Study "Oceanography / Marine Organisms" Essays 111-147

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Durability of Pre-Stressed Concrete Seawater Research Paper

… , 2003).

Chemical resistance

Pre-stressed concrete is one of those few materials that can not only withstand very harsh temperatures but it also has the ability to resist harsh chemicals to a great extent. This is the reason that pre-stressed… [read more]


Drilling Specialist, There Are Various Rig Term Paper

… ¶ … drilling specialist, there are various rig types, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The success and improvement of drilling technology often means that drilling can occur in increasingly deep ocean waters. In relatively shallow waters, the professional has the choice between a built platform or a jack-up rig. The advantage of the latter is that it can be moved to different locations, as desired. In deeper water, the rig cannot practically be placed upon the seabed. Instead, a floating device such as a semisubmersible rig or a drill ship is used. These devices float, but contain stabilizing devices to help the rig remain in place while drilling takes place. In more recent times, the tension-leg platform has been developed, which is fixed to the sea-bed with cables. Op to 5000 feet of water can then stand bewteen the rig and the sea-bed without significant problems.

The drilling rig contains several components, creating a technologically sound environment for drilling while also ensuring the safety of the personnel involved. Like the drilling rig in general, these have been developed over time, in keeping with drilling technology. At the top of the rig, there is the crown and crown block. The traveling block is about halfway down the rig, underneath which the standpipe and swivel are found. The rotary hose is connected to the swivel and standpipe. The Kelly connects these to the turntable lower down, which in turn is connected to the conductor pipe and drill pipe, which goes into the borehole. The bit is at the bottom of the drill pipe and is most directly connected to the borehole being drilled. To the right hand side is a pipe rack. To the left are the draw works and engine, as well as fuel/water tanks. The mud pump and mud pit are next to the draw works.

Generally, drill rigs use the block and tackle system. The crown block is connected to the drum and dead line anchor by means of… [read more]


Long-Term Effects of Adverse Nature Research Paper

… Coral reefs on the beaches and on the shallow floor of the ocean are shattered posing a threat to the planktons that use them as sources of shelter and food. Oil spillage has also had continued effects in the fauna and flora undersea. The oil well drilled to the sea floor cause leakages from which many environmental bodies have been trying to deal with but with no avail. Some beaches along the Indian Ocean coastlines also suffer flooding and beach erosions (Ramalanjaona, 2011, pg 2).

The economies of Japan, Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia among others are still suffering economy loss due to derailment of some industries and tourism that are dependent of the coast. Japan, that collects a lot of revenue from fishing suffered and still suffers the recession. Fish in the Japanese territorial waters has exceedingly translocated to different ecological niches away from Japan, making it now expensive to look for fish in other territorial waters. Countries like Madagascar, Kenya, and Tanzania among others suffered a great loss by losing a bigger population of tourists. Infrastructure, constructions and other vital economic developments have been affected. These economies are still struggling to upraise their standards, improve disaster resilience and to achieve their 2030 millennium economic visions.

Poverty levels in the nations along the Indian Ocean have steadily increased. A lot of property, houses, public amenities, income, and wages is a continuing implication of the adverse effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean disasters. A lot of employment, both self and company, has been lost making it hard for the affected to find new sources of income. A lot of coastal slums have also sprung up as a result of the harsh calamity (Powers, 2004, pg 23).

Future of disasters

There is a patent call from international bodies to help these developing nations to curb the existence and the possibility of having other disasters such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes and tsunamis resulting from the ocean. Proper policies are being currently implemented such as the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (IOTWS) for bordering countries for the management of such disasters. The Integrated Regional Information Network program (IRIN) is also being implemented to assist the islands in managing natural disasters and putting in place proper warning systems so as to alleviate the long-term implications (Ramalanjaona, 2011, pg 3).

References

Ramalanjaona, G. 2011. Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned. Emergency Medicine International. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-3.

Daly, P., Feener, M.… [read more]


Difficulty of Life Explored in Synge's Riders Essay

… Difficulty of Life Explored in Synge's Riders To The Sea

The difficulty of human experience is often overlooked in today's Hollywood culture. Even I the movies, we escape reality to watch unrealistic movies about love, success and life in general. Every so often, society needs to be reminded about the harshness of life. Riders to the Sea by John Synge is a play that jolts audiences back into reality by focusing on death and mankind's inability to control the elements around him. The blackness of death and the recklessness of fate are themes that make the play naturalist in its approach.

Death is a major theme in the play because it surrounds Nora. The play is short and Mora's focus never changes. She realizes the sea has consumed all of the men in her life and it is sure to take Bartley as well. Death is so powerful, it ruins the existence of this family. There is no joy and there is no hope. The men are fishermen by trade and danger awaits theme as they take to the sea. This aspect of the play highlights the conflict between man and nature. The action of the play indicates man cannot win when he is pitted against nature. Man cannot fight death and, in the end, we see how Nora and Maurya must comes to terms with it and we see how she does this with her words at the end of the play. When she says, "There isn't anything more the sea can do to me" (280), we understand her sense of loss and her hopelessness against the forces of nature. She resigns herself to this fate with this statement and, somehow, she finds peace in it. In Nora's case, there is nothing more to fear because the sea has done all it could to bring her misery.

