such as observing fish and plant species under water. Because an increasing number of people are scuba diving, the danger to the underwater environment is increasing. Some scuba divers may for example cause unintentional harm to the environment. Currently, environmentalism is gaining importance in the public mind. In society, we are much more aware of preserving our resources for future generations. Similarly, if future generations are to benefit from their scuba diving activities, it is vital that oceanic resources be protected today. This applies especially to popular locations of ocean resources such as California.

According to Todd, Cooper and Graefe (2000), scuba divers themselves are becoming increasingly aware of the environment and the importance of protecting it. This is especially the case as scuba divers become more experienced in their craft. The reason cited for this is that, as scuba divers increase their experience, they become more aware of the delicate balance within the environment in which they practice their craft. This brings about a respect for the environment and the need to protect it.

One strategy that can be used for the protection of future resources is then to target younger, learning scuba divers via the more experienced people. The less experienced can then learn about the need to respect oceanic resources, as well as specific strategies that can be used to minimize or eliminate damage to the environment via scuba diving.

Specifically, inexperienced scuba divers are often unaware of the damage they cause to their environment, because this damage is not immediately visible. According to Todd, Cooper and Graefe, for example, the problem is often one of unawareness rather than willful or careless actions. Less skilled divers are for example unable to control buoyancy under the surface. The silt stirred up in this way kills many micro-organisms in the ocean, which upsets the ecological balance in the specific location. More experience with scuba diving, or simply an awareness of the problem, can mitigate the effect of this.

Additionally, the problem relating to California, and to other ocean-side areas, is that oceanic pollution is not only caused by scuba divers. Indeed, plastic products in water and the chemicals released into the water from these is one of the major causes of environmental problems around Californian coast lines. Chemicals from these plastics cause millions of fish deaths, and have also been responsible for eliminating many plant and fish species in the area (Environment California, 2006). Scuba divers can be made further aware of the need to protect the environment by becoming part of cleanup efforts where spillages or pollution occur. The main issue is… [read more]


Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy Term Paper

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Ocean and Coastal Literacy

Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Office of Education and Sustainable Development (OESD) have benefited from this research;

Those agencies are in the process of identifying both the threats to our ocean resources and habitat, and to determine how much citizens are aware of these threats.

The report used for this outline was prepared by the Commission on Ocean Policy (COP), in order to aid NOAA and OESD in their policy planning.

The coastal areas of the U.S. are growing rapidly; this report indicates that 19 million homes and some 37 million people have been added to coastal areas in the last 30 years.

There is an "Ecosystems Mission Goal" presented by the COP and that is that healthy and productive coastal area, with thriving marine ecosystems, benefits society; plus, a well-informed public can help keep the ecosystems and coastal environments safe from pollution and other disturbances.

The problem is, mainly, that the public is uninformed about many ocean issues.

The BODY a) 84% of Americans say they believe "strongly" that oceans need to be protected one: about 82% of Americans believe "future generations" will depend on oceans one: another survey shows 65% of Californians believe a "balanced use" of oceans is a good policy (balanced meaning some exploitation by oil companies / industry);

two: the main benefit that 41% of Americans see in ocean protection is that it helps maintain habitat for sea life.

A three: a 1999 Ocean Project study indicates that 80% of the public sees oceans as "Powerful"; 71% see oceans as "Vast"; 64% see oceans as "Relaxing"; and 59% see oceans as "Fun." four: since oceans produce 70% of our oxygen, surveyed individuals believe that protecting the ocean is in fact also protecting humans and human families; the circle of life is accepted as a natural fact by people, and hence, when one part of life is hurt or damaged in any way, it affects the whole chain of life five: too much coastal development, pollution from industry and harmful fishing practices are all damaging not only to the ocean, but to our way of life, those surveyed believed.

A b) How does the public perceive the environmental condition of the oceans?

A one: 80% in a poll say they disagree that the oceans are "so large" humans can't hurt them by pollution; 72% say ocean's can't "simply clean themselves"; 58% believe that polluting the ocean in one area actually affects the entire ocean, but 34% think polluting in one place is only affecting that specific area of pollution.

