1990, United States Government Passed Term Paper

Pages: 5 (1451 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Criminal Justice

Some would argue that the 9/11 terrorist attacks were hate-motivated crimes, and that these belong in this list of statistics as well.

In cities such as New York and Los Angeles, many of the hate crimes were a result of recursive patterns of rivalry between two groups of people. Sometimes two foreign-born ethnicities will clash. This was noted in Holland in Rotterdam, where clashes between homosexuals and conservative Muslims resulted in the rise of that nation's ultra-right Pim Fortyn party, which was thrown into chaos when Pim himself, a gay bald xenophobe, was killed by an anarchist. Earlier in the 1990's, rivalries existed between Hasidic Jews and blacks in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn, and between blacks and Koreans in many traditionally black ethnic areas. Such patterns of hate are often gang related, such as when gangs identify along racial or ethnic lines and engage in gang warfare. This plays over into organized crime; the 20th century is replete with many tales of successive waves of immigrant gangs; the Columbian gangs and Italian and Russian mafia are said to be fighting each other in many cities for control of the drug trade.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Term Paper on 1990, United States Government Passed Assignment

Its interesting to note that Los Angeles has over four times the number of race-related hate crimes that New York has. Both have populations that are less than 50% white and among the highest numbers of foreign immigrants in the United States per capita, but Los Angeles is also much more associated with gang violence and gangs also tend to be prevalent among poor minorities that relate to one another on a racial basis rather than on a demographic basis as whites do. Chicago is considerably more segregated with respect to neighborhood, and has one of the lowest hate crime ratings of any of the major cities; it has barely more than 100 hate crimes, while Boston with less than 1/3 of its population has twice as many hate crimes. Chicago also has a smaller white population, at 42% of the population, but has a slightly smaller immigrant population than many of the larger American cities with just over 20%. Cities in Texas reported a much smaller amount of hate crimes than other States. The four cities surveyed; Houston, Dallas, San Antonio and Fort Worth, had among the lowest reported numbers of hate crimes despite all featuring high Mexican immigrant populations.

Cities with large poor, black communities noted for a high number of violent crimes were surprisingly absent from the top of the list of cities by number of hate crimes per 10 thousand. Washington and Baltimore featured as having the lowest number of hate crimes in the entire list.

Income didn't feature as a major factor in the determination of whether or not certain cities had hate crimes. Boston, Portland, Minneapolis, and Los Angeles all had average incomes of between 20 and 24 thousand dollars a year, however San Francisco's average income was much higher at 34 thousand dollars a year. Of the two cities at the bottom of the list, Washington and Baltimore, per capita incomes were over 28 and less than 17 thousand dollars a year, although in Washington income disparities between whites and blacks, as well as disparities in educational attainment, are among the highest in the country.

The question that is often asked is: what does all of this mean for policy makers? There are certain factors that can be seen as 'incubators' of hatred. These exist when ethnically cogent communities come into conflict with one another, as can be seen in Los Angeles or when a certain population is targeted such as the gays in San Francisco or Portland. We can't assume that all hate crimes committed in an area are committed by its citizens. However, it also happens for indiscernible reasons, such as in Boston and Minneapolis. In the end, it is shown that the research is inconclusive, and calls for more research to be done.

Hate figures, 2001. Source: FBI Hate Crime Statistics



Sexual Orientation


Total Hate Crimes hate/10k population


San Francisco



Los Angeles


Las Vegas



Virginia Beach



San Jose


St. Petersburg

Fort Worth


New York

Jersey City



San Antonio




General Statistics. Source: 2000 Decennial Census, www.census.gov

Per Capita Income



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