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Analyzing Plan for Legal and Ethical Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … pressure groups and consumers appear to have been placing demands on firms to look for more ecological and ethical means of conducting business. The media too appears to be focusing on abuses and malpractices in the corporate sector. The firms themselves seem to be more aware of the fact that being ethical or creating a perception of being… [read more]


Analyzing the Diversity Plan Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (784 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Diversity Plan Demands Leadership Involvement

Along with all serious organizational objectives, the chief executive of a firm and his executive team should be in agreement with the inclusion and diversity plan, as well as take it as a personal responsibility to ensure its success. Quite frequently, diversity is perceived at different organizational levels as an issue that is purely and solely the HR department's concern that needs to be combined with other nonessential "feel good" initiatives. Senior managers, thence, hardly ever adopt a laissez-faire approach to things apparently critical to their company's bottom line, such as development of a novel brand; entering new markets; or a key cost-cutting initiative. In the contemporary marketplace, human resource is the sole powerful organizational competitive advantage.

Therefore, it will be in the top management's and the overall company's best interests if they lead a diversity program, whilst simultaneously ensuring the workforce understands the practical significance of workplace diversity to their overall business success. Leaders must model what is expected of workers, provide an explicit vision, and hold people accountable. That is, they need to play all parts just as they would for any other crucial bottom-line strategy (Hyter, 2005).

Core Components of Diversity Plan

Hiring/Recruitment: Policy must clearly identify deliberate, concrete outreach/recruitment strategies geared at reaching every target worker group. Additionally, training, guidelines, or orientation materials for HR employees and managers engaged in the hiring process must expressly address non-discrimination, and equity, while interviewing and hiring candidates.

Job Training / Advancement: Company diversity policy must provide for unbiased access to advancement and training opportunities everywhere in the organization, in addition to targeted resources directed at markedly under-represented worker groups, as required. Furthermore, training protocols can include an element that explicitly fosters respect and sensitivity towards fellow workers.

Social Activities and Spaces: Diversity policies, more frequently, deal with access to official opportunities like promotion and hiring, but might overlook inclusion of diverse personnel in organizational social activities, networking opportunities, and access to resources and spaces for socialization. However, as networking and social opportunities have normally been associated with advancement opportunities, being excluded from social centers, groups, media, etc. can negatively impact people's career opportunities.

Job-task Composition and Structures: Areas to be considered include ascertaining work practices and norms do not disadvantage or exclude specific employees, or foster an unfriendly, cold environment. Moreover, diversity policies must encompass concrete…… [read more]


Scholarly Research on LGBT and Workplaces Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

LGBT

McFadden (2015) provides a systematic review of 30 years of literature on how LGBT workers are impacted by their workplace experiences. As McFadden notes, in the various studies conducted over the course of the three decades, there have been various voices and experiences that have touched on distinct themes, such as "identity, sexual orientation discrimination, career/identity overlap, and social issues" (McFadden, 2015, p. 125). What McFadden finds in his analysis of the literature on LGBT in the workplace is that over this period there is insufficient research into the topic -- but that more interest is beginning to show, as LGBT become more mainstream and accepted in society (mainly as a result of positive appearances and portrayals in popular and mainstream media). Thus, because of this trend in popular culture, academics are analyzing with more focus the actual reality that LGBTs experience in the workplace.

McFadden essentially gives an overview of the history of research conducted during the past 30 years and shows which "unique experiences and factors affect an LGBT person's career and workplace experiences" as well as how research has been conducted on this topic over the same period of time (p. 126). The subject of LGBT in the workplace is therefore examined by the researcher from the standpoint of HR development, HR management, gender/sexuality, sociology, psychology, etc. -- which is a much more encompassing study compared to other studies that "focus on only one or two disciplines" (McFadden, 2015, p. 127). McFadden thus takes a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject and discovers, by using a filtration system (for selecting and examining articles), that major themes could be distilled from the literature of the timeframe and used to better understand the issues that LGBTs have faced in the workplace over the past 30 years. McFadden's filtration system consisted of an 84 article "initial study" followed by a 179 article "pilot study," a 145 remaining article "categorization" process, and finally the literature review. The initial study was composed of a broad keyword search, using filters and noting synonyms for streamlining the search string; the pilot study utilized the search string and altered it to grow results; the remaining articles were then categorized according to form criteria, relevance, and quality; and finally a literature review was conducted by identifying main themes, extant research, research gaps, and features of the literature. Of the 263 articles identified in the initial and pilot stages of the systematic review, 18% of the articles appeared in psychology-based scholarly journals, 17% in gender and sexuality-based scholarly journals, 16% in careers journals, 12% in HRM journals, 8% in sociology journals, and 4% in economics journals (McFadden, 2015, p. 133). Likewise, the number of publications spiked post-2000 and peaked at 31 in 2010, showing a significant increase of attention given to the…… [read more]


Analyzing Strategic HR Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

Strategic HR Plan

Company Background

Values, Vision and Mission

Organizational Structure, Stakeholders, Roles and Responsibilities

PESTEL Analysis

Organization's Market, Competitors and Customer Base

Desired Company Culture

Identify Relevant Legislations, Regulations and Codes of Practice

Develop A SMART Objective For Each Strategic Business

Identify Critical Success Factors (4-6) and Key Performance Indicators

Identify Risks Which Should be Included in a Risk… [read more]


Managing Employees to Counter Absenteeism Turnover and Boosting Productivity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … HR Department

Direct costs refer to all the expenses, labor, and materials, which are related to the production of a certain product. For the production of a certain product to be successful in a company or a firm, various expenses related to the product should be incurred. Some of the direct costs incurred by a manufacturing company in the process of production include manufacturing supplies, direct labor, direct materials, commissions, and piece rate wages paid to employees (Kehoe & Wright, 2013). When a company incurs a direct cost as required in the process of production, it will be successful, but if the direct costs are mismanaged, it will lead to losses. For example, the labor services offered by the employees to the company are very important. However, serious shortages of labor services and losses will be experienced if the are frequently absent. The company should ensure there is no absenteeism unless the employees have a resinous reason to be absent.

The company benefits from frequent training offered to the employees who provide labor to the company in the process of production. Frequent training will ensure that the employees are updated on the frequently changing technology that is applied in the current production process. Besides, the training will ensure that the company produces quality products, which will sustain the competition posed by other products supplied by other companies in the market. The employees can also address any problem relating to the production process if they are well trained.

Indirect costs are those expenses, which cannot be directly attributed to the production of specific products in the company. Some of the indirect costs incurred by various companies in the process of production are depreciation costs, insurance, quality control costs, and salaries related to production supervision. Every stage should be well coordinated so that quality is not compromised (Oh et al., 2015). These are services provided by qualified supervisors employed in the company. In the process of recruiting supervisors, the company should select employees who will provide quality services. While seeking to motivate the employees, every organization should provide insurance cover to the staff. In such cases, the employees will feel that they are part of…… [read more]


Analyzing Trends in Workplace Hrms Role Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,474 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Workplace: HRM's Role

Trends in Workplace: HRM's Role

Trends in Workplace

HRM's Role

The HRM is responsible for many essential roles in organizations (the main ones are described below). Other department managers, over and above their core competencies and assigned responsibilities, also carry out some of these functions (Dias, 2012).

Staffing

One of the major HRM roles in… [read more]


Article on Training Personality Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Personality Traits and Career Satisfaction in Training and Development Occupations: Toward a Distinctive T&D Personality Profile (Sundstrom, Lounsbury, Gibson, & Huang, 2015)

This article examines the potential for personality traits to link with training and development occupations and work success in modern organizations. The authors use the "big 5" personality traits, openness, consciousness, neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness, to see if any of these correlate with training and development competencies.

"Based on person -- career fit theory, we hypothesized that the trait profile would differentiate T&D from other occupations, and the traits would correlate with T&D career satisfaction (Sundstrom, Lounsbury, Gibson, & Huang, 2015)."

Basically, the authors are applying some of the techniques that can be used in various training and development tools to the actual profession itself and examines what personality principles might correlate to success in T&D occupations.

There have been several studies that have found that various personality traits can correlate to job performance in different situations. The authors state that only a couple studies have actually examined some of the aspects of personality that specifically apply to the training profession and therefore this work attempts to contribute more knowledge to that end. It can be important that work performance, career satisfaction, and career stability all reflect the fit of an individual's personality and work environment and this has been verified by various studies. There have also been other frameworks developed such as the ASA (Attraction, Selection, Attrition) Framework that proposes that employees will typically select organizations in which their personalities fit with, and if not, poor fits will typically seek other organizations.

One of the traits that the authors hypothesized will be likely to be correlated with competencies in training and development is the agreeableness personality…… [read more]


Analyzing Employee Compensation and Benefits Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Employee Compensation and Benefits

The compensation/benefits package is for a newly hired secretary in a consultancy firm. Data will be derived from local and national averages for the post of Secretary, when planning the new recruit's incentive, benefits and compensation package (Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2014).

Overall Compensation = Base Pay + Company Paid Benefits + Other Cash benefits

Pay

Base pay: $40,000

Salary: $40,000

Other Income Total $2,200

Holiday $100

Annual Bonus $1,200

Performance Bonus $900

Company Benefits

Benefits

Company Contribution

Your contribution

Insurance Benefits Total

Health Insurance

Dental Insurance

Short-Term Disability

Long-Term Disability

Life Insurance

Flexible Spending Accounts

Colonial Short-Term Disability

$8,020

$6,967

$577

$133

$250

$4,916

$2,986

$250

$1,000

$680

Retirement Benefits Total

Social security

Medicare

401K

$3,384

$2,554

$580

$250

$4,134

$2,554

$580

$1,000

Time Off Benefits Total

PTO

$3,538

$3,538

$0

$0

Mandated Benefits Total

Federal Unemployment

State Unemployment

Worker's Compensation

$1,752

$56

$184

$1,512

$0

$0

$0

$0

Special benefits Total

Transportation Benefit

Fun Friday Food Fests

Cell/PC/Technology

Education/Training

$2,320

$600

$200

$600

$920

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

Benefits Total

$19,015

$9,050

Source: Sample Employee Compensation Statement (2010)

Total compensation = $40,000 + $2,200 + $19,015 = $61,215

There are numerous federal laws regulating different kinds of benefits and compensation. Every organization in the social sector ought to adopt a scheme of compensation in line with organizational mission, and which aids the company's HR objectives (Walker, White & Johnson, 2012).

Wages: A majority of organizations, irrespective of their size, are regulated by state as well as federal hour and wage laws. State and federal hour and wage laws are slightly different from one another, and organizations are required to abide by both. The 2 key requirements of federal hour and wage laws are in relation to: (1) minimum wage payment and (2)…… [read more]


Literature Assessment of Changes in Management Studies Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … human resources was to use various search engine and scholarly databases online and to type in keywords like "human resources trends," "current trends in human resources," and "recent advancements human resources management," plus "management trends." I searched for more recent articles in every case so as to have the latest literature on this subject, which is evident in the works selected for review.

Jacqui, L., Cairncross, G., Lamont, M. (2014). Inducting and training Generation Y

volunteers: a sport event case study. Proceedings of the CAUTHE 2014: Tourism and hospitality in the contemporary world: trends, changes and complexity. Brisbane: University of Queensland: 363-374.

The purpose of this works is to show why it is necessary to understand what is important and valued to the next generation of workers who are raised within a culture that has taught them motivational cues. The study highlights that certain communities want to be valued for what they give to their organizations and that demonstrating strong EI on the part of management can lead to better commitment and employee retention within the organization. The audience is anyone in management positions. It is unique because it focuses on why developing EI depends upon understanding the motivational cues that the young generation's community has instilled in it. Its strengths are in assessing cultural cues and it had no weaknesses or apparent bias.

Larcker, D., Tayan, B. (2015). How important is culture? An inside look at Keller

Williams Realty. Rock Center for Corporate Governance at Stanford University Closer Look Series: Topics, Issues and Controversies in Corporate Governance No. CGRP-48. Social Science Research Network.

The purpose of this article is to examine the critical aspect of workplace culture within the environment of Keller Williams Realty and show that by incorporating a system of virtue ethics in line with servant leadership principles, the program to incentive its agents through profit-shares and highly-touted educational programs like Ignite and BOLD, KW has risen to the top of its class in terms of acquiring agents and developing training programs. The audience is anyone interested in building a solid workplace culture. It is relevant because it addresses a current trend in organizational culture. Its strength is in assessing that KW has more agents for the reason of its strong culture than any brokerage in North America.

