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Survival Strategies: Benthic vs. Pelagic

Although both plankton and nekton inhabit the mesopelagic zone, the defense mechanisms of the nekton are more elaborate. The Diel vertical migration of nekton represents a strategy to remain invisible to visual predators, by migrating to the upper pelagic zone to feed on phytoplankton during the night and returning to the depths before the sun comes up (De Meester, Weider, and Tollrain, 1995, p. 483). The vertical range for a particular nekton depends to some extent on size, with larger sizes having to go deeper to remain invisible during the daytime. Coloration changes by depth as well, supposedly to render the zooplankton less visible depending on the wavelength of light able to penetrate to a specific depth (Miller, 2004, p. 234-235). Some fish who inhabit the upper mesopelagic elaborate scales containing guanine crystals, which are able to reflect light in such a manner that the position of the prey can't be accurately determined by the predator. Transparency is another strategy used by some nekton, such as eel larvae, but because the eyes require pigmentation to sense light they remain visible. Summary If the countless survival strategies can be grouped into those primarily typical of either the benthic or pelagic zone, then the benthic zooplankton tend to rely primarily on physical, chemical, and hiding strategies to avoid predation, while pelagic zooplankton rely primarily on avoiding being seen by visual predators using strategies that avoid, reflect, or transmit light, or by exploiting wavelengths of light able to penetrate to a specific depth to become camouflaged. References De Meester, Luc, Weider, Lawrence J., and Tollrain, Ralph. (1995). Alternative antipredator defences and genetic polymorphism in a pelagic predator-prey system. Nature, 378, 483-485. Duffy, J. Emmett and Hay, Mark E. (2004). The ecology and evolution of marine consumer-prey interactions. In M.D. Bertness, S.D. Gaines, and M.E. Hay, (Eds.), Marine Community Ecology (pp. 131-157). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates,……

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Force of the Winds Is the Major

¶ … force of the winds is the major cause of patterns produced on the ocean surface. They are then modified by the effect of the Carioles Force due to the earth's rotation. Like gyres, the ocean floor dictates their characteristics (Gardiner, 2010). On question 2, swells, breaking surf and tsunamis despite all being products of the ocean activities, the…

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Red Tides Affect in the Gulf of Mexico

¶ … Red Tides on the Gulf of Mexico The world's oceans form the basis for a food web that extends to virtually all living organisms, including human beings. The health of the oceans is therefore of critical importance to the future survival of mankind. One phenomenon in particular that threatens the health of the world's oceans is red tides.…

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Ocean Pollution

Marine Pollution The ocean covers 71% of the surface area of the globe and accounts for 90% of all habitable space in the planet (Mulvaney 1998).The total volume of the ocean is approximately 300 million cubic miles and weighs approximately 1.3 million million tons. This great matrix is so vast that scientist-writer Arthur C. Clarke once commented about the inappropriateness…

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Negative Effects of Artificial Reefs

Building mitigating artificial reefs when real reefs are damaged fails to address problems of pollution, nutrient runoff and over-exploitation of the oceans, he also argues. One of the biggest problems with artificial reefs is the impact on the environment. One key concern in this area is coastal erosion. Insufficiently weighted materials that end up miles away from the reef site by strong winter storm (such as tires, etc.) can damage sedentary organisms of natural reef sites and destroy the nets of commercial fisherman's bottom trawl (Goldschmid, 1998). Environmentalists say artificial reefs may be harming dwindling populations of fish (Dixie Divers, 2004). Rather than helping fish stocks recover by creating more habitat, they simply draw the remaining fish to fishermen's hooks. "Do they only attract fish so that fishermen can take more fish?" asked David White, southeast regional director of the Ocean Conservancy. "If they're just giant fish attractors, they're just leading to greater depletion of fish." Artificial reefs alter ocean habitats. An artificial reef transforms a sandy or muddy bottom habitat, which supports worms, mollusks and other marine life, into a reef ecosystem (Dixie divers, 2004). Many reefs are being created without considering the consequences of changing ocean ecosystems. "They can be dangerous," said Cufone, of the Ocean Conservancy. "We're not certain of the impacts." John McManus, director of the National Center for Caribbean Coral Reef Research at the University of Miami, said artificial reefs threaten depleted fish populations. Attracting fish from coral outcroppings that fishermen may not know about, these reefs create a concentrated population of fish exactly where the hooks will be. Inadequate buoys and buoy chains, lost buoys, increase the amount of materials dumped into the sea, block shipping or mineral development, and are often difficult to find (Goldschmid, 1998). Use of toxic materials that pollute the aquatic environment (benzene-, heavy metals containing substrate) increase the already huge anthropogenic impact. Older artificial reefs are often not marked so fishing or other vessels cannot avoid them. This is extremely dangerous for divers, who are in danger of being trapped in these reefs. In conclusion, while some artificial reefs may be beneficial, artificial reefs should create no hazard to navigation and the marine environment, and materials used to develop artificial reefs should not create the potential to trap divers or marine vertebrates (Thai Diver, 2004). Compatibility of materials with the marine environment is key to creating a successful artificial…