A two: about 44% of Americans think the condition of the ocean is "only fair" while 27% believe the oceans are in "good-to-excellent" condition; and although 32% of people in a NY Times poll said "pollution" is their "top" environmental…… [read more]


Inhabitants of N. America Term Paper

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¶ … Inhabitants of N. America

The First Inhabitants of North America

For the last 50 years schools have taught that the first people in America were Asians who came from Siberia across the Bering Straits. Because the ice melted, they were able to walk across a "land bridge" into Alaska, and gradually they migrated south. According to this theory, they were the ancestors of the Clovis people. In "The North Atlantic Ice-edge Corridor: A Possible Palaeolithic Route to the New World," Bradley and Stanford (2004) say no, it couldn't have happened that way. They argue there is no archaeological evidence Asians or any other people crossed the Beringia land bridge or that they passed down through Canada on their way southward. They claim there is really no connection between Asians and the Clovis culture and that there are no pre-12,000-year-old sites in Beringia with technology that resembles Clovis.

The authors point out that Clovis tool makers practiced biface thinning, a difficult and sophisticated process not present in Asian tool kits. Clovis blade production resulted in large wedge-shaped cores with a single acute-angle platform, produced on a single face with a flat back. Clovis flint knappers also sometimes heated raw material to improve its flaking ability. In the opinion of the authors, this technology developed over a long period of time and was passed down to the Clovis people by a pre-Clovis culture. These technologies are unrelated to the Asian microblades and wedge-shaped microblade cores found at Alaskan sites. Beringian blade makers used inset technologies not found in Clovis sites; moreover, they are from the same period as Clovis, not earlier. Whatever similarities there might be would be attributable to contact with Clovis people. Moreover, after deglaciation the Beringia land was barren; thus, it was unsuitable for human habitation or migration.

Bradley and Stanford argue that the first people in America came from Europe using watercraft. They reason that early humans in the South Pacific traveled on the water -- why not Europeans -- and it is logical that the spread of human beings around the world has to involve water routes. They argue that there are significant similarities (overwhelming, in fact) between Clovis technologies and Upper Paleolithic Solutrean technologies found in southwestern Europe. They point out that Solutrean is more than 6000 years older than Clovis and its technology is very similar to Clovis, including details of typology and manufacturing. Salutrean sites are found in Europe and date from 22,000 to 16,500 BP during the Last Glacial Maximum. The similarities of technology point to Solutrean culture evolving into Clovis. The two share pre-core shaping, core face set-up, and blade detachment techniques. Solutrean blade technology is more like Clovis than any other European blade core technology. Both cultures used exotic raw materials to manufacture bifaces, such as quartz, jasper, chalcedony and agate. Both cultures cached large bifaces made from exotic materials.

Solutrean people lived where colder weather and shorter growing seasons may have reduced the…… [read more]


Natural Disaster Tsunami Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 7

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Natural Disaster

Tsunami

There are a number of tsunami occurrences that has been recorded around the world. Each time a tsunami occurs, a great wave of devastation and destruction is found in the affected areas.

Below is the listing of the highly noted and most damaging tsunami that has occurred around the world. It should be noted that the latest… [read more]


Sailing Destinations Web Content

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Sailing Destinations

Vounaki, Greece

Vounaki is located on the west coast of Greece, at the foot of the Arkanika Mountains. The Vounaki marina is said to be a relaxed, beautiful and restful small port venue, made even more dramatic because the Arkanika Mountains are a visually stimulating backdrop to the marina.

It is worth noting that Vounaki is not much… [read more]


Coasts Are the Dynamic Junction Term Paper

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In most places where they exist, these features are increasingly being lost to human development. (ENS, 2004)

The natural process of coastline involves a complex dynamics of many different forces of nature working collectively to create any coastline. What is eroded from one area is generally deposited in another. Longshore currents for example are primarily responsible for moving large volumes of sand that help build barrier reefs and erode them as well. Rip tides or undertows can also significantly change the continental shelf of the coastline. Excessive erosion can result in a steep continental shelf in the region. The different types of tides (high tide and low tide) also determine the extent of the coastline formation that takes place. Where the water temperature differs significantly between summer and winter the intensity of the wave action might also change based on seasons. Storms and hurricane can also create surges that are abnormally high and the intensity of these tides can cause concentrated damages to coastlines in the area. (Wernicke, 2004)

Seasonal changes that depend upon melting snow and glacial activity along coastlines that are in frigid locations can change the salinity of the seawater and change wave activity and currents in the region. This can introduce seasonal changes in the manner in which either erosion or deposition occurs in the region. The picture in the appendix shows that the coastline of the U.S. has changed significantly over the years. While some changes are observed in a short period of time (the break up of the barrier reef during the hurricane), some take thousands of years to occur. (Richmond, 2004)

Tectonic movements and the changes in the sea floor, along with undersea volcanoes can create waves and currents that can cause damages. The slope of the coastline can also impact the extent of damages that can result. Steeply sloping coastlines are less resistance to water-level rise and wave action. Gradual sloping coastlines have the ability to absorb shocks and wave action much better than steeply sloping coastlines.