Liden, R., Wayne, S., Liao, C., Meuser, J. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5): 1434-1452.

This work's purpose is to discuss the aspects of servant leadership that are essential in providing this style and approach. It is relevant because it is a leadership style that can gel with human resources which is devoted to serving. Its strengths are that it emphasizes the need to conceptualize and to assess the needs of others and to put them ahead of…… [read more]


Analyzing Customer Service Training Class Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Customer Service Training Class

Justify the use of a needs assessment of your company's proposed employee customer service training, stressing five (5) ways in which such an assessment would expose any existing performance deficiencies

A needs assessment is imperative for every company as it enables the company to address and take into account the gaps or needs between prevailing conditions… [read more]


Process of a Dismissal Meeting Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,480 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Managers can adopt a number of strategies to help cope with any negative feelings that might accompany an employee layoff. Strategies managers choose are meant to soothe any uncomfortable emotions ranging from compensation of laid off employee with attractive severance packages (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014, p. 519), hiding from those they have laid off, looking for support from colleagues or… [read more]


Analyzing Team Based Approach Training Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Team-Based Management Approach

Training matters the management is bound to encounter

It has been observed that successful teams have their members or leaders spending 20% of their first year pursuing teamwork and team building activities (Rochelle, 1999). A study conducted in 1992 found the following practices among high performing organizations.

Essentially,

Integrative role of training is emphasized.

They know the strategic purpose of training staff, suppliers and even the customers

They spend relatively more money than other organizations (Vander Linde, Homey, & Koonce, 1997, p. 21).

Training is increasingly playing an integrative role in high performance business set-ups. Training is the stimulant that influences cultural change, job redesigning and progressive improvement processes. Training enhances the resilience of an organization and the core competencies in a practical sense. These success attributes are vital for an organization that seeks to out-compete others in a rapidly changing and turbulent business world (Vander Linde, Homey, & Koonce, 1997, p. 28)

Team building takes strategy and deliberate effort. It is not possible to lump people in one large workplace space and expect them to work in harmony. Team-based set ups that attain results usually conduct their own requisite training and support. It entails coaching employees on how to sail through hard times. They should adopt an effective, efficient, and professional approach even when matters seem grave in times of hardship and conflict.

The process may involve offering open discussion forums, virtual team spaces and aspects of technology used for the betterment of processes and people. These tools help team members to be in constant, easy contact and interact with each other; even when it is not possible to meet them in one physical location. The task of goal-setting and assessment of the performance of teams is not as easy as it seems. HR leadership, along with employees, should find out ways to inspire each employee and focus them towards team objectives and Goals. Some companies use team evaluation and individual performance index. Other organizations use the team based incentive payout that has the advantage of rewarding each member of the team when the team…… [read more]


HR Technology Trends and Uses Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

HR Technology: Trends and Uses

HR Technology/HR Technology: Trends and Uses

The Human Resource Information System is a system that brings together information used in the process of human resource management. It is a dynamic system developing even today and is estimated to be worth $15 billion (Rouse, 2015). Some of the processes brought together by the HRIS include formulating and implementing payrolls, recruiting employees, tracking time worked by staff, appraising staff, managing benefits among others.

Technology related to Compensation

One system that automates the compensation process and which incorporates various incentives is the COMPOSE system. It is a system that can be manipulated and thus adapted to various organizations. It enables the firm to acquire well suited employees even as it focuses on achieving its goals (Deucosoft, 2015).

This system gets rid of the physical work involved in calculating incentives and bonuses that are complex as it can accommodate them. It gives great flexibility so that various complexities in compensation can be accommodated. It focuses on bonuses, merit and incentives. It allows the firm to use different plans, structures and various calculations (Deucosoft, 2015).

Manage Total Cost of Ownership

COMPOSE by Deucosoft enables the company to have autonomy in the process. The user can configure it as much as possible. This system allows the user to own it in terms of incorporating as many changes as they wish in terms of changing compensation plans and structures. Deucosoft provides support all the way to ensure smooth use of the software (Deucosoft, 2015).

VIP Service

The company offers a software designed by industry professionals in service for the past twenty years. These professionals have served in the fields of technology and human resources. It has people who have been in the company for nearly a decade. They thus offer service that is of value to the industry.

Technology related to Employment Systems and Services

One software available for employment systems and services is the Epicor Human Capital Management (HCM). It is a system that results in lower costs for companies, improved efficiency and processes. This system accommodates information on employees from the point of recruitment to the point of retirement. It allows one to track the employees, for example, from the point of engaging them, tracking their attendance and even managing their benefits. This system automates all these processes thus reducing paperwork and tedious processes of filing and manually updating records. It enables the firm to track employee performance and measure it against organizational goals. It also allows for the analysis of applicants to positions so that the best are engaged (Epicor, 2015).

HRIS Deployment Options

Epicor HCM can be availed through various options such as a solution provided on site, one provided as a service, and even one that is hosted. It protects the data that is…… [read more]


Training and Hr Exercises Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Training

The icebreaker should be a relaxed social situation with no pressure, a place where people can start to form friendships and get to mingle with myself and other trainers. Creating a quasi-social situation is going to require food, so I would suggest that the orientation start with breakfast and coffee. This will allow people to get settled before we move into the training session. This time will provide a buffer in advance of their training, a moment to gather themselves and get ready for the training to come. The key is that we will feature a selection of inventive foods that are unusual -- no using the regular caterer -- and we will bring in a professional barista for a coffee tasting. This works better when people drink caffeine, of course, but that is most people. The principle is simple -- you take the most universal things in the world (food and drink) and you present people with variants of these that are interesting, a little bit out of the usual, and ask people to talk about them. If you are tasting coffee from Ethiopia, New Guinea and El Salvador, ask people what the differences are between them? There's no right or wrong, people are probably going to want a nibble and coffee anyway, and we have an opportunity just to start discussing in a no-pressure environment, but one that is engaging and illuminating.

This form of icebreaker is more effective than invasive "tell us stuff about yourself" icebreakers that can put people on their back feet by demanding that they reveal personal details about themselves before they are ready. Those are recommended a lot by extroverts but that's only half of the population. In most cultures, food and drink are the main icebreakers that people use, so food is not only the most culturally sensitive method but it allows people to open up at their own comfort level.

Once the training begins, some activities will be valuable for a couple of reasons. First, they help break up classroom time, so that people's blood is flowing a…… [read more]


Hr Role in Org Change Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,029 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Human resource development change would be, by definition, change in the way that human resource development is conducted within the organization. More likely, this paper is supposed to be about how human resource development can contribute to organizational change. Noel and Dennehy (1991) note that organizational change usually begins with some form of strategic shift, and that this may require a change in some elements of human resource strategy. A good example of this would be with a company like Eastman Kodak, whose mature industry changed dramatically with new technological innovations. Almost overnight, that company needed to start innovating, and at a pace to which it was entirely unaccustomed. By not engaging human resources in a new strategy, Kodak has seen a sharp decline in its business. If HRD had been engaged, in particular re-training existing employees, changing the incentives for employees, and putting greater emphasis on hiring, an organizational change program could have been much more effective.

Human resource development practices have a number of impacts on the ability of an organization to implement an organizational change. The areas that HRD governs -- career development, training, reward and recognition, and communication -- all influence the readiness of an organization for change. Kumari and Mishra (2009) note that a plan for continued organizational development, if implemented proactively, will increase an organization's readiness for change. This is essential in today's rapidly-changing global business environment. People who are in an organization, or who arrive at the organization, should be indoctrinated into an environment of constant training, of identifying talent that is capable of managing this new operating environment, and finding ways to get those people through career development programs so that they hold key positions during times of organizational change. Ultimately, change happens quickly, and an HRD strategy that is responding to the need for organizational change will not be capable of executing that change fast enough -- the lag time for things like hiring, training and career development is months at best, and normally years, while the need for organizational change can arise in a very short amount of time.

Sociotechnical systems theory argues that the "interaction of social and technical factors creates the conditions for successful systems performance" (Walker, et al., 2008). Human resource development influences both of these elements. Organizational change is implemented most effectively when the systems that underpin the organization are aligned with the nature of the change. An organization that wishes to change an aspect of its operations thus needs to ensure that the technical skills exist within the system, and that the social environment is well-suited to the change. Both are influenced strongly by human resources development. On the technical side, both recruiting and training are key elements in ensuring that the organization has the technical abilities to transition in the manner that the external environment demands. By anticipating the skill sets that will help the organization to transition, and ensuring that the organization is possessed of those skill sets, the human resources department plays… [read more]


How to Privatize Airport Security Screenings Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Aviation Security and Screening

The federalization of airport screening has led to a "federalized Transportation Security Officer workforce that screens passengers and baggage traveling on passenger aircraft" as well as a number of other new additions to the way that flights are conducted all over the nation (National Strategy for Aviation Security, 2007, p. 5). These other additions include new… [read more]


Human Resources in a Modern World Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Employment Ethics Sentence Outline

Religion at Work

The implications and considerations of infusing God and the United States military as well as how this has changed over time

The implications and considerations of other government agencies and religion in the workplace

Real-world examples would include the Kim Davis situation in Kentucky and the Hobby Lobby battle over the contraception mandate in the Affordable Care Act

Accommodations for religions practices and items such as garb, prayer, food menu considerations and so forth

Religion at private institutions is much more loosely regulated but there are some lines that cannot be crossed lest a lawsuit or some other upheaval occur

e. Battles over when religion and discrimination seemingly or definite intersect

An example would be a Christian cake-maker not baking a cake for a gay wedding

Affirmative Action

a. There are some that say that affirmative action is needed to right prior wrongs against blacks and/or women

i. Slavery and subjugation has happened on a large scale since the arrival of Columbus in 1492

b. There are others who say that picking anyone based on race is never right, regardless of the motives involved

c. There have been some notable work- and college-centered lawsuits regarding this subject and how far it can and should go

IV. Hiring of Felons

a. Many people take a hard line and will not hire felons

b. Some of their concerns are valid as the employer could be sued for negligent hiring and incur damages to the business if the person recidivates

c. EEOC and others have claimed that felons need to be reintegrated into society and that using criminal background checks with too much weight is unlawful

d. The use of criminal history checks to screen out applicants tends to have disparate…… [read more]


Accuracy of Performance Reviews Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (1,117 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Performance appraisals are a vital part of the employee management and retention process. It is a vital part of human resources because it helps establish who is performing well, who is just getting by, who needs improvement and who needs to go. The test case of the sixty-four-year-old woman that is really not performing as she needs to be is one of those examples of a situation where the truth is possibly not being told as a means to avoid confrontation and problems. If that is indeed the case, the current supervisor needs to stand up and be assertive yet constructive. While the employee in question may not react kindly or otherwise well to being told that her work is substandard, whitewashing what is going on will benefit no one and the employer has not only a right but a legal and ethical responsibility to keep everyone held to the same standard.

Analysis

There can only be one of two things, really, that could be going on with the sixty-four-year-old woman. One possibility, although unlikely, is that there was a different yardstick being used by the prior supervisor. If that were the case, it is entirely possible that the employee may have met the required and minimum standards for the review periods in question. However, the woman's reputation for being combative and nasty when is told she is not doing well is probably the real reason for her passing reviews in prior quarters or years. The more likely scenario is that the prior supervisor was more interested in keeping the peace rather than telling the woman what she needed and deserved to hear.

This is a bad idea on a number of levels. First of all, if a different proverbial yardstick is being used on employees in the same or similar situations, that alone is a recipe for disaster. The best case scenario for something like that is that the other employees, her direct colleagues in particular, will not notice. However, there is a strong chance they notice just fine. Further, if those colleagues are getting passable reviews, they will surely wonder why the test case in this report is not getting flogged, from a figurative standpoint, at review time. Third, the woman in question has absolutely no right or privilege to be nasty or overly emotional when she gets feedback that is negative yet constructive. It would be one thing if the supervisor was using negative and incendiary language to describe the woman or how she does her job. However, if there are standards she is not meeting and it can clearly be shown that this is the case, the employer has every right to point that out. An obvious reason for this is that using a different set of standards for different people could cause upheaval in the department/employer. Even worse, it could cause a lawsuit. For example, if a black woman got a negative review and the woman in this case got her usual passable review despite… [read more]


Job Analysis Under Cover Boss True Value Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,319 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Job Analysis/Description

The CEO and president of "True Value" (among the world's biggest hardware cooperatives), John Hartman, resorts to his individual undercover talents from back when he was an federal agent to evaluate/investigate the condition of his workers and company (Undercover Boss S6 E1 -- True Value2014). During the course of his "investigation," he uncovers unprofessional pickup artist antics by one of his workers which shocked him. Working in disguise as "Louis Lapresi," Hartman takes on several jobs in different departments of his firm to get a closer perspective, including working as a forklift driver, retail sales associate, and as a receiver in one of the firm's distribution centers (CBS, 2014).

