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Saltwater Oceans Compare and Contrast to Freshwater Essay




In some respects, oceans and inland freshwater lakes are very different; in other respects, they are not as different as they may appear superficially. Similarly, while biological organisms that populate the oceans do differ from those that populate freshwater lakes, in many ways they may also be more similar than dissimilar.

While oceans are considered to be a saltwater environment, so-called "freshwater" also contains substantial amounts of salt and other minerals. That is because ocean water is significantly more salty than freshwater, but only relative to one another. A simple taste test between freshwater (including filtered and treated municipal drinking water) and distilled water illustrates the point. In comparison to distilled water, even freshwater that has been chemically treated and filtered still has a very noticeable flavor attributable to salts and other minerals that survive the filtration and chemical treatment processes. Without a specific comparison to distilled water, even a glass of freshwater with a few grains of table salt sprinkled into it does not taste particularly salty either.

The presence of salts and other dissolved minerals in ordinary freshwater drinking water is also evidenced by the fact that tap water often leaves significant rust, lime, carbon, and other deposits on porcelain surfaces despite being treated and filtered freshwater. Therefore, the primary difference between ocean saltwater and freshwater is not that only the former necessarily contains any salt or minerals; their difference is much more one of degree than the presence or complete absence of salts and other dissolved minerals. Actually, both ocean saltwater and fresh lake water contain some of the identical types of salts and mineral compositions; their main difference is that ocean saltwater is…… [read more]

Trash Has Been a Part of Human Thesis

… ¶ … Trash has been a part of human civilization since at least the Neanderthal began tossing excess foods, waste, and broken items into their caves. It is directly linked to human development, both socially and technologically. Historically, the compositions of wastes have varied, with the Industrial Revolution and subsequent innovation providing a huge spike in excess waste. As a nation, the United States generates more waste than any other country -- 4.5 pounds of solid waste per person/per day -- over 1/2 of which is residential garbage ("Zero Waste America, 2008). Unfortunately, some of this trash, the debris of modern living, often ends up in our waterways, making a path toward the ocean. Some is intentional or accidental discharge from ships; the rest comes into the oceans via rivers, wind, sewers, and anyone who utilizes the beaches (Janes, 2005). Because of the number and diversity of sources, and the way in which modern containers (plastic, etc.) not only travel long distances, but remain intact, marine debris is a serious global concern (National Academies Press, 2008). Because of the interconnectedness of the global environment, marine debris is not a national problem -- it is indiscriminate in its harm to marine wildlife, the degradation of ocean habitats, interference with navigation and water safety, fishing, coastal communities, human health and disease vectors, and the global economy (Ofiara, 2001, pp. 103-8; Williams, 1999).

There are certainly a variety of national laws and regulations designed to protect individual waterways and to limit the disposal of garbage in the oceans. However effective these may be country to country, though, there are no comprehensive, international programs designed to assess and limit marine debris, or to remove what waste is already in the system. The United Nations has a 1982 Convention on Law and Sea Treaty, which describes the rights and responsibilities of all nations, but offers no assurance of compliance.

Fortunately, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a federal agency that is tasked with the conditions of the world's oceans and atmosphere, understands that issues that effect the oceans are global in span and must be treated as global in diplomacy, policy, and education. NOAA has a Marine Debris Program that serves as a centralized information and action/development center with NOAA and several global agencies, including the United Nations. It is tasked with the coordination, strengthening, and education to the public and private sector regarding the effects of marine debris. In the last decade, NOAA-MDP has focused its efforts on the international community -- helping to identify, reduce, prevent, and where possible, clean up, marine debris pollution. While it is difficult to educate fishermen globally due to a variety of factors: language and cultural barriers, logistics, etc., there are several programs in place that could be adapted to any language and diverse culture in order to help fishermen, in particular, understand that their actions today will have a serious affect on their own economic future of tomorrow (Coe. 1996). Among some of the most successful… [read more]

Maritime Delimitation Essay

… Maritime Border Delimitation

Maritime boundaries have been debated, discussed and litigated for centuries. Despite this the majority of maritime boundaries are not delineated or set by any enforceable means as maritime boundaries lay in what is considered a no-man's land,… [read more]

Lapita Pottery Thesis

… Lapita Pottery

The native peoples called the Lapita who lived an estimated 3,000 years ago on the scattered islands of what is now the Kingdom of Tonga have left part of their cultural legacy available to be studied through their… [read more]

Spreading of Red Sea Floor Over the Geological Time Term Paper

… Red Sea Spreading Seafloor

The spreading of the seafloor under the Red Sea offers researchers a chance to study several important areas of science and apply what is learned to a better understanding of earth, earth's history, and perhaps other… [read more]

Bermuda Triangle Term Paper

… Bermuda Triangle - also sometimes called the "Devil's Triangle" - has been the topic of controversy for many years. The name "Bermuda Triangle" was given to this area - a roughly shaped imaginary triangle between Florida, San Juan (Puerto Rico)… [read more]

Students Meningitis Shots Term Paper

… Glacial Melting

Though global acclimate change has been debated much over the last 20 years the debate seems to be coming to an end, with regard to the masses of evidence of its occurrence, at an extremely accelerated rate over the last 50 years. Global climate change in its current state is creating massive glacial melting, which can have devastating effects on the earth. Glacial melting, will eventually cause massive shifts in the composition and breadth of the ocean, which will likely cause shorelines in many low lying areas to disappear under a wake of differently composed sea water. There will likely be loss of biodiversity, as many island nations and shoreline areas are a center fro biodiversity and will be underwater. Additionally, the arctic regions also play host to diverse species that will no longer be able to find the space and food they need once the ocean temperatures rise and the ice disappears.

How much should we worry about global climate change and other forms of environmental degradation? Any lingering doubts about its occurrence, as well as humankind's influence, are quickly fading amid new reports of faster-than-expected glacial melting (Overpeck et al. 2006) and unprecedented rates of species loss, deforestation, desertification, and water shortages (Hughes et al. 2003; Jackson et al. 2001; Thomas et al. 2004). (Schwartz, Parker, Glass, and Hu 1807)

Glacial melting has been occurring for some time, at an accelerated rate, most believe as a result of human interventions on the earth, technology, encroachment, deforestation, burning of massive amounts of fuel which produce carbon emitting gases that have degraded the atmospheric protection of the earth.

Scientists suspect the enhanced melting is linked to human-influenced climate change. Air temperatures in the region have risen by more than 2 degrees Celsius in 50 years, one of the fastest warming rates in the world. But they also say topography, wind and precipitation patterns, and changing ocean conditions could play a role.

Mastny 9)

There are many causes that together make up the result of markedly higher temperatures, reaching the polar ice caps today. These trends are not showing signs of marked reversal, and many argue that anything people do today, in an attempt to reverse glacial melting may be simply, to little to late.

Scientists have released the most compelling evidence yet that certain glaciers in Antarctica are melting rapidly. In April, researchers with the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and the U.S. Geological Survey reported that 87% of 244 marine glaciers they surveyed on the Antarctic Peninsula have retreated markedly in the last 50 years

According to a collaborative group of scientists who have been studying glacial melting (over the last 50 years) for the last three or more years are convinced by the data that the numbers look not only bad but startling and that this rate of melting has never been seen on this earth. "Loss of all ice on the Antarctic Peninsula would raise oceans by an estimated 0.3 meters."

Mastny 9)

Other parts of… [read more]

Keeping California's Oceans Healthy for Future Generations of Scuba Divers Term Paper

… Scuba Diving in California's Oceans

Scuba diving is a recreational activity that is rapidly gaining popularity, as equipment has become more professional, easier to work with, and widely available to the public. People may choose to scuba dive for a number of different reasons. Some do so on a professional level, to investigated oceanographic matters, to investigate elements such as shipwrecks, or merely for recreational purposes, such as observing fish and plant species under water. Because an increasing number of people are scuba diving, the danger to the underwater environment is increasing. Some scuba divers may for example cause unintentional harm to the environment. Currently, environmentalism is gaining importance in the public mind. In society, we are much more aware of preserving our resources for future generations. Similarly, if future generations are to benefit from their scuba diving activities, it is vital that oceanic resources be protected today. This applies especially to popular locations of ocean resources such as California.

According to Todd, Cooper and Graefe (2000), scuba divers themselves are becoming increasingly aware of the environment and the importance of protecting it. This is especially the case as scuba divers become more experienced in their craft. The reason cited for this is that, as scuba divers increase their experience, they become more aware of the delicate balance within the environment in which they practice their craft. This brings about a respect for the environment and the need to protect it.

One strategy that can be used for the protection of future resources is then to target younger, learning scuba divers via the more experienced people. The less experienced can then learn about the need to respect oceanic resources, as well as specific strategies that can be used to minimize or eliminate damage to the environment via scuba diving.

Specifically, inexperienced scuba divers are often unaware of the damage they cause to their environment, because this damage is not immediately visible. According to Todd, Cooper and Graefe, for example, the problem is often one of unawareness rather than willful or careless actions. Less skilled divers are for example unable to control buoyancy under the surface. The silt stirred up in this way kills many micro-organisms in the ocean, which upsets the ecological balance in the specific location. More experience with scuba diving, or simply an awareness of the problem, can mitigate the effect of this.