The building of seawalls, groins or jetties and dredging of the coastlines to support human activity is aggressively changing coastlines much faster than any of the natural methods. Mapping and documenting the coastline is essential (FEMA, 2004)These manmade barriers have the ability to save properties and business from damages by wave action but they can also cause extensive damages on the seaward side of the barriers built. Sand dunes have been level to improve beaches and waterfront properties this has reduce the barriers that wind and surf have available when moving inland.

It is a fact that coastlines will continue to change and evolve is fact. Ensuring that man-made influence does not negatively impact it is important.

Bibliography

http://www.minesandcommunities.org/Action/press359.htmENS. (2004). Europe's Coastlines Eroding Into the Sea. Environmental News Service. Retrieved December 5, 2004, from the World Wide Web:

FEMA. (2004). Significant Losses From Coastal Erosion Anticipated Along U.S. Coastlines. Retrieved December 5, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.fema.gov/nwz00/erosion.shtm

Richmond, Bruce. (2004). Effects of Major… [read more]


Endangered Coral Reef Ecosystem Term Paper

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SAMPLE TEXT:

Unfortunately coral disease is just one of many facets affecting coral reefs.

Humans are affecting reefs far more rapidly than natural diseases. Some reefs are destroyed due to costal development. Others are overfished, removing one of the vital links in the ecosystem, and so, with the fish gone, the coral reefs change, die, and return to the sea. This is because the fish graze on the algae, keeping it under control. When these grazing fish are removed by too much fishing, the algae can grow out of control and take over the reef itself (Agardy). One of the biggest threats to the coral reefs is runoff of fertilizers and chemicals from homes and businesses into the oceans of the world. These release an overabundance of chemicals into the water, which can ruin coral reefs. Agardy notes, "The overabundance of nutrients causes algae to overgrow and smother coral polyps; in extreme cases, leading to totally altered and biologically impoverished alternate ecosystems" (Agardy). Thus, coral reefs are delicate ecosystems that function quite well when left on their own, but can break down completely when items are added to or removed from the balance nature created.

In conclusion, while there are still healthy and vital coral reef ecosystems around the world, they are disappearing at a rapid rate. One expert notes, "Two-thirds of the world's coral reefs may be dying and, if current conditions continue, 70% of them may be gone by 2050, according to statistics released by the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force" (Chepesiuk). Thus, these ecosystems have survived and thrived for thousands of years, but if something is not done soon, so many reefs may disappear that the coral reef may simply be a memory for most people.

References

Agardy, Tundi. "America's Coral Reefs: Awash with Problems; Government Must Acknowledge the Magnitude of the Crisis and Fully Engage the Scientific and Conservation Communities in Efforts to Solve It." Issues in Science and Technology Wntr 2004: 35+.

Chepesiuk, Ron. "Stressed Reefs May Get Relief." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.9 (2000).

Ekman, Sven. Zoogeography…… [read more]


What Impact Has European Colonialism Had on the Culture of Torres Strait Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

European Colonialism & Torres Strait

European Colonialism and the Peoples of Torres Strait

The impact that European colonialism has had on indigenous cultures in the Torres Strait region is momentous; and, fortunately for those interested in factual history, it has been well documented. This paper will review important materials that have been published regarding the effect - much of it… [read more]


Sea Floor Hydrothermal Vents and the Sea Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,042 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Hydrothermal Vents

Life in the ocean is hard enough. Yet, life a mile down is even harder. Hydrothermal vents are open fishers that stream hot water, minerals, and nutrients from the earth's core. These open cracks on the bottom of the ocean provide an oasis deep beneath the surface of the ocean. Bacteria feed on the minerals, and then serve… [read more]


Living Under the Sea Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (601 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … ocean as a hostile environment -- a place that is determined to put an end to human life and where it would be impossible for someone to feel 'at home'. However, living far from land for tens of years provided me with the opportunity to 'understand' the ocean and it practically feels that I speak with it as I dive into the water. All my senses are numbed as I enter the blue salty environment and I almost feel that I become one with the world as a whole. It would be difficult for me to describe the exact feelings going through my body as I am underwater, but all that I can think about there is the fact that this unforgiving environment provided me with the opportunity to interact with it, smoothly massaged my body as I dived, and made it possible for me to understand that I needed to respect it in order to be respected.

