Research Proposal: Additional Funding for AIDS in Africa

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¶ … Funding for AIDS in Africa

Ban Ki-moon.

UN Secretary General

The Honorable Speaker, Mrs. Nancy Pelosi and the Honorable Senate Majority Leader Mr. Harry Reid.

Dear Sir and Madam,

Memo and information regarding requirement of additional funding related to HIV / AIDS research in South Africa

There is an ongoing spread of the HIV / AIDS epidemic all over the African continent and so far only minimal help has been given to the African nations to combat this menace. If nothing is done about the epidemic the consequences for the World will become alarming. Unfortunately, no nation in the UN has taken this issue as seriously as needed. I am bringing these facts to your attention so that you will be able to persuade the decision makers of your country's foreign policy departments in order to provide more funding and help for research required to combat AIDS in the African continent. I particularly address this to you both as this issue has a lot to do with America's foreign policy. The reason why America must change and enforce funding related to this policy issue will be evident as you follow the reasons researched and presented. I wish to emphasize that the time of waiting and watching is over and we must do something for this global issue. Decisions have to be made as to how research will help the African sufferers. Speaking of decisions, I wish to emphasize that you must do your best to encourage and convince your decision makers in this regard.

Decisions:

One of the decision-making theories that we could safely apply to the issue at hand is the theory of Richard Snyder. According to him, and I wish to emphasize it here, foreign policy decisions are mostly made by individuals, and policy is shaped by domestic opinions and international need. Lastly the decision maker is often the person well aware of the situation and makes rational policies relied on impeccable inputs of information from the State Department and legislators. (Layachi 1990) Therefore, I point out that you as the policymaker with your perceptions and attitudes make the policy a success and though there may be others who shape the final output, it is your beliefs, and values as the ones in authority that create them as it is done through the policymaking model of presidential politics.

The important principle that is generally advocated in the case of foreign policy actions is that the behavior of nations towards the state formulating the policy has a great bearing. Thus we may generally say that countries behave with one another reciprocating each others position. This model however deals with the general notion and leaves out the decision maker of the policy. In reality the opinion of the decision maker, especially in maintaining a status quo will have a greater impact. Decision makers are generally more interested in furthering the causes of their nation which means that we have to consider the social context and importantly the personal characteristics of the leader making the policy. (Gallhofer, Saris 1996)

With regard to the various theories that are advanced to the problem of decision making in international issues, I have to point out the theory advanced by Margaret G. Hermann, and Joe D. Hagan which, if examined will show that President Obama can be a key factor in creating policies. In examining this approach I point out that leaders, especially in democracies and the United States in particular, has been the consistent factor of policies. This could be observed not only in political issues, but also during the Cold War, and much more today. Today, the leaders and domestic politics as well as domestic environments often influence the leader's decisions, which with political pressures design the foreign policy priorities. (Hermann, Hagan 1998)

Leaders thus according to this theory play the most important role in creating a balance between demand of various international requirements and domestic politics. The theory that the leader, President Obama is the architect of the foreign policy can be proved by many instances. One is the Reagan Doctrine that was current in the presidency of Ronald Reagan. The Reagan Doctrine had different supporters and theorists in the policy-making community. Though there was opposition to the leader's perceptions of the "Soviet aggressor," this can point out that the leadership theory of policy is valid. (Scott 1996)

Therefore I urge that you present this information to President Obama, with the fact that his predecessors have not only taken cognizance of this problem but have attempted to support international issues with domestic repercussions. There is another theory that the public sentiment on any outside issue will only be of concern to elite individuals in foreign policy both inside the government, and among the general public. Except for those involved in international affairs, generally Americans are not in the know. (Feigert, et al. 1983) Therefore the United States Senate as well as President Obama must focus their immediate attention to this issue and see that some changes in the funding policies are brought about.

Aid Given and the Implications:

The definition of foreign aid is the "transfer of subsidized resources, usually from a foreign government or international institution, to a government or non-governmental organization in a recipient country" which can be for many things. (Lancaster 1999) The aim should be to further some cause of the recipient country and in any field including set off for balance of payments and for the governments that have initiated economic or political reform programs. (Lancaster 1999)

There are arguments that much of the aid given by the UN and the supporting countries to African states have been shown to be fruitless. There is no doubt that some of these claims are true. It is also true that the African continent receives the major portion of international aid and these unfortunately have not assisted in the growth of the region in the desired way thus far. Of course the problem of effectiveness of the distributed aid to Africa is an issue that needs debate, but some of the factors can be pointed out which includes the rising population growth along with a fall in the average per capita income which in turn has kept the region poor. (Lancaster 1999)

Knowing the cause of failures of programs that were adopted, if we consider the details brought out by 'Development Assistance Committee -- DAC of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development -- OECD' we will agree that in the 1970s aid to Africa was at the highest while at the same time the economies of countries that did not have oil resources declined. Thus from 1970 to present these countries are facing domestic problems and internationally the problems of deficits in trade. One reason for this is the ruling faction's poor economic management. There were proper responses from the world community to catastrophes like the drought in Ethiopia in the mid-1980s. Foreign aid appears to have peaked in the early 1990s and has been on a downward trend since then. (Lancaster 1999)

But, these are statistics that relate to general development trends. There is a health problem that not only will affect the future generations of Africans but also people of the entire globe. We cannot continue to believe that warding off the epidemic from our doors will make us safe because it will not. If not for the sake of Africa, then for the sake of its own safety every nation must contribute something to this venture and the United States must take the lead. The methods of using the grant and the process of the reach of the aid being given can be worked out to see that it is not misused in any manner.

Why must there be additional funding for HIV / AIDS research in South Africa?

There are two set of systems that have been adopted to combat the AIDS epidemic. One is to prevent the spread of the disease that is focusing on prevention. Some of the methods used will be education campaigns, awareness and information dissemination by active programs in the countries which are affected, and some prevention interventions like male circumcision, is to be attempted. Some problems that need medical and professional capital like professionals in the field include the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. There is also a need to keep the combat with the disease without losing out on human dignity of the sufferers. This is a ticklish issue which part from co operation of various agencies must also require a lot of empathy from the rest of the world.

Lennart Bage, the former 'President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development -- IFAD' (Bage 2004) put this problem in a manner that can help you understand. Although we are generally concerned with hunger and food distribution, his opinion is that AIDS which has caused more than seventeen million deaths has also caused acute poverty and hunger. Thus in 2001, estimates showed that there were eleven million… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Additional Funding for AIDS in Africa.  (2009, November 29).  Retrieved July 17, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/additional-funding-aids-africa/843410

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"Additional Funding for AIDS in Africa."  29 November 2009.  Web.  17 July 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/additional-funding-aids-africa/843410>.

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"Additional Funding for AIDS in Africa."  Essaytown.com.  November 29, 2009.  Accessed July 17, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/additional-funding-aids-africa/843410.