Job Overview

Forklift operators

The forklift operators move goods in forklifts around sites such as factories, storage yards, construction sites, and warehouses. The forklift has a hydraulic lifting system, and has forks for carrying heavy goods. It may seem easy doing this kind of work; however the work can be quite tediously repetitive and thus tiring. Driving a forklift is not just stepping on gas pedals and driving around. It requires concentration for long periods and definitely involves a lot of hard work. The forklift cannot lift everything and so one may have to carry heavy objects, bend forward, kneel, or crouch in awkward, difficult positions. Working a forklift is classified as a hazardous occupation. The job is prone to accidents repeatedly as the case is with any big machine. However, accidents can be avoided by taking appropriate safety measures and operational procedures. One also needs to be always on the lookout and aware of their settings so as to ensure their own safety as well as that of their co-workers (Forklift Driver Job Description, n.d).

The forklift operator will be in charge of the movement of received products, inter-warehouse transfers and outbound items in a way that satisfies the industry's quality, accuracy, productivity and safety standards. One is charged with the mandate of processing and assisting all outbound and/or inbound, picking, packing, stocking and other warehouse functions. He or she should also be able to assist in ensuring inventory accuracy and informing management of any mismatches. A forklift operator to improve the inventory outcomes also performs stock alignments when necessary. The operator can also be assigned to grounds keeping and to make sure the trash is collected and discarded properly to make the warehouse clean and attractive to the employees and customers as well. Qualifications that are required for one to be employed as a forklift include: a valid driving license, a clean background and he or she must also pass drug tests. The driver should also have a professional appearance, attitude, and excellent written and verbal communication skills (Warehouse Worker/Forklift Operator, 2014).

Sales Associate

A retail sales associate essentially works towards making sales for the company. He or she can work in any production business ranging from selling shoes to selling houses. A salesperson needs to have a comprehensive understanding of the goods they are selling, should… [read more]


Solving an Issue of Low Productivity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … RadioShack: Low Morale and Low Productivity / Solving an Issue of Low Productivity and Low Morale in Radioshack

Radioshack is a company that deals in electronics. It is experiencing low productivity as well as low employee drive. For this reason, the information had been gathered via online surveys and studies so as to enhance the general drive and… [read more]


Role of Current HR in Ford Company Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Human Resource Department and Function of Ford Motor Company

The Ford Motor Company, often referred to as Ford, is one of the biggest motor vehicle manufacturers in the U.S. and has branches and outlets that are globally spread and thru vehicles have an international appeal to diverse markets, permeating diverse cultures and different economic status. Ford has products that are suitable for the premium price consumers as well as the customers who are on a tight budget but would love to drive a Ford.

The main theme of Ford is to go further to make their cars better, their employees happier and the plangent a better place to live in. the business approach is such that it targets to make great products and strengthen their business and also benefit the communities around them (Ford, 2015a). This is what drives the entire Ford fraternity, from the administration, through to the manufacturing, marketing and the human resources management among other departments.

There is need therefore to ensure that the HR strategy is in alignment with the above business strategy. The central and most important thin to do is to ensure that the HR department is organized in such a manner that it takes an active part in the strategic planning of the organization. This is because within the organization, it is the human capital that gives leverage to all the other departments and run the organization.

Yet the other way of aligning the HR with the business strategy would be to change the hitherto administrative look at the department into one that focuses on compliance and value creation through efficiency creation in al departments in Ford. The top management needs to see the HR as a commodity that brings value to the organization rather than an administrative norm. This way, the HR will be more directed towards value creation for the organization.

The HR system also need to the formed in a manner that it is aligned to the business strategy of Ford. The employees that are within the organization needs to be trained by the HR department to be strategically focused in line with the business strategies, and the new employees need to be valued on the basis of how well their values are aligned to the values of the organization. The various tenets that make up the HR department like hiring, training, reviews, compensation must then be formulated in a manner that brings the maximum value to the organizational business strategy and make the human capital of more value than before.

The Ford HR system will also need to be more technologically oriented in that the wastage in terms of resources and man-hours are significantly cut down through use of cheaper alternatives that are technologically improved. With such changes and technological improvements, the HR will be in a better position to play a more strategic managerial role and in effect position the HR in a better place to contribute to the business strategy of the organization.

HR job… [read more]


HR Interview About Culture Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (4,123 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20

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Globalization represents a phenomenon that is responsible for many people being exposed to new cultures. In today's global economy, many people often take job opportunities overseas and find themselves in an entirely new culture. Sometimes people can be exposed to culture shock if the culture is too alien to them. This analysis conducts an interview with a HR manager in… [read more]


Human Resource Strategies to Manage Workforce Diversity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,559 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Human Resource as it Relates to the Workplace

Human Resource Strategies to Manage Workforce Diversity

HRM plays a significant role in the development and implementation of organizational initiatives meant to manage workforce diversity. The significance of HRM focuses on empowering a diverse workforce to participate fully in organizational decision making. The inclusion of a diverse workforce in an organization life… [read more]


Problem With the Ocean Cleanup Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,172 words)
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Plastic in the Ocean

A gyre is a large system of rotating currents within the ocean. There are five major currents/gyres that often associated with the movement of the wind. The author of this article, Stiv J. Wilson, is responding to a recent proposal known as the "Ocean Cleanup Array." The idea of this proposal is to have barges line the radius of the five gyres and let the currents bring the massive amounts of plastic in the ocean to them, collect it (clean up the ocean), and recycle it. The person proposing this solution, Boyan Slat, pretty much outlines a relatively simple solution of harvesting plastic and also states that such a harvest would be safe and not harm life in the sea. Slat estimates that it would take at least five years per gyre to effectively cleanup the plastic. At least part of the cost can be recouped by recycling the estimated 7,250,000,000 kg of plastic in the ocean.

Wilson views the proposal as a way to simplistic. He basically states that the problem is much more complex and that the proposal simply proposes that we just go collect the garbage like garbage collectors. Wilson says this will not work for several reasons and he offers the following problems with this proposal:

1. No serious scientist or policy action believes that these "gyre cleanup programs" (the Ocean Cleanup Array is not the first such program) are realistic because they give the impression we can continue to consume and litter and just clean it up.

2. The ocean is too big, the currents to unpredictable, and to try and sit at the ends of the gyre is far too dangerous for this solution to be practical. When efforts similar to the Ocean Cleanup Array been tried they did not work as the crews had to abandon their efforts.

3. Despite the notion that life would be spared in such a cleanup, this is not true. Plankton move with the current, other animals that feed on plankton follow the plankton, and animals that feed on them follow the current. More realistic looks at these proposals indicate that this would be dangerous to animals.

4. The idea that recycling the plastic is a feasible method of recouping some of the cost is totally unrealistic based on how much actual money could be recouped, the difficulties collecting plastic, transporting it to recycling centers, etc.

Many aspects of Wilson's critique to the proposal are realistic and his acclamation of how plastic breaks down in the ocean, examples of where similar efforts have not been able to work out, and so forth are convincing. Wilson does not dispute the fact that the pollution of the oceans with plastic is a major issue that has serious ramifications in the future. Wilson clearly points out that the so-called "garbage patches" of plastic collected as the currents move are not simply there for the taking. This would be an expensive and dangerous undertaking and it is doubtful… [read more]


Prose Piece Describing Barton Fink Image Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Barton Fink

Sitting on a wavy, white, sandy beach; he has a puzzling look of bewilderment on his face. The man does not fit in, as he is wearing a rumpled blue shirt with a tie that is hanging down in front of him. He has on maroon socks that are matching the style and image of his suit. The tie is of a stripped blue and white pattern which is running in a horizontal angle. On his wrist is a cheap and aged black watch. ("Barton Fink OST," 2012)

The man has dark bushy hair which is unkempt and wavy. The wind is blowing on the beach and has caused it become very messy while he is sitting there. He is wearing black horn rimmed glass and has an appearance of bewilderment or indifference on his face. The event is taking place in the late afternoon with a dark shadow hanging over his left side (in between himself and the box). The box appears to be in an old case that is wrinkled and worn. There is a dark, tan colored zipper on the side (which is closed all the way up). This is something that is of value to this man. He keeps it closely to him and does not engage in any kind of actions to illustrate carelessness in this aspect. ("Barton Fink OST," 2012)

The atmosphere is one of excitement and relaxation on the beach. However, this individual appears to have deeper thoughts about what these events mean to him. At the same time, he is disconnected with the environment around him and the atmosphere of the scene. This causes him to be out of place by not having the same kind of dress, manner or demeanor as someone who is typically at this location. ("Barton Fink OST," 2012)

The box is creating a sense of curiosity about the contents of what is inside. This based upon the fact that is he is using a rumpled, protective and tan colored case in order to safeguard it and everything inside. Moreover, he is keeping it in close proximity to his body and can quickly reach for it, if something happens or he needed…… [read more]


Self-Reflection: Writing the Proposal Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (1,208 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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While examining this issue, one of the major research problems and complexities was developing the appropriate research questions to analyze the problem. This complexity was partly fueled by the seeming inability to locate resources that could help in developing the paper. In this case, there was a huge need to develop research questions that were specifically targeted on the topic rather than questions that are broad in nature and perspective. This process was also complicated by the need to develop the questions in light of the global trend in fisheries catches and the causes of overfishing across the globe.

Integrating Available Information:

The second major research complexity and problem is associated with the need to integrate the available information on the issue. The complexity of integrating the available information on the problem is attributed to the lack of studies and documents that specifically focus on overfishing in the Pacific Ocean. The need for integrating available information originated from the need to combine information on the global trend of fisheries catches with information of overfishing in the Pacific island region. As a result, the development of the research argument mainly involved the integration of information rather than focusing directly on the topic.

New Perspective:

While the process of writing the papers has been accompanied by several struggles and research complexities and problems, engaging in this process has enabled me to gain new perspectives on the issue of overfishing. This process has enabled me to glean insights on the causes of overfishing worldwide and the trend of fisheries catches in the Pacific island region and globally. In this case, I have learned that this problem is mainly attributed to the rising food insecurity in the world, especially because of global warming. As a result of the increase in food insecurity, many people throughout the world are increasing turning to fish populations in order to meet their need for food. As more and more people are turning to fish populations, fisheries catches are increasingly rapidly to an extent that the issue of overfishing is one of the major threats across the globe together with global warming and terrorism.

The other new perspective I have gained through engaging in the research is the reason why Pacific island nations are the most affected countries by increased overfishing in the Pacific Ocean. In this case, I have learnt that these nations are mostly affected by the practice because they depend on the fisheries catches not only for food but also for economic reasons. In light of these perspectives, the process has enabled to discover that there is increased need to adopt measures that could help in addressing the issue. Notably, dealing with the problem of overfishing in the Pacific Ocean requires concerted international efforts to help in ensuring that fish populations are not over-exploited and promote their sustainability.

In conclusion, engaging in this research has helped me to identify writing practices and skills that I should improve in future papers. These practices and skills that I… [read more]


Sandro Boticelli Sandro Botticelli Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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This occurs through utilizing brighter tones that will highlight something new taking place. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Texture -- actual or implied?

An implied texture is constant. This is showing the various subjects and their poses. Yet, the individual is not able to physically touch the people. Instead, they have to use their imagination in order to have a better understanding of what is happening. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Principles of Design

Unity and Variety

Unity is used to show nature and the different characters that are coming together to support these changes. Variety is depicting various people and life forms. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Balance -- how is balance created?

A symmetrical balance is showing what is happening. This is taking place through illustrating various subjects engaged in specific activities. While asymmetrical elements, are continuing to remain the same (creating balance between the real and supernatural worlds). ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Emphasis and Subordination -- what is the focal point?

Emphasis is the primary focus. This is designed to highlight the events that are unfolding and excitement. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Directional Forces -- do lines or repeated elements create paths for the eyes to follow?