Being underwater provides me with a colorful show of light, as if the ocean wants to teach me more about its past, its present, and its future. I am but a mere episode in this never-ending film and the outside world seems to stop for a second when I am submersed. I am virtually transported to a whole new society, a community that is just as civic as the one standing on dry land but that is much more concerned about the natural world.

Sound is also from a very different dimension underwater. I no longer focus on my breathing or on my heartbeats as I am provided with the opportunity to hear what I consider to be a loud form of silence. Everything moves slowly and rapidly at the same time here. Conventional laws are no longer of any…… [read more]


Sea Around Us Rachel Carson Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

It has also inspired people to take steps to further the protection of these spaces. One such group, the Sea around Us Project, has embarked on a massive investigation into the fishing industry and how fisheries impact marine life and the ecosystems which are disrupted by human intervention (Pauly 1). This research has led to quantified data which shows how the fishing industry negatively impacts marine ecosystems, particularly for mammals who survive by feeding on the fish which are being harvested for human consumption. The project's founders state that they began investigating marine biology and the potential danger to the marine ecosystem because of the writing and publication of Rachel Carson's book. The lasting effects of Carson's book have shown exactly how important a text it was.

Among the other critics who have cited Rachel Carson as an inspiration for their own research is Philip Cafaro, who founded a principle of what he called "environmental ethics" based on Carson's text and The Sea around Us in particular. Part of her text involves the mysteries of the deep and how people have negatively affected the natural world. Cafaro and others have picked up on this aspect of her text and used it to begin some further investigations into how much of her research is valid and how those results have changed since the publication of the book. Before Carson's text was published, few people considered the potential ramifications of the harvesting and over fishing of certain areas or certain species. After its publication, everyone involved in any industry which impacted the natural world had to rethink their actions and to reevaluate whether or not they were behaving ethically. Not that the question of ethics stopped everyone.

In recent years, there has been something of a backlash against Rachel Carson, not so much because of The Sea around Us but for some of her more vehement protests against chemicals like DDT which has led to illness and death in some third-world countries. However, with this backlash has also come a reinvesting of interest in The Sea around Us. Although some of Carson's books have been the subject of hindsight criticism, this one text still functions as an history of the sea and a chronology of the technologies that have gone into the investigation of the sea.

Works Cited:

Cafaro, Philip. "Thoreau, Leopold, and Carson: Toward an Environmental Virtue Ethics." 22.

2001. 3-17. Print.

Carson, Rachel. The Sea Around Us. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 1991. Print.

Pauly, Daniel. "The Sea Around Us Project: Documenting and Communicating Global Fisheries

Impacts on Marine Ecosystems." AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 36:4. 2007. 290-297. Print.

Robertson-Lorant, Laurie. "Revisiting Rachel Carson's The Sea around Us." South Coast Today.

Dow Jones. 2010. Print.

"Water Encyclopedia." Carson,…… [read more]


Blue Whale Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

The whales suck in big gulps of ocean water, and the tiny shrimp and plankton (microscopic sea animals) are filtered out, and the whale swallows them. Blue whales can eat anywhere from 2,000 to 9,000 pounds of food a day! But they don't eat all the time. They only eat in the summertime after they have migrated to the cold waters of the Arctic or Antarctic.

Blue Whales are important and beautiful animals, who are endangered, but we can all help these whales to make sure they don't disappear.

The Blue Whale Needs Your Help!

How Can You Help?

You can help the Blue Whale survive. Because too many of the whales were being killed by whaling ships, in 1966 the International Whaling Commission (IWC) stopped any hunting of blue whales and gave them worldwide protection. Some people think there are only about 5,000 of them living in the oceans today, while others think there may be as many as 14,000.

Blue Whales are protected, but some people still hunt them illegally. Japan and Norway still hunt whales. You can tell these countries you will not buy their products as long as they hunt whales. Whales also can get tangled in fishing nets, and are can also die from pollution in the water.

There are many things you can do to help the Blue Whale survive. You can tell the International Whaling Commission that you want illegal whaling to stop. The Cetacean Society International at http://csiwhalesalive.org/is a society that works to save the whales. They study how whales are dying, and try to find ways to help them.

Volume 1 Issue

Plan for Preservation

There are many different organizations who are concerned about whales, porpoises,… [read more]


Political / Environmental Economics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

We have a groundfishing industry, and shellfish, lobster

QUESTION: And you won't have to sell out to developers?

ANSWER: Gloucester has a 380-year history of being closely joined at the hip to the sea. And I don't see that tradition being interrupted.

