Term Paper: Adolescent's Awareness and Their Lack of Implementing

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¶ … ADOLESCENT'S AWARENESS and THEIR LACK of IMPLEMENTING INFORMATION SECURITY and ONLINE PRIVACY REGULATIONS of (82525) 83436

AN ANALYTICAL ASSESSMENT of ADOLESCENT'S AWARENESS and THEIR LACK of IMPLEMENTING INFORMATION SECURITY and ONLINE PRIVACY REGULATIONS

The report entitled: "Children and Interactive Media: Research Compendium Update" relates: Since the 2000 report, both large- and small-scale studies have been published on children's in-home use of interactive media." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) it is noted that when compared to the 1997-1998 Census statistics, recent studies "indicate greater media saturation in the home. The most recent national survey, involving 1,235 parents of 2 to 17-year-olds and 416 eight to sixteen-year-old was conducted by the Annenberg Public Policy Center. According to the 'Media in the Home 2000' survey, American children live in a media-rich environment. In homes with children ages 2-17, 70% owned a computer, 68% owned video games, and 52% had online access. For non-interactive media, 98% of households had at least one television, 97% owned a VCR, 78% had a subscription to basic cable and 31% to premium cable, and 42% subscribed to a daily newspaper. For the first time, online access surpassed newspaper subscriptions. Interactive media had begun to permeate many children's bedrooms: Among 8- to 16-year-olds, 20% had a computer in their bedroom, of which 54% had internet access." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz (2002) report that the Pew Research Center in 2000 "conducted large scale studies of American's Internet use. According to the Pew Internet and American Life Project (N = 754; Lernhart, Rainie, Lewis, 2001), 45% of teens ages 12 to 17 -- which projects to 17 million American youth -- used the internet. Of online activities that these teens have done, sending and receiving email was most frequently reported, followed by Websurfing for fun, visiting entertainment sites, and sending instant messages. Relatively few teens reported having ever looked for health-related information, creating a Web page, and looking for information on a topic that was difficult to talk about. For most teens in this study, the place where they were most likely to use the internet was the home. Three-quarters of teens reported going online at least a couple of times a week, and frequency of use increased with both experience with the internet and with age. Instant messaging (IM) was a popular online activity, with 74% of the sample reporting such use, compared to 44% of adults. Almost 70% of teens used Instant messaging at least a couple of times a week, and 45% of online teens reported using IM every time they went online. An important appeal of IM is the ability to stay in touch with friends and relatives who live far away." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) Adolescents spent most of their time online the Internet, playing video games and generally using the computer." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz (2002) state that almost "three-quarters of American teens aged 12-17 go online..." Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz (2002) state that "Interactive media are rapidly converging and presenting children with new potentials for learning. In this age of media convergence, platforms are likely to be less important than the activities performed in influencing cognition." It is related: "Drawing from theories of media socialization, we emphasized that learning is social and is grounded in specific socio-cultural situations. Learning is thus founded on interaction. Drawing from both Vygotskian and Piagetian theories, the concepts germane to this notion are: (a) situated knowledge; (b)features of computer software as scaffolding for learning; - inquiry; (d) dialogue; and (e) framing. (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz (2002) relate while there have been few studies focused on the concept of Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) "as an approach to designing educational software. The ZPD is the difference between the child's actual level of development and the higher level of potential development that is possible under the guidance of a more competent adult or peer. Interaction and cooperation with others in their environment triggers learning processes in children that would not otherwise develop." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz additionally relate that the manner in which the child frames "their experiences with computer technologies arises out of the interplay among the child's intentions, goals, and the affordances of the equipment. Computers come to be incorporated into an already established social space in the home, and this social context affects children's engagement with new technologies..." (2002) Children use media "within a social realm according to Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz (2002).It is further related that in relation to interactive e-technologies and their influence on the adolescents identity formation the "initial findings from the HomeNet study seemed to suggest that the introduction of the Internet led children to become socially isolated, depressed and lonely. but, in looking closely at the HomeNet data, McKenna and Bargh (2000) contend that after two years of being on the Internet, children's local social network declined, but their distant social network actually increased over the same two-year period." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) a follow-up analyses states that "children experienced a decline in depression from the initial findings, and that loneliness was no longer associated with the Internet, as it was when the Internet was novel to them." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) it is therefore "reasonable to hypothesize that the Internet may serve different functions for different people." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) in terms of identity formation: "some critics would contend that because the Internet as well as other high-tech boys, such as interactive dolls and pets, are very specific in the ways in which they guide children's behavior, the exploration of personal identity and alternate roles are diminished and children's imaginations are limited. Others would argue that children, and adolescents in particular, use interactive media to try out different aspects of themselves in both helpful and unhelpful ways." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) Research over the past decade has illustrated that "children and adolescents talk about their lives via the Internet, they are interest in creating 'cool' images of their characters and they also identify with certain characters in interactive games." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) Children are able to use the Internet and accompanying interactions to "express who they are or who they want to become." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz state that studies have linked enactment of violence by adolescents to video games and in 2000 correlational studies state findings that a link exists between aggressive behavior and violent game-play." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) Self-esteem is further related to video game interactions and it is stated by Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz that in a sample of "364 fourth and fifth graders by using the Harter Self-Perception Profile that measures scholastic and athletic competence, social acceptance, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth. Boys and girls who preferred violent games had a lower self-evaluation of their own behavior than those who did not like such games." (2002) Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz relate that on the: "...first anniversary of the COPPA, the FTC evaluated 144 sites targeted at children under 13 to evaluate their compliance with the ACT (Federal Trade Commission, 2002) the FTC notes the types of personal information the sites collected, the activities offered, whether there was an indication that the site had parental consent mechanisms in place, whether the sites provided links to their privacy policy from the home page and from at least one information collection point, and evaluated the content of the privacy policy itself. Of the 144 sites, 72% collected personal information from children, the most common of which were the child's email address and name, and another person's email address. The FTC staff concluded that most of the sites that collected personal information (84% of sites) appeared to have done so to obtain consent or would otherwise fit under one of the Act's exceptions (e.g., using information for limited purposes and deleting the information). Most websites (89%) that collected information posted privacy policies; 82% linked to the policy from the home page, and 76% did so on at least one page where personal information was collected. Of the sites surveyed, only 47% of those that collected information had parental consent or notification mechanisms; another 18% collected information that could fall under one of the exceptions and would not necessitate parental consent. The remainder (35% of sites) collected too much information to fall under any exceptions/" (2002) in relation to the content of the privacy policy the FTC states findings that "most sites complied with rules on the disclosure of the types of information they collected and how that information could be used. Compliance with the disclosure of parental rights, however, was poor-only 52% of sites made the appropriate disclosures. Thus while the websites observed COPPA rules on providing a privacy policy and disclosing how the information collected would be used, other COPPA provisions - particularly those related to parental consent-were followed less faithfully."… [END OF PREVIEW]

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