The directional forces are providing lines for everyone to follow. This occurs by illustrating Venus in the foreground and others off to her side. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Contrast -- any variation of value, color, or scale, for example, creates contrast.

The contrasts will take place through highlighting brighter colors in conjunction with darker tones. At the same time, the subjects are larger in comparison with others in the background. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Repetition and Rhythm

The rhythm of the work is to show larger sizes in the foreground and then have the images become smaller. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Scale and Proportion

The scale of the images and proportion, are larger in the front of the painting. They decline in the middle (with the trees). Then, decrease even further at the ocean and sky. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Analysis

The visual and principle elements are designed to show how two different worlds are coming together. To illustrate the significance of these changes, the images are used in contrast with one another. This creates a greater understanding of the birth of Venus and what she represents. The form is highlighting these transformations and what is happening.

References

The Birth…… [read more]


Old Man and Sea Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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These people are like bokeh in a photograph: they are essential to the composition of the film but they are blurred and have no individual identity. Our focus remains firmly on the Old Man. Yet the framing is not to done to develop a theme that pits man against his fellow man. It is to reveal the great paradox of alienation: that being alienated from human beings can create a greater sense of belonging in the universe.

The second instance of framing comprises the climax and denouement of the film. The Old Man wants only to prove to himself, and the boy he cares about, that he retains the ability to catch fish. Catching the marlin is a symbolic endeavor and event. The Old Man is now contrasted against nature. Whereas his alienation from society raises sociological questions, his alienation from nature raises existential questions. What is the Old Man's relationship with the Sea? What kind of spiritual framework does the Old Man work with? The filmmakers capture the essence of the existential arguments by placing the Old Man in scenes revealing the intensity of the ocean. He struggles with the marlin for days; both he and the fish are tenacious. The fish is not his enemy, though. In struggling to capture the fish, the Old Man is more intimately bonded with the creature than he is with any human being. The filmmakers depict the relationship between the Old Man and the Sea as resolving the central paradox of alienation. Alienation is far more visceral when the man is isolated from his fellow human beings. With the Sea, the Old Man can really prove himself. The sea of humanity offers no such challenge to the Old Man, which is why he has no qualms about not fitting in with his fellow sailors. The young boy represents the continuation of the Old Man's values: his preference for deep introspection over the shallow pursuits of a materialistic life.

Reference

Sturges, J. [Director]. The Old Man and the Sea. 1958…… [read more]


Fish: A Love Story? Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  4 pages (1,535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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"

And so it was that Olivia Trout, cherished daughter of Antonio Trout, was ransomed from the Barracuda Boys for fourteen sand dollars and seventy five shells.

"And now to tell Olivia the good news!" smiled Oscar.

Unfortunately, when Olivia heard the good news

"You ransomed me from the evil Barracuda Boys for a lousy fourteen sand dollars and seventy five shells!"

She ran away again.

The end

Well not exactly for you see Olivia moved to a different sea where she lost her figure and became very heavy. It is said to this day that fishermen will travel hundreds of miles to admire her girth and try to lure her out of the sea. She is very happy with all the attention.

Oscar started a chain of fast food krill restaurants for migrating whales and became very, very wealthy in his own right.

Ironically, the Barracuda Boys ended up on the menu of the best seafood restaurant in Wichita, Kansas and the sardines took over their water. Now they are the most feared gang in all the sea.

Wally went on to a successful career in Hollywood disguised as a tuna. He changed his name to Charles and became very famous making commercials.

And Antonio met Gladys in a therapy group of widowed Pisces. They fell madly…… [read more]


Carothers, Courtney. "Equity and Access Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Lodge, Michael W. "The Practice of Fishing Entities in Regional Fisheries Management Organizations: The Case of the Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Oceans." Ocean Development & International Law 37 (2006): 185-207. Print.

Certain nations have balked at being included in international organizations that attempt to maintain the sustainable management of migratory fish. Taiwan has been neglected by these organizations because the thought was that their influence was small and because Taiwan has been reluctant to succumb to the edicts of the different organizations. The author of this piece argues that Taiwan needs to be include since they do have a large fishing fleet which can cause great damage to the efforts of the current organization's convention, and because making the nation a partner will allow them to have important input.

Overt, Robert. "Overfishing Threatens Pacific Tuna Stocks." Pacific Islands Report. Pacific Islands Development Program/East-West Center, 11 April 2006. Web. 04 Oct 2012. http://archives.pierpoint.org/archive/2006/April/04-11-com.htm

The author writes that many species of large ocean fish are disappearing quickly. This article gives numbers to support the notion that swordfish, tuna and shark populations may be decreasing at levels never seen before. Up to 90% of the volume of fish seen in 1950's may now be gone. The culprit is the technological ability of fishing vessels to stray farther from shore and stay out longer. The article also discusses some of the recent measures that international organizations have taken to mediate this decline such as working with Pacific island governments to self-regulate. This particular stance has proven difficult though because the governments are poor and need the fishing license fees to survive.

Wild, Susan. "Sustainability Reporting in Fishing Industry Management -- Regulation vs. Volunteerism." Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal 2.3 (2008): 57-70. Print.

Countries, industries and individual businesses are said to be very interested in following a current economic model that supports social and environmental well- being. However, when such programs interfere with the economic good they often take a "back seat." The author looks at these types of programs, which are voluntary, versus actual legislation, both national and international, which would compel responsibility. The article finds that allowing entities to govern themselves has resorted in unsustainable overfishing in many areas of the Pacific Ocean. The issue is that, in the past people have not been willing to voluntarily act; they have needed government intervention to do so. The author looks at the probability of several different programs that would encourage people to act in a voluntary manner to arrest their overfishing activities rather than have the government regulate them further. This solution would help maintain the fisheries and give the fishermen…… [read more]


Durability of Pre-Stressed Concrete Seawater Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (4,012 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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, 2003).

Chemical resistance

Pre-stressed concrete is one of those few materials that can not only withstand very harsh temperatures but it also has the ability to resist harsh chemicals to a great extent. This is the reason that pre-stressed concrete is one material that is very frequently used to build the transportation and treatment facilities for highly aggressive chemical… [read more]


Drilling Specialist, There Are Various Rig Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (663 words)
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¶ … drilling specialist, there are various rig types, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The success and improvement of drilling technology often means that drilling can occur in increasingly deep ocean waters. In relatively shallow waters, the professional has the choice between a built platform or a jack-up rig. The advantage of the latter is that it can be moved to different locations, as desired. In deeper water, the rig cannot practically be placed upon the seabed. Instead, a floating device such as a semisubmersible rig or a drill ship is used. These devices float, but contain stabilizing devices to help the rig remain in place while drilling takes place. In more recent times, the tension-leg platform has been developed, which is fixed to the sea-bed with cables. Op to 5000 feet of water can then stand bewteen the rig and the sea-bed without significant problems.

The drilling rig contains several components, creating a technologically sound environment for drilling while also ensuring the safety of the personnel involved. Like the drilling rig in general, these have been developed over time, in keeping with drilling technology. At the top of the rig, there is the crown and crown block. The traveling block is about halfway down the rig, underneath which the standpipe and swivel are found. The rotary hose is connected to the swivel and standpipe. The Kelly connects these to the turntable lower down, which in turn is connected to the conductor pipe and drill pipe, which goes into the borehole. The bit is at the bottom of the drill pipe and is most directly connected to the borehole being drilled. To the right hand side is a pipe rack. To the left are the draw works and engine, as well as fuel/water tanks. The mud pump and mud pit are next to the draw works.

Generally, drill rigs use the block and tackle system. The crown block is connected to the drum and dead line anchor by means of…… [read more]


Long-Term Effects of Adverse Nature Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (833 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Coral reefs on the beaches and on the shallow floor of the ocean are shattered posing a threat to the planktons that use them as sources of shelter and food. Oil spillage has also had continued effects in the fauna and flora undersea. The oil well drilled to the sea floor cause leakages from which many environmental bodies have been trying to deal with but with no avail. Some beaches along the Indian Ocean coastlines also suffer flooding and beach erosions (Ramalanjaona, 2011, pg 2).

The economies of Japan, Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia among others are still suffering economy loss due to derailment of some industries and tourism that are dependent of the coast. Japan, that collects a lot of revenue from fishing suffered and still suffers the recession. Fish in the Japanese territorial waters has exceedingly translocated to different ecological niches away from Japan, making it now expensive to look for fish in other territorial waters. Countries like Madagascar, Kenya, and Tanzania among others suffered a great loss by losing a bigger population of tourists. Infrastructure, constructions and other vital economic developments have been affected. These economies are still struggling to upraise their standards, improve disaster resilience and to achieve their 2030 millennium economic visions.

Poverty levels in the nations along the Indian Ocean have steadily increased. A lot of property, houses, public amenities, income, and wages is a continuing implication of the adverse effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean disasters. A lot of employment, both self and company, has been lost making it hard for the affected to find new sources of income. A lot of coastal slums have also sprung up as a result of the harsh calamity (Powers, 2004, pg 23).

Future of disasters

There is a patent call from international bodies to help these developing nations to curb the existence and the possibility of having other disasters such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes and tsunamis resulting from the ocean. Proper policies are being currently implemented such as the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (IOTWS) for bordering countries for the management of such disasters. The Integrated Regional Information Network program (IRIN) is also being implemented to assist the islands in managing natural disasters and putting in place proper warning systems so as to alleviate the long-term implications (Ramalanjaona, 2011, pg 3).

References

Ramalanjaona, G. 2011. Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned. Emergency Medicine International. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-3.

Daly, P., Feener, M.…… [read more]


Difficulty of Life Explored in Synge's Riders Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Difficulty of Life Explored in Synge's Riders To The Sea

The difficulty of human experience is often overlooked in today's Hollywood culture. Even I the movies, we escape reality to watch unrealistic movies about love, success and life in general. Every so often, society needs to be reminded about the harshness of life. Riders to the Sea by John Synge is a play that jolts audiences back into reality by focusing on death and mankind's inability to control the elements around him. The blackness of death and the recklessness of fate are themes that make the play naturalist in its approach.

Death is a major theme in the play because it surrounds Nora. The play is short and Mora's focus never changes. She realizes the sea has consumed all of the men in her life and it is sure to take Bartley as well. Death is so powerful, it ruins the existence of this family. There is no joy and there is no hope. The men are fishermen by trade and danger awaits theme as they take to the sea. This aspect of the play highlights the conflict between man and nature. The action of the play indicates man cannot win when he is pitted against nature. Man cannot fight death and, in the end, we see how Nora and Maurya must comes to terms with it and we see how she does this with her words at the end of the play. When she says, "There isn't anything more the sea can do to me" (280), we understand her sense of loss and her hopelessness against the forces of nature. She resigns herself to this fate with this statement and, somehow, she finds peace in it. In Nora's case, there is nothing more to fear because the sea has done all it could to bring her misery.

Another…… [read more]


Geology What Is the National Snow Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Geology

What is the National Snow and Ice Data Center? What do they do?

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is a division of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado. They support research of frozen areas around the world. The study snow, ice, glaciers, frozen ground, and climate interactions. They administer and allocate scientific data; they produce tools for data access, they support data users, they undertake scientific research, and teach the public about the cryosphere.

What is the Cryosphere?

The cryosphere is the portions the surface of the Earth where water exists in a solid form. This comprises sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets, and permafrost.

What is sea ice?

Sea ice seawater that is frozen and floats on the surface of the ocean. It shapes and melts in conjunction with the polar seasons, which affects both human doings and biological habitats.

What is the difference between sea ice and glacial ice?

The basic dissimilarity is that sea ice shapes from salty ocean water, and glacial ice shapes from fresh water or snow. Sea ice occurs only in the ocean while glacial ice is thought to be land ice.

5) How are icebergs formed; do they originate from sea ice or glaciers?

Icebergs are formed when large pieces of ice detach from glaciers and land in the ocean.

6) What does the term ice extent mean?

Ice extent is the total area covered by some amount of ice and is typically reported in square kilometers.

7) Has the Arctic always had ice in the summer?

Some evidence from the age of the dinosaurs shows that there was a moderate climate that included ferns and other green vegetation. Derived…… [read more]


Motion of Water Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Modern buoys, equipped with global positioning satellite technology, are used as "drifters" to be carried along in ocean currents and relay their position back to a satellite. This information is then compiled in a computer system which compiles and analyzes the data.