QUESTION: I take it the delay on Amendment 13 was due to the flawed methodology used in surveying… [read more]


Flags of Convenience Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

The oil spill was so dramatic that it immediately began to destroy and paralyze fishing in the local area while Portugal waited to find out how badly their immediate eco system was going to be affected by the spill.

The spill blacked out almost 300 kilometers of Spanish coastline. It was filled with dying sea birds and washed up fish… [read more]


Devil's Triangle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Croix. Rivers was an experienced pilot and had completed the trip many times before. However, after checking in, he soon loses sight of where he is scheduled to land. Suddenly, the plane disappears from the tower radar, never to be seen again. Another disappearance happened in October of 1980. The cargo ship known as the S.S. Poet never checked in for its scheduled time. The entire ship along with all 11,000 tons of cargo, thirty-four crewmembers, and all contents including lifeboats, life rings, completely disappeared. While many people explained that the disappearance was the result of a "freak storm," this theory soon failed since other ships had remained undisturbed (Quasar 2003). The age of technology had again failed. No trace of the ship could be found within the satellite messages, emergency calls or skip static that had occurred that day.

The terror of the Hoodoo Sea continued as it claimed Enrique Esme's plan as he flew off Nassau on May 12, 1999. He never returned to the area. All that was found of his plane was a few pieces of debris and Esm'e life jackets. On October 27, 2000, Hubert Helligar flew a small single-engine plane. Technology was apparent on his plane and included state-of -- the art equipment for the 21st century. Everything checked out normal for his flight, but after take-off, he disappeared leaving no clue.

The Statesman (2003) reports that the American Coast Guard "received numerous distress calls and had as many as thirty disappearances of aircraft and double the number of boats with over 8,000 people gone and not accounted for. The Carnival Cruiselines Ship known as Destiny recently experienced downed phones and electromagnetic disturbances, but the blame was placed upon technical problems that had only been corrected just a few months before the voyage crossing The Devil's Triangle.

Kusche (1995) presents an explanation that the Triangle is a manufactured mystery and manufactured by writers and storytellers. The Devil's Triangle lies in an area where a "magnetic compass indicates the true north instead of pointing toward the magnetic north. While the amount of magnetic variation changes slightly, an experienced sailor or navigator should accommodate for this or experience extreme trouble. Other theories involve that the boats crossing The Bermuda Triangle are simply too small for the treacherous waters and find disaster in the rough currents. Dr. Ben Clennell offers the explanation of people simply being in the wrong place at the wrong time only to find themselves part of an underwater landslide that releases Methane hydrate. This physical force would cause any ship to easily sink by simply reducing the water density. Of course, other suggestions for the disappearances include aliens, UFO's, the presence of a strong underwater magnet and even the possibilities of earthquakes. Reasons are offered for poor sailing, inadequate knowledge of piloting, and not checking weather conditions before beginning a trip. Whatever theory is given, the disappearances still go unexplained.

Some critics proclaim that writers created the mystery of The Triangle in order… [read more]


Managing Fisheries and How Perceptions Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Safina relates how salmon are first born in the rivers which are freshwater bodies but then some months or maybe years the salmon head toward the ocean traveling in some cases thousands of miles before they reach their destination. What once was a strength for the salmon, breeding in freshwater, is now a threat to them, because there is little in the way of food in the freshwater bodies due to the activities of human kind in expansion and industries.

IV. More than Two Sides to the Story

The statement that there are always two sides to every story does not encompass the many views and perspectives of those involved and affected by the activities of the fishing industries. While certainly conservationists and fisheries are at odds, Safina relates an example of other opposing views relating the Montauk Captains and Boatmen's association president, Joe McBride who has time and again requested the reduction in the number of young bluefin tuna that the Fisheries Services allows each boat to kill per day. However, in this case, McBride is not actually a conservationist but instead, he owns a fishing charter boat and he simply wants the fishing season to last until the migration of the fish for winter but since the limitation has not been put in place, the quota for the season is reached at the height of the season and then the fishing season abruptly ends as does his fishing charter income.

Summary and Conclusion

This example clearly demonstrates that the views and perspectives on the oceans and the life they support are varied and diverse however, there is one undeniable thing that all views and perspectives have in common whether they acknowledge it as such or whether they fail to acknowledge the fact that without the oceans and the life supported by the living oceans, the human race would soon perish as well. That one fact alone should be the common thread that binds all individuals, activities, industries and livelihoods into a common cause and that being doing the least ecological and environmental damage to the world's oceans possible. It is this precise message that Safina so eloquently and passionately relates in his work on the world's oceans. The truth is that there are signs that it may already be too late for many of the ocean's species of fish and marine animals.

