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Survival Strategies: Benthic vs. Pelagic Essay

… Although both plankton and nekton inhabit the mesopelagic zone, the defense mechanisms of the nekton are more elaborate. The Diel vertical migration of nekton represents a strategy to remain invisible to visual predators, by migrating to the upper pelagic zone to feed on phytoplankton during the night and returning to the depths before the sun comes up (De Meester, Weider, and Tollrain, 1995, p. 483). The vertical range for a particular nekton depends to some extent on size, with larger sizes having to go deeper to remain invisible during the daytime. Coloration changes by depth as well, supposedly to render the zooplankton less visible depending on the wavelength of light able to penetrate to a specific depth (Miller, 2004, p. 234-235). Some fish who inhabit the upper mesopelagic elaborate scales containing guanine crystals, which are able to reflect light in such a manner that the position of the prey can't be accurately determined by the predator. Transparency is another strategy used by some nekton, such as eel larvae, but because the eyes require pigmentation to sense light they remain visible.


If the countless survival strategies can be grouped into those primarily typical of either the benthic or pelagic zone, then the benthic zooplankton tend to rely primarily on physical, chemical, and hiding strategies to avoid predation, while pelagic zooplankton rely primarily on avoiding being seen by visual predators using strategies that avoid, reflect, or transmit light, or by exploiting wavelengths of light able to penetrate to a specific depth to become camouflaged.


De Meester, Luc, Weider, Lawrence J., and Tollrain, Ralph. (1995). Alternative antipredator defences and genetic polymorphism in a pelagic predator-prey system. Nature, 378, 483-485.

Duffy, J. Emmett and Hay, Mark E. (2004). The ecology and evolution of marine consumer-prey interactions. In M.D. Bertness, S.D. Gaines, and M.E. Hay, (Eds.), Marine Community Ecology (pp. 131-157). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates,… [read more]

Force of the Winds Essay

… ¶ … force of the winds is the major cause of patterns produced on the ocean surface. They are then modified by the effect of the Carioles Force due to the earth's rotation. Like gyres, the ocean floor dictates their… [read more]

Red Tides Affect in the Gulf of Mexico Thesis

… ¶ … Red Tides on the Gulf of Mexico

The world's oceans form the basis for a food web that extends to virtually all living organisms, including human beings. The health of the oceans is therefore of critical importance to… [read more]

Ocean Pollution Term Paper

… Marine Pollution

The ocean covers 71% of the surface area of the globe and accounts for 90% of all habitable space in the planet (Mulvaney 1998).The total volume of the ocean is approximately 300 million cubic miles and weighs approximately… [read more]

Negative Effects of Artificial Reefs Term Paper

… Building mitigating artificial reefs when real reefs are damaged fails to address problems of pollution, nutrient runoff and over-exploitation of the oceans, he also argues.

One of the biggest problems with artificial reefs is the impact on the environment.

One key concern in this area is coastal erosion. Insufficiently weighted materials that end up miles away from the reef site by strong winter storm (such as tires, etc.) can damage sedentary organisms of natural reef sites and destroy the nets of commercial fisherman's bottom trawl (Goldschmid, 1998).

Environmentalists say artificial reefs may be harming dwindling populations of fish (Dixie Divers, 2004). Rather than helping fish stocks recover by creating more habitat, they simply draw the remaining fish to fishermen's hooks. "Do they only attract fish so that fishermen can take more fish?" asked David White, southeast regional director of the Ocean Conservancy. "If they're just giant fish attractors, they're just leading to greater depletion of fish."

Artificial reefs alter ocean habitats. An artificial reef transforms a sandy or muddy bottom habitat, which supports worms, mollusks and other marine life, into a reef ecosystem (Dixie divers, 2004). Many reefs are being created without considering the consequences of changing ocean ecosystems. "They can be dangerous," said Cufone, of the Ocean Conservancy. "We're not certain of the impacts." John McManus, director of the National Center for Caribbean Coral Reef Research at the University of Miami, said artificial reefs threaten depleted fish populations. Attracting fish from coral outcroppings that fishermen may not know about, these reefs create a concentrated population of fish exactly where the hooks will be.

Inadequate buoys and buoy chains, lost buoys, increase the amount of materials dumped into the sea, block shipping or mineral development, and are often difficult to find (Goldschmid, 1998). Use of toxic materials that pollute the aquatic environment (benzene-, heavy metals containing substrate) increase the already huge anthropogenic impact. Older artificial reefs are often not marked so fishing or other vessels cannot avoid them. This is extremely dangerous for divers, who are in danger of being trapped in these reefs.

In conclusion, while some artificial reefs may be beneficial, artificial reefs should create no hazard to navigation and the marine environment, and materials used to develop artificial reefs should not create the potential to trap divers or marine vertebrates (Thai Diver, 2004). Compatibility of materials with the marine environment is key to creating a successful artificial reef. Materials must be chosen because they meet the goal of creating habitat for marine fish and invertebrate organisms.


Bourjaily, Phil. (February 24, 2000). Rebuilding the ocean's rain forests. Environmental News Network.

Dixie Divers. (September 2, 2004). State debates tighter regulations for creating artificial reefs. Retrieved from the Internet at

Goldschmid, A. Yip, M. (November 22, 1998). A Natural Reef System and a description of potential Damages: An overview of Artificial Reefs, Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Reefs.

Rodriguez, M. (2004). What are artificial reefs and why do we need them? Retrieved from the Internet at

Thai… [read more]

World's Oceans Term Paper

… Environmental Science

The World's Oceans

The Economic Value of Oceans to Americans

Waste Dumping in our Oceans

Oil Contamination from Various Sources

Toxins and Trash Entering the Oceans

The Depleted Fisheries

The Vanishing Wetlands

The World's Oceans: New Studies Reveal… [read more]

Oceans and Plastic Pollution the Growing Mass Term Paper

… Oceans & Plastic Pollution

The growing mass of plastic debris that is polluting many of the world's oceans is of great concern to scientists, governments, and environmentally inclined ordinary citizens -- and should be of grave concern to every inhabitant… [read more]

Features of the Ocean Floor Term Paper

… This current is the West Wind Drift.