PART II

5. San Francisco Station Number 9414290

Date: 5/8/2011

High Tide: 1.784 Meters @ 09:51 GMT (9:51 PM local time)

Low Tide: -0.086 Meters @ 16:06 GMT (4:06 AM local time)

Tidal Range: 1.698 Meters

6. Prediction for 5/9/2011

A. The predicted high tide is to take place at 09:51 GMT, and be 1.67 meters. The low tide is to take place at 16:42 GMT, and be -0.16 meters. This is not the same time as 5/8/2011, primarily due to the moon's influence on the tides and the fact that the moon will not be in the same position relative to the earth two days in a row.

B. On 5/9/2011 the actual high tide was 1.702 meters, .035 meters higher than predicted, while the actual low tide was -0.035 meters, 0.125 meters less than predicted. Meaning the tide was supposed to go to - 0.160 meters, but only dropped to -0.035 meters. This could be explained by wind patterns pushing water toward shoe, increasing water levels during high tide, but reverse winds could push the water away from shore during low tide, making low tide even lower. Increased and decreased movements of coastal currents can also keep water moving away from the shore, decreasing tide levels, or they could keep more water available for use in tides, increasing tide levels.

7. In the past 100 years, the sea level, according to the measurements at the San Francisco Station Number 9414290, the sea level has risen 0.66 feet, or 20,11 cm. This is a rate of 2.01 mm (+/- 0.21 mm) per year. One possible factor that could have had an effect on sea levels generally increasing over the past 100 years could be increased global temperatures melting more of the polar icecaps, increasing the total amount of water in the sea. Another could be the increase in fresh water in the salt water oceans. This can have an effect of the global conveyor…… [read more]


Platforms the Development Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (560 words)
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New startup companies where new and innovative ideas are more likely to emerge tend to be more cash-strapped than their larger competitors, and thus they are seeking places to do business in properties that they don't own, that have already been built and can be modified (or not) rather cheaply. A very extreme example of this can be seen in the development of many modern technology companies, a number of which began in the garages of their founders (or their founders' parents). These were "old buildings" birthing very new ideas; now that these companies have grown, they have built their own large office complexes and often struggle to achieve the same level of innovation in their very new buildings.

6)

Harnessing coral reef-like skills to improve societal conditions is something of a fool's errand, as the very point of coral's development into large and richly diverse environments is that it takes place in a completely accidental and unconscious fashion. In order to attempt something similar, however, mankind would need to find ways to create closed circuits in all of its resource-intensive endeavors. That is, everything that is currently regarded as waste would need to find some other use further down the chain, such that all resources were ultimately renewed due to their slower depletion and this lack of waste. Coral reefs are built from the dead remnants of generations; we too would have to live in a way that supports the future through the leftovers…… [read more]


Ocean Basins Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Ocean Basins

The oldest oceanic crust in the three oceanic plates -- Atlantic, Pacific and Indian -- can be approximated at 200 million years. This is rather intriguing especially in a context in which the land crust is approximated to being as old as 4 billion years (Patchett and Samson, 2003). Based on the disposition in the map, and the adherent coloring, the oldest oceanic crust seems to be belonging to the Pacific Ocean.

San Francisco, California, is located on the western part of the North American continent, bordering the Pacific Ocean along the West Coast. The age of the oceanic crust at this location is a relatively young one, and it can be estimated to be somewhere between one and 30 million years. This youth could be explained by the changes which have impacted the region throughout the recent millennia.

The Pacific Ocean lies between the American continent, on the one hand, and the Australian and Philippine plates on the other hand. The oceanic crust ages from America towards Australia, meaning otherwise that the crust is youngest near the American coastline. It grows older as the ocean spreads, to reach its highest age at its border with the Philippine plate. It can be estimated that this crust is of approximately 180 million years.

4) as it has been previously mentioned, the Pacific oceanic crust is youngest at its border with the American continent, but also towards the south of the American continent, reaching the south of the Australian Plate. Specifically, the crust of the Pacific Ocean is youngest at its border with the Juan de Fuca Plate, and this youth spreads out along the American coastline, at the borders with the Cocos Plate, the Nazca Plate, the Antarctic Plate and ultimately, the Australian Plate.

5) as it was mentioned throughout the previous paragraphs, the oceanic crust of the Pacific Ocean is oldest at its border with the Philippine Plate and that with the Australian Plate. It is as such youngest at its border with the American coastline.…… [read more]


Report of EWB Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Earth's water is contained in the world's oceans, where the salinity and other chemical factors make the water unsuitable for drinking and in other infrastructure applications. The lack of available potable water has created a water crisis that is felt unevenly by different populations, but truly exists across the globe, with large multitudes of people in areas that lack adequate access to clean drinking water and that do not have the wealth necessary to import this vital resource. In this challenge from Engineers without Borders we are trying to solve the problem of pure drinking water shortage faced by the Kooma people, who reside in New South Wales on the eastern coast of Australia. As group we decided to design a solar still to purify the impure water and make it drinkable.

We came up with number of concepts but in the end after a thorough process of discussions and taking into account the various factors we ended up with two designs. Both of these designs were quite simple, and after continuing deliberation we chose the design that appeared to be the most efficient in its operation. The final design is made of a basin which is made from corrugated iron. This basin contains a number of tilted trays that are specifically arranged to allow for the operation of the still. This whole basin is insulated with a black coating that serves the purpose of trapping the passively collected solar heat inside the basin and thus heating the water, evaporating the water which allows it to move up through the trays were impurities are deposited. At the top of the basin a glass has been specifically and carefully positioned that serves both to keep the basin insulated and trap the heat inside the tray area, while also allowing the water vapors that reach this glass to cool and condense. The condensed water droplets are then collected in a tank that catches the runoff form the glass.

Before commencing with the final design of the solar still described above, our group did a lot of research regarding the living conditions of the kooma people and their needs regarding water sanitation for drinking, cooking, and other purposes. This research led our group to settle on the design described above primarily because this design that we came up with is easy to maintain, cheap and is easy to transport. This design is also very versatile and due to its tilted design it can mounted on top of roof of any building without creating unnecessary strain on the roof structure or placing the unit in danger of…… [read more]


Fourth Uncle in the Mountain Last Chapter Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,161 words)
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Fourth Uncle in the Mountain

Last Chapter of Fourth Uncle in the Mountain

After Tam left, we waited in the house for two weeks. Thanh had disappeared, which worried everyone. I thought maybe Tam was right to leave. This was craziness.

One night, the eight-year-old boy fell down into the water. We fished him out, but something in the rank liquid infected a sore he had. The infection spread quickly and the boy could hardly breathe after three days. There was a yellow gel oozing out his leg where the cut was. No one was willing to cut him. I tried acupressure on his back to relieve the boy's pain. He died in agony two days later. There were no spells for the dead in my medicine books, so I used one that Fourth Uncle had taught me in the cave. His funeral was undignified. There was no one to pray for the boy once we'd pushed his body off the planks back into the murky depths.

Tam came back before Thanh did. We were surprised to see him. He said that he had narrowly escaped arrest trying to cross back into Vietnam. I was sick when he gave me the little package I'd prepared for Mai. She would be worried where I was. I took the note out of the plastic bag and ripped it up. The shreds of paper followed the boy's bones down into the ripples. Tam grabbed me on the forearm and said not to lose hope. He would try again. I felt like he had betrayed me, but I didn't lose hope for seeing Mai again. I smiled at him. The free country, where I would practice the way of my father, lay before us. To turn back was impossible.

Thanh rowed the boat under the house. We held candles out for him that night as he and the fleeing communist official secured the motor. Thanh didn't know if it would work, but it was the only engine he could find. We waited one more day. One of the neighbors found the boy's body washed up on the bank. Through the slats in the house, we could hear her talk to a Cambodian official. We understood only her finger pointing past the house.

That night we all ate as much rice as we could and took water bottles for the journey. Then we rowed out of the delta and into the ocean by moonlight. We were all lying on the floorboards, covered in plastic with the fishing nets thrown over it.

The boat made it past the checkpoint because the patrolling guards were drunk. Thanh paid them with two gold rings so that we could pass. Out in the open ocean, we could get out from under the tarp and nets. Thanh turned the motor on and we made progress toward Thailand.

My feet shivered as I thought about Mai and my father. I was leaving everything behind. It seemed like I had nothing to… [read more]


Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas Summary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (781 words)
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¶ … Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas

Summary of "The Recent Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas"

This study comprehensively describes the processes and features of the delta formed by silt depositions from the Guadalupe and San Antonio rivers as they empty into the Gulf of Mexico. After descriptions of these rivers and delta are presented, the topics of the initiation of delta growth, the seven distinct delta plain environments (distributor-channel, natural-levee, marsh, lake, interdistributary-bay, delta-front, and prodelta) are presented and distinguished from one another. This is followed by analysis of the delta's subdivisions, or sub-deltas, based upon age and macrofauna differences. Next, the sedimentary facies in each of the above seven listed environments are differentiated by location and composition. Finally, the four identified regional sub-deltas (Guadalupe River-Big Bayou, Sommerville Bayou-Plank Bridge Bayou, North Guadalupe River-South Guadalupe River, and Traylor Cut) are described and geologically examined.

Lastly, the paper briefly covers the issues of climatic influence, development of bayous, erosion preservation and the abandoned beach-ridge plan, before a final discussion of the four distinct depositional environments located at the beach-ridge, tidal-mud-flat, marsh and lake sites.

Summary of delta geology and creation

To understand the Texas coastal plain's configuration and geology, one must understand that the lower Guadalupe River/San Antonio Bay region were carved out by the ebb and flow of continental glaciers (Pleistocene-age: 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago). In the course of geological time, the sea level fell as these glaciers advanced and rivers dropped to a lower base level and left shoreline father away. Across the face of the land, two rivers formed steep, narrow valleys out of these broad floodplains, and flowed steadily out onto the continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico. When the sea level rose during the melting retreat of the glaciers, these late Pleistocene canyons filled with Gulf waters, forming extensive bay regions. The eventual rise in sea level over the last 10,000 years yielded the present-day sea level between 2,000 and 3,000 years ago.

The rivers once again adjusted their levels and carved new bends and channels within the old valleys. Over time, both rivers deposited material into the bays that made new floodplains and deltas, filling the bays with sediment. The modern configuration of San Antonio Bay represents the intermediate stage of this sedimentary process. The growing or "prograding" delta…… [read more]


Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (469 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas is a book written by Richard Harold Martin. In this book, he explains in detail about the formation of the Guadalupe River and the Delta basin in Texas. The author describes the formation of the basin and traces it back to the Pleistocene period. He explains that the delta was formed as a result of the interglacial stage of the high seas during the Pleistocene period. When the sea levels fell during the later stages, a substantial amount of erosion took place that resulted in the young delta of the Guadalupe river.

After tracing the history of the delta, he goes on to describe the environment. "The delta plain of the Guadalupe river consists of four distinct environments: distributary channel, natural leevee, marsh and lake." (Richard Martin, p.2). These different environments are identifiable through aerial photographs. There other smaller environment as well that is not very identifiable and so it was not taken into account by the author.

The main reason for the formation of different environments and the classification of a delta is based on the depth of water that is deposited there. Based on this factor and the research of others, the author has identified this delta as a lobate delta. This delta is curved or shaped like a bow and its outer margin is facing the sea. This delta has given rise to…… [read more]


Gap in China Melting ICE Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
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¶ … China, Melting Ice

Proper regulations are compulsory in management/leadership to address life-threatening situations for all to benefit.

Increasing global temperatures are causing Antarctic ice sheet to melt rapidly.

As a global disaster, relevant regulations will limit release of carbon dioxide and other green house gases.

China's rapid growing economy caused the gap between the poor and the rich to increase.

Proper leadership will address human basic needs creating equality, hence increasing domestic demand.

Gap in China, Melting Ice

According to Eilperin Juliet's article "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly," dated March 3, 2006, global warming has considerably increased temperatures over the world at alarming rates, and causing ice to melt from the Antarctic faster and this would not change in the near future. In addition, new publication ascertains these claims and that for unfortunate continents like Africa; they might be losing a significant number of her water sources.

Due to the increasing global temperatures, data obtained by NASA in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), ascertains that the sea levels are rising by 0.4 millimeters annually and since the Antarctic considerably holds approximately 90% of the ice water in the world, its melting can cause as much as 20 feet rise in sea levels. These happenings according to Velicogna as narrated in Eilperin "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly" article are indications that people should get concerned about global warming.