Additionally, the problem relating to California, and to other ocean-side areas, is that oceanic pollution is not only caused by scuba divers. Indeed, plastic products in water and the chemicals released into the water from these is one of the major causes of environmental problems around Californian coast lines. Chemicals from these plastics cause millions of fish deaths, and have also been responsible for eliminating many plant and fish species in the area (Environment California, 2006). Scuba divers can be made further aware of the need to protect the environment by becoming part of cleanup efforts where spillages or pollution occur. The main issue is… [read more]

Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy Term Paper

… Ocean and Coastal Literacy

Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Office of Education and Sustainable Development (OESD) have benefited from this research;

Those agencies are in the process of identifying both the threats to our ocean resources and habitat, and to determine how much citizens are aware of these threats.

The report used for this outline was prepared by the Commission on Ocean Policy (COP), in order to aid NOAA and OESD in their policy planning.

The coastal areas of the U.S. are growing rapidly; this report indicates that 19 million homes and some 37 million people have been added to coastal areas in the last 30 years.

There is an "Ecosystems Mission Goal" presented by the COP and that is that healthy and productive coastal area, with thriving marine ecosystems, benefits society; plus, a well-informed public can help keep the ecosystems and coastal environments safe from pollution and other disturbances.

The problem is, mainly, that the public is uninformed about many ocean issues.

The BODY a) 84% of Americans say they believe "strongly" that oceans need to be protected one: about 82% of Americans believe "future generations" will depend on oceans one: another survey shows 65% of Californians believe a "balanced use" of oceans is a good policy (balanced meaning some exploitation by oil companies / industry);

two: the main benefit that 41% of Americans see in ocean protection is that it helps maintain habitat for sea life.

A three: a 1999 Ocean Project study indicates that 80% of the public sees oceans as "Powerful"; 71% see oceans as "Vast"; 64% see oceans as "Relaxing"; and 59% see oceans as "Fun." four: since oceans produce 70% of our oxygen, surveyed individuals believe that protecting the ocean is in fact also protecting humans and human families; the circle of life is accepted as a natural fact by people, and hence, when one part of life is hurt or damaged in any way, it affects the whole chain of life five: too much coastal development, pollution from industry and harmful fishing practices are all damaging not only to the ocean, but to our way of life, those surveyed believed.

A b) How does the public perceive the environmental condition of the oceans?

A one: 80% in a poll say they disagree that the oceans are "so large" humans can't hurt them by pollution; 72% say ocean's can't "simply clean themselves"; 58% believe that polluting the ocean in one area actually affects the entire ocean, but 34% think polluting in one place is only affecting that specific area of pollution.

A two: about 44% of Americans think the condition of the ocean is "only fair" while 27% believe the oceans are in "good-to-excellent" condition; and although 32% of people in a NY Times poll said "pollution" is their "top" environmental…… [read more]

Inhabitants of N. America Term Paper

… ¶ … Inhabitants of N. America

The First Inhabitants of North America

For the last 50 years schools have taught that the first people in America were Asians who came from Siberia across the Bering Straits. Because the ice melted, they were able to walk across a "land bridge" into Alaska, and gradually they migrated south. According to this theory, they were the ancestors of the Clovis people. In "The North Atlantic Ice-edge Corridor: A Possible Palaeolithic Route to the New World," Bradley and Stanford (2004) say no, it couldn't have happened that way. They argue there is no archaeological evidence Asians or any other people crossed the Beringia land bridge or that they passed down through Canada on their way southward. They claim there is really no connection between Asians and the Clovis culture and that there are no pre-12,000-year-old sites in Beringia with technology that resembles Clovis.

The authors point out that Clovis tool makers practiced biface thinning, a difficult and sophisticated process not present in Asian tool kits. Clovis blade production resulted in large wedge-shaped cores with a single acute-angle platform, produced on a single face with a flat back. Clovis flint knappers also sometimes heated raw material to improve its flaking ability. In the opinion of the authors, this technology developed over a long period of time and was passed down to the Clovis people by a pre-Clovis culture. These technologies are unrelated to the Asian microblades and wedge-shaped microblade cores found at Alaskan sites. Beringian blade makers used inset technologies not found in Clovis sites; moreover, they are from the same period as Clovis, not earlier. Whatever similarities there might be would be attributable to contact with Clovis people. Moreover, after deglaciation the Beringia land was barren; thus, it was unsuitable for human habitation or migration.

Bradley and Stanford argue that the first people in America came from Europe using watercraft. They reason that early humans in the South Pacific traveled on the water -- why not Europeans -- and it is logical that the spread of human beings around the world has to involve water routes. They argue that there are significant similarities (overwhelming, in fact) between Clovis technologies and Upper Paleolithic Solutrean technologies found in southwestern Europe. They point out that Solutrean is more than 6000 years older than Clovis and its technology is very similar to Clovis, including details of typology and manufacturing. Salutrean sites are found in Europe and date from 22,000 to 16,500 BP during the Last Glacial Maximum. The similarities of technology point to Solutrean culture evolving into Clovis. The two share pre-core shaping, core face set-up, and blade detachment techniques. Solutrean blade technology is more like Clovis than any other European blade core technology. Both cultures used exotic raw materials to manufacture bifaces, such as quartz, jasper, chalcedony and agate. Both cultures cached large bifaces made from exotic materials.

Solutrean people lived where colder weather and shorter growing seasons may have reduced the…… [read more]

Natural Disaster Tsunami Term Paper

… Natural Disaster


There are a number of tsunami occurrences that has been recorded around the world. Each time a tsunami occurs, a great wave of devastation and destruction is found in the affected areas.

Below is the listing of… [read more]

What Impact Has European Colonialism Had on the Culture of Torres Strait Term Paper

… European Colonialism & Torres Strait

European Colonialism and the Peoples of Torres Strait

The impact that European colonialism has had on indigenous cultures in the Torres Strait region is momentous; and, fortunately for those interested in factual history, it has… [read more]

Endangered Coral Reef Ecosystem Term Paper

… Unfortunately coral disease is just one of many facets affecting coral reefs.

Humans are affecting reefs far more rapidly than natural diseases. Some reefs are destroyed due to costal development. Others are overfished, removing one of the vital links in the ecosystem, and so, with the fish gone, the coral reefs change, die, and return to the sea. This is because the fish graze on the algae, keeping it under control. When these grazing fish are removed by too much fishing, the algae can grow out of control and take over the reef itself (Agardy). One of the biggest threats to the coral reefs is runoff of fertilizers and chemicals from homes and businesses into the oceans of the world. These release an overabundance of chemicals into the water, which can ruin coral reefs. Agardy notes, "The overabundance of nutrients causes algae to overgrow and smother coral polyps; in extreme cases, leading to totally altered and biologically impoverished alternate ecosystems" (Agardy). Thus, coral reefs are delicate ecosystems that function quite well when left on their own, but can break down completely when items are added to or removed from the balance nature created.

In conclusion, while there are still healthy and vital coral reef ecosystems around the world, they are disappearing at a rapid rate. One expert notes, "Two-thirds of the world's coral reefs may be dying and, if current conditions continue, 70% of them may be gone by 2050, according to statistics released by the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force" (Chepesiuk). Thus, these ecosystems have survived and thrived for thousands of years, but if something is not done soon, so many reefs may disappear that the coral reef may simply be a memory for most people.


Agardy, Tundi. "America's Coral Reefs: Awash with Problems; Government Must Acknowledge the Magnitude of the Crisis and Fully Engage the Scientific and Conservation Communities in Efforts to Solve It." Issues in Science and Technology Wntr 2004: 35+.

Chepesiuk, Ron. "Stressed Reefs May Get Relief." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.9 (2000).

Ekman, Sven. Zoogeography…… [read more]

Coasts Are the Dynamic Junction Term Paper

… In most places where they exist, these features are increasingly being lost to human development. (ENS, 2004)

The natural process of coastline involves a complex dynamics of many different forces of nature working collectively to create any coastline. What is eroded from one area is generally deposited in another. Longshore currents for example are primarily responsible for moving large volumes of sand that help build barrier reefs and erode them as well. Rip tides or undertows can also significantly change the continental shelf of the coastline. Excessive erosion can result in a steep continental shelf in the region. The different types of tides (high tide and low tide) also determine the extent of the coastline formation that takes place. Where the water temperature differs significantly between summer and winter the intensity of the wave action might also change based on seasons. Storms and hurricane can also create surges that are abnormally high and the intensity of these tides can cause concentrated damages to coastlines in the area. (Wernicke, 2004)

Seasonal changes that depend upon melting snow and glacial activity along coastlines that are in frigid locations can change the salinity of the seawater and change wave activity and currents in the region. This can introduce seasonal changes in the manner in which either erosion or deposition occurs in the region. The picture in the appendix shows that the coastline of the U.S. has changed significantly over the years. While some changes are observed in a short period of time (the break up of the barrier reef during the hurricane), some take thousands of years to occur. (Richmond, 2004)

Tectonic movements and the changes in the sea floor, along with undersea volcanoes can create waves and currents that can cause damages. The slope of the coastline can also impact the extent of damages that can result. Steeply sloping coastlines are less resistance to water-level rise and wave action. Gradual sloping coastlines have the ability to absorb shocks and wave action much better than steeply sloping coastlines.

The building of seawalls, groins or jetties and dredging of the coastlines to support human activity is aggressively changing coastlines much faster than any of the natural methods. Mapping and documenting the coastline is essential (FEMA, 2004)These manmade barriers have the ability to save properties and business from damages by wave action but they can also cause extensive damages on the seaward side of the barriers built. Sand dunes have been level to improve beaches and waterfront properties this has reduce the barriers that wind and surf have available when moving inland.

