Essay: ADHD

Pages: 12 (3380 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 12  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Children  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] Children with ADHD scored significantly lower than other referred children without ADHD on three measures of academic performance: teacher ratings of their grade level performance in academic subjects (TRF Academic Performance); teacher ratings of their academic skills, effort, and motivation (SSRS Academic Competence); and the WIAT-II mathematics composite score.' (McConaughy et al., 2011)

The study found that in 'children with ADHD, 15 -- 55% showed clinically significant impairment in academic performance and 85% showed clinically significant impairment in social behavior.' (McConaughy et al., 2011)

The research emphasized on the 'importance of assessing academic and social functioning and developing multifaceted interventions that target these key peripheral features of ADHD along with efforts to reduce core symptoms.' (McConaughy et al., 2011)

Maria Re and Colleagues conducted a research and explained in their paper that the children suffering from ADHD suffer difficulties in writing and expressing their thoughts and ideas via writing. (Maria Re et al., 2007)

Maria Re and colleagues conducted three studies to find out the extent of inabilities of children suffering from ADHD in expressive writing by giving two expressive writing tasks to all the children (participants). The results show that there was no link between the grade of the participants and their task results. And the overall performance was not good. The lower performance was also because of spelling errors, use of less qualitative adjectives and use of less subordinate phrases. (Maria Re et al., 2007)

Valko et al. Conducted a study to research the 'temporal processing and response inhibition defects' in the ADHD patients. The research concluded that the 'performance of ADHD patients was poorer, and Cue CNV and NoGo P300 were weaker. Moreover, it was also concluded that ADHD-related ERP differences in children were more prominent at posterior scalp sites but more pronounced at anterior scalp sites in adults, paralleling the prominent topographic changes of both ERP markers with development.' (Valko et al., 2013)

The study also discussed the fact that most of the problems and deficiencies faced in ADHD are caused by impaired temporal information processing. Valko et al. identified that 'impaired temporal information processing may play an important role in the deficits observed in ADHD, given that attention, inhibition, and working memory are crucial for temporal processing and involve similar frontal cortex networks.' (Valko et al., 2013)

Treatment by Medicines

The research conducted by Scheffler et al., show that children suffering with ADHD and receiving proper medication 'scored higher on the ECLS-K standardized mathematics and reading achievement tests' as compare to children who did not receive any medication. (Scheffler et al., 2013)

The research conducted by Scheffler and peers also found that '60% of diagnosed children taking prescription medications to treat the disorder, at a cost of $2.2 billion in the year 2003' they also identified that the medicated children perform better and there is a need to conduct more simulation and trials in order to identify the in depth relationship between medication and performance (academic performance) of children suffering from ADHD. (Scheffler et al., 2013)

Using medicines to treat ADHD patient's results in other side effects including an increase in blood pressure and heart rate, etc. The researchers also considered a relationship between the ADHD medications and sudden and unexplained death in children and teenagers. However, it was concluded that in the absence of cardiovascular illness, ADHD agents are safe. Moreover presence or a history of cardiovascular problems in any patient requires proper consultation before taking any step. (Kaplan, 2012)

Kaplan recommended that a detailed family and medical history of patients should be taken and analyzed before prescribing any ADHD medicine to those patients. (Kaplan, 2012)

Kaplan also discussed in his paper that if children are not treated properly and ADHD continues in their adulthood too, then there are occasions which may cause anxiety for the patients and their parents. Like acquiring driving license might cause anxiety for the parents as ADHD patients may not properly operate motor vehicles. (Kaplan, 2012)

He discussed two researches in his paper in which simulated driving tests of ADHD patients were conducted. In one scenario the patients were given lisdexamfetamine (LDX) while in the other the patients were given methylphenidate. It was observed that in both the cases patients 'had fewer video recorded collisions and other problematic driving events.' (Kaplan, 2012)

ADHD and Diet

Kaplan also discussed in his paper that ADHD is directly affected by the diet of the patient and discussed that 'omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, particularly with higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid, was modestly effective for treating. (Kaplan, 2012)

He further explained in his paper that 'the role of diet and food colors and found that restriction diets reduced ADHD symptoms and that an estimated 8% of children who have ADHD may have symptoms related to synthetic food colors.' (Kaplan, 2012)

Psychological Treatment of Children with ADHD

Another important method of treating ADHD patients apart from use of medicines is psychological methods. DuPaul et al. In their research paper discussed and highlighted the importance and results of consultations and academic interventions (by school) on the performance of children with ADHD. (DuPaul et al., 2006)

DuPont et al., also explained that 'the most effective treatments for ADHD include psycho stimulant medication (e.g., methylphenidate) and contingency management strategies. They also concluded that positive effects were observed in children suffering from ADHD by using Class Wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) and Computer Assisted instructions to help them. The results show moderate to large effects on children's weekly math and spelling test scores were obtained with CWPT. (DuPaul et al., 2006)

DuPont et al., discussed in their paper that the studies are based on small sample size and have not been conducted on big samples, but studies on effects of academic interventions on the achievement of children with ADHD usually conclude that academic intervention in the form of teachers intervention plans with school psychologists and consultants, CWPT, computer assisted instructions, etc. help yield positive results for the patients. (DuPaul et al., 2006)

DuPont and colleagues also discussed the importance and results of behavioral consultation model in which 'classroom teachers' work with consultants to develop individualized interventions based on baseline data regarding a student's academic strengths and weaknesses as well as important contextual variables (e.g., antecedent and consequent events prompting and maintaining academic behaviors). In addition, consultants monitor treatment implementation and teachers are provided with feedback designed to enhance intervention fidelity.' (DuPaul et al., 2006)

DuPont et al., based their study on two approaches, 'one approach involved "consultation as usual" wherein teachers selected academic interventions proposed by a school psychologist or special educator based on perceived effectiveness and feasibility, with minimal follow-up once interventions had been implemented. The other approach to consultation involved the selection and development of academic interventions based on data collected by the consultant regarding individual student skills and present classroom conditions.' (DuPaul et al., 2006)

On the basis of their study DuPont et al. concluded that these findings appear to support academic consultation; however, the type of consultation model did not appear to make a difference, suggesting that the less time-consuming consultation approach may be sufficient. Positive growth trajectories were obtained for math and reading skills as well as teacher ratings of academic enablers (e.g., motivation, study skills) across a 15-month period. (DuPaul et al., 2006)

Duvall et al., discussed and studied the impact of home school environment provided by parents on the performance of children suffering from ADHD. They also considered whether the parents can provide effective home school environment to such children. (Duvall et al., 2004)

In their research paper they explained that home schools are difficult to operate because of lack of training of teachers and parents. However, students from home school socialize equally and participate in school too. In their research they also concluded that parents, although, can give effective tutoring to children with ADHD and improve their performance, even without any professional training and help. (Duvall et al., 2004)

They found out that when 'academic gains and instructional environments of 4 (four) home school students were compared to that of 4 (four) public school students who were taught in special classes. The home school students in this study made more gains, which appeared related to higher level of engagement on key instructional behaviors including writing, task participation, reading aloud and silently, and academic talks.' (Duvall et al., 2004)

They concluded in their research that 'homeschooling may have certain advantages over public schooling for some children with ADHD.' (Duvall et al., 2004)

Conclusion

The above paper explains in details the symptoms and treatment of ADHD on children and its implications on them. It is evident that the children suffering from ADHD are low performers in academics. These children have difficulty in understanding, focusing, writing, reading, solving mathematical problems… [END OF PREVIEW]

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