Questionnaire: Adolescent and Child Development

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Adolescent and Child Development

Lawrence Kohlberg's psychological theory of moral development is broken into three levels and a total of six stages (two stages for each level). Level One is the pre-conventional level of moral reasoning. This level is typically exuded by children as it considers the moral judgment of any situation as it relates to its direct consequences. Those exhibiting pre-conventional morality can not associate consequences with societal conventions. Stage One is Obedience and Punishment Orientation. In this stage, individuals concentrate on the consequences of their actions on themselves. For example, if you ask a child about stealing food from a grocery store their moral reasoning would be not to do it because "it's against the law" or "it's bad to steal." They view the circumstance in black and white -- an action and a direct consequence that they would suffer.

Stage Two of Kohlberg's moral development is Individualism and Exchange, and is defined by an individual's best interest. In this stage, individuals realize there is not only one right point-of-view conveyed by authority, but instead different individuals have different viewpoints. Everything is considered relative, and is a matter of serving an individual's best needs and interests. For example, in Stage Two, after asking a child about stealing food from a grocery store they could consider who the food is for, and perhaps the individual needs it for themselves, or their family. Ultimately, whoever is stealing the food would be serving their best interest. The critical difference between Stage One and Stage Two is the perception of punishment. In Stage One punishment is a product of wrongness; in Stage Two punishment is a risk that one should try to avoid.

1. (b)

Level Two is the Conventional Level of moral reasoning and is demonstrated in adolescents and adults. It is conventional to morally evaluate situations by comparing actions against society's views and expectations. Moral circumstances are now reasoned with society's understanding of right and wrong. Stage Three is Interpersonal Relationships and Conformity Driven moral development. In this stage, individuals believe people should live up to the expectations of their families and communities, and their actions should reflect perceived social roles. Good behavior is now projected as having good interpersonal feelings of love, empathy, trust, and concern for others. Consequences are now gauged by evaluating the terms of a person's relationships. Considering the same scenario of the person stealing from the grocery store, someone in Stage Three of moral development would consider if the person "loved their family, and wanted to provide for them," and can rationalize that an authority figure would sympathize with the person's situation.

Stage Four of moral development is Maintaining Social Order and Obedience Driven, and the motivation for moral behavior is to obey laws and social conventions as they are required to maintain a functioning society. To again consider the person stealing from the grocery store, someone functioning in Stage Four understands the roles of law and order as a part of society as a whole. It is no longer viewed as simply a punishment, but as a necessity to further project a working society.

1. (c)

Level Three is the Post-Conventional Level of moral development and promotes individuals as separate entities from society and societal roles. In this level, an individual's own perspective can dominate a society's perception. Stage Five is Social Contract and Individual Rights driven. Compared to Stage Four, individuals want to keep society functioning, whereas in Stage Five it is understood that a functioning society is not necessarily a good society. For example, individuals begin to examine "What makes a good society?" And theoretically think of what a society must do to expresses rights and values. When stealing food from the grocery store, one would perceive the individual's actions as their duty as an upstanding person to provide for their family. They believe it is lawfully wrong to steal, but understand that the family has a right to be fed, as that is protected.

Stage Six is Universal and Ethical Principles driven morality and is the highest stage of Kohlberg's development. It is perceived as a conception of justice that transcends societal roles and expectation. During Stage Five, individuals want to protect rights and settle dispute democratically, however in Stage Six, individuals believe social justice is understood on a more philosophical level. For example, individuals are now distinguished in an impartial manner, and there is a general understanding and respect for basic dignity as a universal concept. In the instance of someone stealing from a grocery store -- these actions are displayed and punishment is not reserved for some, but ideals of justice guide us all based on an equal level of respect. In the stealing from the grocery store scenario, the person stealing is aware of their actions and consequences, as are the people in which they are providing. Each party is impartial to their actions.

2.

The four parenting styles are: Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive and Uninvolved parenting. In Authoritarian parenting, children are expected to follow strict rules while parents are highly demanding. Parents expect mature behavior from their children and enforce standards, and are obedience and status-oriented. During development, this causes children to be unquestioning individuals in the face of authority, but rank lower in happiness and self-esteem. Authoritative parenting establishes rules and guidelines for children to follow while also creating a positive emotional climate that promotes democratic practices. Parents tend to be more nurturing and encouraging when children fail. As the child develops, this supports individuals as socially responsible, in self-control, capable, and happy. Permissive parenting occurs when parents make few demands of their children and exercise less control. By putting fewer maturity demands and being more lenient, they establish more of a friendship role with their children. As development continues, these children lack an Authoritative voice and presence, rank low in happiness, and generally have problems with authority. The Uninvolved parenting style occurs when parents are low on responsiveness and demands. They provide basic needs, but are detached from their child's life. Through development, these children lack self-control, rank low in happiness and self-esteem.

3.

Intrinsic motivation occurs regardless of external rewards or praise. It is a type of motivation that arises from an individual's own interest or enjoyment in the task itself. Extrinsic motivation is driven by the desire to achieve a task because of external rewards or factors, such as money, grades, praise, or punishment. Individuals who are extrinsically motivated may or may not enjoy the activity, and perform these tasks out of the hope for an external influence. Self-efficacy relates to an individual's belief in their own competence and ability to achieve certain goals. Someone with high Self-efficacy and expectation to execute certain tasks, the greater the efforts will be employed. Those with low self-efficacy are often more motivated to learn about a subject and can therefore be better prepared than those with high self-efficacy. These processes contribute to achievement motivation in the adolescent as achievement motivation is a hybrid of these dimensions. Achievement motivation in the adolescent integrates an intrinsic desire to fit-in socially, the extrinsic motivation to be perceived in a positive way, and to be self-sufficient in confidence and competence to succeed.

4.

In psychology, a rite of passage is a ritual, or moment of impact that signifies change in a person's social status. Rites of passage are diverse and can vary from culture to culture, and some are not as dramatically recognized. Examples of Rites of passage include moments such as starting school, prom, religious moments including baptism and bar mitzvahs, marriage, and childbirth.

5.

Major indicators and risk factors for juvenile delinquency in adolescents range from individual, family, and school influences. As an individual, one is at higher risk for juvenile delinquency if one is male, has low IQ, problem behavior and antisocial attitudes, and substance abuse. Familial influences as antecedents to juvenile delinquency include low socioeconomic status and poverty, abusive behavior, harsh or inconsistent discipline, and low parental involvement. Influences in the school setting include poor attitude, performance, and academic failure.

6.

Carol Gilligan's theory of gender-based moral development differs from Kohlberg's theory as it accounts for gender differences in the perception of morality. Gilligan compared mental processes between males and females and signified differences in feelings towards caring and relationships with other people. While females are more involved with their connections to other people, males are more concerned with the concept of justice. According to Kohlberg's model, women score lower and appear to be less morally developed than their male counterparts. Gilligan argues that females are not morally inept, they are different -- females naturally define themselves within the context of human relationships and the ability to care. Gilligan centered her theory of gender-based moral development on females being more concerned with the ethic of caring for people rather than Kohlberg's ethic of justice. In Gilligan's model, moral development is still divided into three levels: pre-conventional, conventional, and post conventional. Gilligan's transitions between the levels differ from… [END OF PREVIEW]

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