It is a fact that coastlines will continue to change and evolve is fact. Ensuring that man-made influence does not negatively impact it is important.

Bibliography (2004). Europe's Coastlines Eroding Into the Sea. Environmental News Service. Retrieved December 5, 2004, from the World Wide Web:

FEMA. (2004). Significant Losses From Coastal Erosion Anticipated Along U.S. Coastlines. Retrieved December 5, 2004, from the World Wide Web:

Richmond, Bruce. (2004). Effects of Major… [read more]

Devil's Triangle Term Paper

… Croix. Rivers was an experienced pilot and had completed the trip many times before. However, after checking in, he soon loses sight of where he is scheduled to land. Suddenly, the plane disappears from the tower radar, never to be seen again. Another disappearance happened in October of 1980. The cargo ship known as the S.S. Poet never checked in for its scheduled time. The entire ship along with all 11,000 tons of cargo, thirty-four crewmembers, and all contents including lifeboats, life rings, completely disappeared. While many people explained that the disappearance was the result of a "freak storm," this theory soon failed since other ships had remained undisturbed (Quasar 2003). The age of technology had again failed. No trace of the ship could be found within the satellite messages, emergency calls or skip static that had occurred that day.

The terror of the Hoodoo Sea continued as it claimed Enrique Esme's plan as he flew off Nassau on May 12, 1999. He never returned to the area. All that was found of his plane was a few pieces of debris and Esm'e life jackets. On October 27, 2000, Hubert Helligar flew a small single-engine plane. Technology was apparent on his plane and included state-of -- the art equipment for the 21st century. Everything checked out normal for his flight, but after take-off, he disappeared leaving no clue.

The Statesman (2003) reports that the American Coast Guard "received numerous distress calls and had as many as thirty disappearances of aircraft and double the number of boats with over 8,000 people gone and not accounted for. The Carnival Cruiselines Ship known as Destiny recently experienced downed phones and electromagnetic disturbances, but the blame was placed upon technical problems that had only been corrected just a few months before the voyage crossing The Devil's Triangle.

Kusche (1995) presents an explanation that the Triangle is a manufactured mystery and manufactured by writers and storytellers. The Devil's Triangle lies in an area where a "magnetic compass indicates the true north instead of pointing toward the magnetic north. While the amount of magnetic variation changes slightly, an experienced sailor or navigator should accommodate for this or experience extreme trouble. Other theories involve that the boats crossing The Bermuda Triangle are simply too small for the treacherous waters and find disaster in the rough currents. Dr. Ben Clennell offers the explanation of people simply being in the wrong place at the wrong time only to find themselves part of an underwater landslide that releases Methane hydrate. This physical force would cause any ship to easily sink by simply reducing the water density. Of course, other suggestions for the disappearances include aliens, UFO's, the presence of a strong underwater magnet and even the possibilities of earthquakes. Reasons are offered for poor sailing, inadequate knowledge of piloting, and not checking weather conditions before beginning a trip. Whatever theory is given, the disappearances still go unexplained.

Some critics proclaim that writers created the mystery of The Triangle in order… [read more]

Flags of Convenience Term Paper

… The oil spill was so dramatic that it immediately began to destroy and paralyze fishing in the local area while Portugal waited to find out how badly their immediate eco system was going to be affected by the spill.

The… [read more]

Political / Environmental Economics Term Paper

… We have a groundfishing industry, and shellfish, lobster

QUESTION: And you won't have to sell out to developers?

ANSWER: Gloucester has a 380-year history of being closely joined at the hip to the sea. And I don't see that tradition… [read more]

Blue Whale Term Paper

… The whales suck in big gulps of ocean water, and the tiny shrimp and plankton (microscopic sea animals) are filtered out, and the whale swallows them. Blue whales can eat anywhere from 2,000 to 9,000 pounds of food a day! But they don't eat all the time. They only eat in the summertime after they have migrated to the cold waters of the Arctic or Antarctic.

Blue Whales are important and beautiful animals, who are endangered, but we can all help these whales to make sure they don't disappear.

The Blue Whale Needs Your Help!

How Can You Help?

You can help the Blue Whale survive. Because too many of the whales were being killed by whaling ships, in 1966 the International Whaling Commission (IWC) stopped any hunting of blue whales and gave them worldwide protection. Some people think there are only about 5,000 of them living in the oceans today, while others think there may be as many as 14,000.

Blue Whales are protected, but some people still hunt them illegally. Japan and Norway still hunt whales. You can tell these countries you will not buy their products as long as they hunt whales. Whales also can get tangled in fishing nets, and are can also die from pollution in the water.

There are many things you can do to help the Blue Whale survive. You can tell the International Whaling Commission that you want illegal whaling to stop. The Cetacean Society International at a society that works to save the whales. They study how whales are dying, and try to find ways to help them.

Volume 1 Issue

Plan for Preservation

There are many different organizations who are concerned about whales, porpoises,… [read more]

How to Create a Blue Print for Guest Management in a Hotel Chapter

… Blue Print -- Overnight Stays in a Hotel

Physical Evidence

Hotel San Philippe in San Diego

330 Rooms

300 no-smoking

Well-lighted parking

Excellent Bell Hop and concierge

Friendly professional staff

Breakfast buffet & restaurant

Children's amenities & fun events

Customer Actions

Family decides to take a vacation where there are beaches and worthy attractions

Parents research available hotels using online research; book San Philippe

Reservation clerk books room for family; they arrive; bell hop handles bags; they check in Family taken to rooms; bags arrive; tip for bell hop; Video used in children's room

Room service called; food arrives; family maps out plan for beach time

Three days of activities; concierge brings lotion for children's sun burns

Family checks out and receive a voucher for next summer: stay 3 nights get 3rd free

On-Stage / Visible Contact Between Hotel Employees and Family

Bell hop greets family on the street, takes bags and provides other assistance

Front desk has three people checking guests in so no waiting for family

Bags are taken to room; bell hop shows how to use air condition and TV units

Food is delivered to both parents and children's rooms; fresh and tasty food

Guest paperwork is slid under door for ease of check out; bell hop assists with bags

Backstage/Invisible Contact Employee Actions

Reservations made through hotel's secure server; all major staff receive email with family's information

Protocol: service staff, housekeeping, etc., acknowledge the email and log into hotel server with all actions related to serving family

Staff presents special activities (like a fun scavenger hunt) for children; names of children are learned and used

Checkout: no waiting in line at the front desk; credit card invoice is signed by family; bell hop takes bags to car

Error-Proofing ("Poka-Yokes") / Mistake Proofing Hotel Services

Unlike companies that sell products, hotels and other hospitality companies basically sell services that are for the most part administered by people.…… [read more]

Analyzing the Workforce Challenges Case Study

… Workforce Challenges

What is your view of the AHA position on workforce issues?

One of the key aspects of a country's healthcare system is maintaining a strong healthcare labor force. AHA's view on dealing with the problems of this workforce is on a positive front. It has been clearly mentioned that depression has eased vacancies temporarily, but with the economy's improvement, there shall be deficiencies in the workforce. Becoming a charming client is simply one of the ways of catering to these particular shortages. Back in 2009, the AHA Board of Trustees assessed the hospitals' changing environment and came up with three different strategies of dealing with them (AHA, n.d). These three strategies would assist the leaders in forming effectual workforce strategies. Additionally, the issue of personnel relations also has seen a positive approach taken by the AHA due to the fact several options have been offered for Card Check. The Nurse Staffing Standards for Patient and Quality Care Act together with the Registered Nurse Surge Staffing Act would assist registered nurses to have some flexibility and also establish suitable staffing patterns for the personnel (AHA, n.d). Mandatory lifting together of limitations is inevitable overtime, which would actually offer some relief to the nurses from obtaining injuries in the course of working time. In addition, this opposition to overtime by AHA would also provide relief to the laborers and they would then work voluntarily even after their shift is complete. Giving relief to healthcare personnel not only rejuvenates their minds, but also establishes a working system process for the whole system.

Part 2: Select any one of the "workforce challenges" presented here. Read the AHA's position on the challenge, and then share your own view. Support your position on the challenge selected.

Shortage of healthcare workforce in the United States was first observed in the year 2000 when the American Hospital Association together with the Association of American Medical Colleges first started looking into the effect…… [read more]

Analyzing and Rationalizing the Identification of Potential Hiring Mistakes Essay

… Rationalize the Identification of Potential Hiring Mistakes

Discussion of Placement of the 10 mistakes in the Flow Chart and the Rationale

Identification of need -- (Depending on training to hire)

The rationale for placing this particular mistake is that prior… [read more]

Implementing a Diversity Policy Term Paper

… Diversity and Equality Policy

Business Description

Statement of intent

General terms of the policy

Forms of Discrimination -- Principles

Equality and diversity in recruitment, selection, development and training


Bullying and harassment

Human rights

Fixed-term employees and agency workers &… [read more]

Crafting the Right HR Interview Questions Creative Writing

… ¶ … working with a team? Regardless of your answer, please explain.

Please give examples of times where you have had to communicate something important. Please describe the medium or mediums you used, how you crafted the message and to what kind of people you were communicating (e.g. managers, all employees, customers, etc.)

What specific skills or experiences that you have do you feel would best qualify you for this position. Please give at least two or three but no more than five that you feel are the most important

If you were to notice that your team is less than motivated and on top of things, what would you say or do to turn things around and get people engaged?