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World's Oceans

Environmental Science The World's Oceans The Economic Value of Oceans to Americans Waste Dumping in our Oceans Oil Contamination from Various Sources Toxins and Trash Entering the Oceans The Depleted Fisheries The Vanishing Wetlands The World's Oceans: New Studies Reveal Threats and Possible Solutions The world's oceans are vast - in fact, they make up over two-thirds (70%) of our…

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Oceans & Plastic Pollution the Growing Mass

Oceans & Plastic Pollution The growing mass of plastic debris that is polluting many of the world's oceans is of great concern to scientists, governments, and environmentally inclined ordinary citizens -- and should be of grave concern to every inhabitant of this planet. What is the nature of the problem? How severe is the degree of degradation to the species that use the ocean as habitat? What are the laws that apply to the debasement of the world's oceans vis-a-vis plastic pollution? These questions will be addressed in this paper. How serious is the plastic-related problem? What's the impact on marine species? In a recent book by noted environmental author Marquita K. Hill, the retired professor of chemical engineering (University of Maine) explains that when it comes to marine environments "Truly pristine locales no longer exist" (Hill, 2010, p. 257). Plastic bags, bottle tops, and polystyrene foam coffee cups "have been found in the stomachs of dead sea lions, dolphins, sea turtles, and birds" and seagulls in the North Sea "…had an average of 30 pieces of plastic in their stomachs, according to a 2004 study," she continues. And moreover plastic debris "…is estimated to kill a million seabirds and 100,000 marine mammals and turtles each year" because they ingest the plastic material, or become entangled in plastic fishing line, plastic bags, plastic six-pack holders and string from balloons (Hill, 257). Charles Moore, writing in the journal Natural History, was shocked at the proliferation of plastic in the Pacific Ocean. He and his crew set out from Point Conception, California, in 1998, heading northwest in their aluminum-hulled catamaran research vessel Alguita. At about 800 miles offshore, they dropped their "manta trawl" overboard and allowed it to skim the surface for three plus miles. "What we saw amazed us," Moore writes (Moore, 2003, p. 3). They witnessed a "rich broth of minute sea creatures mixed with hundreds of colored plastic fragments -- a plastic plankton soup" (Moore, 2003, p. 3). Among the harvest of plastic bits and pieces, they also recovered "a menacing medusa of tangled net lines," Moore continues (p. 3). Their research revealed that for every pound of existing zooplankton, there are "…six pounds of plastic floating in the North Pacific subtropical gyre…" (Moore, 2003, p. 3). Professor Stelios Katsanevakis reports that that plastic pollution on the ocean is just the tip of the iceberg, so to speak. Using…

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Features of the Ocean Floor

This current is the West Wind Drift. B. The Atlantic Ocean Currents The North Atlantic westerly winds move the water eastward as the North Atlantic Current, or North Atlantic Drift. The northeast trade winds push the water to the west, forming the North Equatorial Current. The north-south continuity currents are the Gulf Stream, flowing northward along the coast of North America, and the Canary Current, moving to the south on the eastern side of the North Atlantic. C. The Indian Ocean Currents The Indian Ocean is mainly a Southern Hemisphere ocean. The southeast trade winds push the water to the west, creating the South Equatorial Current. The Southern Hemisphere westernizes still move the water eastward in the West Wind Drift. The West Australia Current moving northward completes the gyre and the Agulhas Current moving southward along the coast of Africa. D. The Arctic Ocean Currents The Norwegian Current supplies the Arctic Ocean from the North Atlantic; some of this flow enters west of Spits Bergen, but most flows over the top of Norway and Finland and moves eastward along the Siberian coast into the Chukchi Sea. Outflow from Siberian Rivers is caught in the eastward flow of water and ice along Siberia. Eventually this discharge joins the gyre distributing sediments and pollutants throughout the Arctic. El Nino syndrome The world continues to be pounded by abnormal weather, due to man's indifference towards lesser mortals. The warnings of the atmosphere that is normally referred to as the "Green House Effect," is caused by the steady build up of six green house gases, emitted by the burning of petroleum by motor vehicles and coal in power plants. It is estimated that about 20 to 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide are discharged to the air each year, and that there is 30% more carbon dioxide in the air today than in 1860. Under these conditions, it is likely that the earth will heat up by a further degree within the next 20 years. The lifestyles of the more wealthy nations, built up with the aid of science and technology with in-built self-destructive features, are openly criticized today. The high rates of consumption and pollution of the limited resources of the earth by the rich stock, makes it impossible for others who are not as fortunate, to live comfortably. This form of life could be challenged on grounds of natural impartiality. To bring…

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Oceanography What Were the Significant Contributions of

Oceanography What were the significant contributions of James Cook, Matthew Maury, and the Challenger Expedition? How did their contributions lead to a better understanding of oceanography? James Cook was the first person to have a trip dedicated exclusively to oceanography. The contributions that he made to a better understanding of oceanography include: the invention of the chronometer, the mapping of…

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Threats to Ecosystem: Cause and