B. The Atlantic Ocean Currents

The North Atlantic westerly winds move the water eastward as the North Atlantic Current, or North Atlantic Drift. The northeast trade winds push the water to the west,… [read more]

Effect of Plastic Debris on Marine Species Research Paper

… ¶ … Plastic Debris on Marine Species

Marine litter has been a huge nuisance to marine life and especially plastic debris. Marine debris is defined as any solid material which finds its way into the waters. This marine debris or… [read more]

Threats to Ecosystem: Cause Essay

… The problem is so bad that the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that over 25% of the world's fish stocks are incompletely depleted and that as high as 50% are totally depleted (The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA)). In fact, about 90% of the world's predatory fish are virtually non-existent (ibid).

Over fishing has direct and indirect effects, with direct effects reducing and wiping out the number and size of huge populations of marine animals, whilst indirect effects can lead to suffocation and trapping of marine animals by, for instance, nets that are left on the ocean floor. Another indirect effects includes tropic cascading effects where the sea marine level is dislodged with predators removed resulting in cascading effects throughout the marine ecosystem.

3.Global climactic and oceanographic events

Not only does increase of temperature level effect marine life, but acidification, caused by climate changes, also impedes organisms in various ways, not least to build their shells, whilst changes in cloud cover and sea ice affect the light supply to the ocean.

Climactic and oceanographic events also contribute to sea level rise and coastal erosion all of which are traumatic to marine environment and animals, leaving many animals stranded when these events occur.

Remedies have included strategies to change ocean circulation and arrange stable temperature levels; some of this is achieved by environmental modification. Program to measure change and modeling of climate change are also in effect in order that further management strategies can be developed (CSIRO.).

In all cases, recommendations for improvement can be induced by putting pressure on governments and regulatory bodies, as well as supporting companies that are environmentally conscious and increasing people's knowledge about their impact and effect on the marine environment and on how they can improve it.


CSIRO. Climate change effects on marine ecosystems report

Save Our Seas Foundation: Pollution

The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) [read more]

Oceanography What Were the Significant Contributions Term Paper

… Oceanography

What were the significant contributions of James Cook, Matthew Maury, and the Challenger Expedition? How did their contributions lead to a better understanding of oceanography?

James Cook was the first person to have a trip dedicated exclusively to oceanography.… [read more]

Oceanography Comparing Approaches Term Paper

… R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, and M. Behrenfeld (2006), A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 53(5 -- 7), 741 -- 770, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.01.028.

Duffy, J.E., and J.J. Stachowicz (2006), Why biodiversity is important to oceanography: Potential roles of genetic, species, and trophic diversity in pelagic ecosystem processes, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 311, 179 -- 189, doi:10.3354/meps311179.

Friedrichs, M.A.M., et al. (2009), Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Mar. Syst., 76(1 -- 2), 113 -- 133, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.010.

Milutinovic, S. Beherenfeld, M.J., Johannessen, A. And Johannessen, T. (2008). Sensitivity of remote sensing-derived phytoplankton productivity to mixed layer depth: Lessons from the carbon-based productivity model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23 (GB4005). doi: 10.1029.2008GB3431.

Townsend, D.W., L.M. Cammen, P.M. Holligan, D.E. Campbell, and N.R. Pettigrew (1994), Causes and consequences of variability in the timing of spring phytoplankton blooms, Deep Sea Res., Part I, 41(5 -- 6), 747 -- 765, doi:10.1016/0967-0637(94)90075-2.

Westberry, T., M.J. Behrenfeld, D.A. Siegel, and E. Boss (2008), Carbon- based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation, Global Biogeochem.… [read more]

Harmful Algal Blooms Weather Events Research Paper

… Detection tools have been innovated and implemented by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Finding and measuring harmful algal blooms is time-consuming and requires specialized labs. Generally cells are collected by boat, preserved, and then examined in a lab, so… [read more]

Invertebrate Ocean Acidification and the Disruption Research Paper

… Invertebrate

Ocean Acidification and the Disruption of Marine Ecosystems

The presence and behavior of human beings has altered the ecological balance in profound ways. The release of fossil fuels into the atmosphere, the dumping of waste into the world's oceans and the disruption of the food chain through overfishing have all contributed to a change in the quality of the world's water supplies. As the text by Pechenik (2004) reveals, a discussion concerning any waterborne species would not be complete or properly focused if it failed to address the relationship between this species' survival demands and the changes imposed upon the environment. This directs the focus of our preliminary research discussion, revealing the need for further research on the relationship between acidification of the world's oceans and the patterns of procreation and lifecycle facing waterborne invertebrates.

Research Focus Box:

The research focus is driven by Pechenik's recognition of changes in the state of the world's oceans as these correlate to human activity. Pechenik points to industrial processes and the high levels of atmospheric emission caused by an unsustainable lifestyle as the main causes for a sharp rise in the level of acidity recorded in our oceans. This, the text denotes, has significant and widespread consequences to the balance of aquatic life and species diversity. This is particularly demonstrable based on the impact that the pattern of acidification has had on certain species of invertebrate. The ocean has a vast array of amoebic species and multicellular invertebrates that rely upon the minerals natural to the water in order to perform basic survival functions. As the Pechenik source denotes, there is a direct connection between the heightened acidification in the ocean and the diminished ability of certain marine species to form the protective outer-shells that allow them to survive their environmental and predatory surroundings.

The topic as raised in the text directs our attention toward any number of possible ecological and environmental consequences that could be catastrophic not just to the invertebrates directly impacted but also to whole marine ecologies. As we proceed from the Pechenik text to consider other sources on the subject, it will be with the expectation that some evidence will be yielded to connect the particular threats against invertebrates to more general concerns over the distribution of species in certain marine habitats.

Additional Research:

These assumptions are given grounding by a bevy of research sources, most of which appear to endorse the concerns raised by the Pechenik text. For instance, the article by Science Daily (SD) (2010) confirms the connection drawn between human behavior and the increased acidification of the oceans. According to Antarctic marine biologist Jim McClintock, "Existing data points to consistently increasing oceanic acidity, and that is a direct result of increasing carbon dioxide levels in… [read more]

Oceanography Diurnal Tides Essay

… m.