What leadership style or styles do you think are best for this job? Would you vary your approach based on what precisely is going on at any given time?

Best Practices

Never ... ever ... ask questions about immigration status, age, gender, marital status, kids, race, ethnicity, or anything else about a person's personal traits. Any and all questions must pertain and must be mundane to the job and the ability to complete the same.

When it comes to immigration status, so long as the employee can provide proof of identity and prove of authorization to work (e.g. Social Security Number), any further scrutiny about the employee and their status as a legal citizen is out of bounds unless there is something extreme or out of place like potentially fraudulent documents, a name mismatch in the Social Security verification system or something of that nature

Human resources staff should be aware that they can be subject to scrutiny from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) or other non-discrimination bodies even if there is no overt racism occurring. For example, if about thirty percent of the applicants for a firm are black but only ten percent of the hired employee base is black, this could raise eyebrows with the EEOC. This does not mean that racism is occurring and it could just be that that the best applicants currently on staff just happened to not be black. However, such a circumstance would be known as "disparate impact" and this can cause a review of a firm's hiring practices to occur.

Employers need to be careful about what is asked or not asked when it comes to criminal history. Of course, if legal questions are asked and the employee turns out to be a violent felon or openly lies about their history, this is more than enough reason to exclude them. However, employers should be mindful that there are restrictions on what can be asked and when those questions can be asked. Beyond that, a criminal history should not by itself disqualify someone from employment but there is also the concept of not engaging in negligent hiring and endangering the reputation of the firm or the safety of the employees. For example, someone with a rape conviction should not be hired… [read more]

Which Applicant to Pick Chapter

… HR Manager

The author of this report has been asked to review a scenario and answer a number of questions as it pertains to a human resources manager and some of the details and situations that said human resources manager would encounter. The marketplace in which this theoretical human resources manager is working is very competitive and thus the tactics must be adjusted to match. The human resources manager needs the proper amounts and types of judgment when it comes to the job and that will manifest with a hiring decision from four candidates.

Hiring Decision

Ren Sanspit seems excited to start a new career but someone with no sales and presumably no information technology experience (let alone healthcare information technology experience) is probably not going to be the best fit. Angie Gram is a lot better in that she has designed medical devices but it would seem that her English skills are not superior, for whatever reason. With that being said, he was the top in her class and she is a leading expert in the medical technology field, if her words are to be believed. When it comes to Medica Seles, this person has more than five years of direct experience doing the same thing that is being hired for right now. She was even given a Consultant of the Year award last year, so she has high-level experience and it is recent. She also has a degree and was the top of her class in healthcare informatics. The one concern is that she is getting married and relocating but that is not a concern as long as she is available for what the jot requires and it cannot be used as a concern in her hire anyway except as it pertains to her ability to do her job. If she's available and ready to go, then she cannot be excluded for that. The final candidate is Karen Comfort. She has a bachelor of science in nursing, has seen a strong variety of practices. She is also well-prepared to travel, although it is not clear if she has actually done that before. Of the…… [read more]

Risks of an Employee Portal Essay

… Risks & Strategies

The author of this brief report has been asked to assess a theoretical scenario where a self-service human resources portal would be set up. For the scenario, the author of this response has been asked to identify five potential risks for the new project. For each risk, a detailed explanation will be offered as to why it is a risk and whether it is a positive or negative risk. While keeping command and control of changes to information is nice in some respects and legally protective in others, there are also some downfalls to this method and pushing responsibility to the employees is the better idea in the long run.

The author of this response will list the risks identified one-by-one and will then discuss the details and minutia associated with each risk:

Lost passwords: Of course, any self-service system relating to human resources data will need to be password protected. Beyond that, there needs to be some care so that some random person cannot request a password reset and get the information of the employee. Further, very important information for an employee will always be screened so that no one looking over a shoulder or getting the access information some other way cannot get information they should not have. For example, Social Security numbers and banking numbers (e.g. ABA, account, etc.) will be displayed as a string of asterisks and the employee will have to re-key the entire number when they make changes or verify the information. While this may seem to be a negative risk, it is actually a good one. The password reset process can be automated and can utilize something that only the employee should know such as a secret question answer/combination that is set up when the login is set up or something of that nature. Barring a situation where even the reset information is forgotten, it should be hands off for the human resources professionals.

Lack of employee attention: While self-service is indeed the way to go, some employees are not the best at monitoring or updating their information. For example, if an employee moves or changes their phone number, it may not register with them that they need to log in to the system and make the appropriate changes. However, the HR staff can do email blasts or meeting mentions of the need to check and verify information. This should especially be done in early to mid-December so that W-2 information is correct including address, name (in case of marriage/divorce) and so forth. Overall, this is a negative risk since lack of employee attention is not a good thing. However, it is not all negative given that the employee has the responsibility to do their due diligence and the employer cannot be faulted if the employee is given the access and tools to do it themselves (Paychex, 2016).

Too much convenience: Extremely important changes like Social Security Number, legal name and so forth should always have to go through human… [read more]

Analyzing Plan for Legal and Ethical Issues Term Paper

… ¶ … pressure groups and consumers appear to have been placing demands on firms to look for more ecological and ethical means of conducting business. The media too appears to be focusing on abuses and malpractices in the corporate sector.… [read more]

Analyzing the Diversity Plan Essay

… Diversity Plan Demands Leadership Involvement

Along with all serious organizational objectives, the chief executive of a firm and his executive team should be in agreement with the inclusion and diversity plan, as well as take it as a personal responsibility to ensure its success. Quite frequently, diversity is perceived at different organizational levels as an issue that is purely and solely the HR department's concern that needs to be combined with other nonessential "feel good" initiatives. Senior managers, thence, hardly ever adopt a laissez-faire approach to things apparently critical to their company's bottom line, such as development of a novel brand; entering new markets; or a key cost-cutting initiative. In the contemporary marketplace, human resource is the sole powerful organizational competitive advantage.

Therefore, it will be in the top management's and the overall company's best interests if they lead a diversity program, whilst simultaneously ensuring the workforce understands the practical significance of workplace diversity to their overall business success. Leaders must model what is expected of workers, provide an explicit vision, and hold people accountable. That is, they need to play all parts just as they would for any other crucial bottom-line strategy (Hyter, 2005).

Core Components of Diversity Plan

Hiring/Recruitment: Policy must clearly identify deliberate, concrete outreach/recruitment strategies geared at reaching every target worker group. Additionally, training, guidelines, or orientation materials for HR employees and managers engaged in the hiring process must expressly address non-discrimination, and equity, while interviewing and hiring candidates.

Job Training / Advancement: Company diversity policy must provide for unbiased access to advancement and training opportunities everywhere in the organization, in addition to targeted resources directed at markedly under-represented worker groups, as required. Furthermore, training protocols can include an element that explicitly fosters respect and sensitivity towards fellow workers.

Social Activities and Spaces: Diversity policies, more frequently, deal with access to official opportunities like promotion and hiring, but might overlook inclusion of diverse personnel in organizational social activities, networking opportunities, and access to resources and spaces for socialization. However, as networking and social opportunities have normally been associated with advancement opportunities, being excluded from social centers, groups, media, etc. can negatively impact people's career opportunities.

Job-task Composition and Structures: Areas to be considered include ascertaining work practices and norms do not disadvantage or exclude specific employees, or foster an unfriendly, cold environment. Moreover, diversity policies must encompass concrete…… [read more]

Scholarly Research on LGBT and Workplaces Research Paper


McFadden (2015) provides a systematic review of 30 years of literature on how LGBT workers are impacted by their workplace experiences. As McFadden notes, in the various studies conducted over the course of the three decades, there have been various voices and experiences that have touched on distinct themes, such as "identity, sexual orientation discrimination, career/identity overlap, and social issues" (McFadden, 2015, p. 125). What McFadden finds in his analysis of the literature on LGBT in the workplace is that over this period there is insufficient research into the topic -- but that more interest is beginning to show, as LGBT become more mainstream and accepted in society (mainly as a result of positive appearances and portrayals in popular and mainstream media). Thus, because of this trend in popular culture, academics are analyzing with more focus the actual reality that LGBTs experience in the workplace.