Another… [read more]


Geology What Is the National Snow Essay

… Geology

What is the National Snow and Ice Data Center? What do they do?

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is a division of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado. They support research of frozen areas around the world. The study snow, ice, glaciers, frozen ground, and climate interactions. They administer and allocate scientific data; they produce tools for data access, they support data users, they undertake scientific research, and teach the public about the cryosphere.

What is the Cryosphere?

The cryosphere is the portions the surface of the Earth where water exists in a solid form. This comprises sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets, and permafrost.

What is sea ice?

Sea ice seawater that is frozen and floats on the surface of the ocean. It shapes and melts in conjunction with the polar seasons, which affects both human doings and biological habitats.

What is the difference between sea ice and glacial ice?

The basic dissimilarity is that sea ice shapes from salty ocean water, and glacial ice shapes from fresh water or snow. Sea ice occurs only in the ocean while glacial ice is thought to be land ice.

5) How are icebergs formed; do they originate from sea ice or glaciers?

Icebergs are formed when large pieces of ice detach from glaciers and land in the ocean.

6) What does the term ice extent mean?

Ice extent is the total area covered by some amount of ice and is typically reported in square kilometers.

7) Has the Arctic always had ice in the summer?

Some evidence from the age of the dinosaurs shows that there was a moderate climate that included ferns and other green vegetation. Derived… [read more]


Motion of Water Essay

… Modern buoys, equipped with global positioning satellite technology, are used as "drifters" to be carried along in ocean currents and relay their position back to a satellite. This information is then compiled in a computer system which compiles and analyzes the data.

PART II

5. San Francisco Station Number 9414290

Date: 5/8/2011

High Tide: 1.784 Meters @ 09:51 GMT (9:51 PM local time)

Low Tide: -0.086 Meters @ 16:06 GMT (4:06 AM local time)

Tidal Range: 1.698 Meters

6. Prediction for 5/9/2011

A. The predicted high tide is to take place at 09:51 GMT, and be 1.67 meters. The low tide is to take place at 16:42 GMT, and be -0.16 meters. This is not the same time as 5/8/2011, primarily due to the moon's influence on the tides and the fact that the moon will not be in the same position relative to the earth two days in a row.

B. On 5/9/2011 the actual high tide was 1.702 meters, .035 meters higher than predicted, while the actual low tide was -0.035 meters, 0.125 meters less than predicted. Meaning the tide was supposed to go to - 0.160 meters, but only dropped to -0.035 meters. This could be explained by wind patterns pushing water toward shoe, increasing water levels during high tide, but reverse winds could push the water away from shore during low tide, making low tide even lower. Increased and decreased movements of coastal currents can also keep water moving away from the shore, decreasing tide levels, or they could keep more water available for use in tides, increasing tide levels.

7. In the past 100 years, the sea level, according to the measurements at the San Francisco Station Number 9414290, the sea level has risen 0.66 feet, or 20,11 cm. This is a rate of 2.01 mm (+/- 0.21 mm) per year. One possible factor that could have had an effect on sea levels generally increasing over the past 100 years could be increased global temperatures melting more of the polar icecaps, increasing the total amount of water in the sea. Another could be the increase in fresh water in the salt water oceans. This can have an effect of the global conveyor… [read more]


Platforms the Development Essay

… New startup companies where new and innovative ideas are more likely to emerge tend to be more cash-strapped than their larger competitors, and thus they are seeking places to do business in properties that they don't own, that have already been built and can be modified (or not) rather cheaply. A very extreme example of this can be seen in the development of many modern technology companies, a number of which began in the garages of their founders (or their founders' parents). These were "old buildings" birthing very new ideas; now that these companies have grown, they have built their own large office complexes and often struggle to achieve the same level of innovation in their very new buildings.

6)

Harnessing coral reef-like skills to improve societal conditions is something of a fool's errand, as the very point of coral's development into large and richly diverse environments is that it takes place in a completely accidental and unconscious fashion. In order to attempt something similar, however, mankind would need to find ways to create closed circuits in all of its resource-intensive endeavors. That is, everything that is currently regarded as waste would need to find some other use further down the chain, such that all resources were ultimately renewed due to their slower depletion and this lack of waste. Coral reefs are built from the dead remnants of generations; we too would have to live in a way that supports the future through the leftovers… [read more]


Ocean Basins Essay

… Ocean Basins

The oldest oceanic crust in the three oceanic plates -- Atlantic, Pacific and Indian -- can be approximated at 200 million years. This is rather intriguing especially in a context in which the land crust is approximated to being as old as 4 billion years (Patchett and Samson, 2003). Based on the disposition in the map, and the adherent coloring, the oldest oceanic crust seems to be belonging to the Pacific Ocean.