The problem is so bad that the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that over 25% of the world's fish stocks are incompletely depleted and that as high as 50% are totally depleted (The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA)). In fact, about 90% of the world's predatory fish are virtually non-existent (ibid). Over fishing has direct and indirect effects, with direct effects reducing and wiping out the number and size of huge populations of marine animals, whilst indirect effects can lead to suffocation and trapping of marine animals by, for instance, nets that are left on the ocean floor. Another indirect effects includes tropic cascading effects where the sea marine level is dislodged with predators removed resulting in cascading effects throughout the marine ecosystem. 3.Global climactic and oceanographic events Not only does increase of temperature level effect marine life, but acidification, caused by climate changes, also impedes organisms in various ways, not least to build their shells, whilst changes in cloud cover and sea ice affect the light supply to the ocean. Climactic and oceanographic events also contribute to sea level rise and coastal erosion all of which are traumatic to marine environment and animals, leaving many animals stranded when these events occur. Remedies have included strategies to change ocean circulation and arrange stable temperature levels; some of this is achieved by environmental modification. Program to measure change and modeling of climate change are also in effect in order that further management strategies can be developed (CSIRO.). In all cases, recommendations for improvement can be induced by putting pressure on governments and regulatory bodies, as well as supporting companies that are environmentally conscious and increasing people's knowledge about their impact and effect on the marine environment and on how they can improve it. References CSIRO. Climate change effects on marine ecosystems report www.csiro.au/resources/ps2yd.html Save Our Seas Foundation: Pollution saveourseas.com/threats/pollution The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) www.fao.org/sof/sofia/index_en.htm…

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Effect of Plastic Debris on Marine Species

¶ … Plastic Debris on Marine Species Marine litter has been a huge nuisance to marine life and especially plastic debris. Marine debris is defined as any solid material which finds its way into the waters. This marine debris or litter has many negative effects to aquatic life. Close to 80% of all marine debris is of plastic nature Van…

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Invertebrate Ocean Acidification and the Disruption of

Invertebrate Ocean Acidification and the Disruption of Marine Ecosystems The presence and behavior of human beings has altered the ecological balance in profound ways. The release of fossil fuels into the atmosphere, the dumping of waste into the world's oceans and the disruption of the food chain through overfishing have all contributed to a change in the quality of the world's water supplies. As the text by Pechenik (2004) reveals, a discussion concerning any waterborne species would not be complete or properly focused if it failed to address the relationship between this species' survival demands and the changes imposed upon the environment. This directs the focus of our preliminary research discussion, revealing the need for further research on the relationship between acidification of the world's oceans and the patterns of procreation and lifecycle facing waterborne invertebrates. Research Focus Box: The research focus is driven by Pechenik's recognition of changes in the state of the world's oceans as these correlate to human activity. Pechenik points to industrial processes and the high levels of atmospheric emission caused by an unsustainable lifestyle as the main causes for a sharp rise in the level of acidity recorded in our oceans. This, the text denotes, has significant and widespread consequences to the balance of aquatic life and species diversity. This is particularly demonstrable based on the impact that the pattern of acidification has had on certain species of invertebrate. The ocean has a vast array of amoebic species and multicellular invertebrates that rely upon the minerals natural to the water in order to perform basic survival functions. As the Pechenik source denotes, there is a direct connection between the heightened acidification in the ocean and the diminished ability of certain marine species to form the protective outer-shells that allow them to survive their environmental and predatory surroundings. The topic as raised in the text directs our attention toward any number of possible ecological and environmental consequences that could be catastrophic not just to the invertebrates directly impacted but also to whole marine ecologies. As we proceed from the Pechenik text to consider other sources on the subject, it will be with the expectation that some evidence will be yielded to connect the particular threats against invertebrates to more general concerns over the distribution of species in certain marine habitats. Additional Research: These assumptions are given grounding by a bevy of research sources, most of which…

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Harmful Algal Blooms Weather Events

Detection tools have been innovated and implemented by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Finding and measuring harmful algal blooms is time-consuming and requires specialized labs. Generally cells are collected by boat, preserved, and then examined in a lab, so there is a significant time-lag between collection and identification. Scientists can use satellites to collect data on ocean color to determine the amount of live biomass in the ocean, which can help identify algal blooms and track blooms. They can use this data to help predict the landfall of a bloom. This only works on some types of blooms and the data does not indicate if blooms are harmful or benign. The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network program trains volunteers around the nation to gather water samples to identify the types of phytoplankton in coastal waters, which can help identify emerging harmful algal blooms. Mitigation is still the most reliable method of controlling the impact of harmful algal blooms. Mitigation can be a very expensive option; therefore mitigation decisions are based on the social and economic costs of harmful algal bloom events, as well as the costs and benefits of mitigation strategies. NOAA scientists have developed test kit for domoic acid and brevetoxin, which can both sometimes be found in shellfish. These tests can help keep commercial shellfish safe, and also help determine the cause of death for marine life that are believed to have died as a result of a harmful algal bloom. Sources of Harmful Algal Blooms Weather Nutrients Pollution Fiscal Fatal Harms Algal Growth Cannot be controlled by Oceanic Conditions Marine Life is Impacted by Algal Growth Change in Ocean Conditions Injuries FISH Copepods Phytoplankton National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. (n.d.). Investigating the ocean: algae blooms. Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://www.science-house.org/nesdis/algae/background.html Backer, L. And McGillicuddy, D. (2006). Harmful algal blooms: At the interface between coastal oceanography and human health. Oceanography, 19(2), 94-106. National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. (n.d.). Investigating the ocean: algae blooms. Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://www.science-house.org/nesdis/algae/background.html Landsberg, J.H. (2002). The effects of harmful algal blooms on aquatic organisms. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 10(2), 113-390. National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. (n.d.). Investigating the ocean: algae blooms. Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://www.science-house.org/nesdis/algae/background.html Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences. (2011). "Fitting algae into the food web." Toxic and harmful algal blooms: educational activities. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from: http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/fitting_algae.html National Ocean Service.…