8. From -2,000 feet to 14,000 feet

9. Semidiurnal

10. The difference between the low tides and the high tides increases significantly as the week progresses.

11. The greatest is approximately 2,000 feet. The least is approximately 500 feet.

12. The tides are significantly different. The disparity between the high and low tides in Florida is practically insignificant when compared to the huge sweeping difference (of at least 12,000 feet) in the high and low tides in Maine. These differences can not only be attributed to the difference in locations from the sun and the moon that these two places are on the earth, but can also be related to the ocean depth and the rotational gravity of these respective places.

13. The 11th and the 26th

14 Approximately 17,000 feet on the 26th and roughly 11,000 feet on the 11th.

15. On the third and the 19th.

16. About 3,000 feet.

17. Actually, the dates for the spring and neap tides are different in Alaska than those for Maine. This is due to the fact that the relation of these areas to the… [read more]

Earth's Ocean Surface Current Patterns Essay

… This is another example of how surface currents can influence currents at deeper levels.

The Gulf Stream also influences the world's ocean currents at the surface by creating major flows of current many times larger than the Mississippi or Amazon rivers (McWilliams and Restrepo, 1999). There are many different specific currents, namely the North Atlantic and the Canary in the Atlantic, both of which are influenced by the flows of the Gulf Stream. Surface currents are generally measured as the top 10% of the ocean's currents and extend from the surface to around 400 meters in depth (Mills, 2011). Below this depth currents are dictated by other forces such as temperature, salinity, the moon and the Earth's rotation. These currents can also affect and be affected by deeper water eddies and upwellings, which sailors and commercial boats often plan rips around due to higher or lower fuel costs specific to these areas in the ocean and their related currents (Mills, 2011). The study of currents and their effects on sea life as well as other aspects of life on Earth is relatively new, having been just recently undertaken as a direct result of the commercial and recreational actions of sailors (Mills, 2011). Currents and their side effects are not completely understood even today, as new discoveries are still being made.


McWilliams, J.C. And J.M. Restrepo. (1999) "The wave-driven ocean circulation."

Journal of Physics and Oceanography. Vol. 29, No. 1. Pp. 2523 -- 2540.

Mills, E.L. (2011). The Fluid Envelope of our Planet: How the… [read more]

Continuing Legacy of Louis Agassiz and the Study of Marine Biology Term Paper

… Louis Agassiz

The Scientific Legacy of Louis Agassiz

Though he may not be as well-known in the general populace as his contemporaries Darwin and Spencer, Louis Agassiz is responsible for some of the greatest achievements in geology, marine biology, paleontology… [read more]

Oceanography Oceanic Tides Differ Greatly Essay

… Oceanography

Oceanic Tides Differ Greatly Depending on Location

The tides of the ocean are unique to geographical location. Each individual location is affected differently by the pull of the moon and sun on the earth's bodies of water (National Oceanic… [read more]

Oceanography What New Phase of Ocean Exploration Essay

… Oceanography

What new phase of ocean exploration started in 1968 with the Glomar Challenger?

A new phase of ocean exploration was started with the Glomar Challenger, where deep water drilling / exploration become a reality. This is significant because prior to the launch of the Glomar Challenger, no one had known the age or the composition of the ocean floor. The way this was conducted was by drilling for specific samples on the ocean floor. Between 1968 and 1974, the Glomar Challenger was able to take samples from all of the various oceans around the globe. As a result, a number of different discoveries were made because of the work conducted by the Glomar Challenger to include: salt domes were discovered. This is a common element that is found where oil / natural gas reserves are located. The discoveries that were made allowed for the development of underwater oil / natural gas exploration. However, the real contribution of the Glomar Challenger is opened up the field of deep water drilling. As the different voyages were able to confirm the Theory of Continental Drift, under this theory the Earth was one single landmass. The samples taken from the Glomar Challenger was able to confirm this through the various core samples. This established how future deep water oceanic exploration would take place. ("Glomar Challenger,"2010)

What techniques are used to study plate tectonics?

The way that the plate tectonics was studied was by drilling a series of holes into various spots along the ocean floor. Then, at various longitudes a series of different samples were taken to determine the age and composition of the ocean floor. This would provide: a basic background as to how the various tectonic plates were moving closer or farther apart. (Maxwell, 1969)

What is the evidence for sea floor spreading?

There was a fracture zone that was discovered between sites 17 and 18 in the Atlantic Ocean. This was dated to be over 66 million years old and the average rate of drift is 2 cm per year. As a result, the fracture zone allowed scientists to confirm that the Earth was actually one continent millions of years ago. This also underscores the fact that the tectonic plate is still continuing to drift, signifying that as the contents are spreading farther apart and the ocean floor is following suit. The drifting that is taking place is consistent from the reading seen taken off the coast of South America. (Maxwell, 1969)

Where are the oldest ocean sediments located?

The oldest ocean sediments were located at: sites 20, 19, 14 and 17.


At what degree longitude is the… [read more]

Ocean Water Resource Issue Research Proposal

… ¶ … Ecological Balance of the Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are a system of living organisms found only in the warm benthic shallow ocean water environments along the world's coastlines. The shallow seas where the reefs grow represent just eight percent of the world's oceans, but sustain most of the life found in the sea (BBC/Discovery, film documentary, 2008). The health of the coral reefs is representative of the health of our oceans, and the health of our planet. The health of the coral reefs is impacted by hurricanes, tsunamis, drastic fluctuations in water temperatures, and the presence of mankind. It is a fragile ecosystem, but one that provides $375 billion a year in good, service and industry, and supports as many as 500 million people who are dependent upon the ocean life that can be found only in the coral reefs (Tibbets, John, 2004, p. 472). This represents a relationship between man and the environment that is co-dependent in nature; mankind must be aware of the fragility of the system that sustains him, and work to protect the coral reef environment to preserve it in whatever ways we can. Today, 30% of the world's coral reefs are damaged, and it is expected that the damage will increase to 60% by the year 2030 (Tibbetts, p. 472). This suggests the critical state of the reefs, and the logical conclusion that mankind must take whatever actions possible to negate damage to the coral reefs stemming from man's impact on the environment.

The Threats to the Coral Reefs

There is really very little that environmentalists or scientists can do prevent damage to the coral reefs from natural threats like tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes, or fluctuating changes in the water temperature as a result of the earth's natural evolutionary processes. We know that at least twice in the history of the world, the coral reefs along the coast of Australia were destroyed because of natural planetary changes. We know this, because the remnants of the dead coral reefs are found hundreds of feet below the ocean, in the abyssal zone of the benthic environment, are the remains of coral beds that illustrate changes that occurred in the water levels and water temperatures.

