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Adolescents Disclose Information in CyberspaceResearch Proposal

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Adolescents Disclose information in Cyberspace vs. how they communicate Face-to-Face in real Life in the United States of America.

Administration of Survey

Descriptive Data gender and Age 11

Ethnic background

Scoring and Analysis

Adolescents Disclose information in Cyberspace vs. how they communicate Face-to-Face in real Life in the United States of America

Research has benn displaying that Taiwanese adolescent males are more willing to communicate data about their sexual activity and relationship intimacy when they are disclosing information in cyberspace, as opposed to when communicating face-to-face in person (Yang, Yang, & Chiou, 2010). That is to say that there is not a strong correlation between the males' level of sexual disclosure and their real life relationship intimacy (Yang, et al., 2010). For Taiwanese female adolescents, a U-shaped relationship has been found between relationship intimacy and a propencity for sexual disclosure. This means that females in the study were more willing to engage in sexual disclosure with both low intimacy and high intimacy relationships. A topic for future research is the influence of culture on the Social Penetration Theory. Moreover, it is recommended that furture research examines the influence of gender in different cultures on the Social Penetration Theory. It is important because the Social Penetration Theory is central to communication and can be applied to relationships of many different types, including those that only occur in cyberspace, (either anonymously or with the use of real names), and in both online and offline environments. Given the belief that Western societies are assumed to be considered low context cultures, it is of more intrest to explore how adolescents disclose information in cyberspace, than how they disclose information face-to-face in real life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how adolescents disclose information in cyberspace vs. how they communicate face-to-face in real life in the United States of America. The types and levels of friendships that people have, in addition to the cultural contexts and backgrounds in which the friendships develop, are related to the amount and degree of self-disclosure that occurs. Self-disclosure refers to the intentional and unintentional information that is revealed by individuals about themselves to other people, and the idea that behvaior of self-disclosure will occur regardless of the values held by people. Researching this cross culturally to note the differences, serves a good purpose.

Literature Review

Before looking at adolescents Disclose information in Cyberspace vs. how they communicate Face-to-Face in real Life in the United States of America, it is significant to get an understanding of the fast development of numerous technologies and their up-to-date custom all over the United States. Throughout the past few decades, technology procedure has grown suggestively. For each the U.S. Survey, 80% of homes described having a computer in 2013, compared with only 9% in 1984 (Neely, 2015). Of that number, 75% of homes described retrieving the Internet, up from just 20% in 2000, the initial year the Census requested in regards to Internet utilization (Knapp M.L., 1980). Since 2013, 95% of adolescents had some cyberspace experience of some kind, and for individuals under the age of 44, the amount was next to 98% (Tang, 2012). The drastic upsurge in Cyberspace usage is especially evident in younger generations. There is one study, led by the Kaiser Family Foundation, discovered that people ages 8 to 18 spent most of the time on Cyberspace than on any other kind of activity -- at an average of 7.5 hours a day (Liu, 2015)

According to Liu (2015) Cyberspace has been one of the fastest growing features of the Internet. Twitter Facebook, and Myspace other such means of communication are being utilized by millions of teenagers all over the world each and on a daily basis. With the rise of these Cyberspace websites, teenagers now have easier ways of communication by means of a single website. As a result, through this comfort, teenagers are resorting to using Cyberspace and other such means of social media in order to be able to communicate at an unparalleled amount. This is particularly true for adolescents today, the individuals known as digital natives. Instead of speaking with someone face-to-face, or picking up a telephone.

Much of the early research on Cyberspace focuses on the nature of the channel, and insinuations these characteristics have for communication instead of face-to-face. Cyberspace is text-based, and as a result non-verbal communication is in large part removed. Cyberspace, when used in an asynchronous format (e-mail) does not permit for instantaneous feedback, which in turn obstructs a sender's capability to modify a message if a receiver's understanding is wrong (Knapp M.L., 1980). Media richness theory makes the point that CMC is a leaner environment for communication than face-to-face (Chen, 2012). When reaction is overdue and users are not able to rely on nonverbal cues, uncertainty is improved, in that way creating chance for miscommunication. Media naturalness theory (Manning, 2013), in the beginning established in order to defend the Cyberspace as inferior dispute, is an addition on media richness theory (Neely, 2015). Media richness theory reasoned that lack of prompts in Cyberspace would deter communication. However, media naturalness theory goes on to mention that this phenomenon by making the point that humans are used to and most relaxed in face-to-face situations. This theory is learned by theories of Darwinian evolution, maintaining that humans have established social communication skills proposed to be expended in a face-to-face setting (Dunleavy, 2009). They contend that anything external of this is peculiar. The amount of "lack of pretension" is determined by likening that channel to the most natural channel of face-to-face. Many experts foretold that the unnaturalness of Cyberspace would necessitate higher quantities of mental effort that communication would be unclear and that users would go through lifelessness when using the channel to resolve tasks that are complex (2008). Founded on this theory, those using Cyberspace would fight with understanding of messages, feel less affianced for the duration of conversation and have lesser levels of communication gratification.

Cyberspace contrasts by degree of synchronization with synchronous Cyberspace as well as channels for example online chatting and asynchronous channels together with e-mail. Even though some people can debate that synchronous channels would be more beneficial in that they permit for quicker response, others contend that asynchronous channels are more helpful to users in that they permit for more reflection and reexamination of one's message before transfer (Tang, 2012). The huge bulk of Cyberspace models, theories and empirical research upkeep the first theory of the deficiency of synchronization being an interference to interaction. It may perhaps likewise be the case that users would have a preference with diverse levels of synchronization centered upon the content of the message and the context in which it is being sent (Campbell, 2007). Further research shows that the channel of communication could have suggestions for not merely how precisely users can understand content of a message but furthermore how precisely users can understand feelings within a message (Chen, 2012). In a theoretical model of Cyberspace use Chen makes the point that the lack on non-verbal cues makes correct perception of emotions problematic and receivers could assign more neutral or negative connotations to messages than senders planned. Liu (2015) made the point that the discussion with a model that specifies how Cyberspace use may inspire the growth of struggle in a work setting. They take a chance on the fact that the structure of e-mail weakens feedback, arranges for smallest social cues, raises "quarrel bundling" or "piling on" in that users have the skill to produce drawn-out messages, and that the text-based character of e-mail permits for extreme attention to or contemplation of the message by both receivers and senders. Every one of these issues are argued in order to fund to frustration, and misunderstandings which can lead to heightened conflict. Numerous studies have likewise discovered that the ensuing level of communication gratification among teenagers is also lower when using Cyberspace vs. face-to-face.

In a study measuring for levels of satisfaction and performance through three dissimilar communication environments (instant messaging, video conferencing, and face-to-face), it was discovered that the style of communication being utilized neither helped nor delayed performance, on the other hand those grown adults using the Cyberspace mode described the bottommost levels of satisfaction (Neely, 2015). Alike conclusions were described in an examination that compared levels of satisfaction after participants completed task assignments in face-to-face and Cyberspace. It was discovered that the Cyberspace environment was regarded lower in satisfaction, intimacy and depth of giving out (Campbell, 2007). Another study measured stranger dyads for levels of confidence in collaborating messages and accuracy in interpreting messages across Cyberspace, voice only and face-to-face surroundings (Dunleavy, 2009). Those that were involved were trained to deliver scripted messages with detailed features (seriousness, cynicism, anger sadness,) and rate their level of self-assurance in communicating these messages along with calculating the receiver's degree of correctness in understanding the message. Outcomes specified that dyads were more precise in communication in the voice or face-to-face circumstances.

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