San Francisco, California, is located on the western part of the North American continent, bordering the Pacific Ocean along the West Coast. The age of the oceanic crust at this location is a relatively young one, and it can be estimated to be somewhere between one and 30 million years. This youth could be explained by the changes which have impacted the region throughout the recent millennia.

The Pacific Ocean lies between the American continent, on the one hand, and the Australian and Philippine plates on the other hand. The oceanic crust ages from America towards Australia, meaning otherwise that the crust is youngest near the American coastline. It grows older as the ocean spreads, to reach its highest age at its border with the Philippine plate. It can be estimated that this crust is of approximately 180 million years.

4) as it has been previously mentioned, the Pacific oceanic crust is youngest at its border with the American continent, but also towards the south of the American continent, reaching the south of the Australian Plate. Specifically, the crust of the Pacific Ocean is youngest at its border with the Juan de Fuca Plate, and this youth spreads out along the American coastline, at the borders with the Cocos Plate, the Nazca Plate, the Antarctic Plate and ultimately, the Australian Plate.

5) as it was mentioned throughout the previous paragraphs, the oceanic crust of the Pacific Ocean is oldest at its border with the Philippine Plate and that with the Australian Plate. It is as such youngest at its border with the American coastline.… [read more]


Report of EWB Book Report

… ¶ … Earth's water is contained in the world's oceans, where the salinity and other chemical factors make the water unsuitable for drinking and in other infrastructure applications. The lack of available potable water has created a water crisis that is felt unevenly by different populations, but truly exists across the globe, with large multitudes of people in areas that lack adequate access to clean drinking water and that do not have the wealth necessary to import this vital resource. In this challenge from Engineers without Borders we are trying to solve the problem of pure drinking water shortage faced by the Kooma people, who reside in New South Wales on the eastern coast of Australia. As group we decided to design a solar still to purify the impure water and make it drinkable.

We came up with number of concepts but in the end after a thorough process of discussions and taking into account the various factors we ended up with two designs. Both of these designs were quite simple, and after continuing deliberation we chose the design that appeared to be the most efficient in its operation. The final design is made of a basin which is made from corrugated iron. This basin contains a number of tilted trays that are specifically arranged to allow for the operation of the still. This whole basin is insulated with a black coating that serves the purpose of trapping the passively collected solar heat inside the basin and thus heating the water, evaporating the water which allows it to move up through the trays were impurities are deposited. At the top of the basin a glass has been specifically and carefully positioned that serves both to keep the basin insulated and trap the heat inside the tray area, while also allowing the water vapors that reach this glass to cool and condense. The condensed water droplets are then collected in a tank that catches the runoff form the glass.

Before commencing with the final design of the solar still described above, our group did a lot of research regarding the living conditions of the kooma people and their needs regarding water sanitation for drinking, cooking, and other purposes. This research led our group to settle on the design described above primarily because this design that we came up with is easy to maintain, cheap and is easy to transport. This design is also very versatile and due to its tilted design it can mounted on top of roof of any building without creating unnecessary strain on the roof structure or placing the unit in danger of… [read more]


Fourth Uncle in the Mountain Last Chapter Essay

… Fourth Uncle in the Mountain

Last Chapter of Fourth Uncle in the Mountain

After Tam left, we waited in the house for two weeks. Thanh had disappeared, which worried everyone. I thought maybe Tam was right to leave. This was… [read more]


Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas Summary Term Paper

… ¶ … Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas

Summary of "The Recent Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas"

This study comprehensively describes the processes and features of the delta formed by silt depositions from the Guadalupe and San Antonio rivers as they empty into the Gulf of Mexico. After descriptions of these rivers and delta are presented, the topics of the initiation of delta growth, the seven distinct delta plain environments (distributor-channel, natural-levee, marsh, lake, interdistributary-bay, delta-front, and prodelta) are presented and distinguished from one another. This is followed by analysis of the delta's subdivisions, or sub-deltas, based upon age and macrofauna differences. Next, the sedimentary facies in each of the above seven listed environments are differentiated by location and composition. Finally, the four identified regional sub-deltas (Guadalupe River-Big Bayou, Sommerville Bayou-Plank Bridge Bayou, North Guadalupe River-South Guadalupe River, and Traylor Cut) are described and geologically examined.

Lastly, the paper briefly covers the issues of climatic influence, development of bayous, erosion preservation and the abandoned beach-ridge plan, before a final discussion of the four distinct depositional environments located at the beach-ridge, tidal-mud-flat, marsh and lake sites.

