Research Paper: 2001 There Was an Anthrax

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[. . .] Financial problem is the major factor. Unfortunately most of the states are going through a financial crisis and this has affected the preparedness programs. As much as these federal funds cannot displace the state funds, during these crises, other state funds are usually cut down. Insufficient funds however, seemed to have affected the preparedness efforts both in hospitals and local levels. This mostly affected the intensive areas like the examination systems.

Lack of a qualified workforce was another big issue that hindered preparedness. Most of the members of staff were not well trained and had not fully qualified for this work. The private workers also complained of low wages. The layoffs, salaries and hiring freezes are some of the problems that cause under staffing. This under staffing was mostly in the laboratory and the epidemiology areas. The state and the localities report on the under staffing or any vacancies in the public health agency hence they recruit and train new employees. This is enabled by the committee on Labor Health, Education, and Pensions (Koblentz 2003).

There is also a problem in competition during allocating of funds. Sometimes it is hard to differentiate between a common outbreak, bioterrorism, and naturally occurring disease. These are all significant and so it becomes hard to isolate which should be given more attention. There are other challenges like delays in distribution of funds. This could be caused by slow personnel of just calendar issues.

Actions taken

During the Financial Year of 2005, the budget from the President allocated more funds to HRSA amounting to 476 million dollars and 829 million to CDC program. During the previous year CDC had directed some of its funds to Cities Readiness Initiative which was a joint effort between Department of Health and Human Services and the Homeland Security (Koblentz 2003).This program helped preparedness in distribution and receipt of supply. However this did not go unopposed with some advocates questioning of the redirecting of funds.

There was a flu outbreak in the year 2004. Bush development a National response plan. He released a draft which the public was supposed to comment on and provide guidelines to the states and districts. This was a pandemic flu that raised alarm and had to be put on the benchmark. Lack of vaccines was detected and CDC intervened issuing a notice that it was going to distribute to every state some amount of doses. This caught the state off guard because it seemed like a common flu before they realized it was epidemic. The CDC was quick to react hence it curbed it before it had killed many people.


Today there is a very high risk of infections, and very little ability to address them. There is also an increased possibility of bioterrorism attack and this leaves the United States with a major challenge in the public health and bioterrorism preparedness. The federal government has however done everything in its capacity to upgrade the infrastructures related to the public health agencies. However, the assessments have shown both progress and some short fallings in some areas. The progresses in preparedness depend on the priorities given by the states to curd epidemics. A lot has to be done in order to fully develop this preparedness programs since the economic crises is still at its pick (Koblentz 2003).The terrorists are also in the increase and as much as they have been known for their bombing activities, they could also be planning for viral attacks or bioterrorism attacks. The United States has put in a lot of revenue for the purpose of stopping this heinous crime and it hopes to detect it before it has been committed. The society should stay alert and inform of any signs of similar outbreaks.


Chomel, B., & Sun, B. (2010). Bioterrorism and invasive species. Revue Scientifique Et Technique (International Office Of Epizootics), 29(2), 193-199

Hamburg, M.A. (2003).Testimony to the Government Reform Committee, U.S. House of Representatives.

Heinrich, J. September (2003).Testimony to the Subcommitteeon Emergency Preparedness and Response, Select Committeeon Homeland Security, U.S.House of Representatives

Institute of Medicine. (2003). Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Koblentz, G. (2003). Biological Terrorism: Understanding the America's Threat and Response. In Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. The MIT Press.

Rebmann, T, and LB Mohr. 2010. "Bioterrorism knowledge and educational participation… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Cite This Research Paper:

APA Format

2001 There Was an Anthrax.  (2012, June 14).  Retrieved May 21, 2019, from

MLA Format

"2001 There Was an Anthrax."  14 June 2012.  Web.  21 May 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"2001 There Was an Anthrax."  June 14, 2012.  Accessed May 21, 2019.