Bibliography

Safina, C. (nd) Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas, Henry Holt and Company.

Norse, EA (nd) Review of the book "Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's

Coasts and Beneath the Seas,' by Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://mcbi.marine-conservation.org/publications/pub_pdfs/Norse_NaturalHistory_1998.pdf

"Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas" (nd) Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://carlsafina.org/publications/books/song-for-the-blue-ocean/… [read more]


Outlaw Sea: The Lawless Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

According to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) "Piracy and armed robbery attacks against ships rose 14% in the first nine months of the year compared to the same period in 2006, the second consecutive quarterly increase in attacks, as the coastal waters off Nigeria and Somalia became ever more dangerous" (Piracy attacks rise 14% as Nigerian and Somalian coasts become more dangerous, 2007, ICC). However, there have been some success stories such as the Strait of Malacca: "while piracy in Africa has become a major international security concern, the problem in the strait has been almost completely eradicated" (Schuman 2009). The reasons for this success may provide instructive for future endeavors: cooperation was a key element of the defense against piracy. Singapore, Malaysia Indonesia, and Thailand collectively pooled resources to undertake coordinated sea patrols and share information to better police the Strait. Later, policing by air was better enforced. Finally (which was not specifically due to the governments' efforts) the Indonesian territory of Aceh where many of the pirates had come reached an accord, giving pirates the possibility of seeking legitimate economic opportunities" (Schuman 2009). Less fertile conditions for piracy and better chances for other forms of employment resulted in the Strait of Malacca becoming almost free of piratical attacks, despite its status as a previous hotbed.

Thus, the eradication of piracy is not an impossibility. However, nations must be willing to coordinate and share information to work together. There must be a mutual acknowledgement of a common interest in maritime safety and the protection of ships that pass through international waters: all legitimate forms of commerce will suffer if there is a risk of pirates attacking crews and preventing economic activity. International and legal regulations are not enough to alone create a disincentive for desperate people and criminal organizations to engage in piracy.

References

Barise, H. (2005). Somalia: Where pirates roam free. BBC. Retrieved:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4424264.stm

Langewiesche, William. (2004). The outlaw sea. New York: North Point Press.

Piracy attacks rise 14% as Nigerian and Somalian coasts become more dangerous. (2007). ICC.

Retrieved from: http://www.icc-ccs.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=362:piracy-doubles-in-first-six-months-of-2009&catid=60:news&Itemid=51

The roots of piracy in Southeast Asia. (2007). APSNet Policy Forum. Retrieved from:

http://nautilus.org/apsnet/the-roots-of-piracy-in-southeast-asia/

Schuman, M. (2009). How to defeat pirates: Success in the strait Time. Retrieved from:

http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1893032,00.html… [read more]


Gap in China Melting ICE Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … China, Melting Ice

Proper regulations are compulsory in management/leadership to address life-threatening situations for all to benefit.

Increasing global temperatures are causing Antarctic ice sheet to melt rapidly.

As a global disaster, relevant regulations will limit release of carbon dioxide and other green house gases.

China's rapid growing economy caused the gap between the poor and the rich to increase.

Proper leadership will address human basic needs creating equality, hence increasing domestic demand.

Gap in China, Melting Ice

According to Eilperin Juliet's article "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly," dated March 3, 2006, global warming has considerably increased temperatures over the world at alarming rates, and causing ice to melt from the Antarctic faster and this would not change in the near future. In addition, new publication ascertains these claims and that for unfortunate continents like Africa; they might be losing a significant number of her water sources.

Due to the increasing global temperatures, data obtained by NASA in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), ascertains that the sea levels are rising by 0.4 millimeters annually and since the Antarctic considerably holds approximately 90% of the ice water in the world, its melting can cause as much as 20 feet rise in sea levels. These happenings according to Velicogna as narrated in Eilperin "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly" article are indications that people should get concerned about global warming.

However, there are contradictions on whether the ice is shrinking or forming in Antarctic. This has resulted from a later study that predicted its increase but due to the increasing temperatures, it is certain the Antarctic ice sheet is melting as computer models predict despite the Antarctic researches turning out to be puzzles as Taylor reported in Eilperin's "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly" article.

Because water remains a basic commodity for survival, its amount fluctuations, in either extremes can prove to be devastating. For countries like in Africa, drying of essential water sources means death to human, animal and plant life rendering the continent uninhabitable. For the people who live at sea level locations, not necessarily…… [read more]


Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (469 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas is a book written by Richard Harold Martin. In this book, he explains in detail about the formation of the Guadalupe River and the Delta basin in Texas. The author describes the formation of the basin and traces it back to the Pleistocene period. He explains that the delta was formed as a result of the interglacial stage of the high seas during the Pleistocene period. When the sea levels fell during the later stages, a substantial amount of erosion took place that resulted in the young delta of the Guadalupe river.