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Oceanography Comparing Approaches to the

R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, and M. Behrenfeld (2006), A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 53(5 -- 7), 741 -- 770, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.01.028. Duffy, J.E., and J.J. Stachowicz (2006), Why biodiversity is important to oceanography: Potential roles of genetic, species, and trophic diversity in pelagic ecosystem processes, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 311, 179 -- 189, doi:10.3354/meps311179. Friedrichs, M.A.M., et al. (2009), Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Mar. Syst., 76(1 -- 2), 113 -- 133, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.010. Milutinovic, S. Beherenfeld, M.J., Johannessen, A. And Johannessen, T. (2008). Sensitivity of remote sensing-derived phytoplankton productivity to mixed layer depth: Lessons from the carbon-based productivity model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23 (GB4005). doi: 10.1029.2008GB3431. Townsend, D.W., L.M. Cammen, P.M. Holligan, D.E. Campbell, and N.R. Pettigrew (1994), Causes and consequences of variability in the timing of spring phytoplankton blooms, Deep Sea Res., Part I, 41(5 -- 6), 747 -- 765, doi:10.1016/0967-0637(94)90075-2. Westberry, T., M.J. Behrenfeld, D.A. Siegel, and E. Boss (2008), Carbon- based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation, Global Biogeochem.……

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Oceanography What New Phase of Ocean Exploration

Oceanography What new phase of ocean exploration started in 1968 with the Glomar Challenger? A new phase of ocean exploration was started with the Glomar Challenger, where deep water drilling / exploration become a reality. This is significant because prior to the launch of the Glomar Challenger, no one had known the age or the composition of the ocean floor. The way this was conducted was by drilling for specific samples on the ocean floor. Between 1968 and 1974, the Glomar Challenger was able to take samples from all of the various oceans around the globe. As a result, a number of different discoveries were made because of the work conducted by the Glomar Challenger to include: salt domes were discovered. This is a common element that is found where oil / natural gas reserves are located. The discoveries that were made allowed for the development of underwater oil / natural gas exploration. However, the real contribution of the Glomar Challenger is opened up the field of deep water drilling. As the different voyages were able to confirm the Theory of Continental Drift, under this theory the Earth was one single landmass. The samples taken from the Glomar Challenger was able to confirm this through the various core samples. This established how future deep water oceanic exploration would take place. ("Glomar Challenger,"2010) What techniques are used to study plate tectonics? The way that the plate tectonics was studied was by drilling a series of holes into various spots along the ocean floor. Then, at various longitudes a series of different samples were taken to determine the age and composition of the ocean floor. This would provide: a basic background as to how the various tectonic plates were moving closer or farther apart. (Maxwell, 1969) What is the evidence for sea floor spreading? There was a fracture zone that was discovered between sites 17 and 18 in the Atlantic Ocean. This was dated to be over 66 million years old and the average rate of drift is 2 cm per year. As a result, the fracture zone allowed scientists to confirm that the Earth was actually one continent millions of years ago. This also underscores the fact that the tectonic plate is still continuing to drift, signifying that as the contents are spreading farther apart and the ocean floor is following suit. The drifting that is taking place is consistent from…

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Oceanography Oceanic Tides Differ Greatly Depending on

Oceanography Oceanic Tides Differ Greatly Depending on Location The tides of the ocean are unique to geographical location. Each individual location is affected differently by the pull of the moon and sun on the earth's bodies of water (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2010). Thus, location is a primary determinate of the types of tides, and how ocean water levels are affected during both high and low tides. Semi-diurnal tides are most common. In the span of one day, the earth's rotation hits the point of high tide, where there is the greatest force pulling the water outward, then returns to low tide, and back again to the original point of high tide (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2010). According to research, "This results in two high tides and two low tides in a day," (Ocean Link 2010). These types of tides are most common on the Eastern Atlantic Seaboard, which explains how the Florida Keys and Connecticut tides are both semi-diurnal (Pidwirny 2008). They also occur closer to the equator, based on the incline of the moon's orbit around the earth (Ocean Link 2010). However, the data is recovered from a winter month, where the sun's inclination is at the highest point. Research states that "During these months the 'bulges' in the ocean are offset the most from the equator, and it is most likely to encounter only one tide cycle per day, or diurnal tides," (Ocean Link 2010). Diurnal tides are much different. In these types of tides, there is only one high and one low tide per 24-hour period. They tend to occur in extremes of the northern and southern hemispheres (Ocean Link 2010). Diurnal tides occur typically in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Pidwirny 2008). Thus, Eagle Point Texas, the only point in the northern region of the Gulf of Mexico covered by the data is the only diurnal tide Lastly, mixed tides show a combination of the elements of the two tide types. They are common on the West Coast of the United States (Pidwirny 2008). Hence, the Alaskan tide covered in this research is a mixed tide, showing elements of both diurnal and semi-diurnal tides. According to research, mixed tides show "successive high-water and low-water stands differ appreciably," (Pidwirny 2008). Therefore, these tides have the greatest disparity between high and low tide water levels. The data correlates with the West coast of Alaska being…