McFadden essentially gives an overview of the history of research conducted during the past 30 years and shows which "unique experiences and factors affect an LGBT person's career and workplace experiences" as well as how research has been conducted on this topic over the same period of time (p. 126). The subject of LGBT in the workplace is therefore examined by the researcher from the standpoint of HR development, HR management, gender/sexuality, sociology, psychology, etc. -- which is a much more encompassing study compared to other studies that "focus on only one or two disciplines" (McFadden, 2015, p. 127). McFadden thus takes a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject and discovers, by using a filtration system (for selecting and examining articles), that major themes could be distilled from the literature of the timeframe and used to better understand the issues that LGBTs have faced in the workplace over the past 30 years. McFadden's filtration system consisted of an 84 article "initial study" followed by a 179 article "pilot study," a 145 remaining article "categorization" process, and finally the literature review. The initial study was composed of a broad keyword search, using filters and noting synonyms for streamlining the search string; the pilot study utilized the search string and altered it to grow results; the remaining articles were then categorized according to form criteria, relevance, and quality; and finally a literature review was conducted by identifying main themes, extant research, research gaps, and features of the literature. Of the 263 articles identified in the initial and pilot stages of the systematic review, 18% of the articles appeared in psychology-based scholarly journals, 17% in gender and sexuality-based scholarly journals, 16% in careers journals, 12% in HRM journals, 8% in sociology journals, and 4% in economics journals (McFadden, 2015, p. 133). Likewise, the number of publications spiked post-2000 and peaked at 31 in 2010, showing a significant increase of attention given to the…… [read more]

Analyzing Strategic HR Plan Term Paper

… Strategic HR Plan

Company Background

Values, Vision and Mission

Organizational Structure, Stakeholders, Roles and Responsibilities

PESTEL Analysis

Organization's Market, Competitors and Customer Base

Desired Company Culture

Identify Relevant Legislations, Regulations and Codes of Practice

Develop A SMART Objective For Each… [read more]

Managing Employees to Counter Absenteeism Turnover and Boosting Productivity Term Paper

… ¶ … HR Department

Direct costs refer to all the expenses, labor, and materials, which are related to the production of a certain product. For the production of a certain product to be successful in a company or a firm, various expenses related to the product should be incurred. Some of the direct costs incurred by a manufacturing company in the process of production include manufacturing supplies, direct labor, direct materials, commissions, and piece rate wages paid to employees (Kehoe & Wright, 2013). When a company incurs a direct cost as required in the process of production, it will be successful, but if the direct costs are mismanaged, it will lead to losses. For example, the labor services offered by the employees to the company are very important. However, serious shortages of labor services and losses will be experienced if the are frequently absent. The company should ensure there is no absenteeism unless the employees have a resinous reason to be absent.

The company benefits from frequent training offered to the employees who provide labor to the company in the process of production. Frequent training will ensure that the employees are updated on the frequently changing technology that is applied in the current production process. Besides, the training will ensure that the company produces quality products, which will sustain the competition posed by other products supplied by other companies in the market. The employees can also address any problem relating to the production process if they are well trained.

Indirect costs are those expenses, which cannot be directly attributed to the production of specific products in the company. Some of the indirect costs incurred by various companies in the process of production are depreciation costs, insurance, quality control costs, and salaries related to production supervision. Every stage should be well coordinated so that quality is not compromised (Oh et al., 2015). These are services provided by qualified supervisors employed in the company. In the process of recruiting supervisors, the company should select employees who will provide quality services. While seeking to motivate the employees, every organization should provide insurance cover to the staff. In such cases, the employees will feel that they are part of…… [read more]

Analyzing Roles of Workplace HRM Term Paper

… Trends in Workplace: HRM's Role

The HRM is responsible for many essential roles in organizations (the main ones are described below). Other department managers, over and above their core competencies and assigned responsibilities, also carry out some… [read more]

Article on Training Personality Article Review

… Personality Traits and Career Satisfaction in Training and Development Occupations: Toward a Distinctive T&D Personality Profile (Sundstrom, Lounsbury, Gibson, & Huang, 2015)

This article examines the potential for personality traits to link with training and development occupations and work success in modern organizations. The authors use the "big 5" personality traits, openness, consciousness, neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness, to see if any of these correlate with training and development competencies.

"Based on person -- career fit theory, we hypothesized that the trait profile would differentiate T&D from other occupations, and the traits would correlate with T&D career satisfaction (Sundstrom, Lounsbury, Gibson, & Huang, 2015)."

Basically, the authors are applying some of the techniques that can be used in various training and development tools to the actual profession itself and examines what personality principles might correlate to success in T&D occupations.

There have been several studies that have found that various personality traits can correlate to job performance in different situations. The authors state that only a couple studies have actually examined some of the aspects of personality that specifically apply to the training profession and therefore this work attempts to contribute more knowledge to that end. It can be important that work performance, career satisfaction, and career stability all reflect the fit of an individual's personality and work environment and this has been verified by various studies. There have also been other frameworks developed such as the ASA (Attraction, Selection, Attrition) Framework that proposes that employees will typically select organizations in which their personalities fit with, and if not, poor fits will typically seek other organizations.

One of the traits that the authors hypothesized will be likely to be correlated with competencies in training and development is the agreeableness personality…… [read more]

Analyzing Employee Compensation and Benefits Research Paper

… Employee Compensation and Benefits

The compensation/benefits package is for a newly hired secretary in a consultancy firm. Data will be derived from local and national averages for the post of Secretary, when planning the new recruit's incentive, benefits and compensation package (Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2014).

Overall Compensation = Base Pay + Company Paid Benefits + Other Cash benefits


Base pay: $40,000

Salary: $40,000

Other Income Total $2,200

Holiday $100

Annual Bonus $1,200

Performance Bonus $900

Company Benefits


Company Contribution

Your contribution

Insurance Benefits Total

Health Insurance

Dental Insurance

Short-Term Disability

Long-Term Disability

Life Insurance

Flexible Spending Accounts

Colonial Short-Term Disability











Retirement Benefits Total

Social security











Time Off Benefits Total






Mandated Benefits Total

Federal Unemployment

State Unemployment

Worker's Compensation









Special benefits Total

Transportation Benefit

Fun Friday Food Fests













Benefits Total



Source: Sample Employee Compensation Statement (2010)

Total compensation = $40,000 + $2,200 + $19,015 = $61,215

There are numerous federal laws regulating different kinds of benefits and compensation. Every organization in the social sector ought to adopt a scheme of compensation in line with organizational mission, and which aids the company's HR objectives (Walker, White & Johnson, 2012).

Wages: A majority of organizations, irrespective of their size, are regulated by state as well as federal hour and wage laws. State and federal hour and wage laws are slightly different from one another, and organizations are required to abide by both. The 2 key requirements of federal hour and wage laws are in relation to: (1) minimum wage payment and (2)…… [read more]

Literature Assessment of Changes in Management Studies Essay

… ¶ … human resources was to use various search engine and scholarly databases online and to type in keywords like "human resources trends," "current trends in human resources," and "recent advancements human resources management," plus "management trends." I searched for more recent articles in every case so as to have the latest literature on this subject, which is evident in the works selected for review.

Jacqui, L., Cairncross, G., Lamont, M. (2014). Inducting and training Generation Y

volunteers: a sport event case study. Proceedings of the CAUTHE 2014: Tourism and hospitality in the contemporary world: trends, changes and complexity. Brisbane: University of Queensland: 363-374.

The purpose of this works is to show why it is necessary to understand what is important and valued to the next generation of workers who are raised within a culture that has taught them motivational cues. The study highlights that certain communities want to be valued for what they give to their organizations and that demonstrating strong EI on the part of management can lead to better commitment and employee retention within the organization. The audience is anyone in management positions. It is unique because it focuses on why developing EI depends upon understanding the motivational cues that the young generation's community has instilled in it. Its strengths are in assessing cultural cues and it had no weaknesses or apparent bias.

Larcker, D., Tayan, B. (2015). How important is culture? An inside look at Keller

Williams Realty. Rock Center for Corporate Governance at Stanford University Closer Look Series: Topics, Issues and Controversies in Corporate Governance No. CGRP-48. Social Science Research Network.

The purpose of this article is to examine the critical aspect of workplace culture within the environment of Keller Williams Realty and show that by incorporating a system of virtue ethics in line with servant leadership principles, the program to incentive its agents through profit-shares and highly-touted educational programs like Ignite and BOLD, KW has risen to the top of its class in terms of acquiring agents and developing training programs. The audience is anyone interested in building a solid workplace culture. It is relevant because it addresses a current trend in organizational culture. Its strength is in assessing that KW has more agents for the reason of its strong culture than any brokerage in North America.

Liden, R., Wayne, S., Liao, C., Meuser, J. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5): 1434-1452.

This work's purpose is to discuss the aspects of servant leadership that are essential in providing this style and approach. It is relevant because it is a leadership style that can gel with human resources which is devoted to serving. Its strengths are that it emphasizes the need to conceptualize and to assess the needs of others and to put them ahead of…… [read more]

Analyzing Customer Service Training Class Research Paper

… Customer Service Training Class

Justify the use of a needs assessment of your company's proposed employee customer service training, stressing five (5) ways in which such an assessment would expose any existing performance deficiencies

A needs assessment is imperative for… [read more]

Process of a Dismissal Meeting Research Paper

… Managers can adopt a number of strategies to help cope with any negative feelings that might accompany an employee layoff. Strategies managers choose are meant to soothe any uncomfortable emotions ranging from compensation of laid off employee with attractive severance… [read more]

Analyzing Team Based Approach Training Research Paper

… Team-Based Management Approach

Training matters the management is bound to encounter

It has been observed that successful teams have their members or leaders spending 20% of their first year pursuing teamwork and team building activities (Rochelle, 1999). A study conducted in 1992 found the following practices among high performing organizations.


Integrative role of training is emphasized.

They know the strategic purpose of training staff, suppliers and even the customers

They spend relatively more money than other organizations (Vander Linde, Homey, & Koonce, 1997, p. 21).

Training is increasingly playing an integrative role in high performance business set-ups. Training is the stimulant that influences cultural change, job redesigning and progressive improvement processes. Training enhances the resilience of an organization and the core competencies in a practical sense. These success attributes are vital for an organization that seeks to out-compete others in a rapidly changing and turbulent business world (Vander Linde, Homey, & Koonce, 1997, p. 28)

Team building takes strategy and deliberate effort. It is not possible to lump people in one large workplace space and expect them to work in harmony. Team-based set ups that attain results usually conduct their own requisite training and support. It entails coaching employees on how to sail through hard times. They should adopt an effective, efficient, and professional approach even when matters seem grave in times of hardship and conflict.