Summary of delta geology and creation

To understand the Texas coastal plain's configuration and geology, one must understand that the lower Guadalupe River/San Antonio Bay region were carved out by the ebb and flow of continental glaciers (Pleistocene-age: 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago). In the course of geological time, the sea level fell as these glaciers advanced and rivers dropped to a lower base level and left shoreline father away. Across the face of the land, two rivers formed steep, narrow valleys out of these broad floodplains, and flowed steadily out onto the continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico. When the sea level rose during the melting retreat of the glaciers, these late Pleistocene canyons filled with Gulf waters, forming extensive bay regions. The eventual rise in sea level over the last 10,000 years yielded the present-day sea level between 2,000 and 3,000 years ago.

The rivers once again adjusted their levels and carved new bends and channels within the old valleys. Over time, both rivers deposited material into the bays that made new floodplains and deltas, filling the bays with sediment. The modern configuration of San Antonio Bay represents the intermediate stage of this sedimentary process. The growing or "prograding" delta… [read more]


Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas Research Paper

… ¶ … Delta of the Guadalupe River, Texas is a book written by Richard Harold Martin. In this book, he explains in detail about the formation of the Guadalupe River and the Delta basin in Texas. The author describes the formation of the basin and traces it back to the Pleistocene period. He explains that the delta was formed as a result of the interglacial stage of the high seas during the Pleistocene period. When the sea levels fell during the later stages, a substantial amount of erosion took place that resulted in the young delta of the Guadalupe river.

After tracing the history of the delta, he goes on to describe the environment. "The delta plain of the Guadalupe river consists of four distinct environments: distributary channel, natural leevee, marsh and lake." (Richard Martin, p.2). These different environments are identifiable through aerial photographs. There other smaller environment as well that is not very identifiable and so it was not taken into account by the author.

The main reason for the formation of different environments and the classification of a delta is based on the depth of water that is deposited there. Based on this factor and the research of others, the author has identified this delta as a lobate delta. This delta is curved or shaped like a bow and its outer margin is facing the sea. This delta has given rise to… [read more]


Gap in China Melting ICE Research Paper

… ¶ … China, Melting Ice

Proper regulations are compulsory in management/leadership to address life-threatening situations for all to benefit.

Increasing global temperatures are causing Antarctic ice sheet to melt rapidly.

As a global disaster, relevant regulations will limit release of carbon dioxide and other green house gases.

China's rapid growing economy caused the gap between the poor and the rich to increase.

Proper leadership will address human basic needs creating equality, hence increasing domestic demand.

Gap in China, Melting Ice

According to Eilperin Juliet's article "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly," dated March 3, 2006, global warming has considerably increased temperatures over the world at alarming rates, and causing ice to melt from the Antarctic faster and this would not change in the near future. In addition, new publication ascertains these claims and that for unfortunate continents like Africa; they might be losing a significant number of her water sources.

Due to the increasing global temperatures, data obtained by NASA in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), ascertains that the sea levels are rising by 0.4 millimeters annually and since the Antarctic considerably holds approximately 90% of the ice water in the world, its melting can cause as much as 20 feet rise in sea levels. These happenings according to Velicogna as narrated in Eilperin "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly" article are indications that people should get concerned about global warming.

However, there are contradictions on whether the ice is shrinking or forming in Antarctic. This has resulted from a later study that predicted its increase but due to the increasing temperatures, it is certain the Antarctic ice sheet is melting as computer models predict despite the Antarctic researches turning out to be puzzles as Taylor reported in Eilperin's "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly" article.

Because water remains a basic commodity for survival, its amount fluctuations, in either extremes can prove to be devastating. For countries like in Africa, drying of essential water sources means death to human, animal and plant life rendering the continent uninhabitable. For the people who live at sea level locations, not necessarily… [read more]


Maritime Piracy Research Proposal

… High Seas Piracy: Terrorists, Organized

Crime, And Crimes Of Opportunity

Background and History of Maritime Piracy:

High seas piracy had a long and storied history throughout the late Middle Ages

and well into the 19th century before nation states began… [read more]


Beach Erosion Research Proposal

… Beach Erosion and the Eastern Seacoast

The paper begins with the thesis statement relative to the topic to be discussed -- the erosion of beaches on the eastern seacoast. The reader is introduced to the environmental challenges of the modern… [read more]


Physical Spiritual Emotional Isolation and Solitude Term Paper

… Robert Lowell's "The Skunk Hour"

Robert Lowell's poem, "The Skunk Hour," written in 1959, captures a time when two different worlds appear to collide. Nautilus Island is a place of both past and present, a location where dreams of reality… [read more]


Impact of the Rise in Sea Level on Tourism in Venice Italy Term Paper

… ¶ … Sea Level in Venice

Venice, Italy is 1,300 years old and built on mudflats in the center of a lagoon. It tops the list of the world's most endangered cities, since high tides have become frequent (almost every… [read more]


Acqua Alta the Effect Term Paper

… Acqua Alta

The Effect of Acqua Alta on the Venetian Tourist Trade

Venice's tourist trade has reported an annual turnover of about $17 billion a year. Tourist activity is increasing and Venice doesn't appear to be suffering, at least in… [read more]


Ridges Under the Pacific Floor That Form Term Paper

… ¶ … ridges under the pacific floor that form a vital part of the oceanic ecosystem. Underneath these ridges lie what the article refers to as a "plumbing system," whose workings also contribute to the composition of aquatic life around it. Its process of heating and emitting water into the ocean provides a source of food for several life forms around it. The discovery of this process led to the further study of these system on the East Pacific Rise. Seismologists are working under 2,500 meters of water to create images of the systems underneath the ridges to gain a better understanding of its function and contribution to the earth's ecosystem.