The threats posed by man, however, are:

Overfishing and pollution, wrote Hughes and colleagues, have been the most important causes of "massive and accelerating decreases in abundance of coral reef species." These two factors have caused widespread changes in reef ecosystems over the past two centuries, but the past few decades have seen an exponential increase in the amount of damage done (Tibbetts, p. 472)."

If we do… [read more]

Marine Mammal Impact on Fisheries Term Paper

… Sacramento Basin

The project is designed to examine the link between marine mammals and fisheries in the area of the Sacramento Delta, looking particularly to the impact pinnipeds have on the anadramous fish populations and recreational fishery in this region.… [read more]

Spread of Marine Larvae Predicted by Ocean Term Paper

… ¶ … Spread of Marine Larvae Predicted by Ocean Temperature

Marine life in the world's oceans is increasingly encountering conditions that are rendering many species near extinction. It has never been so important for scientists to understand the reproduction process among marine life. New discoveries are breaking and are being reported that will surely assist scientists in their study of the reproduction processes of life in the world's seas and oceans.

The Science Daily article entitled "Ocean Temperature Predicts Spread of Marine Species" states that scientists have the ability to predict, "How the distance marine larvae travel varies with ocean temperature - a key component in conservation and management of fish, shellfish and other marine species - according to a new study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." (2006) The data which scientists gathered came from 72 marine species and included: (1) Cod; (2) Herring; (3) American Lobster; (4) Horseshoe crabs; and (5) Clams. It is held in this article that the scientists discovered that most of marine life, to include the species that are important commercially reproduce "via larvae that drift far along ocean currents before returning to join adult populations." (Science Daily, 2006)

The process of which study has been conducted and reported in this article is one that is referred to as "dispersal." Dispersal held by scientists to be linked directly to the temperature of the waters of the world's oceans. Stated in this article is that scientists discovered that the larvae in warmer waters travel less distance than larvae in cold water. The article states that temperature has the capacity to "alter the number and diversity of adult species in a certain area by changing where larvae end up." (Science Daily, 2006) The interesting thing to note is that less than 1% of the larvae actually survive the dispersal process as most are… [read more]

Hydrothermal Vents: A New Way to Monitor Term Paper

… Hydrothermal Vents: A New Way to Monitor the Earth's Core

Deep sea-thermal vents are an important part of life on our planet. These unique areas of the ocean provide an oasis for life on the sea floor that are supported… [read more]

Mortality and Loss Processes in Phytoplankton Term Paper

… Mortality and Loss Processes in Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton are members of the autotrophic that that are usually found on top-most parts of bodies of water. They are oftentimes floating over the seas or rivers. The name itself comes fro a Greek… [read more]

Geography Oceanography Term Paper

… Finally, recent discoveries about the geography of the ocean floor have profound implications for the study of biology. The discovery of biological communities that do not require oxygen or light to sustain life, found around hydrothermal vents, has profound implications for the study of how life on Earth may have begun (WHOI, 2005).

At one time the ocean was viewed as being both simple and possessing an endless ability to absorb whatever we threw into it. The study of oceanography, with the in-depth knowledge developed about its currents and underwater geography, have profoundly changed how we make use of it (Pidwirny, 2004). Because of our increased knowledge of oceanography, we now have international treaties governing countries' use of it.


College Board, The. 2005. "Oceanography," in CollegeBound. Accessed via the Internet 1/10/05.

Pidwirny, Michael, Ph.D. FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 2004. Online textbook accessed via the Internet 1/10/05.
WHOI. 2005. Career Profiles: Oceanography. Accessed via the Internet 1/10/05. [read more]

Kinsler Defines Acoustics Term Paper

… (Pacific). In case of rough or "back of the envelope" SNR calculations, ambient noise lvel (NL) is deducted from the sound intensity level with this equation:


When the reading is higher than 0 dB (decibels),… [read more]

Activities Along Coastlines: Positive Vs.Negative Research Paper

… Current Event in Physical Geography

The article by Cornelia Dean "The Aftermath: Costs of Shoring up Coastal Communities" discusses the issues of environmental conversation among populations living next to the sea. Many countries enjoy enormous continuous coastline as compared to… [read more]

Environmental Impacts of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Term Paper

… Environmental Impact of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

On March 11, 2011 a massive 9.0 earthquake occurred 311 miles off the cost of the Japan. This was one of the largest seismic events to hit the country (triggering a tsunami with wave… [read more]

Behavior of Concrete in Rivers Dissertation

… Included in this are the kind of concrete use, the cover depth chosen for reinforcement, the overall on-site implementation and managerial practice as well as the intensity and harshness of exposure (Castro et al., 2001).

River atmosphere signifies the atmosphere… [read more]

Migratory Cetaceans and Their Relation Essay

… Migratory Cetaceans and Their Relation

To the Trophic Level they Feed within the Foodweb

seasonal migratory patterns of 3 species of whales; is the global primary production pattern evidenced in VGPM maps related to their seasonal migration?

What are cetaceans?

Cetaceans are Mammalian Order Cetacea, and include whales, dolphins and porpoises.

The Cetaceans are further separated into two major subgroups: the Mysticetes, the baleen whales, and the Odontocytes, the toothed whales, which includes the smaller dolphins and porpoises. General morphological characteristics of Cetacea are: the fusiform shape of their body (i.e., spindle shaped); their forelimbs are modified into flippers; whereas their hindlimbs are completely vestigial (i.e., not attached to backbone, and hidden within body); their tails have horizontal flukes; they breathe from a dorsally oriented blowhole, a reduced nares resituated on the top of head; they are nearly hairless -- with only a few bristle like whiskers surrounding lips of young; and they are insulated from cooler ambient ocean by their layer of blubber. Some species are noted for their intelligence, and complex group behavior, remarkable communication, and even songs.

2) Choose three marine cetacean species, which are migratory from NOAA Protected Resources List.

1) Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus. E/D (denotes endangered / depleted stock)

2) Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae E/D

3) Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus E/D

3) Briefly describe the migratory patterns of each species.

1) Gray whale migration:

There are two isolated geographic distributions: the North Pacific Ocean group (visible off the coastal waters of Oregon). And the Korean North Pacific group.