The process may involve offering open discussion forums, virtual team spaces and aspects of technology used for the betterment of processes and people. These tools help team members to be in constant, easy contact and interact with each other; even when it is not possible to meet them in one physical location. The task of goal-setting and assessment of the performance of teams is not as easy as it seems. HR leadership, along with employees, should find out ways to inspire each employee and focus them towards team objectives and Goals. Some companies use team evaluation and individual performance index. Other organizations use the team based incentive payout that has the advantage of rewarding each member of the team when the team…… [read more]

HR Technology Trends and Uses Research Paper

… HR Technology: Trends and Uses

HR Technology/HR Technology: Trends and Uses

The Human Resource Information System is a system that brings together information used in the process of human resource management. It is a dynamic system developing even today and is estimated to be worth $15 billion (Rouse, 2015). Some of the processes brought together by the HRIS include formulating and implementing payrolls, recruiting employees, tracking time worked by staff, appraising staff, managing benefits among others.

Technology related to Compensation

One system that automates the compensation process and which incorporates various incentives is the COMPOSE system. It is a system that can be manipulated and thus adapted to various organizations. It enables the firm to acquire well suited employees even as it focuses on achieving its goals (Deucosoft, 2015).

This system gets rid of the physical work involved in calculating incentives and bonuses that are complex as it can accommodate them. It gives great flexibility so that various complexities in compensation can be accommodated. It focuses on bonuses, merit and incentives. It allows the firm to use different plans, structures and various calculations (Deucosoft, 2015).

Manage Total Cost of Ownership

COMPOSE by Deucosoft enables the company to have autonomy in the process. The user can configure it as much as possible. This system allows the user to own it in terms of incorporating as many changes as they wish in terms of changing compensation plans and structures. Deucosoft provides support all the way to ensure smooth use of the software (Deucosoft, 2015).

VIP Service

The company offers a software designed by industry professionals in service for the past twenty years. These professionals have served in the fields of technology and human resources. It has people who have been in the company for nearly a decade. They thus offer service that is of value to the industry.

Technology related to Employment Systems and Services

One software available for employment systems and services is the Epicor Human Capital Management (HCM). It is a system that results in lower costs for companies, improved efficiency and processes. This system accommodates information on employees from the point of recruitment to the point of retirement. It allows one to track the employees, for example, from the point of engaging them, tracking their attendance and even managing their benefits. This system automates all these processes thus reducing paperwork and tedious processes of filing and manually updating records. It enables the firm to track employee performance and measure it against organizational goals. It also allows for the analysis of applicants to positions so that the best are engaged (Epicor, 2015).

HRIS Deployment Options

Epicor HCM can be availed through various options such as a solution provided on site, one provided as a service, and even one that is hosted. It protects the data that is…… [read more]

Training and Hr Exercises Chapter

… Training

The icebreaker should be a relaxed social situation with no pressure, a place where people can start to form friendships and get to mingle with myself and other trainers. Creating a quasi-social situation is going to require food, so I would suggest that the orientation start with breakfast and coffee. This will allow people to get settled before we move into the training session. This time will provide a buffer in advance of their training, a moment to gather themselves and get ready for the training to come. The key is that we will feature a selection of inventive foods that are unusual -- no using the regular caterer -- and we will bring in a professional barista for a coffee tasting. This works better when people drink caffeine, of course, but that is most people. The principle is simple -- you take the most universal things in the world (food and drink) and you present people with variants of these that are interesting, a little bit out of the usual, and ask people to talk about them. If you are tasting coffee from Ethiopia, New Guinea and El Salvador, ask people what the differences are between them? There's no right or wrong, people are probably going to want a nibble and coffee anyway, and we have an opportunity just to start discussing in a no-pressure environment, but one that is engaging and illuminating.

This form of icebreaker is more effective than invasive "tell us stuff about yourself" icebreakers that can put people on their back feet by demanding that they reveal personal details about themselves before they are ready. Those are recommended a lot by extroverts but that's only half of the population. In most cultures, food and drink are the main icebreakers that people use, so food is not only the most culturally sensitive method but it allows people to open up at their own comfort level.

Once the training begins, some activities will be valuable for a couple of reasons. First, they help break up classroom time, so that people's blood is flowing a…… [read more]

Hr Role in Org Change Research Paper

… Human resource development change would be, by definition, change in the way that human resource development is conducted within the organization. More likely, this paper is supposed to be about how human resource development can contribute to organizational change. Noel and Dennehy (1991) note that organizational change usually begins with some form of strategic shift, and that this may require a change in some elements of human resource strategy. A good example of this would be with a company like Eastman Kodak, whose mature industry changed dramatically with new technological innovations. Almost overnight, that company needed to start innovating, and at a pace to which it was entirely unaccustomed. By not engaging human resources in a new strategy, Kodak has seen a sharp decline in its business. If HRD had been engaged, in particular re-training existing employees, changing the incentives for employees, and putting greater emphasis on hiring, an organizational change program could have been much more effective.

Human resource development practices have a number of impacts on the ability of an organization to implement an organizational change. The areas that HRD governs -- career development, training, reward and recognition, and communication -- all influence the readiness of an organization for change. Kumari and Mishra (2009) note that a plan for continued organizational development, if implemented proactively, will increase an organization's readiness for change. This is essential in today's rapidly-changing global business environment. People who are in an organization, or who arrive at the organization, should be indoctrinated into an environment of constant training, of identifying talent that is capable of managing this new operating environment, and finding ways to get those people through career development programs so that they hold key positions during times of organizational change. Ultimately, change happens quickly, and an HRD strategy that is responding to the need for organizational change will not be capable of executing that change fast enough -- the lag time for things like hiring, training and career development is months at best, and normally years, while the need for organizational change can arise in a very short amount of time.

Sociotechnical systems theory argues that the "interaction of social and technical factors creates the conditions for successful systems performance" (Walker, et al., 2008). Human resource development influences both of these elements. Organizational change is implemented most effectively when the systems that underpin the organization are aligned with the nature of the change. An organization that wishes to change an aspect of its operations thus needs to ensure that the technical skills exist within the system, and that the social environment is well-suited to the change. Both are influenced strongly by human resources development. On the technical side, both recruiting and training are key elements in ensuring that the organization has the technical abilities to transition in the manner that the external environment demands. By anticipating the skill sets that will help the organization to transition, and ensuring that the organization is possessed of those skill sets, the human resources department plays… [read more]

How to Privatize Airport Security Screenings Research Paper

… Aviation Security and Screening

The federalization of airport screening has led to a "federalized Transportation Security Officer workforce that screens passengers and baggage traveling on passenger aircraft" as well as a number of other new additions to the way that… [read more]

Human Resources in a Modern World Chapter

… Employment Ethics Sentence Outline

Religion at Work

The implications and considerations of infusing God and the United States military as well as how this has changed over time

The implications and considerations of other government agencies and religion in the workplace

Real-world examples would include the Kim Davis situation in Kentucky and the Hobby Lobby battle over the contraception mandate in the Affordable Care Act

Accommodations for religions practices and items such as garb, prayer, food menu considerations and so forth

Religion at private institutions is much more loosely regulated but there are some lines that cannot be crossed lest a lawsuit or some other upheaval occur

e. Battles over when religion and discrimination seemingly or definite intersect

An example would be a Christian cake-maker not baking a cake for a gay wedding

Affirmative Action

a. There are some that say that affirmative action is needed to right prior wrongs against blacks and/or women

i. Slavery and subjugation has happened on a large scale since the arrival of Columbus in 1492

b. There are others who say that picking anyone based on race is never right, regardless of the motives involved

c. There have been some notable work- and college-centered lawsuits regarding this subject and how far it can and should go

IV. Hiring of Felons

a. Many people take a hard line and will not hire felons

b. Some of their concerns are valid as the employer could be sued for negligent hiring and incur damages to the business if the person recidivates

c. EEOC and others have claimed that felons need to be reintegrated into society and that using criminal background checks with too much weight is unlawful

d. The use of criminal history checks to screen out applicants tends to have disparate…… [read more]

Accuracy of Performance Reviews Assessment

… Performance appraisals are a vital part of the employee management and retention process. It is a vital part of human resources because it helps establish who is performing well, who is just getting by, who needs improvement and who needs to go. The test case of the sixty-four-year-old woman that is really not performing as she needs to be is one of those examples of a situation where the truth is possibly not being told as a means to avoid confrontation and problems. If that is indeed the case, the current supervisor needs to stand up and be assertive yet constructive. While the employee in question may not react kindly or otherwise well to being told that her work is substandard, whitewashing what is going on will benefit no one and the employer has not only a right but a legal and ethical responsibility to keep everyone held to the same standard.


There can only be one of two things, really, that could be going on with the sixty-four-year-old woman. One possibility, although unlikely, is that there was a different yardstick being used by the prior supervisor. If that were the case, it is entirely possible that the employee may have met the required and minimum standards for the review periods in question. However, the woman's reputation for being combative and nasty when is told she is not doing well is probably the real reason for her passing reviews in prior quarters or years. The more likely scenario is that the prior supervisor was more interested in keeping the peace rather than telling the woman what she needed and deserved to hear.