What is interesting about the first images created in this way is that they have surprised the current expectations of such images by scientists.

So far, the assumption has been that the water pressure forces water down through large faults. This water is then heated by shallow volcanoes and rises again towards vents in the middle of the ridges. The actual images however show that the ridge has a very wide "chimney," through which the water descends. After this, the water runs through a tunnel above a magma chamber, and then bubbles back through the ridge vents. To create the images, the researchers planted seismometers around the ridge to locate miniature earthquakes. The quakes were found to cluster together, and to indicate the entrance of the cold water. The entrance of the cold water through the hot rocks is assumed to crack the rocks, which in turn causes the quakes.

An assumption also challenged by Maya Tolstoy and those working with her on the current study of the ocean floor is that the downflow occurs through significantly sized faults. Tolstoy however believes that a system of tiny cracks admit the water into the ridges. The water also moves much faster than had been previously assumed, according to the team's calculations. A further discovery is that there is very little life around the downflow chimney, but the vents contain a vast amount of life… [read more]


Technology and Improving a Nation's Disaster Response Term Paper

… ¶ … technology that can be used to respond to disasters in developing nations. The writer explores sirens as well as other possibilities as a way to respond to disaster in nations that may not have cellular and other advanced… [read more]


Olive's Ocean by Kevin Henkes Book Report

… Olive's Ocean" by Kevin Henkes is a charming book set at Martha's grandmother's house by the ocean, (actually Cape Cod in Massachusetts) which has a large part in the overall message and theme of the book. It takes place during the summer, when Martha has plenty of time to have fun and think about her life and the upcoming school year.

The main characters are Martha Boyle, Jimmy Manning, a neighborhood boy who lives next door to her grandmother, and Olive Barstow, a young girl in Martha's class who is killed in an bicycle accident. Martha is twelve-years old, and Jimmy is a couple of years older. Martha is a nice girl who grows up during this summer, partly because of Olive's death, and partly because of her own reaction to it.

The book opens with Martha opening the door to find Olive's mother standing on the doorstep. She gives Martha a page from Olive's journal where Olive says Martha is "the nicest person in my whole entire class" (Henkes 5). Martha's life is changed after she reads the journal, because she realizes that she and Olive had many of the same dreams and hopes for their lives. The next day, she and her family leave to spend the summer at her grandmother's house on Cape Cod, looking over the Atlantic Ocean. It is Martha's favorite place, and Olive had always dreamed of seeing an ocean. She and her grandmother, who she calls Godbee, have a very special relationship, and they grow closer during this visit. She shares her secret that she wants to be a writer (which is something she shared with Olive), and that she is beginning to like Jimmy Manning, the boy next door.

Through it all, Martha begins to understand her own mortality, and her grandmothers, too. She understands this could be the last summer she spends with Godbee. She also comes to understand her own mortality when she tries to hide from Jimmy and nearly drowns in the ocean.

She falls for Jimmy and spends time with him as he films his movie, "The World is Not What You Think it Is." They talk and hold hands, and he gives her that memorable first kiss. She is thrilled until she realizes he did it just… [read more]


Tsunamis Are Formed Earthquakes Term Paper

… Runup is a measurement of the height of the water onshore observed above a reference sea level -- a term that indicates directly the danger of the tsunami.

Contrary to many artistic renderings of tsunamis, the majority of tsunamis do not result in giant breaking waves (like normal surf waves at the beach that curl over as they approach shore). Rather, they come in much like very strong and very fast tides (i.e., a rapid, local rise in sea level). A great percentage of the damage inflicted by tsunamis is caused by strong currents and floating debris. The minority of tsunamis that do break often form vertical walls of turbulent water termed bores. Tsunamis will often travel much farther inland than normal waves will travel.

The question remains: Do tsunamis stop once on land? The answer is partially: After runup, part of the tsunami energy is reflected back to the open ocean. Also, a tsunami can generate a certain type of wave termed edge waves that travel back -- and forth, actually running parallel to shore as opposed to perpendicular to it as the overwhelming conceptualization of a tsunami hints. These effects result in many arrivals of the tsunami at a particular point on the coast rather than a single wave. Because of the complicated behavior of tsunami waves near the coast, the first runup of a tsunami is often not the largest, emphasizing the importance of not returning to a beach several hours after a tsunami hits.

Bibliography

University of Washington. The physics of tsunamis. http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/physics.html.

Wikepedia. Tsunami. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami.