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Ocean Water Resource Issue

¶ … Ecological Balance of the Coral Reefs Coral reefs are a system of living organisms found only in the warm benthic shallow ocean water environments along the world's coastlines. The shallow seas where the reefs grow represent just eight percent of the world's oceans, but sustain most of the life found in the sea (BBC/Discovery, film documentary, 2008). The health of the coral reefs is representative of the health of our oceans, and the health of our planet. The health of the coral reefs is impacted by hurricanes, tsunamis, drastic fluctuations in water temperatures, and the presence of mankind. It is a fragile ecosystem, but one that provides $375 billion a year in good, service and industry, and supports as many as 500 million people who are dependent upon the ocean life that can be found only in the coral reefs (Tibbets, John, 2004, p. 472). This represents a relationship between man and the environment that is co-dependent in nature; mankind must be aware of the fragility of the system that sustains him, and work to protect the coral reef environment to preserve it in whatever ways we can. Today, 30% of the world's coral reefs are damaged, and it is expected that the damage will increase to 60% by the year 2030 (Tibbetts, p. 472). This suggests the critical state of the reefs, and the logical conclusion that mankind must take whatever actions possible to negate damage to the coral reefs stemming from man's impact on the environment. The Threats to the Coral Reefs There is really very little that environmentalists or scientists can do prevent damage to the coral reefs from natural threats like tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes, or fluctuating changes in the water temperature as a result of the earth's natural evolutionary processes. We know that at least twice in the history of the world, the coral reefs along the coast of Australia were destroyed because of natural planetary changes. We know this, because the remnants of the dead coral reefs are found hundreds of feet below the ocean, in the abyssal zone of the benthic environment, are the remains of coral beds that illustrate changes that occurred in the water levels and water temperatures. The threats posed by man, however, are: Overfishing and pollution, wrote Hughes and colleagues, have been the most important causes of "massive and accelerating decreases in abundance of coral reef species." These…

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Marine Mammal Impact on Fisheries

Sacramento Basin The project is designed to examine the link between marine mammals and fisheries in the area of the Sacramento Delta, looking particularly to the impact pinnipeds have on the anadramous fish populations and recreational fishery in this region. The goal of this research project is to assess the distribution and abundance of pinnipeds in the Sacramento and San…

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Spread of Marine Larvae Predicted by Ocean

¶ … Spread of Marine Larvae Predicted by Ocean Temperature Marine life in the world's oceans is increasingly encountering conditions that are rendering many species near extinction. It has never been so important for scientists to understand the reproduction process among marine life. New discoveries are breaking and are being reported that will surely assist scientists in their study of the reproduction processes of life in the world's seas and oceans. The Science Daily article entitled "Ocean Temperature Predicts Spread of Marine Species" states that scientists have the ability to predict, "How the distance marine larvae travel varies with ocean temperature - a key component in conservation and management of fish, shellfish and other marine species - according to a new study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." (2006) The data which scientists gathered came from 72 marine species and included: (1) Cod; (2) Herring; (3) American Lobster; (4) Horseshoe crabs; and (5) Clams. It is held in this article that the scientists discovered that most of marine life, to include the species that are important commercially reproduce "via larvae that drift far along ocean currents before returning to join adult populations." (Science Daily, 2006) The process of which study has been conducted and reported in this article is one that is referred to as "dispersal." Dispersal held by scientists to be linked directly to the temperature of the waters of the world's oceans. Stated in this article is that scientists discovered that the larvae in warmer waters travel less distance than larvae in cold water. The article states that temperature has the capacity to "alter the number and diversity of adult species in a certain area by changing where larvae end up." (Science Daily, 2006) The interesting thing to note is that less than 1% of the larvae actually survive the dispersal process as most are……

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Continuing Legacy of Louis Agassiz and the Study of Marine Biology

Louis Agassiz The Scientific Legacy of Louis Agassiz Though he may not be as well-known in the general populace as his contemporaries Darwin and Spencer, Louis Agassiz is responsible for some of the greatest achievements in geology, marine biology, paleontology and scientific philosophy in the 19th century. His wide-ranging interests, deep intellect, and talent for acute observation and innovative thinking…

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Earth's Ocean Surface Current Patterns

This is another example of how surface currents can influence currents at deeper levels. The Gulf Stream also influences the world's ocean currents at the surface by creating major flows of current many times larger than the Mississippi or Amazon rivers (McWilliams and Restrepo, 1999). There are many different specific currents, namely the North Atlantic and the Canary in the Atlantic, both of which are influenced by the flows of the Gulf Stream. Surface currents are generally measured as the top 10% of the ocean's currents and extend from the surface to around 400 meters in depth (Mills, 2011). Below this depth currents are dictated by other forces such as temperature, salinity, the moon and the Earth's rotation. These currents can also affect and be affected by deeper water eddies and upwellings, which sailors and commercial boats often plan rips around due to higher or lower fuel costs specific to these areas in the ocean and their related currents (Mills, 2011). The study of currents and their effects on sea life as well as other aspects of life on Earth is relatively new, having been just recently undertaken as a direct result of the commercial and recreational actions of sailors (Mills, 2011). Currents and their side effects are not completely understood even today, as new discoveries are still being made. References McWilliams, J.C. And J.M. Restrepo. (1999) "The wave-driven ocean circulation." Journal of Physics and Oceanography. Vol. 29, No. 1. Pp. 2523 -- 2540. Mills, E.L. (2011). The Fluid Envelope of our Planet: How the……