After tracing the history of the delta, he goes on to describe the environment. "The delta plain of the Guadalupe river consists of four distinct environments: distributary channel, natural leevee, marsh and lake." (Richard Martin, p.2). These different environments are identifiable through aerial photographs. There other smaller environment as well that is not very identifiable and so it was not taken into account by the author.

The main reason for the formation of different environments and the classification of a delta is based on the depth of water that is deposited there. Based on this factor and the research of others, the author has identified this delta as a lobate delta. This delta is curved or shaped like a bow and its outer margin is facing the sea. This delta has given rise to…… [read more]


Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas Summary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas

Summary of "The Recent Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas"

This study comprehensively describes the processes and features of the delta formed by silt depositions from the Guadalupe and San Antonio rivers as they empty into the Gulf of Mexico. After descriptions of these rivers and delta are presented, the topics of the initiation of delta growth, the seven distinct delta plain environments (distributor-channel, natural-levee, marsh, lake, interdistributary-bay, delta-front, and prodelta) are presented and distinguished from one another. This is followed by analysis of the delta's subdivisions, or sub-deltas, based upon age and macrofauna differences. Next, the sedimentary facies in each of the above seven listed environments are differentiated by location and composition. Finally, the four identified regional sub-deltas (Guadalupe River-Big Bayou, Sommerville Bayou-Plank Bridge Bayou, North Guadalupe River-South Guadalupe River, and Traylor Cut) are described and geologically examined.

Lastly, the paper briefly covers the issues of climatic influence, development of bayous, erosion preservation and the abandoned beach-ridge plan, before a final discussion of the four distinct depositional environments located at the beach-ridge, tidal-mud-flat, marsh and lake sites.

Summary of delta geology and creation

To understand the Texas coastal plain's configuration and geology, one must understand that the lower Guadalupe River/San Antonio Bay region were carved out by the ebb and flow of continental glaciers (Pleistocene-age: 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago). In the course of geological time, the sea level fell as these glaciers advanced and rivers dropped to a lower base level and left shoreline father away. Across the face of the land, two rivers formed steep, narrow valleys out of these broad floodplains, and flowed steadily out onto the continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico. When the sea level rose during the melting retreat of the glaciers, these late Pleistocene canyons filled with Gulf waters, forming extensive bay regions. The eventual rise in sea level over the last 10,000 years yielded the present-day sea level between 2,000 and 3,000 years ago.

The rivers once again adjusted their levels and carved new bends and channels within the old valleys. Over time, both rivers deposited material into the bays that made new floodplains and deltas, filling the bays with sediment. The modern configuration of San Antonio Bay represents the intermediate stage of this sedimentary process. The growing or "prograding" delta…… [read more]


Fourth Uncle in the Mountain Last Chapter Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,161 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Fourth Uncle in the Mountain

Last Chapter of Fourth Uncle in the Mountain

After Tam left, we waited in the house for two weeks. Thanh had disappeared, which worried everyone. I thought maybe Tam was right to leave. This was craziness.

One night, the eight-year-old boy fell down into the water. We fished him out, but something in the rank liquid infected a sore he had. The infection spread quickly and the boy could hardly breathe after three days. There was a yellow gel oozing out his leg where the cut was. No one was willing to cut him. I tried acupressure on his back to relieve the boy's pain. He died in agony two days later. There were no spells for the dead in my medicine books, so I used one that Fourth Uncle had taught me in the cave. His funeral was undignified. There was no one to pray for the boy once we'd pushed his body off the planks back into the murky depths.

Tam came back before Thanh did. We were surprised to see him. He said that he had narrowly escaped arrest trying to cross back into Vietnam. I was sick when he gave me the little package I'd prepared for Mai. She would be worried where I was. I took the note out of the plastic bag and ripped it up. The shreds of paper followed the boy's bones down into the ripples. Tam grabbed me on the forearm and said not to lose hope. He would try again. I felt like he had betrayed me, but I didn't lose hope for seeing Mai again. I smiled at him. The free country, where I would practice the way of my father, lay before us. To turn back was impossible.

Thanh rowed the boat under the house. We held candles out for him that night as he and the fleeing communist official secured the motor. Thanh didn't know if it would work, but it was the only engine he could find. We waited one more day. One of the neighbors found the boy's body washed up on the bank. Through the slats in the house, we could hear her talk to a Cambodian official. We understood only her finger pointing past the house.