National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. Tsunamis. http://www.noaa.gov/tsunamis.html. [read more]


Martin Eden by Jack London Term Paper

… Martin Eden

Jack London's book Martin Eden is the semiautobiographical story of a young man born into poverty who desperately wants to become financially secure and middle-class. Partly this desire is driven by his love for a young woman, Ruth… [read more]


Master and Commander - Patrick O'Brian Term Paper

… ¶ … Master & Commander - Patrick O'Brian

I believe you have been led astray by the words master and commander (122, Chapter 4 p. 3).

Despite the fact that one might be a captain at sea, one is not a master of all things -- not all men's fate on land and sea, not of the class system off a ship, nor of the capricious nature of fate in general, especially one's fate on the sea.

I don't despair of making our gunnery at least as dangerous to others as it is to ourselves (163, Chapter 5, p. 12).

Ironically, a ship's weapons are always dangerous -- even to those individuals on board who do not know how to use them properly, but the ideal is to use this dangerous potential against enemy vessels.

Come, come, come. There is not a moment to be lost (189, Chapter 6, p. 10).

This is indicative of the captain's way of coping with difficulties, emotional as well as physical -- the comforting 'come, come, come,' instead becomes a rallying cry to help others deal with distress.

As it was, the Cacafuego passed silently a mile and a half to the westward of the Sophie, and neither caught sight of the other (204, Chapter 7, p. 5).

The ships Cacafuego and Sophie are characterized not merely as female or living beings, as is frequently the case with ships, but as persons who can see one another as if they have eyes like a human face, even though what is really meant by the passage is that the lookouts on both ships seem to fail to see one another.

Jack had a notion that some fleeting reserve passed across James Dillon's face, or perhaps showed in his voice (218, Chapter 7, p. 19).

Dillon suspects that the captain of the ship is enjoying the favors of a woman of ill repute, which Dillon feels duty-bound to conceal, whether he approves of such behavior or not.

He was profoundly dissatisfied with himself for his performance aboard the San Fiorenzo (238, Chapter 7, p. 39, 6 from end).

One's performance on the ship, more than one's performance on one's profession on land is what matters in Jack's point-of-view and the point of the view of the text.

The… [read more]


Psychological Themes and Symbolism in Ernest Hemingway Term Paper

… Psychological Themes and Symbolism in Ernest Hemingway's Novella The Old Man And The Sea

Ernest Hemingway's novella the Old Man and the Sea (1952) is a naturalistic, extremely psychological and symbolic tale, about.".. An old Cuban fisherman who catches a… [read more]


Rime of the Ancient Mariner Term Paper

… Coleridge's Rime Of The Ancient Mariner

Considered by many literary scholars as the greatest example of English Romantic poetry, Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" relates the tale of a mariner and his wanderings aboard a mysterious ship that is doomed because of the mariner's killing of an albatross, a large white bird which sailors have always viewed as a symbol of death if it is killed through a malicious act. For the most part, the poem is full of psychological themes linked to the mariner's wanderings which play a very crucial role in the poem's overall effect. But most importantly, the mariner is trapped in a watery and dangerous world filled with the unknown which Coleridge manipulates through the use of human psychology.

After reading "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner," one has the impression that the psychological journey of the mariner has much to do with a deep sense of depression and isolation which Coleridge describes with "Alone, alone, all, all alone/Alone on a wide open sea!/and never a saint took pity on/My soul in agony" (Part IV, lines 9-12). In addition, Coleridge provides the impression that another aspect of this psychological journey is related to the Mariner trying to figure out why he is being forced to endure the tragedies that are happening on the wide open seas. But unknown to him, these tragedies are linked to the killing of the albatross. One excellent example can be found in Part Six of the poem, where the mariner states, "Like one, that on a lonesome road/Doth walk in fear and dread/and having once turned around walks on/and turns no more his head/Because he knows, a frightful fiend/Doth close behind him tread" (lines 37-42). This description shows that the Mariner is terrified of some unknown "fiend" which may be lurking behind him, much like a ghost or some other kind of mysterious spectre. Of course, this "frightful fiend" could very well be Death itself with a skull face, the symbol of death for sailors during the days when pirates roamed the open seas with the familiar "Jolly Roger" skull and crossbones flag upon the mast.

Personally, the parts of the poem that are the most intriguing can be found in the lines "And a thousand slimy things/Lived on; and so did I" (Part IV, lines 15-16) which indicates that the Mariner sees himself as nothing but a slimy creature cast upon the wide open sea where his journey takes a turn for the worse when he kills the albatross and condemns himself and his crew mates to death.

Another intriguing part is when the Mariner confronts the terrors of the sea "In the land of mist and snow" (Part V, line 113) which may indicate that the Mariner is lost in the misty atmosphere of the sea and the whiteness of the waves with white being the true color of terror, much like the skin of a dead man, all white and drained… [read more]


Old Man by the Sea by Ernest Term Paper

… ¶ … Old Man by the Sea by Ernest Hemingway is the story of a rejected and failing fisherman, Santiago, and the young boy who believes in him, Manolin. Through the interactions of these characters and Santiago's personal struggle, Hemingway… [read more]


Tsunami Relief and Reconstruction Term Paper

… In addition, large areas - approximately 300 kilometres of coastal land area have been degraded or lost (Asian pp).