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Oceanography Diurnal Tides Are the

m. 8. From -2,000 feet to 14,000 feet 9. Semidiurnal 10. The difference between the low tides and the high tides increases significantly as the week progresses. 11. The greatest is approximately 2,000 feet. The least is approximately 500 feet. 12. The tides are significantly different. The disparity between the high and low tides in Florida is practically insignificant when compared to the huge sweeping difference (of at least 12,000 feet) in the high and low tides in Maine. These differences can not only be attributed to the difference in locations from the sun and the moon that these two places are on the earth, but can also be related to the ocean depth and the rotational gravity of these respective places. 13. The 11th and the 26th 14 Approximately 17,000 feet on the 26th and roughly 11,000 feet on the 11th. 15. On the third and the 19th. 16. About 3,000 feet. 17. Actually, the dates for the spring and neap tides are different in Alaska than those for Maine. This is due to the fact that the relation of these areas to the……

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Geography Oceanography Is the Field

Finally, recent discoveries about the geography of the ocean floor have profound implications for the study of biology. The discovery of biological communities that do not require oxygen or light to sustain life, found around hydrothermal vents, has profound implications for the study of how life on Earth may have begun (WHOI, 2005). At one time the ocean was viewed as being both simple and possessing an endless ability to absorb whatever we threw into it. The study of oceanography, with the in-depth knowledge developed about its currents and underwater geography, have profoundly changed how we make use of it (Pidwirny, 2004). Because of our increased knowledge of oceanography, we now have international treaties governing countries' use of it. SOURCES College Board, The. 2005. "Oceanography," in CollegeBound. Accessed via the Internet 1/10/05. Pidwirny, Michael, Ph.D. FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 2004. Online textbook accessed via the Internet 1/10/05.

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Hydrothermal Vents: A New Way to Monitor

Hydrothermal Vents: A New Way to Monitor the Earth's Core Deep sea-thermal vents are an important part of life on our planet. These unique areas of the ocean provide an oasis for life on the sea floor that are supported by thermal and chemical processes situated deep in the earth's interior. It is thought that life on earth may have…

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Mortality and Loss Processes in Phytoplankton

Mortality and Loss Processes in Phytoplankton Phytoplankton are members of the autotrophic that that are usually found on top-most parts of bodies of water. They are oftentimes floating over the seas or rivers. The name itself comes fro a Greek word "phyton" which literally means "drifter" or "wanderer." Phytoplankton could not really be seen by the naked eye especially if…

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Kinsler Defines Acoustics as the

(Pacific). In case of rough or "back of the envelope" SNR calculations, ambient noise lvel (NL) is deducted from the sound intensity level with this equation: SNR = SIL - NL When the reading is higher than 0 dB (decibels), the signal can be detected and separated from the background noise. If less than 0 dB, it is inaudible. (Pacific)…

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Desertification of Coral Reefs

Geography Desertification of Coral Reefs Coral reefs are under threat worldwide. An estimated 58% of reefs are classified as threatened and 11% of the original amount of coral reefs has already been lost. The makeup of remaining coral reefs is also rapidly changing. In regards to many of the reefs, the decline in coral has coincided with increased cover of…

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Solar Radiation Spectra in Ocean Water

¶ … Ocean Water Modifies and Influences Solar Radiation Spectra There are a multitude of complex factors that influence the absorption of solar radiation by ocean water, including two very specific laws involving the amount of light transmitted through a liquid. The Beer and Lambert laws govern the transmission of solar spectra in ocean water, but beyond these laws, other…

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Fate of Carbon in a Seagrass Dominated Ecosystem

Fate of Carbon in a Sea Grass Dominated Ecosystem Perhaps the most pressing concern for the world is the rising rate of global warming in the 21st century. Many discussions have taken place on the global front to discuss the possible steps to decrease this rate. On aspect that has been discussed diligently in relation to global warming is the…

Pages: 17  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


World Religions and Ecology

Rachel Carson -- Under the Sea-Wind Under the Sea-Wind is not Rachel Carson's best-known book; her most heralded book is Silent Spring. But Under the Sea-Wind, her first book, is very well written and contains a wealth of solid environmental information for the reader. Many years before Jacques Cousteau began his televised explorations into the depths of the oceans and…

Pages: 5  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Job Application as a Licensed Mate, I

