Case Study: ADHD

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¶ … ADHD case study. Our focus is on the various functions of the behavior (the trigger and antecedent) that results from ADHD.We also research on the various interventions that could be employed in order to address these behavioral consequences of ADHD. Further into the paper we present the various accommodations that we would use to help the student become successful in the classroom. The classroom management techniques can help the student perform better is also assessed. Various study skills are also recommended. We also present an evaluation of the physical changes can the student make at home to improve the learning environment.

For several years, there have been various cases of extreme hyperactivity in children. This hyperactivity was noted to be a behavioral problem. These children were identified by specialists in the 1970s to be having too much problems when it comes to "paying attention." More research revealed that there were also some children who were having severe problems when it comes to paying attention coupled with little or no problems associated to hyperactivity. This led them to conclude that there existed two forms of Attention Deficit Disorder. The one with and the one without hyperactivity (Lahey and Carlson, 1991)

What is ADHD?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common disorders that affects children and in certain cases continues during adolescence and even up to adulthood. The symptoms of this disorder comprises of the difficulty of being focused, inability to pay attention, difficulty in controlling of behavior as well as hyperactivity (HIMH, 2008).

There are three subtypes of ADHD according to DSM-IV-TR workgroup (1994).These are:

Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive

This subtype is characterized by the most number of symptoms (about six or more) which all under the categories of hyperactivity-impulsivity. This subtype is also characterized by less than six symptoms of inattention.

Predominantly inattentive

This subtype of ADHD is characterized by the existence of many symptoms (about six or more) which all fall in the category of inattention. The subtype is also marked with fewer number of hyperactivity-impulsivity (less than six). The children who suffer from this subtype are characterized with less likelihood of acting out as well as minimal chances of difficulties associated with getting along with other children. This subtype renders the children who suffer from it to be overlooked by both their parents and teachers and therefore no notice may be made of its existence.

Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive

This third type is characterized by six or more symptoms related to inattention. There are also more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity in this subtype. It is worth noting that studies indicate that most children suffer from this form of ADHD.

The 2000 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders also list the following general characteristics of ADHD.

Difficulty of paying attention to details

Lack of attention when performing tasks and activities

The inability to complete various schoolwork assignment as a result of lack of ability to listen to and follow the instructions

Lack of ability to organize activities

The tendency to avoid and skip things that demand the use of mental ability such as homework as well as other forms of assignments.

The tendency to lose items

Easy distraction

High incidence of forgetfulness.

The function of the behavior (the trigger and antecedent) of ADHD

The possibility of identifying the causes of ADHD would most likely make it far less easy to both prevention and cure (Pauli, 2010).This however is not possible as no single and simple cause of ADHD is known. The practitioners of Western medicine do however believe that it is as a result of a deficiency of major neurotransmitters such as dopamine as well as norepinephrine (Hunt, 2006).

A positive diagnosis of ADHD is usually proceeded with a prescription of medication by the doctors as a temporary corrective measure to this imbalance. It is worth noting that research shows that ADHD is not just a case of chemical imbalance and therefore cannot be lured by means of prescription pills. It has however been shown that ADHD is indeed as made up of a wide spectrum of disorders. This therefore means that it affects different persons differently. This also means that a positive diagnosis of ADHD is usually different from one person to the next as a result of individuals experiencing different symptoms that vary in nature. However two factors have been identified to be in interaction in order to cause ADHD. These are;

Antecedents- which are certain events that are known to predispose a person to ADHD.It is worth noting that the occurrence of these antecedents are not a perfect guarantee for the development of ADHD. The antecedents are either acquired or genetic in nature. The genetic antecedents are the genes that are responsible for predisposing an individual at risk to the development of the order. The acquired antecedents on the other hand are those that do occur at the time of a mother's pregnancy a s well as during child delivery and thereby predisposing the child to the development of ADHD.

. Genetic antecedents are basically genes that place an individual on high risk of developing the disorder. Acquired antecedents consist of events that happen during the mother's pregnancy and during childbirth and that make the child more susceptible to developing ADHD. These events include vaccinations and exposure to cigarette smoke, certain toxins, and heavy metals like mercury from amalgam fillings. A Cesarean section or a stressful childbirth are also fairly common antecedents. It is important to note that the fact that the individual is exposed to the above mentioned antecedents do not guarantee the individual to develop ADHD.This is because a second factor referred to as the trigger is responsible for the triggering of the various environmental factors that are culminates to the symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. The exact triggers are poor nutrition, physical inactivity, inadequate rest, sunlight, imbalances in an individual's immune system, food allergies and water. The most common cause of ADHD in young children however is poor nutrition and the taking of the wrong food.

Interventions for ADHD

Behavioral interventions

The behavioral interventions suggested by Moore (2001) are workable if employed by parents in order to reduce and even stop the various behaviors associated with ADHD.These behaviors have often been characterized as irritating as well as inappropriate at the same time. It is therefore important to engage certain behaviors techniques that are aimed at reducing and eliminating the various bad behaviors. These techniques are referred to as "stop techniques." These include:

Time-outs

Response cost

Punishments

When the above stop techniques are appropriately used, a high level of effectiveness can be achieved resulting in making the ADHD child becoming peaceful.

Non-Medical Interventions

There are also certain non-medical interventions for ADHD. These include but not limited to the following:

Limiting amount of television being watched by the children

Television forms a daily part of our lives. Various studies have indicated that the level of violence, alcohol, sexuality and drugs witnessed on television can contribute to ADHD. In order to reduce the effects of TV on ADHD, the American academy of Pediatrics came up with the following (Strassberger and Donnerstein,1999):

Limiting the use of all forms of media to about 1-2 hours every day

Monitoring the use of these media by children

Adults to participate in the coviewing of television with their children

Eliminating or reducing the amount of video and computer games.

Studies show that close to 33% of children are engaged in the playing of either computer or video games. These games are very addictive. The level of addiction can be likened to the kind that an alcoholic has for alcohol.

Dietary interventions

There has been extensive literature that seems to suggest that different diets have effects of ADHD. Sugars as well as natural sweeteners (Aspartames) have been shown not to worsen ADHD in children. Food coloring on the other hand has been shown to either cause or aggravate symptoms of ADHD in certain children (Schab and Trinh,2004).

Classroom interventions

The following classroom interventions have been devised in order to aid children with ADHD (CDI,2010).

Pausing and creating suspense by observing around the class while asking questions

The random picking of reciters

The use of various children's names in the answering of various questions regarding whatever is being asked

The engaging of a child whose attention is beginning to wonder with questions that are simple in nature

The developing of a private joke between the teacher and the child whiose attention is dwindling in order to involve and invoke their memory.

Standing next to an inattentive child and touching him or her on the shoulder

Decreasing the length of assignments as well as lessons

The use of alternate physical and mental activities

The using of films, flash cards and tapes in order to increase the novelty of lessons

Using of soft voice while instructing the children

Recommended study skills for Fred

The following are the recommended study skills for children with ADHD like Fred (Collins,2008)

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https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/adhd-case-study/927219.