This is a bad idea on a number of levels. First of all, if a different proverbial yardstick is being used on employees in the same or similar situations, that alone is a recipe for disaster. The best case scenario for something like that is that the other employees, her direct colleagues in particular, will not notice. However, there is a strong chance they notice just fine. Further, if those colleagues are getting passable reviews, they will surely wonder why the test case in this report is not getting flogged, from a figurative standpoint, at review time. Third, the woman in question has absolutely no right or privilege to be nasty or overly emotional when she gets feedback that is negative yet constructive. It would be one thing if the supervisor was using negative and incendiary language to describe the woman or how she does her job. However, if there are standards she is not meeting and it can clearly be shown that this is the case, the employer has every right to point that out. An obvious reason for this is that using a different set of standards for different people could cause upheaval in the department/employer. Even worse, it could cause a lawsuit. For example, if a black woman got a negative review and the woman in this case got her usual passable review despite… [read more]

Job Analysis Under Cover Boss True Value Term Paper

… Job Analysis/Description

The CEO and president of "True Value" (among the world's biggest hardware cooperatives), John Hartman, resorts to his individual undercover talents from back when he was an federal agent to evaluate/investigate the condition of his workers and company (Undercover Boss S6 E1 -- True Value2014). During the course of his "investigation," he uncovers unprofessional pickup artist antics by one of his workers which shocked him. Working in disguise as "Louis Lapresi," Hartman takes on several jobs in different departments of his firm to get a closer perspective, including working as a forklift driver, retail sales associate, and as a receiver in one of the firm's distribution centers (CBS, 2014).

Job Overview

Forklift operators

The forklift operators move goods in forklifts around sites such as factories, storage yards, construction sites, and warehouses. The forklift has a hydraulic lifting system, and has forks for carrying heavy goods. It may seem easy doing this kind of work; however the work can be quite tediously repetitive and thus tiring. Driving a forklift is not just stepping on gas pedals and driving around. It requires concentration for long periods and definitely involves a lot of hard work. The forklift cannot lift everything and so one may have to carry heavy objects, bend forward, kneel, or crouch in awkward, difficult positions. Working a forklift is classified as a hazardous occupation. The job is prone to accidents repeatedly as the case is with any big machine. However, accidents can be avoided by taking appropriate safety measures and operational procedures. One also needs to be always on the lookout and aware of their settings so as to ensure their own safety as well as that of their co-workers (Forklift Driver Job Description, n.d).

The forklift operator will be in charge of the movement of received products, inter-warehouse transfers and outbound items in a way that satisfies the industry's quality, accuracy, productivity and safety standards. One is charged with the mandate of processing and assisting all outbound and/or inbound, picking, packing, stocking and other warehouse functions. He or she should also be able to assist in ensuring inventory accuracy and informing management of any mismatches. A forklift operator to improve the inventory outcomes also performs stock alignments when necessary. The operator can also be assigned to grounds keeping and to make sure the trash is collected and discarded properly to make the warehouse clean and attractive to the employees and customers as well. Qualifications that are required for one to be employed as a forklift include: a valid driving license, a clean background and he or she must also pass drug tests. The driver should also have a professional appearance, attitude, and excellent written and verbal communication skills (Warehouse Worker/Forklift Operator, 2014).

Sales Associate

A retail sales associate essentially works towards making sales for the company. He or she can work in any production business ranging from selling shoes to selling houses. A salesperson needs to have a comprehensive understanding of the goods they are selling, should… [read more]

Solving an Issue of Low Productivity Research Paper

… ¶ … RadioShack: Low Morale and Low Productivity / Solving an Issue of Low Productivity and Low Morale in Radioshack

Radioshack is a company that deals in electronics. It is experiencing low productivity as well as low employee drive. For… [read more]

Role of Current HR in Ford Company Term Paper

… ¶ … Human Resource Department and Function of Ford Motor Company

The Ford Motor Company, often referred to as Ford, is one of the biggest motor vehicle manufacturers in the U.S. and has branches and outlets that are globally spread and thru vehicles have an international appeal to diverse markets, permeating diverse cultures and different economic status. Ford has products that are suitable for the premium price consumers as well as the customers who are on a tight budget but would love to drive a Ford.

The main theme of Ford is to go further to make their cars better, their employees happier and the plangent a better place to live in. the business approach is such that it targets to make great products and strengthen their business and also benefit the communities around them (Ford, 2015a). This is what drives the entire Ford fraternity, from the administration, through to the manufacturing, marketing and the human resources management among other departments.

There is need therefore to ensure that the HR strategy is in alignment with the above business strategy. The central and most important thin to do is to ensure that the HR department is organized in such a manner that it takes an active part in the strategic planning of the organization. This is because within the organization, it is the human capital that gives leverage to all the other departments and run the organization.

Yet the other way of aligning the HR with the business strategy would be to change the hitherto administrative look at the department into one that focuses on compliance and value creation through efficiency creation in al departments in Ford. The top management needs to see the HR as a commodity that brings value to the organization rather than an administrative norm. This way, the HR will be more directed towards value creation for the organization.

The HR system also need to the formed in a manner that it is aligned to the business strategy of Ford. The employees that are within the organization needs to be trained by the HR department to be strategically focused in line with the business strategies, and the new employees need to be valued on the basis of how well their values are aligned to the values of the organization. The various tenets that make up the HR department like hiring, training, reviews, compensation must then be formulated in a manner that brings the maximum value to the organizational business strategy and make the human capital of more value than before.

The Ford HR system will also need to be more technologically oriented in that the wastage in terms of resources and man-hours are significantly cut down through use of cheaper alternatives that are technologically improved. With such changes and technological improvements, the HR will be in a better position to play a more strategic managerial role and in effect position the HR in a better place to contribute to the business strategy of the organization.

HR job… [read more]

HR Interview About Culture Essay

… Globalization represents a phenomenon that is responsible for many people being exposed to new cultures. In today's global economy, many people often take job opportunities overseas and find themselves in an entirely new culture. Sometimes people can be exposed to… [read more]

Human Resource Strategies to Manage Workforce Diversity Research Paper

… Human Resource as it Relates to the Workplace

Human Resource Strategies to Manage Workforce Diversity

HRM plays a significant role in the development and implementation of organizational initiatives meant to manage workforce diversity. The significance of HRM focuses on empowering… [read more]

Problem With the Ocean Cleanup Term Paper

… Plastic in the Ocean

A gyre is a large system of rotating currents within the ocean. There are five major currents/gyres that often associated with the movement of the wind. The author of this article, Stiv J. Wilson, is responding to a recent proposal known as the "Ocean Cleanup Array." The idea of this proposal is to have barges line the radius of the five gyres and let the currents bring the massive amounts of plastic in the ocean to them, collect it (clean up the ocean), and recycle it. The person proposing this solution, Boyan Slat, pretty much outlines a relatively simple solution of harvesting plastic and also states that such a harvest would be safe and not harm life in the sea. Slat estimates that it would take at least five years per gyre to effectively cleanup the plastic. At least part of the cost can be recouped by recycling the estimated 7,250,000,000 kg of plastic in the ocean.

Wilson views the proposal as a way to simplistic. He basically states that the problem is much more complex and that the proposal simply proposes that we just go collect the garbage like garbage collectors. Wilson says this will not work for several reasons and he offers the following problems with this proposal:

1. No serious scientist or policy action believes that these "gyre cleanup programs" (the Ocean Cleanup Array is not the first such program) are realistic because they give the impression we can continue to consume and litter and just clean it up.

2. The ocean is too big, the currents to unpredictable, and to try and sit at the ends of the gyre is far too dangerous for this solution to be practical. When efforts similar to the Ocean Cleanup Array been tried they did not work as the crews had to abandon their efforts.

3. Despite the notion that life would be spared in such a cleanup, this is not true. Plankton move with the current, other animals that feed on plankton follow the plankton, and animals that feed on them follow the current. More realistic looks at these proposals indicate that this would be dangerous to animals.

4. The idea that recycling the plastic is a feasible method of recouping some of the cost is totally unrealistic based on how much actual money could be recouped, the difficulties collecting plastic, transporting it to recycling centers, etc.

Many aspects of Wilson's critique to the proposal are realistic and his acclamation of how plastic breaks down in the ocean, examples of where similar efforts have not been able to work out, and so forth are convincing. Wilson does not dispute the fact that the pollution of the oceans with plastic is a major issue that has serious ramifications in the future. Wilson clearly points out that the so-called "garbage patches" of plastic collected as the currents move are not simply there for the taking. This would be an expensive and dangerous undertaking and it is doubtful… [read more]

Prose Piece Describing Barton Fink Image Creative Writing

… Barton Fink

Sitting on a wavy, white, sandy beach; he has a puzzling look of bewilderment on his face. The man does not fit in, as he is wearing a rumpled blue shirt with a tie that is hanging down in front of him. He has on maroon socks that are matching the style and image of his suit. The tie is of a stripped blue and white pattern which is running in a horizontal angle. On his wrist is a cheap and aged black watch. ("Barton Fink OST," 2012)

The man has dark bushy hair which is unkempt and wavy. The wind is blowing on the beach and has caused it become very messy while he is sitting there. He is wearing black horn rimmed glass and has an appearance of bewilderment or indifference on his face. The event is taking place in the late afternoon with a dark shadow hanging over his left side (in between himself and the box). The box appears to be in an old case that is wrinkled and worn. There is a dark, tan colored zipper on the side (which is closed all the way up). This is something that is of value to this man. He keeps it closely to him and does not engage in any kind of actions to illustrate carelessness in this aspect. ("Barton Fink OST," 2012)

The atmosphere is one of excitement and relaxation on the beach. However, this individual appears to have deeper thoughts about what these events mean to him. At the same time, he is disconnected with the environment around him and the atmosphere of the scene. This causes him to be out of place by not having the same kind of dress, manner or demeanor as someone who is typically at this location. ("Barton Fink OST," 2012)

The box is creating a sense of curiosity about the contents of what is inside. This based upon the fact that is he is using a rumpled, protective and tan colored case in order to safeguard it and everything inside. Moreover, he is keeping it in close proximity to his body and can quickly reach for it, if something happens or he needed…… [read more]

Self-Reflection: Writing the Proposal Annotated Bibliography

… While examining this issue, one of the major research problems and complexities was developing the appropriate research questions to analyze the problem. This complexity was partly fueled by the seeming inability to locate resources that could help in developing the paper. In this case, there was a huge need to develop research questions that were specifically targeted on the topic rather than questions that are broad in nature and perspective. This process was also complicated by the need to develop the questions in light of the global trend in fisheries catches and the causes of overfishing across the globe.