However, there are contradictions on whether the ice is shrinking or forming in Antarctic. This has resulted from a later study that predicted its increase but due to the increasing temperatures, it is certain the Antarctic ice sheet is melting as computer models predict despite the Antarctic researches turning out to be puzzles as Taylor reported in Eilperin's "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly" article.

Because water remains a basic commodity for survival, its amount fluctuations, in either extremes can prove to be devastating. For countries like in Africa, drying of essential water sources means death to human, animal and plant life rendering the continent uninhabitable. For the people who live at sea level locations, not necessarily…… [read more]


Maritime Piracy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,753 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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High Seas Piracy: Terrorists, Organized

Crime, And Crimes Of Opportunity

Background and History of Maritime Piracy:

High seas piracy had a long and storied history throughout the late Middle Ages

and well into the 19th century before nation states began fielding large and powerful enough navies to eliminate the problem. Despite the fact that maritime piracy in the modern era… [read more]


Beach Erosion Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,459 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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Beach Erosion and the Eastern Seacoast

The paper begins with the thesis statement relative to the topic to be discussed -- the erosion of beaches on the eastern seacoast. The reader is introduced to the environmental challenges of the modern society, to be then explained the meaning of the concept, the causes, and the effects of beach erosion. The following… [read more]


Physical Spiritual Emotional Isolation and Solitude Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,114 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Robert Lowell's "The Skunk Hour"

Robert Lowell's poem, "The Skunk Hour," written in 1959, captures a time when two different worlds appear to collide. Nautilus Island is a place of both past and present, a location where dreams of reality seem to disappear into a realm of apparent reality. Nothing is as it seems. Nothing is quite real or tangible… [read more]


Impact of the Rise in Sea Level on Tourism in Venice Italy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,040 words)
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¶ … Sea Level in Venice

Venice, Italy is 1,300 years old and built on mudflats in the center of a lagoon. It tops the list of the world's most endangered cities, since high tides have become frequent (almost every two weeks), along with winter flooding. Known as acqua alta or "high water," these tides can flood the city with more than a meter of salt-water. Then visitors see water splashing out up the banks of the canals and flowing out of the drains in the Piazza San Marco. Yet the tourist trade is booming and the residents of the city are fleeing. Mirina Vio, 72, "complained that life in her native city had worsened considerably in recent years - higher prices, overcrowding, dirtier streets - as the tourism industry blossomed" (Povoledo, p. 1).

The flooding or acqua alta is sometimes thought of as proof that Venice is sinking into the sea. Sure, the city sank 10 cm in the last century, "because of industrial groundwater extraction," but the sinking stopped when engineers capped artesian wells on the mainland in the 1960s. Today, it is estimated that Venice is still sinking at the rate of 0.5 to 1 mm per year, because of its geology and the city's millions of pilings pressing into the land (Zwingle, p. 1).

But the biggest problem is the rising level of the sea, which becomes more of a threat as "global warming melts the arctic ice caps" (Imboden, 1). Over the last 100 years, flooding has increased from less than 10 times per year to more than 60 times per year. Acqua alta occurs when any two of the following coincide: A sirocco blowing in the Adriatic Sea, which makes water back up into the Lagoon, a substantial decrease in barometric pressure, and a high tide during the full or the new moon.

The phenomenon is most likely to take place between late September and April, and especially in the months of October, November, and December. By official definition, acqua alta occurs when the tide is 90 mm (3.54 inches) above normal high tide (Imboden, p. 2)

Not every part of the city is susceptible to the flooding, as the following chart indicates. Indeed, the depth of water in most streets is less than the "level of tide" indicated.

Level of tide

Conversion to Feet and Inches

Percentage of Venice flooded

Up to 80 cm

31.50 in.

Normal tide

39.43 in. (3 ft. 3 in.)

42.41 in. (31/2 ft.)

47.24 in (4 ft.)

51.18 in. (4 ft. 3 in.)

55.12 in. (4 ft. 7 in.)

On November 4, 1966, an extremely high level tide in the Venetian Lagoon brought the water to almost 6 feet above normal, approximately up to chest height for anyone who might be in the Piazza San Marco, the lowest point in the city. For eight hours a strong southeast wind kept the normal tide at bay. Those who experienced this exceptionally high tide vowed it should never happen again.… [read more]


Acqua Alta the Effect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,522 words)
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Acqua Alta

The Effect of Acqua Alta on the Venetian Tourist Trade

Venice's tourist trade has reported an annual turnover of about $17 billion a year. Tourist activity is increasing and Venice doesn't appear to be suffering, at least in this respect, from the effects of Acqua Alta. The high water which threatens to ruin Venice has only spurred interest… [read more]


Ridges Under the Pacific Floor That Form Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … ridges under the pacific floor that form a vital part of the oceanic ecosystem. Underneath these ridges lie what the article refers to as a "plumbing system," whose workings also contribute to the composition of aquatic life around it. Its process of heating and emitting water into the ocean provides a source of food for several life forms around it. The discovery of this process led to the further study of these system on the East Pacific Rise. Seismologists are working under 2,500 meters of water to create images of the systems underneath the ridges to gain a better understanding of its function and contribution to the earth's ecosystem.

What is interesting about the first images created in this way is that they have surprised the current expectations of such images by scientists.

So far, the assumption has been that the water pressure forces water down through large faults. This water is then heated by shallow volcanoes and rises again towards vents in the middle of the ridges. The actual images however show that the ridge has a very wide "chimney," through which the water descends. After this, the water runs through a tunnel above a magma chamber, and then bubbles back through the ridge vents. To create the images, the researchers planted seismometers around the ridge to locate miniature earthquakes. The quakes were found to cluster together, and to indicate the entrance of the cold water. The entrance of the cold water through the hot rocks is assumed to crack the rocks, which in turn causes the quakes.

An assumption also challenged by Maya Tolstoy and those working with her on the current study of the ocean floor is that the downflow occurs through significantly sized faults. Tolstoy however believes that a system of tiny cracks admit the water into the ridges. The water also moves much faster than had been previously assumed, according to the team's calculations. A further discovery is that there is very little life around the downflow chimney, but the vents contain a vast amount of life…… [read more]


Technology &amp Improving a Nation's Disaster Response Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,118 words)
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¶ … technology that can be used to respond to disasters in developing nations. The writer explores sirens as well as other possibilities as a way to respond to disaster in nations that may not have cellular and other advanced abilities. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

DEFINING WARNING SYSTEMS FOR UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS

Disasters are a part of life. Whether they are caused by Mother Nature, such as tornadoes, tsunamis, or hurricanes, or by man such as terrorist attacks or fires, they are part of what mankind has to live with and will forever have to live with. The importance of being able to warn society of impending disaster as well as respond following a disaster continues to grow as the world becomes more populated and disasters continue to occur. For many nations early warning systems are extremely advanced technological breakthroughs that show great promise for success, however, there are still many nations in which the technology is not yet as clearly developed or defined. In these nations it is important to come up with the ability to warn residents of a coming disaster as well as respond to one that has already occurred. The use of warning sirens as well as tsunamis detectors can help save thousands of lives during future disasters.

OUTDOOR WARNING SYSTEMS

An outdoor warning system can be used almost worldwide to alert residents to a coming disaster or one that has already occurred. These warning system have been used in America for many years to warn of tornado activity and to a lesser extent other disaster issues that have happened.

While technology has become much more advanced than it was when outdoor warning system was first invented it is still "the most effective method to warn the population at large in the shortest amount of time. People who may be outdoors at ball games, in their yard, or anywhere else where they are not in contact with the normal news media channels such as radio, TV or local public address systems. Even with the global conflict reduced, there are still many areas that sirens still are effectively used to warn people of possible threats to their safety (Outdoor Warning System http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/EM/Disaster_Preparedness/sirens.php)."

The method by which they are activated is also important to nations that have underdeveloped technical abilities. They use radio control which is a relatively simple and old method of communication (Outdoor Warning System http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/EM/Disaster_Preparedness/sirens.php).

To activate the siren system, the operator presses a button and a radio signal is transmitted. The signals are picked up by the receivers at the sirens. They decode the paging signals to determine what they are to do. A particular signal may instruct the sirens to give a weather warning call, while still another may cause the sirens to stop their sounding. With the new generation of communication signal processors, the variations are limitless (Outdoor Warning System http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/EM/Disaster_Preparedness/sirens.php)."

The use of an outdoor warning system is effective because it is cost efficient when compared to… [read more]


Olive's Ocean by Kevin Henkes Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Olive's Ocean" by Kevin Henkes is a charming book set at Martha's grandmother's house by the ocean, (actually Cape Cod in Massachusetts) which has a large part in the overall message and theme of the book. It takes place during the summer, when Martha has plenty of time to have fun and think about her life and the upcoming school year.

The main characters are Martha Boyle, Jimmy Manning, a neighborhood boy who lives next door to her grandmother, and Olive Barstow, a young girl in Martha's class who is killed in an bicycle accident. Martha is twelve-years old, and Jimmy is a couple of years older. Martha is a nice girl who grows up during this summer, partly because of Olive's death, and partly because of her own reaction to it.

The book opens with Martha opening the door to find Olive's mother standing on the doorstep. She gives Martha a page from Olive's journal where Olive says Martha is "the nicest person in my whole entire class" (Henkes 5). Martha's life is changed after she reads the journal, because she realizes that she and Olive had many of the same dreams and hopes for their lives. The next day, she and her family leave to spend the summer at her grandmother's house on Cape Cod, looking over the Atlantic Ocean. It is Martha's favorite place, and Olive had always dreamed of seeing an ocean. She and her grandmother, who she calls Godbee, have a very special relationship, and they grow closer during this visit. She shares her secret that she wants to be a writer (which is something she shared with Olive), and that she is beginning to like Jimmy Manning, the boy next door.

Through it all, Martha begins to understand her own mortality, and her grandmothers, too. She understands this could be the last summer she spends with Godbee. She also comes to understand her own mortality when she tries to hide from Jimmy and nearly drowns in the ocean.

She falls for Jimmy and spends time with him as he films his movie, "The World is Not What You Think it Is." They talk and hold hands, and he gives her that memorable first kiss. She is thrilled until she realizes he did it just…… [read more]


Tsunamis Are Formed Earthquakes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Runup is a measurement of the height of the water onshore observed above a reference sea level -- a term that indicates directly the danger of the tsunami.

Contrary to many artistic renderings of tsunamis, the majority of tsunamis do not result in giant breaking waves (like normal surf waves at the beach that curl over as they approach shore). Rather, they come in much like very strong and very fast tides (i.e., a rapid, local rise in sea level). A great percentage of the damage inflicted by tsunamis is caused by strong currents and floating debris. The minority of tsunamis that do break often form vertical walls of turbulent water termed bores. Tsunamis will often travel much farther inland than normal waves will travel.

The question remains: Do tsunamis stop once on land? The answer is partially: After runup, part of the tsunami energy is reflected back to the open ocean. Also, a tsunami can generate a certain type of wave termed edge waves that travel back -- and forth, actually running parallel to shore as opposed to perpendicular to it as the overwhelming conceptualization of a tsunami hints. These effects result in many arrivals of the tsunami at a particular point on the coast rather than a single wave. Because of the complicated behavior of tsunami waves near the coast, the first runup of a tsunami is often not the largest, emphasizing the importance of not returning to a beach several hours after a tsunami hits.

Bibliography

University of Washington. The physics of tsunamis. http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/physics.html.

Wikepedia. Tsunami. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami.

National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. Tsunamis. http://www.noaa.gov/tsunamis.html.… [read more]


Martin Eden by Jack London Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,212 words)
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Martin Eden

Jack London's book Martin Eden is the semiautobiographical story of a young man born into poverty who desperately wants to become financially secure and middle-class. Partly this desire is driven by his love for a young woman, Ruth Morse. Ruth has high social status and has actually graduated from college. Martin idolizes this young woman and thinks she possesses all the fine qualities a woman should possess, and that she epitomizes what he wants out of life.

He has to find a way to support himself until he meets his goal of earning a good living from his writing, and becomes a seaman to earn his way in the world. He is accused of being a socialist, which causes multiple problems for him: Ruth ends their engagement, and magazines do not want to publish stories written by socialists. No one seems to see any value to his writing except his friend Russ Brissenden, who eventually commits suicide. Eventually Martin gains the fame and success he desired but finds that he doesn't fit in with middle class life. He has lost his past and feels alienated in the present, and returns to the sea, where despair overcomes him. He jumps overboard and drowns. Throughout the book, the sea serves as an allegory for the ebb and flow of Eden's life.