Three major industrial sites are confirmed to be damaged, Pertamina, an oil depot in Krueng/Banda Aceh, Pertamina, oil depot in Meulaboh,… [read more]


Shackleton Antarctic Expeditions Term Paper

… He had something bright to notice and to say in the midst of the long misery:

"As we clustered round the blubber stove, with the acrid smoke blowing on our faces, we were quite a cheerful company. Life was not… [read more]


Swimming During the Summer Term Paper

… Swimming

During the summer when it is hot hanging out with family or friends in or around the water is a very entertaining and relieving activity. Everyone feels save with just the presence of life-guards around. Yet this may not… [read more]


Waves Term Paper

… " Then, after coming in full contact with the surface; they cause "small ripples" to be made. The longer and harder the winds blow, the larger ripples are formed and we can see the full waves moving ahead.

One of most heated topics today is Tsunami and how it is created. Usually tsunami is a result of two kinds of waves, seismic and water waves. Underwater earthquake is the most common cause of tsunami. Volcanic eruptions, landslides and impact of meteorites can also displace large amount of water, generating tsunami. As the seabed is disturbed, large waves are formed as water moves under the impact of gravity to regain its mean position. Because seismic waves cause the entire depth of water to move, wave gain a lot of energy to move at very high speed to very long distances long after the original seismic waves are over, causing immense damage, in form of loss of property and human… [read more]


Rising Sea Levels, Resulting Term Paper

… 17). Retreat from areas with rising sea levels may result in relocation, and potentially have major social and financial implications, loss of a traditional environment, disruption in family life and social instability, and the loss of places of great cultural significance. Accommodation of rising sea levels may result in economic losses due to periodic flooding and problems with sewage disposal, and changes in economic activity such as a move from farming to aquaculture. Protection of areas threatened by rising sea levels may result in decreased recreational and aesthetic value, loss of different species, and the potential loss of areas of cultural significance by the erection of protection structures (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

Rising levels may have a significant impact on the human and environmental concerns related to the flooding of hazardous waste sites in coastal flood plains. There are 1,100 active hazardous waste sites within floodplains in the United States, in addition to closed and abandoned sites. Areas at the highest risk of flooding would include sites in the Galveston and Charlestown areas (Flynn, in Barth and Titus).

In conclusion, the impact of rising sea levels on human culture will be significant. If global warming continues, there is good evidence to suggest that sea levels will continue to rise. In turn, this increase in sea level will have dramatic economic, social, environmental, and health impacts across the globe. As such, steps taken to decrease global warming will do much to ameliorate the potentially negative impact of rising sea levels on human cultures worldwide.

Works Cited

Barth, Michael C. And Titus, James G. Greenhouse Effect and Sea Level Rise: A Challenge for this Generation. Environmental Protection Agency, 1984.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Response Strategies Working Group. Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise. November, 1990.

Titus, et al. Greenhouse Effect and Sea Level Rise: The Cost of… [read more]


Will Hobbes Term Paper

… Will Hobbs was born on August 22, 1947, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His parents are Greg and Mary Hobbs. He is the middle of five children, with three brothers and a sister. The Hobbs were an Air Force family and moved… [read more]


athens Scuba Term Paper

…   Definitely a must visit.





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Mirages Essay

… Although, such observations are not very noticeable to the naked eye, they form a very crucial area of study in fields such as geodesy and positional astronomy.

At times people believe that the erect image of a classical mirage is the object itself, and the inverted one is a mirage image, and not really real. Many scientists observed this notion and came to the conclusion that the concept that be challenged by a3D-image or what is also called a formation of a multiple-image mirages, this produces two or more erect images. The challenge was to choose the real mirage image. This is quite tricky since all the images are equally true since every one of them is actually the object itself as any other image, inclusive of the inverted images. The only difference is that all the images are displaced from the geometric position of the object, making the location of the object no hindrance in the identification of the mirage image.

Green flashes and mirages

Green flashes are the colored mirages caused by the dispersion of atmospheric refraction. Even though every refraction phenomenon has slight dispersion linked with it, the dispersion is unnoticeable in most cases. However, there are certain mirages that are able to produce larger dispersion effects. Green flashes are also one of the greatest dispersion effects. In comprehending how green flashes occur it is mandatory to understand mirages.

Atmospheric refraction

Before, we understand what are mirages; we need to know what is meant by atmospheric refraction since mirages are phenomena of atmospheric refraction. Atmospheric refraction unlike mirages is not as noticeable to the naked eye because the effects are a fraction of a degree. Even though the size of refraction of this type is so small, they can still be easily measured using optical instruments, the astronomers adjust the mountings of their telescopes to minimize the inconvenient effects of atmospheric refraction in doing so.