Job Application As a licensed mate, I have 337 sea days worth of experience. I have worked on four different ships as an Officer in Training. These ships included container, break-bulk and passenger vessels, both diesel and diesel-electric. Each of these vessels was commercial in nature; however I feel that the transition to government/research vessels will be relatively seamless. In my time at the United States Merchant Marine Academy, I have attained a license as a USCG Third Mate for any tonnage and any ocean. I was able to gain experience with the four commercial vessels over the course of the past four years, while completing my education. I served on the M/V Sealand Pride for Maersk in 2006. My next vessel was of the M/V Liberty Star for Liberty in 2007. I worked on the M/V Pride of America for NCLA, Inc. from 2007-2008. Lastly, I worked on the M/V Harry L. Martin for Keystone in 2008. With these four vessels, I was able to gain significant experience in all aspects of shipboard operations. I worked on safety, on fire and lifeboat drills and I was able to assist with maneuvering and cargo offloading. I believe that my experiences on these vessels is sufficient to meet the expectations that NOAA will have of me. I am able to handle the navigation and vessel management duties expected of a Third Officer and NOAA Civilian Mariner as the direct result of my officer training aboard these four vessels. In addition, these vessels each provided me valuable insight into the different ways in which vessels are managed. All four were run with different techniques and systems, such that I feel I gained a rich variety of experience in the short time I have worked on the sea. 2. On board the four vessels on which I have served, I was able to gain experience in a variety of areas beyond navigation. For example, on the container ships (M/V Sealand Pride and M/V Harry L. Martin) I was able to assist the other officers in the maneuvering and offloading functions. I helped them to guide ships into port and then gained experience in assisting the offloading function as well. It was critical to learn these functions, because they form the basis of the container ship's role. I was fortunate enough to expand on my container experience with the break bulk ship M/V Liberty…

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Ballard's Telepresence Project to Unlock Undersea Secrets of Gulf Marine Sanctuary

Ballard's Telepresence Project To Unlock Undersea Secrets Of Gulf Marine Sanctuary The article concerns the latest projected effort of Dr. Robert Ballard and a team of scientists. This team has been assembled to explore the NOAA Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary undersea area, located about 114 miles from the Texas/Louisiana coast. Its attraction for research relates not only to its unique geology and biology, but also to the fact that it could be explored for evidence of earlier human habitation than has been found to date. The sea level was much lower during the ice age, and it is estimated that the area under investigation could have been the site of early human settlements during this period. Another focus of exploration will be the protective cover the area provides for animals that travel between gelogic features - what the article refers to "hidden highways" between the Flower Garden Banks and other reefs and banks. The expedition is to last for one week, with……

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Endangered Species Green Sea Turtles Are an

Endangered Species Green Sea Turtles are an endangered species of reptiles, one of the few animals to have seen the mighty dinosaurs grow extinct. Sea turtles are as old as 200 million years, and are now on the verge of extinction because of the son of man. The scientific classification of Green Sea Turtles is: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Reptiles…

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Migratory Cetaceans and Their Relation to the

Migratory Cetaceans and Their Relation To the Trophic Level they Feed within the Foodweb seasonal migratory patterns of 3 species of whales; is the global primary production pattern evidenced in VGPM maps related to their seasonal migration? What are cetaceans? Cetaceans are Mammalian Order Cetacea, and include whales, dolphins and porpoises. The Cetaceans are further separated into two major subgroups: the Mysticetes, the baleen whales, and the Odontocytes, the toothed whales, which includes the smaller dolphins and porpoises. General morphological characteristics of Cetacea are: the fusiform shape of their body (i.e., spindle shaped); their forelimbs are modified into flippers; whereas their hindlimbs are completely vestigial (i.e., not attached to backbone, and hidden within body); their tails have horizontal flukes; they breathe from a dorsally oriented blowhole, a reduced nares resituated on the top of head; they are nearly hairless -- with only a few bristle like whiskers surrounding lips of young; and they are insulated from cooler ambient ocean by their layer of blubber. Some species are noted for their intelligence, and complex group behavior, remarkable communication, and even songs. 2) Choose three marine cetacean species, which are migratory from NOAA Protected Resources List. 1) Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus. E/D (denotes endangered / depleted stock) 2) Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae E/D 3) Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus E/D 3) Briefly describe the migratory patterns of each species. 1) Gray whale migration: There are two isolated geographic distributions: the North Pacific Ocean group (visible off the coastal waters of Oregon). And the Korean North Pacific group. The whales summer in the rich feeding grounds of the Bering and Chukchi Seas, southeast Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and northern California. They use their ballen to filter feed the copepods, also known as krill……

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Environmental Impacts of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

Environmental Impact of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster On March 11, 2011 a massive 9.0 earthquake occurred 311 miles off the cost of the Japan. This was one of the largest seismic events to hit the country (triggering a tsunami with wave heights of 133 ft.). The Fukushima nuclear plant was sitting inland on the Northern Pacific Coast. This meant that the…

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Human Effects on Coral Reefs