That night we all ate as much rice as we could and took water bottles for the journey. Then we rowed out of the delta and into the ocean by moonlight. We were all lying on the floorboards, covered in plastic with the fishing nets thrown over it.

The boat made it past the checkpoint because the patrolling guards were drunk. Thanh paid them with two gold rings so that we could pass. Out in the open ocean, we could get out from under the tarp and nets. Thanh turned the motor on and we made progress toward Thailand.

My feet shivered as I thought about Mai and my father. I was leaving everything behind. It seemed like I had nothing to… [read more]


Ocean Basins Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Ocean Basins

The oldest oceanic crust in the three oceanic plates -- Atlantic, Pacific and Indian -- can be approximated at 200 million years. This is rather intriguing especially in a context in which the land crust is approximated to being as old as 4 billion years (Patchett and Samson, 2003). Based on the disposition in the map, and the adherent coloring, the oldest oceanic crust seems to be belonging to the Pacific Ocean.

San Francisco, California, is located on the western part of the North American continent, bordering the Pacific Ocean along the West Coast. The age of the oceanic crust at this location is a relatively young one, and it can be estimated to be somewhere between one and 30 million years. This youth could be explained by the changes which have impacted the region throughout the recent millennia.

The Pacific Ocean lies between the American continent, on the one hand, and the Australian and Philippine plates on the other hand. The oceanic crust ages from America towards Australia, meaning otherwise that the crust is youngest near the American coastline. It grows older as the ocean spreads, to reach its highest age at its border with the Philippine plate. It can be estimated that this crust is of approximately 180 million years.

4) as it has been previously mentioned, the Pacific oceanic crust is youngest at its border with the American continent, but also towards the south of the American continent, reaching the south of the Australian Plate. Specifically, the crust of the Pacific Ocean is youngest at its border with the Juan de Fuca Plate, and this youth spreads out along the American coastline, at the borders with the Cocos Plate, the Nazca Plate, the Antarctic Plate and ultimately, the Australian Plate.

5) as it was mentioned throughout the previous paragraphs, the oceanic crust of the Pacific Ocean is oldest at its border with the Philippine Plate and that with the Australian Plate. It is as such youngest at its border with the American coastline.…… [read more]


Report of EWB Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Earth's water is contained in the world's oceans, where the salinity and other chemical factors make the water unsuitable for drinking and in other infrastructure applications. The lack of available potable water has created a water crisis that is felt unevenly by different populations, but truly exists across the globe, with large multitudes of people in areas that lack adequate access to clean drinking water and that do not have the wealth necessary to import this vital resource. In this challenge from Engineers without Borders we are trying to solve the problem of pure drinking water shortage faced by the Kooma people, who reside in New South Wales on the eastern coast of Australia. As group we decided to design a solar still to purify the impure water and make it drinkable.

We came up with number of concepts but in the end after a thorough process of discussions and taking into account the various factors we ended up with two designs. Both of these designs were quite simple, and after continuing deliberation we chose the design that appeared to be the most efficient in its operation. The final design is made of a basin which is made from corrugated iron. This basin contains a number of tilted trays that are specifically arranged to allow for the operation of the still. This whole basin is insulated with a black coating that serves the purpose of trapping the passively collected solar heat inside the basin and thus heating the water, evaporating the water which allows it to move up through the trays were impurities are deposited. At the top of the basin a glass has been specifically and carefully positioned that serves both to keep the basin insulated and trap the heat inside the tray area, while also allowing the water vapors that reach this glass to cool and condense. The condensed water droplets are then collected in a tank that catches the runoff form the glass.

Before commencing with the final design of the solar still described above, our group did a lot of research regarding the living conditions of the kooma people and their needs regarding water sanitation for drinking, cooking, and other purposes. This research led our group to settle on the design described above primarily because this design that we came up with is easy to maintain, cheap and is easy to transport. This design is also very versatile and due to its tilted design it can mounted on top of roof of any building without creating unnecessary strain on the roof structure or placing the unit in danger of…… [read more]


Maritime Piracy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,753 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

High Seas Piracy: Terrorists, Organized

Crime, And Crimes Of Opportunity

Background and History of Maritime Piracy:

High seas piracy had a long and storied history throughout the late Middle Ages

and well into the 19th century before nation states began fielding large and powerful enough navies to eliminate the problem. Despite the fact that maritime piracy in the modern era… [read more]

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