The whales summer in the rich feeding grounds of the Bering and Chukchi Seas, southeast Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and northern California. They use their ballen to filter feed the copepods, also known as krill… [read more]

Solar Radiation Spectra in Ocean Water Essay

… ¶ … Ocean Water Modifies and Influences Solar Radiation Spectra

There are a multitude of complex factors that influence the absorption of solar radiation by ocean water, including two very specific laws involving the amount of light transmitted through a… [read more]

Fate of Carbon in a Seagrass Dominated Ecosystem Literature Review

… Fate of Carbon in a Sea Grass Dominated Ecosystem

Perhaps the most pressing concern for the world is the rising rate of global warming in the 21st century. Many discussions have taken place on the global front to discuss the… [read more]

Desertification of Coral Reefs Essay

… Geography

Desertification of Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are under threat worldwide. An estimated 58% of reefs are classified as threatened and 11% of the original amount of coral reefs has already been lost. The makeup of remaining coral reefs is… [read more]

World Religions and Ecology Research Proposal

… Rachel Carson -- Under the Sea-Wind

Under the Sea-Wind is not Rachel Carson's best-known book; her most heralded book is Silent Spring. But Under the Sea-Wind, her first book, is very well written and contains a wealth of solid environmental… [read more]

Job Application as a Licensed Mate Application Essay

… Job Application

As a licensed mate, I have 337 sea days worth of experience. I have worked on four different ships as an Officer in Training. These ships included container, break-bulk and passenger vessels, both diesel and diesel-electric. Each of… [read more]

Ballard's Telepresence Project to Unlock Undersea Secrets of Gulf Marine Sanctuary Term Paper

… Ballard's Telepresence Project To Unlock Undersea Secrets Of Gulf Marine Sanctuary

The article concerns the latest projected effort of Dr. Robert Ballard and a team of scientists. This team has been assembled to explore the NOAA Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary undersea area, located about 114 miles from the Texas/Louisiana coast. Its attraction for research relates not only to its unique geology and biology, but also to the fact that it could be explored for evidence of earlier human habitation than has been found to date. The sea level was much lower during the ice age, and it is estimated that the area under investigation could have been the site of early human settlements during this period.

Another focus of exploration will be the protective cover the area provides for animals that travel between gelogic features - what the article refers to "hidden highways" between the Flower Garden Banks and other reefs and banks.

The expedition is to last for one week, with… [read more]

Endangered Species Green Sea Turtles Term Paper

… Endangered Species

Green Sea Turtles are an endangered species of reptiles, one of the few animals to have seen the mighty dinosaurs grow extinct. Sea turtles are as old as 200 million years, and are now on the verge of… [read more]

Effect of Red Tide on Manatees Term Paper

… Red Tides and Manatees

The Effect of Red Tide on Manatees

The manatee population of Florida has suffered devastating effects not only from the fishing and boating industry, but the re-occurrence of the red tides has killed large numbers in… [read more]

Landforms Barrier Island Beaches Term Paper

… ..

a Roads

b Latitudes

c Elevations

d scale of distances e Man-made structures

84. The cartographic technique by which points on the sphere of the Earth are transferred to points on the plane surface of a map is ...… [read more]

Human Effects on Coral Reefs Term Paper

… "National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

'Things You Can Do to Help Save Coral Reefs." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"Threats to Coral Reefs." University of the Virgin Islands. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005)

'U.S. Coral Reef Task Force." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

'What are Corals and Coral Reefs?" NOAA's Coral Reef Information System. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"How Old are Coral Reefs?" The Coral Reef Alliance. Available: (Accessed 24 Jan. 2005).

Fujita, Rodney M., Epstein, Mark S., Goreau, Thomas J. And Gjerde, Kristina. "A Guide to Protecting Coral Reefs." 1992. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"What are Corals and Coral Reefs?" NOAA's Coral Reef Information System. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"Importance of Coral Reefs."National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).



Bryant, Dirk, Burke, Lauretta, McManus, John and Spalding, Mark. "Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indictor of Potential Threats to the World's Coral Reefs." 1998. World Resources Institute. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"Threats to Coral Reefs." University of the Virgin Islands. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005)

"Bleaching: A Coral Survival Strategy." StudyWorks! Online. Available:,,NAV4-43_SAR1147,00.shtml (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005)



Bryant, Dirk, Burke, Lauretta, McManus, John and Spalding, Mark. "Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indictor of Potential Threats to the World's Coral Reefs." 1998. World Resources Institute. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

Fujita, Rodney M., Epstein, Mark S., Goreau, Thomas J. And Gjerde, Kristina. "A Guide to Protecting Coral Reefs." 1992. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).

"EPA Activities in Coral Conservation." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

"U.S. Coral Reef Task Force." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

"EPA Activities in Coral Conservation." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

"Things You Can Do to Help Save Coral Reefs." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005). [read more]

Coral Reefs Their Status, Purpose Term Paper

… Many scientists recognize the extreme value of the reefs, and are attempting to save them not only for their great contribution to the ocean ecosystem, but because of their great beauty. One scientist writes,

Delicate purple sea fans, blood-red sponges, spiny pufferfish, poisonous scorpionfish, giant clams, yellow-lip snakes, and giant manta rays are just a small sample of the fascinating residents that awe visitors from the terrestrial realm. Iridescent fish dart between the intricate coral formations. For their beauty alone, reefs rank as one of the greatest treasures of the planet (Weber).

Studies have shown a variety of ways to help conserve the reefs, including "controlling poor land-use practices that spill mud, nutrients and pesticides into coral reef waters; managing fisheries through quotas and fishing-gear restrictions; reducing tourism impacts; and establishing marine protected areas" (Wolanski et al.). While some recent studies have shown many reefs have the ability to regenerate themselves, most scientists believe a more concentrated effort must be made to save the world's coral reefs, and the many benefits they provide.

In conclusion, coral reefs provide numerous benefits to the world's population, from providing jobs and protection during storms, to chemicals that may help cure certain forms of cancers (Potera 207). Therefore, the reefs must be protected from chemical and sewage runoffs, and other forms of destruction by humans. The coral reefs are certainly beautiful places to visit and explore, but even more importantly, they form part of the ocean's backbone, and many creatures depend on them for their survival.

Saving the reefs must begin now, so that future generations can reap the benefits of the reefs, and enjoy their elegant beauty.


