Abalone Industry in New Zealand on October Term Paper

Pages: 5 (1789 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 6  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Agriculture

Abalone Industry in New Zealand

On October 4, 2006, the various sections of the aquaculture industry in New Zealand united, with government support. The government will provide $70,000 towards the establishment of New Zealand Aquaculture Limited, a united industry body for the aquaculture sector, Economic Development Minister Trevor Mallard announced in Nelson today.

The formation of New Zealand Aquaculture Limited is regarded as a high priority in the industry's recently released New Zealand Aquaculture strategy, which aims to build a $1 billion industry by 2025. The Seafood Industry Council (SeaFIC) has also pledged $50,000 to cover administrative expenses incurred during the initial set-up phase.

The organizations forming this new organization are the New Zealand Aquaculture Council and the four major species groups: the New Zealand Mussel Industry Council; the New Zealand Salmon Farmers Association; the New Zealand Oyster Farmers Association; and the New Zealand Abalone Farmers Association. Together, they will present one voice for aquaculture in New Zealand. (Mallard, 2006, 1)

Download full Download Microsoft Word File
paper NOW!
New Zealand is located in the South Pacific southeast of Australia. The country contains a population of 4 million people and has a coastline equal to that of the United States of America. Although New Zealand is small in terms of landmass, its economic fishing zone covers some 1.2 million nautical miles. Because New Zealand is blessed with abundant coasts and seas, seafood is a major product of the country. Other products are ceramic arts and crafts, jade jewelry, decorative hand-blown glass, abalone jewelry, home-wares such as bed linen and placemats with a distinctive Pacific/Maori design theme, wooden toys and games made from native timbers, and natural cosmetics.

TOPIC: Term Paper on Abalone Industry in New Zealand on October Assignment

Abalone is a firm textured and light seafood-flavored shellfish known in New Zealand as Paua. Abalone is widespread on the rocky coastlines all around New Zealand and is subtidal to 20 meters with commercial stocks at 10-12 meters. Abalone is harvested only by divers using snorkels. Use of breathing apparatus is illegal. Abalone can be harvested all year round. Abalones may taken only by hand or with abalone irons. An abalone iron is a flat device not more than 36 inches long and not less than 1/16-inch thick, with rounded smooth edges and a curve with a radius of less than 18 inches (Seafood, 2006)

These vast, traditional fishing grounds offer premium quality produce and promise an enviable, continuing supply for the future. Producers of abalone sell and ship live via airfreight or sell them chilled, or frozen or canned, preparing the abalone to customers specification and timeframes. Abalone are sold frozen, dried, canned, chilled or alive.

Abalone shells are used to make fertilizer, or jewelry. The shells are powdered to make Gluchosamine Chondroitin, or dietary supplements and sauces. Large abalone shell pieces are sold for tiles and laminates, or for jewelry and beads (beautiful turquoise blue and brilliant green) such as the beautiful Abalone shell pendant called the Paua. The abalone shells are also used in making mother-of-pearl inlays on furniture, produced principally in Korea (Ebert, 580)

The edible seafood is sold to be eaten by humans or animals. New Zealand Green Lip Mussels are used for eating- frozen or fresh on the half shell. Abalone steaks are prepared by removing the abalone from the shell, cutting off the head and viscera, and hand trimming the foot. Red and some green abalone are allowed to relax for 24 hours before the final trimming of the foot. This resting period weakens muscle contractions that can damage the flesh during tenderizing. The foot is then sliced horizontally across the grain of the meat. The steaks are tenderized by pounding, usually with wooden mallets, to break the tough fibers in the meat. The yield of steaks from a live abalone is about 15% (Ngai-Tahu, 2006)

The entire flesh of the abalone is edible. Traditionally, the muscle portion was the preferred section consumed. The gonad, however, is considered a delicacy by the Japanese, who remove and eat it raw from a live abalone. The muscles remaining after trimming for abalone steaks were used in the past for abalone burgers, but as the price increased, trimmings were canned. They are used fresh or frozen in Asian restaurants for use in soups and other dishes.