Integrating Available Information:

The second major research complexity and problem is associated with the need to integrate the available information on the issue. The complexity of integrating the available information on the problem is attributed to the lack of studies and documents that specifically focus on overfishing in the Pacific Ocean. The need for integrating available information originated from the need to combine information on the global trend of fisheries catches with information of overfishing in the Pacific island region. As a result, the development of the research argument mainly involved the integration of information rather than focusing directly on the topic.

New Perspective:

While the process of writing the papers has been accompanied by several struggles and research complexities and problems, engaging in this process has enabled me to gain new perspectives on the issue of overfishing. This process has enabled me to glean insights on the causes of overfishing worldwide and the trend of fisheries catches in the Pacific island region and globally. In this case, I have learned that this problem is mainly attributed to the rising food insecurity in the world, especially because of global warming. As a result of the increase in food insecurity, many people throughout the world are increasing turning to fish populations in order to meet their need for food. As more and more people are turning to fish populations, fisheries catches are increasingly rapidly to an extent that the issue of overfishing is one of the major threats across the globe together with global warming and terrorism.

The other new perspective I have gained through engaging in the research is the reason why Pacific island nations are the most affected countries by increased overfishing in the Pacific Ocean. In this case, I have learnt that these nations are mostly affected by the practice because they depend on the fisheries catches not only for food but also for economic reasons. In light of these perspectives, the process has enabled to discover that there is increased need to adopt measures that could help in addressing the issue. Notably, dealing with the problem of overfishing in the Pacific Ocean requires concerted international efforts to help in ensuring that fish populations are not over-exploited and promote their sustainability.

In conclusion, engaging in this research has helped me to identify writing practices and skills that I should improve in future papers. These practices and skills that I… [read more]

Sandro Boticelli Sandro Botticelli Research Paper

… This occurs through utilizing brighter tones that will highlight something new taking place. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Texture -- actual or implied?

An implied texture is constant. This is showing the various subjects and their poses. Yet, the individual is not able to physically touch the people. Instead, they have to use their imagination in order to have a better understanding of what is happening. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Principles of Design

Unity and Variety

Unity is used to show nature and the different characters that are coming together to support these changes. Variety is depicting various people and life forms. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Balance -- how is balance created?

A symmetrical balance is showing what is happening. This is taking place through illustrating various subjects engaged in specific activities. While asymmetrical elements, are continuing to remain the same (creating balance between the real and supernatural worlds). ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Emphasis and Subordination -- what is the focal point?

Emphasis is the primary focus. This is designed to highlight the events that are unfolding and excitement. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Directional Forces -- do lines or repeated elements create paths for the eyes to follow?

The directional forces are providing lines for everyone to follow. This occurs by illustrating Venus in the foreground and others off to her side. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Contrast -- any variation of value, color, or scale, for example, creates contrast.

The contrasts will take place through highlighting brighter colors in conjunction with darker tones. At the same time, the subjects are larger in comparison with others in the background. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Repetition and Rhythm

The rhythm of the work is to show larger sizes in the foreground and then have the images become smaller. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)

Scale and Proportion

The scale of the images and proportion, are larger in the front of the painting. They decline in the middle (with the trees). Then, decrease even further at the ocean and sky. ("The Birth of Venus," 2012)


The visual and principle elements are designed to show how two different worlds are coming together. To illustrate the significance of these changes, the images are used in contrast with one another. This creates a greater understanding of the birth of Venus and what she represents. The form is highlighting these transformations and what is happening.


The Birth…… [read more]

Old Man and Sea Essay

… These people are like bokeh in a photograph: they are essential to the composition of the film but they are blurred and have no individual identity. Our focus remains firmly on the Old Man. Yet the framing is not to done to develop a theme that pits man against his fellow man. It is to reveal the great paradox of alienation: that being alienated from human beings can create a greater sense of belonging in the universe.

The second instance of framing comprises the climax and denouement of the film. The Old Man wants only to prove to himself, and the boy he cares about, that he retains the ability to catch fish. Catching the marlin is a symbolic endeavor and event. The Old Man is now contrasted against nature. Whereas his alienation from society raises sociological questions, his alienation from nature raises existential questions. What is the Old Man's relationship with the Sea? What kind of spiritual framework does the Old Man work with? The filmmakers capture the essence of the existential arguments by placing the Old Man in scenes revealing the intensity of the ocean. He struggles with the marlin for days; both he and the fish are tenacious. The fish is not his enemy, though. In struggling to capture the fish, the Old Man is more intimately bonded with the creature than he is with any human being. The filmmakers depict the relationship between the Old Man and the Sea as resolving the central paradox of alienation. Alienation is far more visceral when the man is isolated from his fellow human beings. With the Sea, the Old Man can really prove himself. The sea of humanity offers no such challenge to the Old Man, which is why he has no qualms about not fitting in with his fellow sailors. The young boy represents the continuation of the Old Man's values: his preference for deep introspection over the shallow pursuits of a materialistic life.


Sturges, J. [Director]. The Old Man and the Sea. 1958…… [read more]

Fish: A Love Story? Creative Writing

… "

And so it was that Olivia Trout, cherished daughter of Antonio Trout, was ransomed from the Barracuda Boys for fourteen sand dollars and seventy five shells.

"And now to tell Olivia the good news!" smiled Oscar.

Unfortunately, when Olivia heard the good news

"You ransomed me from the evil Barracuda Boys for a lousy fourteen sand dollars and seventy five shells!"

She ran away again.

The end

Well not exactly for you see Olivia moved to a different sea where she lost her figure and became very heavy. It is said to this day that fishermen will travel hundreds of miles to admire her girth and try to lure her out of the sea. She is very happy with all the attention.

Oscar started a chain of fast food krill restaurants for migrating whales and became very, very wealthy in his own right.

Ironically, the Barracuda Boys ended up on the menu of the best seafood restaurant in Wichita, Kansas and the sardines took over their water. Now they are the most feared gang in all the sea.

Wally went on to a successful career in Hollywood disguised as a tuna. He changed his name to Charles and became very famous making commercials.

And Antonio met Gladys in a therapy group of widowed Pisces. They fell madly…… [read more]

Carothers, Courtney. "Equity and Access Annotated Bibliography

… Lodge, Michael W. "The Practice of Fishing Entities in Regional Fisheries Management Organizations: The Case of the Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Oceans." Ocean Development & International Law 37 (2006): 185-207. Print.

Certain nations have balked at being included in international organizations that attempt to maintain the sustainable management of migratory fish. Taiwan has been neglected by these organizations because the thought was that their influence was small and because Taiwan has been reluctant to succumb to the edicts of the different organizations. The author of this piece argues that Taiwan needs to be include since they do have a large fishing fleet which can cause great damage to the efforts of the current organization's convention, and because making the nation a partner will allow them to have important input.

Overt, Robert. "Overfishing Threatens Pacific Tuna Stocks." Pacific Islands Report. Pacific Islands Development Program/East-West Center, 11 April 2006. Web. 04 Oct 2012.

The author writes that many species of large ocean fish are disappearing quickly. This article gives numbers to support the notion that swordfish, tuna and shark populations may be decreasing at levels never seen before. Up to 90% of the volume of fish seen in 1950's may now be gone. The culprit is the technological ability of fishing vessels to stray farther from shore and stay out longer. The article also discusses some of the recent measures that international organizations have taken to mediate this decline such as working with Pacific island governments to self-regulate. This particular stance has proven difficult though because the governments are poor and need the fishing license fees to survive.

Wild, Susan. "Sustainability Reporting in Fishing Industry Management -- Regulation vs. Volunteerism." Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal 2.3 (2008): 57-70. Print.

Countries, industries and individual businesses are said to be very interested in following a current economic model that supports social and environmental well- being. However, when such programs interfere with the economic good they often take a "back seat." The author looks at these types of programs, which are voluntary, versus actual legislation, both national and international, which would compel responsibility. The article finds that allowing entities to govern themselves has resorted in unsustainable overfishing in many areas of the Pacific Ocean. The issue is that, in the past people have not been willing to voluntarily act; they have needed government intervention to do so. The author looks at the probability of several different programs that would encourage people to act in a voluntary manner to arrest their overfishing activities rather than have the government regulate them further. This solution would help maintain the fisheries and give the fishermen…… [read more]

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