Chepesiuk, Ron. "Stressed Reefs May Get Relief." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.9 (2000).

"Coral Reefs." The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. 2000.

Ekman, Sven. Zoogeography of the Sea. Trans. Palmer, Elizabeth. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1953.

Potera, Carol. "Is Sewage Destroying Coral?." Environmental Health Perspectives 111.4 (2003): 207.

Weber, Peter K. "Saving the Coral Reefs." The Futurist July-Aug. 1993: 28+.

Wolanski, Eric, et al. "Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs:… [read more]

Ocean Pollution Term Paper

… All in all, marine pollution affects marine populations all over the world, and some face extinction because of it. To save the marine populations, strict pollution guidelines have been developed in some countries.

The Clean Water Act, first passed in the United States in 1972, was a major step forward in protecting the world's oceans. Since its' passage, the Act has been updated several times, the last in 1996. The Act contains measures regulating dredging, dumping, wastewater discharge, and more. While the Act has helped clean up the oceans, there is much more to be done.

People already feel the consequences as damaged marine systems stop delivering myriad "free" services. Islands wash away during storms. Formerly stable shorelines sink and erode. Tropical nations watch tourism and fisheries decline with the coral reefs that sustained them. The quality and quantity of seafood is diminishing, imperiling over one billion people who depend on it for their daily protein needs (Woodard 35).

Along with the Clean Air Act, many local communities are taking clean water into their own hands, enacting legislation to protect and limit pollutants in watersheds feeding into oceans.

In some regions, ocean life is damaged by pollution originating hundreds or thousands of miles from shore and delivered to the sea by rivers and streams. For these places, an integrated watershed management regime will probably be the only effective strategy. From a marine perspective, a watershed strategy should take steps to limit river-borne pollution and contaminants to levels acceptable to marine life (Woodard 233).

Local activists have also created programs to help endangered mangrove groves in Florida, endangered delta areas in Louisiana, and Gulf of Mexico pollution in states bordering the Gulf in the Southern U.S. Local "grassroots" programs are often extremely successful, because they recognize immediate local pollution problems, and offer specific results.

Many countries are also developing Marine Protection Areas. Some act as a kind of "wildlife sanctuary," protecting all the life in the area from any kind of fishing or commercial activity. Others are similar to National Parks, where some kinds of activity are allowed, but it is highly regulated and monitored.

Most are zoned for multiple uses, with different activities or types of fishing allowed in each area, but usually under an umbrella of strong legal protections against industrial activity such as pollution, seafloor mining, or offshore energy projects. Many extend onto the land to include mangroves, wetlands, or seabird nesting sites. Whatever the form, they provide vital ecological anchors for the surrounding ocean (Woodard 234).

Most countries that have created these protection areas have found them to be successful. Fish living in the protected areas are larger and more plentiful than those living in unprotected areas. These protected areas also serve the scientific community. Scientists can study baseline marine animal populations so they learn more about normal populations, and how pollution can affect them.

In conclusion, pollution of the oceans is not just a national issue. Over 70% of the globe is covered in oceans, so… [read more]

Outlaw Sea: The Lawless Term Paper

… According to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) "Piracy and armed robbery attacks against ships rose 14% in the first nine months of the year compared to the same period in 2006, the second consecutive quarterly increase in attacks, as the coastal waters off Nigeria and Somalia became ever more dangerous" (Piracy attacks rise 14% as Nigerian and Somalian coasts become more dangerous, 2007, ICC). However, there have been some success stories such as the Strait of Malacca: "while piracy in Africa has become a major international security concern, the problem in the strait has been almost completely eradicated" (Schuman 2009). The reasons for this success may provide instructive for future endeavors: cooperation was a key element of the defense against piracy. Singapore, Malaysia Indonesia, and Thailand collectively pooled resources to undertake coordinated sea patrols and share information to better police the Strait. Later, policing by air was better enforced. Finally (which was not specifically due to the governments' efforts) the Indonesian territory of Aceh where many of the pirates had come reached an accord, giving pirates the possibility of seeking legitimate economic opportunities" (Schuman 2009). Less fertile conditions for piracy and better chances for other forms of employment resulted in the Strait of Malacca becoming almost free of piratical attacks, despite its status as a previous hotbed.

Thus, the eradication of piracy is not an impossibility. However, nations must be willing to coordinate and share information to work together. There must be a mutual acknowledgement of a common interest in maritime safety and the protection of ships that pass through international waters: all legitimate forms of commerce will suffer if there is a risk of pirates attacking crews and preventing economic activity. International and legal regulations are not enough to alone create a disincentive for desperate people and criminal organizations to engage in piracy.


Barise, H. (2005). Somalia: Where pirates roam free. BBC. Retrieved:

Langewiesche, William. (2004). The outlaw sea. New York: North Point Press.

Piracy attacks rise 14% as Nigerian and Somalian coasts become more dangerous. (2007). ICC.

Retrieved from:

The roots of piracy in Southeast Asia. (2007). APSNet Policy Forum. Retrieved from:

Schuman, M. (2009). How to defeat pirates: Success in the strait Time. Retrieved from:,8599,1893032,00.html [read more]

Managing Fisheries and How Perceptions Reaction Paper

… Safina relates how salmon are first born in the rivers which are freshwater bodies but then some months or maybe years the salmon head toward the ocean traveling in some cases thousands of miles before they reach their destination. What once was a strength for the salmon, breeding in freshwater, is now a threat to them, because there is little in the way of food in the freshwater bodies due to the activities of human kind in expansion and industries.

IV. More than Two Sides to the Story

The statement that there are always two sides to every story does not encompass the many views and perspectives of those involved and affected by the activities of the fishing industries. While certainly conservationists and fisheries are at odds, Safina relates an example of other opposing views relating the Montauk Captains and Boatmen's association president, Joe McBride who has time and again requested the reduction in the number of young bluefin tuna that the Fisheries Services allows each boat to kill per day. However, in this case, McBride is not actually a conservationist but instead, he owns a fishing charter boat and he simply wants the fishing season to last until the migration of the fish for winter but since the limitation has not been put in place, the quota for the season is reached at the height of the season and then the fishing season abruptly ends as does his fishing charter income.