The sea is an important element throughout the book as a powerful symbol of Eden's chaotic life. The sea, churning and unpredictable, is much like Eden's existence. When he goes to see, he rapidly loses sight of where he has been, and looking forward cannot tell him where he is going. This is much the way Eden's life unfolds. He leaves his past, with its poverty behind, and moves into uncharted territory -- engagement to an upper class girl who lives in a world he doesn't completely understand. Just as ships of the time had to adjust to ever-changing conditions and always be wary for signs of trouble on the horizon, Eden has to feel his way through life. He is so driven by his quest to improve himself that he loses sight of who he really is.

He demonstrates this early in his novel. As he fantasizes a better life for himself, he imagines being free and unfettered in several ways, including some connected to the sea: "The known and the unknown were commingled in the dream-pageant that thronged his vision... The scent of the spice islands was in his nostrils as he had known it on warm, breathless nights at sea... He lay on a coral beach where the cocoanuts grew down to the mellow-sounding surf...." (Chapter 2, pp. 4-5). In that quote he shows his longing to return to the sea and to leave his past behind. He knows the ocean is unpredictable, and balances his tropical fantasy with memories of rowing through ice-clogged waters as he remembers "pulling an oar on a freezing ocean where great ice islands towered and glistened in the sun" (Chapter… [read more]


Master &amp Commander - Patrick O'Brian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (764 words)
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¶ … Master & Commander - Patrick O'Brian

I believe you have been led astray by the words master and commander (122, Chapter 4 p. 3).

Despite the fact that one might be a captain at sea, one is not a master of all things -- not all men's fate on land and sea, not of the class system off a ship, nor of the capricious nature of fate in general, especially one's fate on the sea.

I don't despair of making our gunnery at least as dangerous to others as it is to ourselves (163, Chapter 5, p. 12).

Ironically, a ship's weapons are always dangerous -- even to those individuals on board who do not know how to use them properly, but the ideal is to use this dangerous potential against enemy vessels.

Come, come, come. There is not a moment to be lost (189, Chapter 6, p. 10).

This is indicative of the captain's way of coping with difficulties, emotional as well as physical -- the comforting 'come, come, come,' instead becomes a rallying cry to help others deal with distress.

As it was, the Cacafuego passed silently a mile and a half to the westward of the Sophie, and neither caught sight of the other (204, Chapter 7, p. 5).

The ships Cacafuego and Sophie are characterized not merely as female or living beings, as is frequently the case with ships, but as persons who can see one another as if they have eyes like a human face, even though what is really meant by the passage is that the lookouts on both ships seem to fail to see one another.

Jack had a notion that some fleeting reserve passed across James Dillon's face, or perhaps showed in his voice (218, Chapter 7, p. 19).

Dillon suspects that the captain of the ship is enjoying the favors of a woman of ill repute, which Dillon feels duty-bound to conceal, whether he approves of such behavior or not.

He was profoundly dissatisfied with himself for his performance aboard the San Fiorenzo (238, Chapter 7, p. 39, 6 from end).

One's performance on the ship, more than one's performance on one's profession on land is what matters in Jack's point-of-view and the point of the view of the text.

The…… [read more]


Psychological Themes and Symbolism in Ernest Hemingway Term Paper

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Psychological Themes and Symbolism in Ernest Hemingway's Novella The Old Man And The Sea

Ernest Hemingway's novella the Old Man and the Sea (1952) is a naturalistic, extremely psychological and symbolic tale, about.".. An old Cuban fisherman who catches a giant marlin but is unable to keep the sharks from mutilating it before he can get it safely to shore" (Mc Quade et al., p. 1158). It is the story of Santiago, a man down on his luck, and his series of losing battles against various forces of nature: a huge marlin Santiago manages, at last, to catch, the sharks that eat it, and the sea itself, which sends him home, once again after 85 days, defeated and empty-handed. Santiago's hardest battle, however, is against himself. He must decide if he will try his best to prevail over the forces of nature, and his own physical infirmities and weaknesses, or simply allow nature to prevail over him. He opts for the latter, and puts up an admirably brave, even if futile struggle. In the end, Santiago is defeated physically, but not psychologically. The conclusion of Hemingway's the Old Man and the Sea represents a physical defeat for Santiago the fisherman, but a psychological victory for Santiago the man.

After weeks of bad luck, Santiago struggles mightily to catch a huge marlin, only to have it steadily eaten by sharks all the way back to shore. Although this story is set in an obscure Cuban fishing village, is contains universal psychological relevance about humanity's struggle, against forces greater than itself, and against itself. Hemingway illustrates, in this novella, what he said in his acceptance speech for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954: "[Man] should always try for something that has never been done or that others have tried and failed. Then sometimes, with great luck, he will succeed" ("Ernest Hemingway - Banquet Speech." Here, Hemingway is talking about writing, but the same could be said of fishing, and of Santiago's own actions. Even though he has tried his best against the elements and against himself, and been defeated in the process, he has not been destroyed.

Man can be defeated, but not destroyed" (Hemingway, Nobel Prize Speech, 1954).The Old Man and the Sea was singled out for special mention, among the body of Hemingway's work, when Hemingway won the Nobel Prize.

Set along the Cuban coast in the early 1950's, the story is rich with psychological symbolism that offers a sense of its deeper, more universal meaning. Three elements of the story, in particular, are heavy with symbolism: the sea itself; the different species of birds Santiago sees on the ocean, and the marlin Santiago finally catches, but then loses.

The dominant symbol of nature's power within the Old Man and the Sea is that of the sea, referred to by Hemingway, in the story, as its Spanish equivalent, "la mar." Santiago, although down on his luck, loves and respects the sea, and so refers to her in the feminine… [read more]


Rime of the Ancient Mariner Term Paper

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Coleridge's Rime Of The Ancient Mariner

Considered by many literary scholars as the greatest example of English Romantic poetry, Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" relates the tale of a mariner and his wanderings aboard a mysterious ship that is doomed because of the mariner's killing of an albatross, a large white bird which sailors have always viewed as a symbol of death if it is killed through a malicious act. For the most part, the poem is full of psychological themes linked to the mariner's wanderings which play a very crucial role in the poem's overall effect. But most importantly, the mariner is trapped in a watery and dangerous world filled with the unknown which Coleridge manipulates through the use of human psychology.

After reading "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner," one has the impression that the psychological journey of the mariner has much to do with a deep sense of depression and isolation which Coleridge describes with "Alone, alone, all, all alone/Alone on a wide open sea!/and never a saint took pity on/My soul in agony" (Part IV, lines 9-12). In addition, Coleridge provides the impression that another aspect of this psychological journey is related to the Mariner trying to figure out why he is being forced to endure the tragedies that are happening on the wide open seas. But unknown to him, these tragedies are linked to the killing of the albatross. One excellent example can be found in Part Six of the poem, where the mariner states, "Like one, that on a lonesome road/Doth walk in fear and dread/and having once turned around walks on/and turns no more his head/Because he knows, a frightful fiend/Doth close behind him tread" (lines 37-42). This description shows that the Mariner is terrified of some unknown "fiend" which may be lurking behind him, much like a ghost or some other kind of mysterious spectre. Of course, this "frightful fiend" could very well be Death itself with a skull face, the symbol of death for sailors during the days when pirates roamed the open seas with the familiar "Jolly Roger" skull and crossbones flag upon the mast.

Personally, the parts of the poem that are the most intriguing can be found in the lines "And a thousand slimy things/Lived on; and so did I" (Part IV, lines 15-16) which indicates that the Mariner sees himself as nothing but a slimy creature cast upon the wide open sea where his journey takes a turn for the worse when he kills the albatross and condemns himself and his crew mates to death.

Another intriguing part is when the Mariner confronts the terrors of the sea "In the land of mist and snow" (Part V, line 113) which may indicate that the Mariner is lost in the misty atmosphere of the sea and the whiteness of the waves with white being the true color of terror, much like the skin of a dead man, all white and drained…… [read more]


Old Man by the Sea by Ernest Term Paper

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¶ … Old Man by the Sea by Ernest Hemingway is the story of a rejected and failing fisherman, Santiago, and the young boy who believes in him, Manolin. Through the interactions of these characters and Santiago's personal struggle, Hemingway makes important points about people and life, ultimately delivering a positive message about the ability of every person to fight their own personal struggles and win.

The relationship between Santiago and Manolin is important to the Old Man and the Sea, and it is observed that there is a strong bond between the two. Santiago is the failing fisherman that has been rejected by everyone else. To him, Manolin is his only friend. Manolin himself is not rejected and he has other people in his life, but Santiago remains very special to him. This makes the Old Man and the Sea partly the story of a strong character seeing more than everyone else does and remaining devoted to a person everyone else sees as an outcast. Manolin has the unique ability to see beyond appearances and other people's perceptions and to form his own view. At one point Manolin says to Santiago, "There are many good fishermen and some great ones. But there is only one you" (Hemingway 23). This statement is open to interpretation. It can be considered as showing that Manolin recognizes Santiago as a great fisherman. It can be considered as Manolin saying what Santiago wants to hear. However, it is most likely that Manolin is showing that he admires Santiago not because of his fishing ability, but simply because he is who he is. It is also important to note that this statement is made despite Manolin being aware that Santiago hasn't caught a fish for over 80 days. This supports the idea that Manolin is able to see beyond perceptions of people. In short, he is able to refrain from judging Santiago and likes him simply because he is who he is.

The relationship between the two though, is more than just friendship. There is something that Manolin admires in Santiago that he does not find in others. This is clear where Manolin states that he wants to keep going with Santiago and only goes out with other fishermen because his parents have made him. It is noted that the other fishermen are more successful at catching fish than Santiago is, so there is something more significant for Manolin. The thing that Manolin sees and admires in Santiago seems to be his ability to believe and to try, regardless of the results. Shwartz says of the Old Man and the Sea,

Hemingway's primary sense of existence is the essential condition of the pioneer. It is above all the terror and isolation of the pioneer in the forest that Hemingway seeks in his prize fighters, matadors, soldiers, and expatriate sportsmen (Shwartz 84).

For Shwartz, Manolin is important because he is a pioneer and his value as a character is related to his stamina. While the general… [read more]


Tsunami Relief and Reconstruction Term Paper

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In addition, large areas - approximately 300 kilometres of coastal land area have been degraded or lost (Asian pp).

Three major industrial sites are confirmed to be damaged, Pertamina, an oil depot in Krueng/Banda Aceh, Pertamina, oil depot in Meulaboh, and Semen Andalas Indonesia, a cement factory in Banda Aceh, resulting in possible contamination, including negative effects to human health and the environment, remain a matter of serious concern (Asian pp).

In January 2005, more than 13,000 members of the American military were serving the victims of the Asian tsunami. And though many governments, charities and individuals from around the world have rallied to help, the American military is the relief operation's backbone, especially in Indonesia (Spaeth pp). Region wide, the Pentagon has dispatched an aircraft carrier and an amphibious assault ship, an armada of support vessels and 103 planes and helicopters, and the U.S. bill is expected to reach about $6 million a day (Spaeth pp).

Volunteers from every corner of the world and from every facet of life have come to the devastated region to help the survivors. Volunteers have been vital to dig out the rubble while government agencies deal with infrastructure and other emergencies (McGirk pp). Thailand's Phi Island has witnessed a bizarre revival, as hundreds of foreign backpackers and scuba divers arrive to rebuild the packed guesthouse and nightclub strip that was destroyed by December's waves (McGirk pp). Many show signs of post-traumatic stress at the sudden destruction of so much life and property and volunteers say that keeping up morale inside inadequate refugee camps frays the nerves and erodes any sense of dignity (McGirk pp). One woman living in a windowless schoolhouse in Moratuwa with 64 families, was found hoarding drugs in order to commit suicide (McGirk pp). One promising note is that the Indonesian military completed a major trunk road, using elephants and coconut tree scaffolding to rebuild 35 of the 41 bridges that were knocked out by the massive walls of water (McGirk pp).