"National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: http://www.nos.noaa.gov/education/kits/corals/coral07_importance.html (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). 'Things You Can Do to Help Save Coral Reefs." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/books/reefs/reef1-5.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). "Threats to Coral Reefs." University of the Virgin Islands. Available: http://www.uvi.edu/coral.reefer/threats.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005) 'U.S. Coral Reef Task Force." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/coral/taskforce.html (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005). 'What are Corals and Coral Reefs?" NOAA's Coral Reef Information System. Available: http://www.coris.noaa.gov/about/what_are/what_are.html (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). "How Old are Coral Reefs?" The Coral Reef Alliance. Available: http://www.coralreefalliance.org/aboutcoralreefs/howold.html (Accessed 24 Jan. 2005). Fujita, Rodney M., Epstein, Mark S., Goreau, Thomas J. And Gjerde, Kristina. "A Guide to Protecting Coral Reefs." 1992. Available: http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/496_ACFC6.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). "What are Corals and Coral Reefs?" NOAA's Coral Reef Information System. Available: http://www.coris.noaa.gov/about/what_are/what_are.html (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). "Importance of Coral Reefs."National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: http://www.nos.noaa.gov/education/kits/corals/coral07_importance.html (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). Ibid. Ibid. Bryant, Dirk, Burke, Lauretta, McManus, John and Spalding, Mark. "Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indictor of Potential Threats to the World's Coral Reefs." 1998. World Resources Institute. Available: http://marine.wri.org/pubs_description.cfm?PubID=2901 (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). "Threats to Coral Reefs." University of the Virgin Islands. Available: http://www.uvi.edu/coral.reefer/threats.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005) "Bleaching: A Coral Survival Strategy." StudyWorks! Online. Available: http://www.studyworksonline.com/cda/content/article/0,,NAV4-43_SAR1147,00.shtml (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005) Ibid. Ibid. Bryant, Dirk, Burke, Lauretta, McManus, John and Spalding, Mark. "Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indictor of Potential Threats to the World's Coral Reefs." 1998. World Resources Institute. Available: http://marine.wri.org/pubs_description.cfm?PubID=2901 (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). Fujita, Rodney M., Epstein, Mark S., Goreau, Thomas J. And Gjerde, Kristina. "A Guide to Protecting Coral Reefs." 1992. Available: http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/496_ACFC6.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). "EPA Activities in Coral Conservation." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/coral/programs.html#symposium (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005). "U.S. Coral Reef Task Force." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/coral/taskforce.html (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005). "EPA Activities in Coral Conservation." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/coral/programs.html#symposium (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005). "Things You Can Do to Help Save Coral Reefs." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/books/reefs/reef1-5.htm (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).…

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Landforms Barrier Island Beaches Generally

.. a Roads b Latitudes c Elevations d scale of distances e Man-made structures 84. The cartographic technique by which points on the sphere of the Earth are transferred to points on the plane surface of a map is ... a Trajection b Projection c Intersection d Interpolation e approximation 85. The Mercator projection is actually which type of projection?…

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Effect of Red Tide on Manatees

Red Tides and Manatees The Effect of Red Tide on Manatees The manatee population of Florida has suffered devastating effects not only from the fishing and boating industry, but the re-occurrence of the red tides has killed large numbers in recent years, leading to much research and numerous efforts regarding manatee protection and algae controls. Manatees are large marine mammals,…

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Behavior of Concrete in Rivers

Included in this are the kind of concrete use, the cover depth chosen for reinforcement, the overall on-site implementation and managerial practice as well as the intensity and harshness of exposure (Castro et al., 2001). River atmosphere signifies the atmosphere encircled through the river water. River water is really a complex compound of numerous salts that contains living matter, suspended…

Pages: 13  |  Dissertation  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 24


Ocean Pollution, and How it

All in all, marine pollution affects marine populations all over the world, and some face extinction because of it. To save the marine populations, strict pollution guidelines have been developed in some countries. The Clean Water Act, first passed in the United States in 1972, was a major step forward in protecting the world's oceans. Since its' passage, the Act has been updated several times, the last in 1996. The Act contains measures regulating dredging, dumping, wastewater discharge, and more. While the Act has helped clean up the oceans, there is much more to be done. People already feel the consequences as damaged marine systems stop delivering myriad "free" services. Islands wash away during storms. Formerly stable shorelines sink and erode. Tropical nations watch tourism and fisheries decline with the coral reefs that sustained them. The quality and quantity of seafood is diminishing, imperiling over one billion people who depend on it for their daily protein needs (Woodard 35). Along with the Clean Air Act, many local communities are taking clean water into their own hands, enacting legislation to protect and limit pollutants in watersheds feeding into oceans. In some regions, ocean life is damaged by pollution originating hundreds or thousands of miles from shore and delivered to the sea by rivers and streams. For these places, an integrated watershed management regime will probably be the only effective strategy. From a marine perspective, a watershed strategy should take steps to limit river-borne pollution and contaminants to levels acceptable to marine life (Woodard 233). Local activists have also created programs to help endangered mangrove groves in Florida, endangered delta areas in Louisiana, and Gulf of Mexico pollution in states bordering the Gulf in the Southern U.S. Local "grassroots" programs are often extremely successful, because they recognize immediate local pollution problems, and offer specific results. Many countries are also developing Marine Protection Areas. Some act as a kind of "wildlife sanctuary," protecting all the life in the area from any kind of fishing or commercial activity. Others are similar to National Parks, where some kinds of activity are allowed, but it is highly regulated and monitored. Most are zoned for multiple uses, with different activities or types of fishing allowed in each area, but usually under an umbrella of strong legal protections against industrial activity such as pollution, seafloor mining, or offshore energy projects. Many extend onto the land to include mangroves,…

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