Summary and Conclusion

This example clearly demonstrates that the views and perspectives on the oceans and the life they support are varied and diverse however, there is one undeniable thing that all views and perspectives have in common whether they acknowledge it as such or whether they fail to acknowledge the fact that without the oceans and the life supported by the living oceans, the human race would soon perish as well. That one fact alone should be the common thread that binds all individuals, activities, industries and livelihoods into a common cause and that being doing the least ecological and environmental damage to the world's oceans possible. It is this precise message that Safina so eloquently and passionately relates in his work on the world's oceans. The truth is that there are signs that it may already be too late for many of the ocean's species of fish and marine animals.


Safina, C. (nd) Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas, Henry Holt and Company.

Norse, EA (nd) Review of the book "Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's

Coasts and Beneath the Seas,' by Carl Safina. Retrieved from:

"Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas" (nd) Carl Safina. Retrieved from: [read more]

Living Under the Sea Creative Writing

… ¶ … ocean as a hostile environment -- a place that is determined to put an end to human life and where it would be impossible for someone to feel 'at home'. However, living far from land for tens of years provided me with the opportunity to 'understand' the ocean and it practically feels that I speak with it as I dive into the water. All my senses are numbed as I enter the blue salty environment and I almost feel that I become one with the world as a whole. It would be difficult for me to describe the exact feelings going through my body as I am underwater, but all that I can think about there is the fact that this unforgiving environment provided me with the opportunity to interact with it, smoothly massaged my body as I dived, and made it possible for me to understand that I needed to respect it in order to be respected.

Being underwater provides me with a colorful show of light, as if the ocean wants to teach me more about its past, its present, and its future. I am but a mere episode in this never-ending film and the outside world seems to stop for a second when I am submersed. I am virtually transported to a whole new society, a community that is just as civic as the one standing on dry land but that is much more concerned about the natural world.

Sound is also from a very different dimension underwater. I no longer focus on my breathing or on my heartbeats as I am provided with the opportunity to hear what I consider to be a loud form of silence. Everything moves slowly and rapidly at the same time here. Conventional laws are no longer of any… [read more]

Sea Floor Hydrothermal Vents and the Sea Life Research Paper

… Hydrothermal Vents

Life in the ocean is hard enough. Yet, life a mile down is even harder. Hydrothermal vents are open fishers that stream hot water, minerals, and nutrients from the earth's core. These open cracks on the bottom of… [read more]

Sailing Destinations Web Content

… Sailing Destinations

Vounaki, Greece

Vounaki is located on the west coast of Greece, at the foot of the Arkanika Mountains. The Vounaki marina is said to be a relaxed, beautiful and restful small port venue, made even more dramatic because… [read more]

Sea Around Us Rachel Carson Essay

… It has also inspired people to take steps to further the protection of these spaces. One such group, the Sea around Us Project, has embarked on a massive investigation into the fishing industry and how fisheries impact marine life and the ecosystems which are disrupted by human intervention (Pauly 1). This research has led to quantified data which shows how the fishing industry negatively impacts marine ecosystems, particularly for mammals who survive by feeding on the fish which are being harvested for human consumption. The project's founders state that they began investigating marine biology and the potential danger to the marine ecosystem because of the writing and publication of Rachel Carson's book. The lasting effects of Carson's book have shown exactly how important a text it was.

Among the other critics who have cited Rachel Carson as an inspiration for their own research is Philip Cafaro, who founded a principle of what he called "environmental ethics" based on Carson's text and The Sea around Us in particular. Part of her text involves the mysteries of the deep and how people have negatively affected the natural world. Cafaro and others have picked up on this aspect of her text and used it to begin some further investigations into how much of her research is valid and how those results have changed since the publication of the book. Before Carson's text was published, few people considered the potential ramifications of the harvesting and over fishing of certain areas or certain species. After its publication, everyone involved in any industry which impacted the natural world had to rethink their actions and to reevaluate whether or not they were behaving ethically. Not that the question of ethics stopped everyone.

In recent years, there has been something of a backlash against Rachel Carson, not so much because of The Sea around Us but for some of her more vehement protests against chemicals like DDT which has led to illness and death in some third-world countries. However, with this backlash has also come a reinvesting of interest in The Sea around Us. Although some of Carson's books have been the subject of hindsight criticism, this one text still functions as an history of the sea and a chronology of the technologies that have gone into the investigation of the sea.

Works Cited:

Cafaro, Philip. "Thoreau, Leopold, and Carson: Toward an Environmental Virtue Ethics." 22.

2001. 3-17. Print.

Carson, Rachel. The Sea Around Us. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 1991. Print.

Pauly, Daniel. "The Sea Around Us Project: Documenting and Communicating Global Fisheries

Impacts on Marine Ecosystems." AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 36:4. 2007. 290-297. Print.

Robertson-Lorant, Laurie. "Revisiting Rachel Carson's The Sea around Us." South Coast Today.

Dow Jones. 2010. Print.

"Water Encyclopedia." Carson,… [read more]

Western Interior Sea Kansas Research Paper

… ¶ … Western Interior Sea is the name given to the seaway that split the North American continent in the cretaceous period near the end of the age of dinosaurs. Estimated to exist between 65 and 100 million years ago… [read more]

Saltwater Intrusion and Salinization Research Paper

… Ecology

Saltwater Intrusion and Salinization

Approximately two thirds of the world's population lives within 400 km of an ocean shoreline. The majority of these coastal regions depend on groundwater as their main source of fresh water. As the world's population continues to increase, fresh water supplies are continually being depleted, which brings with it issues like saltwater intrusion. This increases the importance of groundwater monitoring, management, and conservation (Pump/Recharge Rate Affects Saltwater Intrusion, 2010).

Saltwater intrusion is the provoked flow of seawater into freshwater aquifers principally caused by groundwater development near the coast. Wherever groundwater is being pumped from aquifers that are in hydraulic connection with the sea, induced gradients are causing the migration of salt water from the sea toward a well, making freshwater wells not viable. Due to the reality that fresh water is less dense than salt water it floats on top. The border between salt water and fresh water is not distinct. The region of dispersion is found to be saline because of the mixing of salt water with fresh water. Under normal circumstances, fresh water moves from inland aquifers and recharge areas into coastal discharge areas. Generally, groundwater moves from areas with higher groundwater levels to areas with lower groundwater levels. This ordinary movement of fresh water towards the sea avers salt water from getting into freshwater coastal aquifers (Pump/Recharge Rate Affects Saltwater Intrusion, 2010).