Governments, humanitarian organizations, Asian expatriates and individuals around the world have scrambled to offer aid and technical support. More than thirty major countries, including the U.S., Australia, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, China, Finland, Japan, and New Zealand ro name a few are providing relief funds. By New Year's Day, more than $2 billion had been pledged (Tsunami pp). Australia, India, Japan and the United States formed a coalition to co-ordinate aid efforts to streamline immediate assistance, and at the Jakarta Summit on January 6th, the coalition transferred responsibilities to the United Nations (Tsunami pp).

Former presidents Clinton and H.W. Bush recently visited the region on a humanitarian tour. Clinton praised U.N. officials for their "terrific job" in emergency relief and recovery, and admitted that the most difficult period will be as efforts move from relief into recovery and reconstruction, "citing the need to rebuild homes, restore jobs, replace fishing boats, reconstruct sanitation facilities and rehabilitate roads' (Clinton pp). Given the numerous charity organizations and fund raising efforts, it… [read more]


Shackleton Antarctic Expeditions Term Paper

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He had something bright to notice and to say in the midst of the long misery:

"As we clustered round the blubber stove, with the acrid smoke blowing on our faces, we were quite a cheerful company. Life was not so bad. We ate our evening meal while the snow drifted down from the surface of the glacier and our chilled bodies grew warm."

At other times, he accounted for and wrote about the details of their travails as only a man in control can:

"It was a mighty upheaval of the ocean, a thing quite apart from the big white-capped seas that had been our tireless enemies for many days. I shouted

"For God's sake, hold on! It's got us.' Then came a moment of suspense that seemed drawn out into hours. White surged the foam of the breaking sea around

us. We felt our boat lifted and flung forward like a cork in breaking surf. We were in a seething chaos of tortured water, but somehow the boat lived through it, half full of water, sagging to the dead weight and shuddering under the blow. We baled with the energy of men fighting for life, flinging the water over the sides with every receptacle that came to our hands, and after ten minutes of uncertainty we felt the boat renew her life beneath us."

His decisiveness was among his hallmarks:

"Boys, this snow-slope seems to end in a precipice, but perhaps, there is no precipice. If we don't go down, we shall have to make a detour of at least five miles before we reach level going. What shall it be?"

"Try the slope."

Arriving in a whaling station in South Georgia with Worsley and Crean, Shackleton described the journey, thus:

"We had entered a year and a half before with well-found ship, full equipment and high hopes. We had 'suffered, starved and triumphed, groveled down yet grasped at glory, grown bigger in the bigness of the whole.' We had seen God in His splendours, heard the text that

Nature renders. We had reached the naked soul of man."

He remained at Stromness to prepare plans to rescue the rest of his crew in Elephant Island. On May 23, he left with Worsley and Crean on the British whale catcher, Southern Sky, for that rescue. It was his single obsession to come back for them. Shackleton later wrote about this in a letter to a friend:

"When we got to the whaling station, it was the thought of all those comrades that made us so mad with joy. We didn't so much feel safe as that they would be saved.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Lansing, A. (2002). Endurance -- shackleton's incredible voyage. 26th ed. Carroll and Graff Publishers

2. Shackleton, E.. (2002). South. 12th ed Carroll and Graf Publishers

3. Ward, P. (2005). Ernest shackleton. Cool Antarctica. http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antartica%20%fact%20fil/History/Ernest%20Shackleton_Nimrod_expedition.htm

Alfred Lansing (2002). "Endurance -- Shackleton's Incredible Voyage." 26th printing, Carroll & Graf Publishers

Paul Ward (2005). "South by Ernest Shackleton." Cool… [read more]


Swimming During the Summer Term Paper

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Swimming

During the summer when it is hot hanging out with family or friends in or around the water is a very entertaining and relieving activity. Everyone feels save with just the presence of life-guards around. Yet this may not be a smart idea, as statistics show that between the ages five and twenty four drowning is the second highest… [read more]


Waves Term Paper

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" Then, after coming in full contact with the surface; they cause "small ripples" to be made. The longer and harder the winds blow, the larger ripples are formed and we can see the full waves moving ahead.

One of most heated topics today is Tsunami and how it is created. Usually tsunami is a result of two kinds of waves, seismic and water waves. Underwater earthquake is the most common cause of tsunami. Volcanic eruptions, landslides and impact of meteorites can also displace large amount of water, generating tsunami. As the seabed is disturbed, large waves are formed as water moves under the impact of gravity to regain its mean position. Because seismic waves cause the entire depth of water to move, wave gain a lot of energy to move at very high speed to very long distances long after the original seismic waves are over, causing immense damage, in form of loss of property and human…… [read more]


Rising Sea Levels, Resulting Term Paper

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17). Retreat from areas with rising sea levels may result in relocation, and potentially have major social and financial implications, loss of a traditional environment, disruption in family life and social instability, and the loss of places of great cultural significance. Accommodation of rising sea levels may result in economic losses due to periodic flooding and problems with sewage disposal, and changes in economic activity such as a move from farming to aquaculture. Protection of areas threatened by rising sea levels may result in decreased recreational and aesthetic value, loss of different species, and the potential loss of areas of cultural significance by the erection of protection structures (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

Rising levels may have a significant impact on the human and environmental concerns related to the flooding of hazardous waste sites in coastal flood plains. There are 1,100 active hazardous waste sites within floodplains in the United States, in addition to closed and abandoned sites. Areas at the highest risk of flooding would include sites in the Galveston and Charlestown areas (Flynn, in Barth and Titus).

In conclusion, the impact of rising sea levels on human culture will be significant. If global warming continues, there is good evidence to suggest that sea levels will continue to rise. In turn, this increase in sea level will have dramatic economic, social, environmental, and health impacts across the globe. As such, steps taken to decrease global warming will do much to ameliorate the potentially negative impact of rising sea levels on human cultures worldwide.

Works Cited

Barth, Michael C. And Titus, James G. Greenhouse Effect and Sea Level Rise: A Challenge for this Generation. Environmental Protection Agency, 1984.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Response Strategies Working Group. Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise. November, 1990.

Titus, et al. Greenhouse Effect and Sea Level Rise: The Cost of…… [read more]


Will Hobbes Term Paper

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Will Hobbs was born on August 22, 1947, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His parents are Greg and Mary Hobbs. He is the middle of five children, with three brothers and a sister. The Hobbs were an Air Force family and moved around frequently: they lived in Pennsylvania, Panama, Virginia, Arkansas, Northern California, Southern California, and Texas. During his childhood, he developed… [read more]


athens Scuba Term Paper

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Mirages Essay

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Although, such observations are not very noticeable to the naked eye, they form a very crucial area of study in fields such as geodesy and positional astronomy.

At times people believe that the erect image of a classical mirage is the object itself, and the inverted one is a mirage image, and not really real. Many scientists observed this notion and came to the conclusion that the concept that be challenged by a3D-image or what is also called a formation of a multiple-image mirages, this produces two or more erect images. The challenge was to choose the real mirage image. This is quite tricky since all the images are equally true since every one of them is actually the object itself as any other image, inclusive of the inverted images. The only difference is that all the images are displaced from the geometric position of the object, making the location of the object no hindrance in the identification of the mirage image.

Green flashes and mirages

Green flashes are the colored mirages caused by the dispersion of atmospheric refraction. Even though every refraction phenomenon has slight dispersion linked with it, the dispersion is unnoticeable in most cases. However, there are certain mirages that are able to produce larger dispersion effects. Green flashes are also one of the greatest dispersion effects. In comprehending how green flashes occur it is mandatory to understand mirages.

Atmospheric refraction

Before, we understand what are mirages; we need to know what is meant by atmospheric refraction since mirages are phenomena of atmospheric refraction. Atmospheric refraction unlike mirages is not as noticeable to the naked eye because the effects are a fraction of a degree. Even though the size of refraction of this type is so small, they can still be easily measured using optical instruments, the astronomers adjust the mountings of their telescopes to minimize the inconvenient effects of atmospheric refraction in doing so.

The air near sea level is nearly a thousand times less dense than water; but that still does not have an impact on changing the direction of light rays that enter the sea from a different source, such as the empty space beyond the atmosphere. With the varying density of the air, which changes continuously with the height above the Earth, light rays in the Earth's atmosphere cause the light rays to bend continuously as they pass from one level to another. This causes the density to decrease steadily from the ground up, making the rays appear concave toward the surface of the Earth.

After discovering what types of mirages are there and how they are formed and their relationship with refraction, we come to the conclusion that mirages are multiple images formed by atmospheric…… [read more]


Tale as Old Term Paper

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They sailed again to the land, and came to anchor, and launched the boat, and went ashore. This was a level wooded land; and there were broad stretches of white sand where they went, and the land was level by the sea. Then said Leif, "This land shall have a name after its nature; and we will call it Markland." (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1000Vinland.html).

It was when they left Markland, this version of the saga tells us, the Eriksson and his men came to Vinland, where they actually built a small settlement and rested for some period of time before returning to Greenland. The lushness and gentleness of this land in the eyes of people from the far north is apparent in this description of Vinland, a name that means Wineland. While it is just possible that Eriksson and his men actually found grapes in Canada, they would in fact have considered any berry to be appropriate for the making of wine, and scholars now believe that what they found - and hope to induce into drinkable wine - were cranberries.

They sailed toward this land, and came to an island which lay to the northward off the land. There they went ashore and looked about them, the weather being fine, and they observed that there was dew upon the grass, and it so happened that they touched the dew with their hands, and touched their hands to their mouths, and it seemed to them that they had never before tasted anything so sweet as this. They went aboard their ship again and sailed into a certain sound, which lay between the island and a cape, which jutted out from the land on the north, and they stood in westering past the cape. At ebb-tide, there were broad reaches of shallow water there, and they ran their ship aground there, and it was a long distance from the ship to the ocean; yet were they so anxious to go ashore that they could not wait until the tide should rise under their ship, but hastened to the land, where a certain river flows out from a lake. As soon as the tide rose beneath their ship, however, they took the boat and rowed to the ship, which they conveyed up the river, and so into the lake, where they cast anchor and carried their hammocks ashore from the ship, and built themselves booths there. They afterward determined to establish themselves there for the winter, and they accordingly built a large house. There was no lack of salmon there either in the river or in the lake, and larger salmon than they had ever seen before. The country thereabouts seemed to be possessed of such good qualities that cattle would need no fodder there during the winters. There was no frost there in the winters, and the grass withered but little.

In 1003, the Saga of Eric the Red tells us, Leif's brother Thorvald would set out to find this wondrous led an expedition… [read more]


Stephen Crane's Story the Open Term Paper

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Against this magnificence of the natural world, the men seem diminished. We come to understand that the captain is in general a brave man and not unintelligent - he does help bring about their salvation with his suggestion that they use his coat as a sail. But we also understand that he views the sea as an enemy, as a foe to be met and either defeated or be vanquished by. His inability to see the connections among all natural things - himself included - diminishes him. The oiler, whom we come to understand is a man who always follows orders, is a reflection of the captain. He is a man who is good at following orders, and skillful at his craft, but not good at thinking for himself - which would have made him an invaluable crewmember but means that he has relatively little to contribute once they are stranded.

The cook is the person whom we learn the least about, the person who is the least revealed by this ordeal - perhaps because he is the person most out of place: He is a cook with no kitchen, a cook moreover with no food. Crane uses him to suggest how humans stripped of the trappings of civilizations are not only endangered but made (even to themselves) useless.

The correspondent, who should be the one who is most psychologically lost given that he has the least experience with the sea, is actually the one who seems least intimidated by their plight because he seems to be the one most capable of bringing the force of imagination to bear to make the immense creative force of the sea. He understands his own insignificance in the world, but he of all the four is the least troubled by it:

The correspondent wondered ingenuously how in the name of all that was sane could there be people who thought it amusing to row a boat. It was not an amusement; it was a diabolical punishment, and even a genius of mental aberrations could never conclude that it was anything but a horror to the muscles and a crime against the back.

Lucas (1975) argues that Naturalism failed because readers tired of its relentlessly grim portrayal of the world. It is likely that it would have lasted far longer as a literary style if more of it had been like this Crane story, full of terrible, grim realities certainly, but also full of the wonder of nature, of the glory of places untamable.

Works Cited

Brown, Bill. The Material Unconscious: American Amusement, Stephen Crane, & the Economies of Play. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997.

Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat, http://www.litrix.com/openboat/oboat001.htm

Hill, Philip. Romanticism and Realism. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1989.

Lucas, Frank. The Decline and Fall of the Romantic Ideal. New York: AMS Press, 1975. http://www.litrix.com/openboat/oboat001.htm… [read more]

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