The air near sea level is nearly a thousand times less dense than water; but that still does not have an impact on changing the direction of light rays that enter the sea from a different source, such as the empty space beyond the atmosphere. With the varying density of the air, which changes continuously with the height above the Earth, light rays in the Earth's atmosphere cause the light rays to bend continuously as they pass from one level to another. This causes the density to decrease steadily from the ground up, making the rays appear concave toward the surface of the Earth.

After discovering what types of mirages are there and how they are formed and their relationship with refraction, we come to the conclusion that mirages are multiple images formed by atmospheric… [read more]


Tale as Old Term Paper

… They sailed again to the land, and came to anchor, and launched the boat, and went ashore. This was a level wooded land; and there were broad stretches of white sand where they went, and the land was level by the sea. Then said Leif, "This land shall have a name after its nature; and we will call it Markland." (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1000Vinland.html).

It was when they left Markland, this version of the saga tells us, the Eriksson and his men came to Vinland, where they actually built a small settlement and rested for some period of time before returning to Greenland. The lushness and gentleness of this land in the eyes of people from the far north is apparent in this description of Vinland, a name that means Wineland. While it is just possible that Eriksson and his men actually found grapes in Canada, they would in fact have considered any berry to be appropriate for the making of wine, and scholars now believe that what they found - and hope to induce into drinkable wine - were cranberries.

They sailed toward this land, and came to an island which lay to the northward off the land. There they went ashore and looked about them, the weather being fine, and they observed that there was dew upon the grass, and it so happened that they touched the dew with their hands, and touched their hands to their mouths, and it seemed to them that they had never before tasted anything so sweet as this. They went aboard their ship again and sailed into a certain sound, which lay between the island and a cape, which jutted out from the land on the north, and they stood in westering past the cape. At ebb-tide, there were broad reaches of shallow water there, and they ran their ship aground there, and it was a long distance from the ship to the ocean; yet were they so anxious to go ashore that they could not wait until the tide should rise under their ship, but hastened to the land, where a certain river flows out from a lake. As soon as the tide rose beneath their ship, however, they took the boat and rowed to the ship, which they conveyed up the river, and so into the lake, where they cast anchor and carried their hammocks ashore from the ship, and built themselves booths there. They afterward determined to establish themselves there for the winter, and they accordingly built a large house. There was no lack of salmon there either in the river or in the lake, and larger salmon than they had ever seen before. The country thereabouts seemed to be possessed of such good qualities that cattle would need no fodder there during the winters. There was no frost there in the winters, and the grass withered but little.

In 1003, the Saga of Eric the Red tells us, Leif's brother Thorvald would set out to find this wondrous led an expedition… [read more]


Stephen Crane's Story the Open Term Paper

… Against this magnificence of the natural world, the men seem diminished. We come to understand that the captain is in general a brave man and not unintelligent - he does help bring about their salvation with his suggestion that they use his coat as a sail. But we also understand that he views the sea as an enemy, as a foe to be met and either defeated or be vanquished by. His inability to see the connections among all natural things - himself included - diminishes him. The oiler, whom we come to understand is a man who always follows orders, is a reflection of the captain. He is a man who is good at following orders, and skillful at his craft, but not good at thinking for himself - which would have made him an invaluable crewmember but means that he has relatively little to contribute once they are stranded.

The cook is the person whom we learn the least about, the person who is the least revealed by this ordeal - perhaps because he is the person most out of place: He is a cook with no kitchen, a cook moreover with no food. Crane uses him to suggest how humans stripped of the trappings of civilizations are not only endangered but made (even to themselves) useless.

The correspondent, who should be the one who is most psychologically lost given that he has the least experience with the sea, is actually the one who seems least intimidated by their plight because he seems to be the one most capable of bringing the force of imagination to bear to make the immense creative force of the sea. He understands his own insignificance in the world, but he of all the four is the least troubled by it:

The correspondent wondered ingenuously how in the name of all that was sane could there be people who thought it amusing to row a boat. It was not an amusement; it was a diabolical punishment, and even a genius of mental aberrations could never conclude that it was anything but a horror to the muscles and a crime against the back.

Lucas (1975) argues that Naturalism failed because readers tired of its relentlessly grim portrayal of the world. It is likely that it would have lasted far longer as a literary style if more of it had been like this Crane story, full of terrible, grim realities certainly, but also full of the wonder of nature, of the glory of places untamable.

Works Cited

Brown, Bill. The Material Unconscious: American Amusement, Stephen Crane, & the Economies of Play. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997.

Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat, http://www.litrix.com/openboat/oboat001.htm

Hill, Philip. Romanticism and Realism. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1989.

Lucas, Frank. The Decline and Fall of the Romantic Ideal. New York: AMS Press, 1975. http://www.litrix.com/openboat/oboat001.htm [read more]


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