Saltwater intrusion and salinization occurs when there is an enhancement of chloride ion concentrations in freshwater aquifers. This occurs mainly along coastlines, although there have been reports of salinization occurring inland. Saltwater intrusion has several causes, a number of which are natural and some which are a result of by human actions. Once saltwater intrusion has happened, it is almost impossible to turn around, which makes it a significant threat to freshwater resources. Mitigation strategies are put into place in order to slow or halt the rate that saltwater intrusion occurs (Ryan, 2008).

One of the natural reasons for saltwater intrusion comes from storm surges that are caused by hurricanes and other tropical storms. In these cases, tidal flushing is recognized to remove some of the established salinity in the freshwater marshes before substantial damage happens. In areas that are not close to tidal flushing along with areas where rainfall does not flush the salt water from the water table, there is substantial damage that occurs to the freshwater systems. Human made saltwater intrusion occurs in a number of different ways. One way is by dredging canals in coastal zones that allow saltwater to move even farther inland than it had been able to previously (Ryan, 2008).

One of the most remarkable forms of saltwater intrusion happens in coastal areas that are reliant upon groundwater for their potable water and irrigation needs. The most widespread situation involves the over pumping of the freshwater which reduces the chief difference at the saltwater-freshwater edge and… [read more]

Unique Properties of Water Essay

… Properties of Water

According to the definition provided by Merriam Webster, water is defined as being:

An odorless, tasteless, very slightly compressible liquid oxide of hydrogen H2O which appears bluish in thick layers, freezes as 0oC and boils at 100oC, has a maximum density at 4oC and a high specific heat, is feebly ionized to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, and is a poor conductor of electricity and a good solvent.

Water has several unique properties that make life possible on earth. First, water is the only natural substance that is found in all three states, liquid, solid and gas, at temperatures normally found on earth (Riley, 1). Second, water has an extremely high heat capacity. Third, water has the highest surface tension of any liquid found on earth with the exception of mercury. Each of these properties affects the functioning of living things.

Water is found in on earth in its liquid, solid and gaseous state. Water reaches a solid state at 0oC. In its solid state, water has a defined shape, taking on the shape of the container in which it was frozen. Water also has a crystalline internal structure and is less dense than its liquid counterpart, which is why ice floats on water (Riley, 2). As a liquid, water has no definite shape but takes on the shape of its container. Water is a liquid between the freezing and boiling point temperatures of 0oC and 100oC. At 100oC, the boiling point, water turns to gas. Like water, gas has no definite shape, but assumes the shape of its container.

This unique property of water molecules makes life on earth possible for several reasons. First, "all known biochemical processes occur in aqueous environments" (Riley 7). For example, photosynthesis requires water and energy from the sun to produce carbohydrates. Photosynthesis creates oxygen, which is necessary for survival. Secondly, the fact that water can exist in three separate states at once is important because heat is transferred through the evaporation and condensation of water. The redistribution of heat energy helps keep the earth cool enough to maintain life (Pidwirny 1). Life on earth is possible because of water's ability to exist in three different states simultaneously.

Water has an extremely high specific heat capacity. Heat capacity is defined as being "the amount of energy required to change the temperature of a substance" (Pidwirny 1). This property allows water to absorb enormous amounts of heat before it begins to grow warm and allows it to release heat gradually when it begins to cool. The high heat capacity of… [read more]

Quote From Ludlow Research Proposal

… ¶ … Psychometric Theory

"If it exists, it can be measured; if it can't be measured, it doesn't exist. "

-Ludlow, 1996

That expression of professor L.H. Ludlow is actually an idea suggested much earlier by Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) and to even earlier arguments, such as those of Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911), for whom a strong case could be made that he was the first psychometrician (Ludlow, 1998). According to Ludlow (1998), Galton specifically argued that being "subjected to measurement and numbers" is a fundamental prerequisite for qualifying any branch of knowledge as a form of science. In some respects, Galton's original formulation is more accurate than subsequent versions of the same basic suggestion as expressed by Thorndike and Ludlow.

The only neat way of reconciling Thorndike and Ludlow's stronger absolute statement with Galton's suggestion is to assume that the absolute position is meant to apply only to the distinction between phenomena that are capable of accurate analysis and those that exist, but defy analysis. With that assumption, the Thorndike/Ludlow position is both consistent with that of Galton and it represents phenomenological objective reality. However, without that assumption, it would seem that the Thorndike/Ludlow formulation is inaccurate and susceptible to disproof.

The principal difference between the broader Galton concept and the much narrower Thorndike/Ludlow position is that the former does not refute the existence of that which cannot necessarily be measured. It merely suggests that until phenomena can be confirmed through objective measurement, it cannot possibly be understood and its observation cannot be regarded as a science (Ludlow, 1998).

The literal interpretation of Thorndike and Ludlow's expression is that phenomena that defy measurement cannot exist. That conclusion is rather easily refuted at the macro level of ordinary matter by the existence of vast oceans and beaches bordering such large bodies of water. At the micro level, the Thorndike/Ludlow position is definitively disproved by various elements of quantum physics (Feynman, 1995; Hawking, 2002).

Consider the prospect of measuring the exact number of all of the water molecules in the Atlantic Ocean. Even at the simplest level where, for the sake of argument, one ignores the fact that water molecules on the surface of the ocean continually evaporate into the atmosphere as water molecules fall from the sky in storms elsewhere along thousands of miles of intercontinental distances, the precise measurement of the number of water molecules in the ocean defies calculation.

Even if one could focus on a precise instant in time, computing the exact number of the water molecules in the ocean would be impossible. That is a function of the irregularity of the shape of the… [read more]

Remote Sensing Can Be Utilized Term Paper

… Radiometric sensitivity: This is the sensors ability to differentiate the reflectance or the remittance of the spectral radiation from various predetermined targets. This however depend s on the various quantum levels that exists within a certain spectral band.

Problems with… [read more]

Turtles the Surprising Thing About Essay

… Turtles

The Surprising Thing About Turtles

Almost everyone has seen a turtle, and not just on that also happens to be a pizza-eating Teenage Mutant Ninja. A lot of people keep small turtles as pets, both indoors inside terrariums or… [read more]

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