Abalones are members of the large Gastropoda class of mollusks with one-piece shells. They belong to the Haliotidae family and the Haliotis genus, meaning sea ear, which refers to the flat, rounded shape of the shell. The shells are oval with a large dome towards one end. It has a row of respiratory pores. The muscular foot has strong suction power permitting the abalone to clamp tightly to rocky surfaces. An epipodium, a sensory structure that is actually an extension of the foot, bears tentacles, encircles the foot and projects beyond the shell edge in the living abalone.(Seafood, 2006)

Green abalone (H. fulgens) have a mottled cream and brown epipodium. Tubercles are scattered on the surface and they have a frilly edge, and the tentacles are olive green. The shell is usually brown, with a surface marked with many low, flat-topped ribs that run parallel to the pores. There are 5 to 7 open pores, with pore edges elevated above the shell surface. A groove often parallels the outer edge of the line of pores. They are found in the inter-tidal and sub-tidal zones down to at least 30 feet. Green abalones are often found in crevices where surf grass and algal cover is dense. They reach 10 inches in length, but are generally smaller. (Dore, 56)

Abalones reach sexual maturity at a small size, and fertility is high and increases with size. Sexes are separate and fertilization is external. The eggs and sperm are broadcast into the water through the pores with the respiratory current. An 8-inch abalone may spawn 11 million or more eggs. The spawning season is during the summer (Dore, 57)

The fertilized eggs hatch into larvae that float about, feeding on plankton until their shells begin to form. Once the shell forms, the juvenile abalone sinks to the bottom where it clings to rocks and crevices with its single, powerful foot. Settling rates appear to be variable. After settling, abalones feed on macroalgae.

Juveniles feed on rock-encrusting coralline algae and on diatom and bacterial films. Adult abalones feed primarily on loose pieces of marine algae drifting with the current. Large brown algae such as giant kelp, bull kelp, feather boa kelp and elk kelp are preferred, although other species of algae may also be eaten. (Ebert, 575)

During the last nine years, large commercial corporations have partnered with mussel farmers, often tribesmen in the south island of New Zealand, to provide a constant supply of New Zealand's green shell mussels grown in the fresh, clean waters off the coast. Joint partnerships with nutracutical and pharmaceutical companies to provide health food extracts and supplements including capsules and gels are also often made, as well as joint partnerships with food processing companies to provide raw mussel and abalone products (Ngai-Tahu, 2006)

Health care products are derived from New Zealand Greenshell Mussel Extract and are sold as powder, oil extract, capsules, or gel caps and gel for external application. The base products are from a new generation of Green-lipped Mussel extract. New Zealand Green-lipped Mussels (Perna Canaliculus) undergo a special cold-processing method which ensures that five to ten times more ETA is extracted, compared with other methods. Gel or capsules provides a maximum strength supplement containing high levels of ETA and naturally occurring glucosamine and chondroitin. These gel capsules can help keep joints supple and mobile (Ngai-Tahu, 2006)

Gel or capsule mussels are cold-processed, washed and treated to reduce salt levels. This process produces a higher quality product which is freeze-dried for long-term stability with less salt. Gel or capsule mussels are produced only in Government registered farms which are inspected daily and certified for health. Each batch is tested by human food standards to be certified free of micro-organisms and heavy metals. The gel or capsule is also tested to ensure maximum levels of Omega-3 Fatty Acids including ETA.

All of the products supplied can be made into a Cat, Dog, Horse or Human formula and branded under one brand, or both a human brand and an animal brand. (Abalone, 2006)

The Ngai Tahu Seafood Company, for instance, is owned by the Ngai Tahu tribe, who are the Maori tribe of the southern islands of New Zealand, who settled there around 1,000 years ago. Through this long period a seafood heritage and knowledge was developed that allows the tribesmen to grow and harvest the abalone. Ngai Tahu Seafood harvests seafood by contracting approximately 100 independent and experienced fishermen and fishing companies. Many of these contractors are members of the Ngai Tahu tribe. They utilize modern technology to determine the depth and availability of the abalone. They use safeguards to ensure the safety of the Hectors Dolphin. The contractors abide by voluntary industry codes for environmental responsibility in this industry. They also abide by a strict, but sustainable management… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

Two Ordering Options:

Which Option Should I Choose?
1.  Download full paper (5 pages)Download Microsoft Word File

Download the perfectly formatted MS Word file!

- or -

2.  Write a NEW paper for me!✍🏻

We'll follow your exact instructions!
Chat with the writer 24/7.

New Zealand Council of Trade Unions (Ctu) Thesis

Facts and News in New Zealand Term Paper

Comparison of New Zealand and the United States Criminal Justice System Research Proposal

Strategic Issues in Business Term Paper

Financial Market in New Zealand Essay

View 200+ other related papers  >>

How to Cite "Abalone Industry in New Zealand on October" Term Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Abalone Industry in New Zealand on October.  (2006, October 12).  Retrieved September 20, 2021, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/abalone-industry-new-zealand-october/81127

MLA Format

"Abalone Industry in New Zealand on October."  12 October 2006.  Web.  20 September 2021. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/abalone-industry-new-zealand-october/81127>.

Chicago Style

"Abalone Industry in New Zealand on October."  Essaytown.com.  October 12, 2006.  Accessed September 20, 2021.